WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids treatment side

  1. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  2. Managing Your Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Related information How ... any reason. Return to top More information on Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Explore other publications ...

  3. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

  4. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  5. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental...

  6. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  7. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; pnonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  8. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any new symptoms or a change in symptoms. Treatments for lymphedema are designed to reduce swelling, prevent it from ... the head and neck, you may need physical therapy. Reducing your risk of lymphedema Research continues to look into what factors cause ...

  9. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.)

  10. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  11. 46 CFR 197.314 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.314 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.314 First aid and... consists of— (i) Basic first aid supplies; and (ii) Any additional supplies necessary to treat minor...

  12. Contralateral routing of signal hearing aid versus transcutaneous bone conduction in single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Gaëlle; Bernardeschi, Daniele; Bensemman, Anissa; Coudert, Cyrille; Portal, Jean-Jacques; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Vicaut, Eric; Frachet, Bruno; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a contralateral routing of signal (CROS) hearing aid to a transcutaneous bone-anchored device in the same conditions. This prospective crossover study included 18 adult patients with a single-sided deafness (SSD). After a trial period of 60 days with CROS and 7 days with a transcutaneous bone-anchored device (Alpha 1®, Sophono, Boulder, Colo., USA) on a headband, 13 (72%) patients opted for Alpha 1, 2 patients for CROS, and 3 rejected both rehabilitation methods. Clinical tolerance, satisfaction, hearing performances (pure-tone audiometry, speech test in quiet and in noise, stereo audiometry, sound localization, and Hearing in Noise Test), and quality of life (Glasgow Benefit Inventory, Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaires) were measured at 3 and 12 months after the implantation. Both devices improved equally the hearing in noise and the quality of life. Transcutaneous devices represent an effective option in SSD. PMID:26021779

  13. Passive Porous Treatment for Reducing Flap Side-Edge Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2008-01-01

    A passive porous treatment has been proposed as a means of suppressing noise generated by the airflow around the side edges of partial-span flaps on airplane wings when the flaps are extended in a high-lift configuration. The treatment proposed here does not incur any aerodynamic penalties and could easily be retrofit to existing airplanes. The treatment could also be applied to reduce noise generated by turbomachinery, including wind turbines. Innovative aspects of the proposed treatment include a minimum treatment area and physics-based procedure for treatment design. The efficacy of the treatment was confirmed during wind-tunnel experiments at NASA Ames, wherein the porous treatment was applied to a minute surface area in the vicinity of a flap edge on a 26-percent model of Boeing 777-200 wing.

  14. HIV/AIDS Adherence: Teaching about Treatment and Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jena Nicols

    2008-01-01

    Advances in HIV/AIDS treatment have dramatically changed the nature of HIV/AIDS education and prevention, creating new opportunities and challenges. This activity is designed to help participants reflect on the impact that HIV treatment can have on a person's life. It also enables trainers to engage participants in a dialogue about the impact of…

  15. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  16. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Fact Sheet Categories Internet Bookmarks on AIDS Have Questions? Printing & ... Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? HOW TO DEAL WITH SIDE EFFECTS WHICH SIDE EFFECTS ARE THE MOST ...

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of radiation side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Many reports show that late complications of radiotherapy can be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). This synopsis attempts to review the literature to identify areas of clinical use and further research. Patients and Methods: Clinical and experimental data about HBO treatment of radiation late effects are analysed. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of late radiation side effects are discussed. Results: There is evidence in the literature that HBO is beneficial in the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits. The prophylactic use of HBO has shown to prevent the development of osteoradionecrosis after tooth removal and the loss of titanium implants in irradiated facial bones. The physiologic basis of HBO can be referred to induction of neoangiogenesis and revascularisation. Conclusions: Clinicians can be encouraged to use hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteonecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits following radiation therapy. (orig.)

  18. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjaerg, L L; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt; Søeberg, B;

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1......,200 mg to 600 mg, 9 others were temporarily off drug. HIV antigen was analyzed in serum samples from 93 patients. Of these, 28 (52%) of 54 initially HIV antigen-positive became antigen-negative, 7 (18%) of 39 initially HIV antigen-negative became antigen-positive within the first 8 weeks of zidovudine...

  19. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of California-Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine, CA (United States); UC Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  1. onlineDeCISion.org: a web-based decision aid for DCIS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Schneider, Katharine H; Soeteman, Djøra; Stout, Natasha; Schrag, Deborah; Fordis, Michael; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-11-01

    Women diagnosed with DCIS face complex treatment decisions and often do so with inaccurate and incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits involved. Our objective was to create a tool to guide these decisions for both providers and patients. We developed a web-based decision aid designed to provide clinicians with tailored information about a patient’s recurrence risks and survival outcomes following different treatment strategies for DCIS. A theoretical framework, microsimulation model (Soeteman et al., J Natl Cancer 105:774–781, 2013) and best practices for web-based decision tools guided the development of the decision aid. The development process used semi-structured interviews and usability testing with key stakeholders, including a diverse group of multidisciplinary clinicians and a patient advocate. We developed onlineDeCISion.​org to include the following features that were rated as important by the stakeholders: (1) descriptions of each of the standard treatment options available; (2) visual projections of the likelihood of time-specific (10-year and lifetime) breast-preservation, recurrence, and survival outcomes; and (3) side-by-side comparisons of down-stream effects of each treatment choice. All clinicians reviewing the decision aid in usability testing were interested in using it in their clinical practice. The decision aid is available in a web-based format and is planned to be publicly available. To improve treatment decision making in patients with DCIS, we have developed a web-based decision aid onlineDeCISion.​org that conforms to best practices and that clinicians are interested in using in their clinics with patients to better inform treatment decisions. PMID:26475704

  2. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank. PMID:12321757

  3. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation

  4. The politics of despair: AIDS and the failure of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I D

    1995-01-01

    The recent AIDS-related death of a friend forced Dr. Iain Mackie to think about the disease and the lack of positive news about it. Despite a flood of recent studies that brought pessimistic news about the treatments now in use, Mackie tries to remain optimistic. "I may be treating only myself as I feed off the politics of optimism," he says, "but at least I will not be feeding off the politics of despair." The article appears as Canada marks another National AIDS Week Oct. 2-8.

  5. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and first aid. 50.20-3 Section 50.20-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... first aid. (a) Medical treatment includes, but is not limited to, the suturing of any wound, treatment... treatment. Tetanus and flu shots are considered preventative in nature. First aid includes any...

  6. Computer-aided monitoring of the secondary side chemistry in the Ringhals PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed monitoring of the secondary side chemistry in a PWR using AVT is limited by available resources and the number of sampling points. A model can greatly increase the amount of information obtained. In some cases direct monitoring is even impossible due to unavoidable reactions in the sampling lines. A model is then vital to monitor the chemistry. The Ringhals Steam ChemCalc is a comprehensive computer model based on thermodynamic data and on chemical engineering models for the equipment. The modeled parameters include oxygen, hydrazine, ammonia, acetate, formate, pH, conductivity, and acid conductivity. (author)

  7. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  8. Willingness to pay to avoid metastatic breast cancer treatment side effects: results from a conjoint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lalla, Deepa; Carlton, Rashad; Santos, Eduardo; Bramley, Thomas; D’Souza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients are treated with a variety of regimens with differing side effects that can reduce the patients’ quality of life. This study assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid side effects related to MBC treatment using conjoint analysis. Methods An online, self-administered conjoint analysis survey of US adult female MBC patients was conducted to elicit preferences for MBC treatment side effects. Attributes included in the analysis were hair loss, ...

  9. Direct treatment costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Perelman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the direct medical costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal from the perspective of the National Health Service. METHODS A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted for 150 patients from five specialized centers in Portugal in 2008. Data on utilization of medical resources during 12 months and patients’ characteristics were collected. A unit cost was applied to each care component using official sources and accounting data from National Health Service hospitals. RESULTS The average cost of treatment was 14,277 €/patient/year. The main cost-driver was antiretroviral treatment (€ 9,598, followed by hospitalization costs (€ 1,323. Treatment costs increased with the severity of disease from € 11,901 (> 500 CD4 cells/µl to € 23,351 (CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/ µl. Cost progression was mainly due to the increase in hospitalization costs, while antiretroviral treatment costs remained stable over disease stages. CONCLUSIONS The high burden related to antiretroviral treatment is counterbalanced by relatively low hospitalization costs, which, however, increase with severity of disease. The relatively modest progression of total costs highlights that alternative public health strategies that do not affect transmission of disease may only have a limited impact on expenditure, since treatment costs are largely dominated by constant antiretroviral treatment costs.

  10. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  11. The value of recombinant human TSH-aided 131I treatment in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH(rhTSH)-aided 131I treatment for DTC. Methods: A total of 144 patients with DTC who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The rhTSH-aided 131I treatment of 3.7 GBq was performed in 72 cases (Group Ⅰ: euthyroid). Another 72 cases received radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 to 6 weeks of thyroxine withdrawal (Group Ⅱ: hypothyroidism). Serum endogenous TSH, FT3, FT4 and Tg were measured. The life qualities of both groups were observed, such as intolerance to cold, weight gain, constipation, motor retardation, skin dryness, periorbital edema and bone pain. Absence of visible uptake or uptake rate less than 1% was taken as complete ablation. The efficacy of 131I treatment was evaluated. The life quality of both groups was evaluated by χ2 test, and the effect of 131I treatment was analyzed by t test. Results: Serum TSH was effectively improved in both groups before 131I treatment. In group Ⅰ, TSH was higher than that of group Ⅱ ((141.26 ± 27.30) mU/L vs (70.57 ± 51.13) mU/L; t=2.435, P<0.05), and FT3, FT4 were not significantly different before or after the injection of rhTSH. Tg was well stimulated in both groups with no statistical difference. Group Ⅱ exhibited more side effects, which included intolerance to cold 80.56% (58/72), weight gain 86.11% (62/72), constipation 15.28% (11/72), motor retardation 22.22% (16/72), skin dryness 56.94% (41/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and no periorbital edema was found. Group Ⅰ had a higher quality of life than group Ⅱ, only few side effects were observed including dizziness and nausea 2.78% (2/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and transient tachycardia 1.39% (1/72). The effect of 131I treatment was evaluated by whole body scans with a diagnostic dose of 131I. The complete ablation rate was 70.83% (51/72) in group Ⅰ and 66.67% (48/72) in group Ⅱ (χ2=0.58, P>0.05). Conclusion: The rhTSH-aided 131

  12. ANTIPSYCHOTIC SIDE-EFFECT – POTENTIAL RISK OF PATIENTS REJECTING THEIR TREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Tatalović-Vorkapić, Sanja; Graovac, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotics side-effects pose an enormous problem in psychiatric treatment. The choice of antipsychotics is a crucial issue in the treatment as both patients' cooperation and compliance often depend upon it. Severe side-effects might sometimes cause the treatment interruption, to which each patient is entitled. Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features include social and interpersonal deficits, discomfort with close relationships, as well as cognitive and perceptual distorti...

  13. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  14. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  15. Side effects of treatment in childhood acute leukemia, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated delayed neurotoxicities in treatment of childhood acute leukemia. Of 28 patients treated over 2 years who were examined on computed tomography of brain scans, 7 patients had abnormal findings. These abnormalities included two cases of leukoencephalopathy, three cases of intracranial calcifications, and two of ventricular dilatation. These patients were under 6 years old at the onset of disease, especially under 3 years old. Also, delayed neurotoxicities developed after relapse of leukemia, especially CNS relapse. It was considered that these were caused by cranial irradiation, intravenous methotrexate injection, intrathecal methotrexate, and sometimes high-dose Ara-C therapy, etc. Most of the cases of leukoencephalopathy were associated with treatment of intermediate-dose or high-dose methotrexate after relapse. These abnormalities must be carefully considered in the treatment of younger children with leukemia and patients with relapse. (author)

  16. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Reinhard; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Lange-Lindberg, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97) accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity) which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors ...

  17. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97 accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors in cancer treatment. Toxic effects are also one of the factors affecting health related quality of life (HRQOL during chemotherapy. Mistletoe extracts belong to the group of so called „unconventional methods“ and are used in Germany as complementary cancer treatments. It has been postulated that the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes could help reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity and enhance treatment tolerability. The German social health insurance covers the prescription of ML I standardized mistletoe extracts when those are prescribed as palliative cancer treatments with the aim of improving HRQOL. Research questions: * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes reduce their toxicity? * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes contribute to improve quality of life? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on survival? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on tumor-remission? Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in following databases: The Cochrane Library, DIMDI Superbase and Dissertation Abstracts. We included systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCT. Appraisal of literature was done by two authors independently. Checklists were used to guide literature appraisal. The Jadad-Score was used to score quality of RCT. Evidence was summarized in tables and in narrative form. Results and discussion: The

  18. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, Louise E; Rasmussen, R V;

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE...

  19. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  20. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be wi...

  1. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-Sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Ning J.; Goyal, Sharad; Park, Joo Han; Jones, Sheri; XU, XIAOTING; Khan, Atif; Haffty, Bruce G.; CHEN Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration. Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided...

  2. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  3. A single TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fiber for photocatalytic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; XU Jingjing; YUAN Chunwei; LIN Jian; YIN Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    By means of TiO2-layer-on-SiO2-layer, anatase TiO2 was deposited on novel side- glowing optical fibers, which can provide side UV radiation along the whole fiber length. FE-SEM images show that the double layers adhered well to the side-glowing optical fiber, and the TiO2 coating was homogeneous and smooth. The decomposition reaction of reactive brilliant red dye X-3B on a single TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fiber indicated that the side-scattering UV light intensity was strong enough for photocatalytic oxidation reaction. Therefore, TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fibers open up a new way to use the optical fiber reactor in photocatalytic wastewater treatment.

  4. Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS, Treatment Options, and Major Challenges with Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the inability of modern medicine to find a cure for it has placed HIV as one of the most dreaded pathogens of the 21(st) century. With millions of people infected with HIV, it was once thought to result in "medical apocalypse". However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is now possible to control HIV. Adherence to ART helps to keep the viral load under control and prolong the time of progression to AIDS, resulting in near normal life expectancy. Even with the introduction of ART, a substantial number of patients fail to adhere due to a variety of reasons, including adverse side effects, drug abuse, mental disorders, socioeconomic status, literacy, and social stigma. With the availability of so many options for HIV treatment at each stage of the disease progression, physicians can switch between the treatment regimens to avoid and/or minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Close monitoring, major social reforms, and adequate counselling should also be implemented to circumvent other challenges. PMID:27054050

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of metal-induced side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, Vera; Hudecek, Romuald; Stejskal, Jenny; Sterzl, Ivan

    2006-12-01

    Environmental factors are recognized as a cause of the increasing frequency of allergic and autoimmune diseases. In addition to external pollutants, metal ions released from dental restorations or from other body implants might trigger inflammation in susceptible subjects. In humans, genes governing metal-induced inflammation and autoimmunity are not yet known. In clinical praxis, metal-sensitive patients will present various symptoms ranging from oral mucosal changes and skin disease to excessive fatigue and autoimmune diseases. Since genetic markers of genetic susceptibility in man are not known, one has to rely on the phenototypic markers. Such biomarkers might be certain detoxification enzymes but also the presence of metal-specific memory cells in the blood. With the increasing use of metal implants in medicine and dentistry, it is important to have a proper tool for the diagnosis of metal allergy in susceptible subjects. After nickel, gold is now the second most common sensitizer. In addition to patch test, an in vitro blood test, an optimized commercially available lymphocyte transformation test (MELISA) is discussed. Both tests were used for the diagnosis of metal allergy in a selected group of 15 patients who suffered from clinical metal sensitivity in addition to other health problems. The concordance of the two tests was good but MELISA detected more metal allergies than patch test. The removal of incompatible dental material (RID) resulted in long-term health improvement in the majority of patients. We postulate that in vivo, metal ions activate T-cells, initiating systemic inflammation, which, through cytokines, affects the brain and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We postulate that in vivo metal ions will activate T-cells starting systemic inflammation which, through cytokines affect the brain and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The treatment and rehabilitation of metal sensitive patients is based on a firm understanding and

  6. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  7. A General Introduction of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a general introduction of HIV/AIDS treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China during the past 20 years. Although the role of TCM in treatment of HIV/AIDS is promising, there is still a long way to go.

  8. Computational Study of Porous Treatment for Altering Flap Side-Edge Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations are used to investigate porous side-edge treatment as a passive means for flap noise reduction. Steady-state simulations are used to infer effects of the treatment on acoustically relevant features of the mean flow near the flap side edge. Application of the porous treatment over a miniscule fraction of the wetted flap area (scaling with the flap thickness) results in significantly weaker side-edge vortex structures via modification of the vortex initiation and roll-up processes. At high flap deflections, the region of axial flow reversal associated with the breakdown of the side-edge vortex is also eliminated, indicating an absence of vortex bursting in the presence of the treatment. Potential ramifications of the mean-flow modifications for flap-noise reduction are examined in the light of lessons learned from recent studies on flap noise. Computations confirm that any noise reduction benefit via the porous treatment would be achieved without compromising the aerodynamic effectiveness of the flap. Results of the parameter study contribute additional insight into the measured data from the 7x10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames and provide preliminary guidance for specifying optimal treatment characteristics in terms of treatment location, spatial extent, and flow resistance of the porous skin.

  9. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, A; van Riel, A; de Vries, I; Meulenbelt, J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are given regarding when to treat paracetamol overdose. Some authors do not recommend treatment with N-acetylcysteine at low paracetamol plasma concentrations since unnecessary adverse effects may be induced. But no treatment with N-acetylcysteine at higher paracetamol plasma concentrations may lead to unnecessary severe morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide an overview on the severity and prevalence of adverse side effects after N-acetylcysteine administration and the consequences these side effects may have for the treatment of paracetamol intoxication. The final conclusion is to continue using the guidelines of the Dutch National Poisons Information Centre for N-acetylcysteine administration in paracetamol intoxication. PMID:24930458

  10. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  11. A TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection model and optimal control treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. J.; Torres, D. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a population model for TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection transmission dynamics, which considers antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and treatments for latent and active tuberculosis. The HIV-only and TB-only sub-models are analyzed separately, as well as the TB-HIV/AIDS full model. The respective basic reproduction numbers are computed, equilibria and stability are studied. Optimal control theory is applied to the TB-HIV/AIDS model and optimal treatment strategies for co-infected indivi...

  12. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  13. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    -related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily......Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment...... identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects. The...

  14. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects. The...

  15. Identification of treatment effects on the treated with one-sided non-compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Frölich, Markus; Melly, Blaise

    2008-01-01

    Traditional instrumental variable estimators do not generally estimate effects for the treated population but for the unobserved population of compliers. They do identify effects for the treated when there is one-sided perfect non-compliance. However, this property is lost when covariates are included in the model. In this case, we show that the effects for the treated are still identified but require modified estimators. We consider both average and quantile treatment effects and allow the i...

  16. The efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH-aided radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    62 patients of differentiated thyroid cancer were performed total or near total thyroidectomy. 31 cases received rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment of 3.7 GBq (Group euthyroid). Another 31 were given radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 weeks thyroxine withdrawal (Group hypothyroidism). After about 5 to 6 months, the effect of radioiodine treatment was evaluated by whole body scan with diagnostic radioiodine. The complete ablation rate was 77.4% in group euthyroid, and 71.0% in group hypothyroidism (P>0.05). In a word, rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment can acquire satisfactory radioiodine ablation efficacy. (authors)

  17. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  18. Functional Treatment of an Asymmetry Case Having Left Side Paralysis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenduz, Meliha; Uslu, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This case report presents the results of functional and myofunctional treatment of a 9-year, 5-month-old male patient with laterognathy, facial asymmetry and dentofacial deformity. The patient had a history of herpes encephalitis at age 8.5 months and palsy on the left side in early childhood, and his left side remained paralyzed as a sequela. The patient had dentoalveolar asymmetry with a Class I right and Class III left canine relation, a 1.5 mm midline deviation, anterior cross-bite, an overjet of −3 mm and an overbite of 3 mm. The dentoalveolar and facial asymmetries were corrected using a modified removable appliance, with an acrylic vestibular shield inserted on the right side to guide the mandible in the upper arch and an acrylic plate with artificial teeth in the lower arch. The patient was instructed to practice myofunctional exercises regularly. In total, treatment, including observation, was completed in a period of 2 years and 10 months, at which time, a marked correction in facial asymmetry and profile and improvement in smile esthetics could be observed. PMID:20613926

  19. Short and long period optimization of drug doses in the treatment of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO A. L. CAETANO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical optimization techniques are useful in solving problems of computing the best inputs for systems described by mathematical models and when the objectives can be stated in a quantitative form. This work concerns the problem of optimizing the drug doses in the treatment of AIDS in terms of achieving a balance between the therapeutic response and the side effects. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of HIV viruses and CD4 cells is used to compute the short term optimal drug doses in the treatments of patients with AIDS by a direct method of optimization using a cost function of Bolza type. The model parameters were fitted to actual published clinical data. In order to simplify the numerical procedures, the control law is expressed as a series and the sub-optimal control is obtained by truncating the higher terms. When the patient reaches a clinically satisfactory state, the LQR - Linear Quadratic Regulator technique is used to determine the long period maintenance doses for the drugs. The doses computed using the LQR technique tend to be smaller than equivalent constant-dose therapy in terms of increase in the counts of CD4+T cells and reduction of the density of free viruses.Técnicas de otimização numérica são úteis na solução de problemas de determinação da melhor entrada para sistemas descritos por modelos matemáticos e cujos objetivos podem ser expressos de uma maneira quantitativa. Este trabalho aborda o problema de otimizar as dosagens dos medicamentos no tratamento da AIDS em termos de um balanço entre a resposta terapêutica e os efeitos colaterais. Um modelo matemático para descrever a dinâmica do vírus HIV e células CD4 é utilizado para calcular a dosagem ótima do medicamento no tratamento a curto prazo de pacientes com AIDS por um método de otimização direta utilizando uma função custo do tipo Bolza. Os parâmetros do modelo foram ajustados com dados reais obtidos da literatura. Com o objetivo de

  20. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  1. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J

    1990-06-01

    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months. PMID:2385457

  2. The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

  3. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N

    2001-05-01

    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  4. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  5. Prevalence of Side Effects Treatment with Carbamazepine and Other Antiepileptics in Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Polidori, Carlo; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    to be life threatening. Treatment of epilepsy with these three drugs (carbamazepine, ac.valproic and phenobarbitone) would be the first choice of treatment, with the best safety and efficacy. Application of this therapy is rarely compromised because of the appearance of unwanted side effects. Replacement or termination of therapy may be applied if actual therapy is not adequate for the management of epileptic attacks. PMID:26236162

  6. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  7. The treatment of larynxpapillomas with the aid of photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HPV associated papillomas are the most common benign laryngeal tumors in children and show similar distribution to both sexes. Papilloma and condyloma are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) belonging to the family of papovaviruses. Numerous studies have shown that there are at least 16 HPV subspecies apparent in man causing different diseases. In children larynx papillomas are histologically benign whereas in adults papillomatosis turns into cancer in 20% of the cases. Conventional therapy is based on a surgical removal of the papillomas by means of carbondiogsite laser systems. Because of the recurrent character of this disorder the increasing number of surgical interventions leave scars in the mucous membranes of the vocal cords of the larynx. This results in increasing malfunctioning of the larynx. All other treatment agents that have been added to surgery like steroids, aureomycine, Idoxoridine, Podophyllin, Vaccine and Interferon showed no significant effect to prolonge the treatment interval for the recurrent larynx papillomatosis. As a new treatment modality PDT confirmed to be a functional therapeutic agent for recurrent laryngeal papillomas. (author). 12 refs

  8. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...... electrodialytic remediation and the impact on the implementation of soil remediation, e.g. concerning the toxicity of residualsoluble Al in the soil matrix.Electrokinetic treatment was carried out as electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of three particulate matrices (soils and clay) and electrochemical desalination......Transport of ions in an applied electric field holds many applications within both civil and environmental engineering, e.g. for removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion, remediation of heavy metals from soils and other waste materials and recently for desalination of...

  9. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liyan; Shan, Fengling; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Hankui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100-250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  10. [Application of different death evaluation indicators for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Ma, Y

    2016-05-10

    AIDS has gradually changed from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic disease since the advent of antiretroviral drugs. In 2003, China initiated a national free antiretroviral treatment program for people living with HIV/AIDS, several death evaluation indicators have been used to evaluate public health effect of the program. Death evaluation indicators used frequently in domestic and overseas include mortality, case fatality rate, excess mortality, standard mortality ratio, years of potential life lost, disability-adjusted life year and life expectancy. This paper summarizes the different death indicators applied in effectiveness evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, elaborates the application range and significance of these indicators and suggests the research in related life expectancy and burden of disease which have not been conducted in China. PMID:27188376

  11. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  12. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  13. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  14. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have reported on preliminary results of hypoxyradiotherapy in the course of external irradiation in patients with uterine cervix cancer from a view-point of the occurrence of acute reactions and treatment complications. A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 8.0 to 8.5% of O2 was used to provoke acute hypoxia during irradiation. The applied dosis of external irradiation was simultaneously increased by 40%. On the basis of a randomized study with 120 patients, acute hypoxia was found to protect healthy tissues against post-radiation damage. When the dosis of 96 Gy in the paracervical space and that of 75 Gy in the pelvic wall were applied, acute side-effects decreases significantly if compared with a conventional radiotherapeutic procedure (p<0.01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Factors associated with treatment for latent tuberculosis in persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to identify factors associated with non-initiation of prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBi in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA, based on a prospective cohort study of PLWA ≥ 18 years of age in two referral services for HIV/AIDS. Of the 232 patients eligible for treatment of LTBi, 69.8% initiated treatment. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, only treatment in one of the two referral services was associated with non-initiation of treatment for LTBi (p < 0.001. TB incidence in the cohort was 0.6/100 person-years. TB incidence in patients that initiated treatment of LTBi was 0.4/100 person-years, compared to 1.2/100 person-years in those that did not initiate treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study’s most interesting finding was that the main factor associated with the likelihood of treatment for LTBi was the health service where the patient was treated.

  16. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  17. Prevention, control and treatment of HIV-AIDS among injecting drug use in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, Bachti; Susanto, Herman; Roesli, Rully; Yusuf, Hadi; Hinduan, Zahrotur; Mase, Johannes C; Surahman, Eri; van der Ven, Andre

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing a growing HIV-epidemic that in many areas is driven by injecting drug use (IDU). IDUs underutilize health services, partly because of legal aspects which also cause that many are held in prison, where further HIV- transmission may take place. Most HIV-infected patients present with advanced HIV-AIDS and many deaths before starting antiretroviral treatment. The growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia has socio-economical implications for individual patients as well as for the health system and for society. IMPACT, a multidisciplinary university-based program in Bandung, West-Java, integrates HIV-prevention and treatment, combining research and implementation. Biomedical, public health and sociobehavioral expertise is used for educational programs for adolescents; scaling-up HIV-testing, harm reduction strategies and care for HIV/AIDS in hospital, community and prison; and institutional as well as individual capacity building related to IDU and HIV/AIDS. It is expected that these activities can make a significant contribution to control of HIV-AIDS in the context of injecting drug use in West-Java and Indonesia as a whole. PMID:19920301

  18. OBSERVATION ON CLINICAL THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF MRI-AIDED ENCLOSURE NEEDLING IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BLOOD RHEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江钢辉; 李艳慧; 庄子齐; 潘文宇; 黄勇; 李健萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRl)-aided enclosure needling in the treatment of stroke patients and changes of the related blood rheology. Methods: A total of 61stroke patients were randomized into MR I-aided enclosure needling group (MRI-aided acupuncture group) (n = 31 ) and conventional acupuncture group (n= 30). For patients of MRl-aided acupuncture group, acupuncture needles were inserted into the subcutaneous tissues around the focus-projection scalp area displayed by MRI, with the needle tips toward the center of the projection region and with two needles being about 2 crn apart, combined with other acupoints according to the concrete syndromes or symptoms. For patients of conventional acupuncture group, Motor Area (MS 6)and Sensory Area (MS 7) on the contralateral side of the focus were punctured. The treatment was conducted once daily, continuously for 30 days. Results: After treatment, of the 31 cases in MRl-aided acupuncture group, 20 werecured basically, 10 responded with significant improvement of symptoms and signs, one case had some improvement.While in conventional acupuncture group, of the 30 cases, 11 were cured basically, 15 responded with striking amelioration of symptoms and signs and 4 had some amelioration. Ridit analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of MRI-aided acupuncture group was significantly superior to that of conventional acupuncture group (P < 0.05). After treatment,the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, whole blood reduction viscosity, hemagglutination index, and the total score of the two groups all decreased significantly in comparison with those of pre-treatment of each group,while whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, vascular sclerosis index and the total score of MRl-aided acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of conventional acupuncture group ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ), suggesting that the effect of theformer group in bettering blood rheology was

  19. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A.; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A.; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  20. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  1. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Blaszczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51% of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61% patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%, and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP.

  2. Questionnaire about the adverse events and side effects following botulinum toxin A treatment in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  3. Immediate zidovudine treatment protects simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn macaques against rapid onset of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rompay, K K; Otsyula, M G; Marthas, M L; Miller, C. J.; McChesney, M.B.; Pedersen, N C

    1995-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn rhesus macaques is a practical animal model of pediatric AIDS. Intravenous inoculation of rhesus newborns with uncloned SIVmac resulted in a high virus load, no antiviral immune responses, severe immunodeficiency, and a high mortality rate within 3 months. In contrast, immediate oral zidovudine (AZT) treatment of SIV-inoculated rhesus newborns either prevented infection or resulted in reduced virus load, enhanced antiviral immune respon...

  4. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  5. Side Effects Related to 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Lauren R; Eglini, Ariana N; McMichael, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been studied for the treatment of hair loss in men, with finasteride being the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Increasingly, in recent years, off-label use of these drugs has been employed in the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in women. Side effects with 5 α-reductase inhibitors can include changes in sexual function, and recent publications have characterized an increasing prevalence of these in men. A review of 20 peer-reviewed articles found that very few side effects, or adverse events, related to sexual function have been reported in studies in which dutasteride or finasteride has been used to treat hair loss in women. Future publications should investigate not only the efficacy of these drugs in treating FPHL and FFA, but the side effect profile in patients as well. PMID:27050696

  6. Computer Aided Design of Heat Treatment for AISI P20+Ni Mold Steel with Good Machinability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-bin; GAO Wen; HE Yan-lin; LI Lin

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design of heat treatment for AISI P20 mold steel with good machinability is attempted to proceed by the commercial software package Thermo-Calc (TCP+DICTRA). Through experimental and theoretical analysis of phase transformation during heat treatment, further knowledge of designing proper heat treatment is obtained. Then the machinability of AISI P20+Ni steel under given heat treatment condition is studied and the influencing factors to their machinability are analyzed. It is shown that heat treatment designed by computer simulation of carbide transformation is applicable to AISI P20+Ni steel with good machinability; AISI P20+Ni steel with tempered sorbite treated by quenching &tempering has optimal machinability; normalizing at the temperature of 910℃ & tempering can avoid cracking and result in acceptable machinability in small thickness module.

  7. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  8. The application of film-forming amines in secondary side chemistry treatment of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World wide a number of nuclear power plants are in operation with steam-water cycles based on a mixed metallurgy concept and / or a non-optimal Balance-of-Plant (BoP) design. Together with limitations of the applied water chemistry treatment, these conditions could enforce the enrichment of impurities, which will be accumulated in the tube sheet region of the steam generators and thus form an aggressive environment with respect to corrosion of steam generator construction materials. The use of surface active agents like film forming amines (FFA) has become widely recognized in the fossil power plant sector, showing a decrease of corrosion product generation by improving the surface conditions. The adherent non wettable film acts as a shield that limits the access of water and hydrated species to the metal or metal oxide surface. This barrier lowers the corrosion rate by inhibiting the mass transfer between surface and solution. This paper deals with the application of film forming amines as complementary conditioning agents in the steam-water cycle of a PWR. The decision for complementing the existing secondary side water chemistry treatment with a controlled and time limited application of film forming amines was part of a project, which has been developed by a pilot plant with PWRs of western design and AREVA NP GmbH. The performance and conditions of the steam generators in those units should be improved. It covers the results of the application with respect to corrosion product transport control, minimization of impurity accumulation in the SGs and improved plant performance. (authors)

  9. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  10. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CT-AIDED SURROUNDING NEEDLING TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wenyu; LI Yanhui; LIN Guohua

    2002-01-01

    121 cases of ischemic stroke were randomly divided into CT-aided surrounding needling group (CTASN, 61 cases) and scalp Acupuncture group (SA, 60 cases). After 30 sessions of treatment the therapeutic results of the two groups are significantly different (P < 0.05), the therapeutic effect of CTASN group is better than that of SA group. The plasma contents of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a of the two groups change considerably after acupuncture treatment, the change in CTASN group is more obvious.

  11. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  12. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  13. Poor response to tuberculosis treatment with regimens without rifampicin in immunosuppressed AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnel M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted on 79 advanced immunosuppressed AIDS patients from 1997 to 1999, during which nine cases of tuberculosis (TB were diagnosed. The main clinical and laboratory characteristics and the response to TB treatment were reviewed. The clinical manifestations of TB were: pulmonary (six cases, extrapulmonary (two cases and disseminated (one case. These patients were being treated with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART and were not responding. In three cases an optional regimen without rifampicin (RMP was indicated to maintain HAART during TB treatment. A clinical response to TB treatment (disappearance of fever was observed in 6/9 patients during a mean of 73 days (SD = 96. The three unresponsive patients were those treated without RMP. A switch to TB regimens containing RMP was proposed and successful. In our study, though it was limited by a small sample size, the response to TB regimens without rifampin was poor in immunossupressed patients failing HAART.

  14. A randomised trial of differentiated prednisolone treatment in active rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical benefits and skeletal side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Podenphant, J; Florescu, A; Stoltenberg, M; Borch, A; Kluger, E; Sørensen, S F; Hansen, T M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study benefits and skeletal side effects of carefully monitored prednisolone treatment in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to treatment with disease modifying anti-inflammatory ......OBJECTIVES: To study benefits and skeletal side effects of carefully monitored prednisolone treatment in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to treatment with disease modifying anti...... radiological disease progression, although there was a trend towards less progression in Larsen score in the prednisolone group, a matter that was further underlined in an intention to treat analysis. BMD data revealed a significant reduction in spinal BMD in the prednisolone group, whereas prednisolone seemed...

  15. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Blaszczyk; Nazli Poorsafar Foumani; Christina Ljungberg; Mikael Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP tr...

  16. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lukacs, S.; B. Tschobotko; Szabo, N. A.; Andrew Symes

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Tra...

  17. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  18. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  19. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    gathered during fieldwork as participants and observers in a Catholic AIDS treatment clinic and through interviews with service providers in Uganda. We use these data to think both creatively and systematically about the meanings and limitations of pastoral power and therapeutic citizenship.......-religious role in Western societies. Working on behalf of humanitarian organizations to combat modern emergencies is the contemporary embodiment of an ideal, pure notion of “the good” that is not linked to “old religion” but mimics many of its dispositions and practices. This analysis is based on empirical data...

  20. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  1. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  2. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  3. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence. PMID:27010870

  4. Plasmapheresis reverses all side-effects of a cisplatin overdose – a case report and treatment recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploner Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic agent since it is effective against a broad spectrum of different tumours. Nevertheless, it has several potential side effects affecting different organ systems and an overdose may lead to life-threatening complications and even death. Case presentation We report on a 46-year old woman with non-small cell lung cancer who accidentally received 225 mg/m2 of cisplatin, which was threefold the dose as scheduled, within a 3-day period. Two days later, the patient presented with hearing loss, severe nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure as well as elevated liver enzymes. In addition, she developed a severe myelodepression. After plasmapheresis on two consecutive days and vigorous supportive treatment, the toxicity-related symptoms improved and the patient recovered without any sequelae. Conclusion To date, no general accepted guidelines for the treatment of cisplatin overdoses are available. Along with the experience from other published cases, our report shows that plasmapheresis is capable of lowering cisplatin plasma and serum levels efficiently. Therefore, plasma exchange performed as soon as possible can ameliorate all side effects of a cisplatin overdose and be a potential tool for clinicians for treatment. However, additional intensive supportive treatment-modalities are necessary to control all occurring side effects.

  5. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  6. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowski, Melissa E; Perez, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol), anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone), or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide). The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (–2.0 to 3.2 kg), dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes. PMID:26929669

  7. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodríguez JE; López A; Instituto Sexológico Murciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if they can produce increases in the IELT using a masturbator in subjects with premature ejaculation, producing improvements in the quality and satisfaction of the sexuality of the patient. Methods:To carry out the study it will arrange of the utilization of a masturbation device aid for six weeks that they will use at least during 5 minutes without overcoming the half daily hour in the manual masturbation. The measures of results will be the differentiation of the basal and final IELT by means of the average of both results, obtaining the differential percentage of the above mentioned measures. Results:There was obtained a sample of 9 heterosexual participants of ages included between 20 and 42 years. The time of latency increased from the first week of treatment producing up to 57 %of increase in the IELT in the masturbation and up to 79.9 %of improvement during the coitus. Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE) has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  8. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-02-01

    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making. PMID:25155561

  9. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  10. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F; Mason, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a heuristic framework for the stages of the addiction cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology includes the binge/intoxication stage, the withdrawal/negative affect stage, and the preoccupation/anticipation (craving) stage, which represent neuroadaptations in three neurocircuits (basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively). The identification of excellent and validated animal models, the development of human laboratory models, and an enormous surge in our understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms have provided a revisionist view of addiction that emphasizes the loss of brain reward function and gain of stress function that drive negative reinforcement (the dark side of addiction) as a key to compulsive drug seeking. Reversing the dark side of addiction not only explains much of the existing successful pharmacotherapies for addiction but also points to vast new opportunities for future medications to alleviate this major source of human suffering. PMID:26514207

  11. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta

    2010-01-01

    IN_PRESS Introduction and objectives: In Uganda, there are over 1 million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing kno...

  12. IMPROVEMENTS IN LEFT-SIDED HEMIPARESIS IN AN ELDERLY FEMALE USING FUNCTIONAL NEUROLOGY TREATMENTS.

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Sass; Susan Elizabeth Esposito

    2015-01-01

    Background: A 71-year-old female presented to a functional neurology clinic with left-sided decorticate posturing caused by a stroke eight years prior. Her symptoms included imbalance, gait disturbances, and cervicalgia. She required the use of a cane for ambulation. Her left upper extremity was completely immobilized for volitional movement, save minor function of the shoulder joint. Methods: A complete physical and neurological exam including eye movement and vestibular testing was p...

  13. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke eOhnishi; Hiroshi eTakeda

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  14. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; TAKEDA, HIROSHI

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  15. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T.; Atzori, C.; Miller, R.F.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007 and inc...

  16. Staying on the Roller Coaster with Clients: Implications of the New HIV/AIDS Medical Treatments for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    There have been dramatic improvements in the medical treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. This article provides an overview of the new medical treatments, highlights some of the salient psychosocial issues that impact both clients and counselors, discusses common counselor responses, and suggests some helpful interventions. (Author/MKA)

  17. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara; Miller, Robert F;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007 and...... included individual treatment data of AIDS-associated PCP from a tricenter study. We calculated pooled estimates of reported outcome of second-line treatment using averaged odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies with sufficient detail of second-line treatment and outcome, including data from 82......-SMX should be used as a second-line treatment for those failing first-line treatments with regimens other than TMP-SMX....

  18. Serodeconversion of HIV Antibody-Positive AIDS Patients Following Treatment with V-1 Immunitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldar S. Bourinbaiar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely rare when HIV seropositive adult patients experience spontaneous loss of antibodies, that is, seroreversion. The disappearance of HIV antibodies was occasionally attributed to iatrogenic intervention—serodeconversion. Such interventions include: HAART; oral interferon; Chinese herbal remedies; and therapeutic AIDS vaccines derived from pooled blood. Oral therapeutic, alloimmune AIDS vaccine, V-1 Immunitor (V1, was administered to 60000 HIV-positive Thai patients. The administration of V1 resulted in serodeconversion among 23 individuals. The patient group consisted of 9 females (39% and 14 males (61% including two 2-year-old boys. The age range was 2–58 years with mean/median 29/29.3 years. Patients were tested seropositive for HIV at least once before being enrolled on V1. The duration of treatment until discovery of seronegative status ranged between 2 weeks and 15 months with average/median 7.2/8 months. Time to seronegativity was correlated with baseline disease stage (R=0.62; P=.002. The seronegative status was positively associated with V1-induced undetectable or low viral load (R=0.65; P=.0008. The odds ratio analysis comparing the outcome of our study with published surveys of diagnostic accuracy of laboratory tests suggested that the probability of HIV antibody testing error was remote (P<.000001. The possible causes responsible for this unusual phenomenon are discussed.

  19. Responding to medical crises: AIDS treatment, responsibilisation and the logic of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The framing of HIV/AIDS as a crisis has facilitated the rollout of large-scale intervention programmes that represent an enormous effort at mainstreaming biomedical rationalities and neoliberal notions of responsibilisation and self-care. Based on a 'logic of choice' (Mol 2008) and 'responsibilised citizenship' (Robins 2005a), although veiled in a language of rights and partnership, the heavy focus on individual behaviour and a pharmaceutical 'solution' to AIDS shifts the burden of responsibility for the success of the heavily funded programmes onto the shoulders of the patients and conceals alternative forms of responsibility. Analysing how HIV-positive people in Tanzania navigate life with HIV and the complex treatment regimens, this paper looks beyond biomedical rationality, which places the preservation of individual biological life at the centre of its logic, and analyses people's constant struggle to negotiate the meaning of 'responsible behaviour' in the context of their lived realities. This repositions the notion of responsibility in the realm of the social and reveals the rationality behind apparently irrational practices. PMID:23898836

  20. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  1. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various approaches have been made over the years to classify psychotic patients according to inadequate treatment response, using terms such as treatment resistant or treatment refractory. Existing classifications have been criticized for overestimating positive symptoms; underestimat......BACKGROUND: Various approaches have been made over the years to classify psychotic patients according to inadequate treatment response, using terms such as treatment resistant or treatment refractory. Existing classifications have been criticized for overestimating positive symptoms......; underestimating residual symptoms, negative symptoms, and side effects; or being to open for individual interpretation. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a new method of classification according to treatment response and, thus, to identify patients in functional remission. METHOD: A naturalistic......, cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment...

  2. Successful testing and treating of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia depends on the addiction treatment modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shelly Iskandar,1–3 Cor AJ de Jong,3 Teddy Hidayat,1 Ike MP Siregar,1 Tri H Achmad,4 Reinout van Crevel,5 Andre Van der Ven51Department of Psychiatry, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 2Health Research Unit, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran Univervisity, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 5Department of General Internal Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who had accessed SAT and determine which SAT modality associates significantly with HIV programs.Methods: PWID were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, Indonesia and interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaires, and Knowledge Questionnaire on HIV/AIDS. The information regarding the use of substance abuse treatment and HIV program were based on questions in ASI.Results: Seventy-seven percent of 210 PWID had accessed SAT at least once. PWID who had accessed a SAT modality reported more severe drug problems. The most widely used SAT were opioid substitution (57% and traditional/faith-based treatment (56%. Accessing substitution treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–13.9 or residential drug-free treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4–9.7 was significantly associated with HIV testing, whereas

  3. Efficiency and side effects of isotretinoin usage in the treatment of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Çiler Çıkım; Muammer Seyhan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Design: Although satisfying results with isotretinoin therapy were reported in treatment of severe or moderate but resistant acne vulgaris; the data about this treatment modality in Turkey is insufficient. Therefore we aimed to asses the clinical efficiency of isotretinoin treatment in patients with severe or moderate but resistant acne.MATERIAL-METHOD: Ninety four patients were enrolled into the study. The patients were evaluated for clinical symptoms and biochemical parameter...

  4. One sided UV-C treatments maintain quality of fresh-cut green onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage quality of fresh-cut green onions as affected by UV-C treatments, so in this research the effect of UV-C treatments on quality was investigated in fresh-cut green onions. Four different UV-C treatments were used for ultraviole radiation to onions, and non-treated samples as evaluated control group. After UV-C treatments onions were stored at 5°C and 85-90% RH for 15 days. Quality attributes of samples were evaluated periodically in terms of antioxidant activity, electroliyte leakage, color, weight loss, decay percentage and inner leaf extension. Electrolyte leakage of fresh-cut green onions was getting high with the higher doses of UV-C so, the lower doses can be used for controlled pathogen growth because of both lower electrolyte leakage and lower decay percentage at the day 10th. L* value of white stem tissues maintain best in UV-C5 treatment whereas green color of hollow green tissues was retained best in UV-C3 treatment. Onions in UV-C15 treatment were shown noticeable yellowing however inner leaf extension of onions was effectively controlled by the UV-C15 treatment. Antioxidant activity of fresh-cut green onion was enhanced higher doses of UV-C treatments, especially UV-C15. (author)

  5. Analysis of an HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence is formulated. The infectious period is partitioned into the asymptotic and the symptomatic phases according to clinical stages. The constant recruitment rate, disease-induced death, drug therapies, as well as a nonlinear incidence, are incorporated into the model. The basic reproduction number R0 of the model is determined by the method of next generation matrix. Mathematical analysis establishes that the global dynamics of the spread of the HIV infectious disease are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. If R0≤1, the disease always dies out and the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable. If R0>1, the disease persists and the unique endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region.

  6. Combined treatment of corpus carcinoma. Results and side-effects in 496 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the case histories of 496 patients with corpus carcinoma, the clinical findings, the stage classification which took place afterwards, and the different forms of therapy are listed and evaluated. With an average age of 62,3 years, relapse-free 5-years-survival rates of 70,8% were achieved for stage I, of 50% for stage II, of 12% for stage III, and 0% for stage IV. Metastases appeared on 19,1% all female patients treated, vaginal relapses on 1,8%. Evaluating the therapy-caused side effects and delayed effects an increase in the complication rate is seen which is due to higher total focal doses applied. In total, in 21,9% of the patients complications appeared within the first year after beginning the therapy and 8,7% had radiation-caused delayed effects after this period. A radiation therapy adjusted to the individual stages which, in addition to the macroscopic aspects and the histologic differentiation, also leans on the histologically judged degree of invasion of the carcinoma tissue into the myometrium must on the one hand guarantee a safe degree of destroying the tumour and, on the other keep radiation-caused side effects and delayed effects as low as possible. The experiences meanwhile gained with the application of hard X radiation plus the application of modern adjuvants in the irradiation planning by means of computerized tomography seem likely to bring a decreased frequency in the appearance of radiation-caused complications. (orig.)

  7. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  8. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.)

  9. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  10. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Koppen, A.; van Riel, A; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are given regarding when to treat paracetamol overdose. Some authors do not recommend treatment with N-acetylcysteine at low paracetamol plasma concentrations since unnecessary adverse effects may be ind...

  11. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin, he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment.

  12. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, S; Tschobotko, B; Szabo, N A; Symes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin), he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin) and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment. PMID:23844314

  13. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  14. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  15. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  16. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A.; van Riel, A.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are gi

  17. MYOPATHY AS A SIDE EFFECT OF STATIN THERAPY: MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with proven efficacy that reduce cardiovascular risk and are well tolerated by most patients. Myopathy as a side effect of statin therapy is one of the most common reasons for their withdrawal. Its severity can range from asymptomatic increase of serum CPK to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Therefore it is necessary to remember about the possibility of its occurrence.The exact molecular mechanisms of muscle damage by statins are still unknown. Various hypotheses are suggested in this respect: fatty acid oxidation disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased protein degradation in myocytes due to changes in atrogin-1 and ubiquitin activity, activation of autoimmune processes, intracellular depletion of essential metabolites, destabilization of cell membranes, impaired expression of genes involved in apoptosis and protein degradation. The theory that the reduction of intramuscular CoQ10 level is the cause of myopathy prevails. Additional intake of CoQ10 seems promising, but is not evidence-based.

  18. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  19. The treatment of spastic cerebral palsy by side to side neurorrhaphy of peripheral nerves%周围神经侧侧缝合治疗痉挛性脑性瘫痪的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修先伦; 王宁; 张少成; 祝玉玺; 王季; 王吉波

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss a new method and its mechanism for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy. Methods 6 cases were treated.The injurious nerve trunk was kept abreast of neighbor donor nerve at suitable segement, the epineurium and fascicu of two neighboring area were incised to appear nerve fibers,then side to side anastomosed each other through the epineurium and fascicu. Result All cases were followed up for 4~ 15 months.The spastic limb and deformity of all cases have obvious relieve, 5 cases had no spasm without extra stimulation and have the main function recovered.Conclusion Side to side neurorrhaphy is a new method to treat spastic cerebral palsy.After operation, the spastic muscle could obtain normal never control,thereby,the cervical orientation area was changed.

  20. Compulsory Maintenance Treatment Program Amongst Iranian Injection Drug Users and Its Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    ESKANDARIEH, Sharareh; Jafari, Firoozeh; Yazdani, Somayeh; Hazrati, Nazanin; Saberi-Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substance use can cause a broad variety of mental health disorders and social health problems for the drug users, their family and society. Objectives: The Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Education of Iran has recently proclaimed an estimated number of 2 million drug abusers and 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). Patients and Methods: For data collection, the directory of mental, social health, and Addiction designed a questionnaire in cooperation with Dr...

  1. The Side Effects of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analog (Diphereline) in Treatment of Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Karamizadeh; Mahmoodreza Tabebordbar; Forough Saki; Hamdollah Karamifar; Gholamhossein Amirhakimi

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP) is the administration of GnRH analogs. Metabolic syndrome comprised metabolic disturbances that confer increased risk of (CVD) diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease. This study is a longitudinal prospective study in pediatric endocrinology clinic. 30 non-obese children with idiopathic CPP were involved. Total body weight, height, blood pressure, BMI and waist circumference of the patients along with their triglyceride (TG), total chole...

  2. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  3. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisheng, W; Fuying, Z; Limin, W; Junwei, Li; Guofu, P; Weidong, W

    2007-01-01

    patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years). At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3%) patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%). In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%). Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124) had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B) had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236) of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach—anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon's experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated. PMID:21139782

  4. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng W

    2007-01-01

    decompression, 31 patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years. At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3% patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%. In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%. Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124 had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236 of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach-anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon′s experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated.

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti; Grazielly Rita Marques Giovelli; Gabriel José Chittó Gauer; João Feliz Duarte Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show...

  6. Treatment Outcomes of AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma under a Routine Antiretroviral Therapy Program in Lilongwe, Malawi: Bleomycin/Vincristine Compared to Vincristine Monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mwafongo, Albert A.; ROSENBERG, Nora E.; Wingston Ng'ambi; Werner, Alexandra B.; Garneau, William M.; Joe Gumulira; Sam Phiri; Mina C Hosseinipour

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) being the most prevalent AIDS-associated cancer in resource limited settings, optimal treatment options remain unknown. We assessed whether bleomycin/vincristine compared to vincristine monotherapy was associated with improved treatment outcomes for AIDS-associated KS among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Malawi. Methods All patients initiating cART and chemotherapy for AIDS-related KS were identified from an electronic da...

  7. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1 bone mineral density; 2 cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3 body composition (lean mass and fat mass; 4 blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5 lipids and glycemic control; and 6 quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1 resistance/impact loading exercise, (2 resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3 usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention. Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of

  8. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1) bone mineral density; 2) cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3) body composition (lean mass and fat mass); 4) blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5) lipids and glycemic control; and 6) quality of life and psychological distress. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention). The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically

  9. Role of lycopene in preventing oral diseases as a nonsurgical aid of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest′s ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases.

  10. Rational medication use review: a quality assurance/improvement process for HIV/AIDS treatment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Fomundam

    2015-02-01

    Methods: A comprehensive data collection tool was developed to systematically and retrospectively capture relevant data from randomly selected ART patient files in the four ART facilities. Results: ART data from 157 patients receiving ART services from four facilities was extracted and analysed. WHO stage 4 AIDS defining diseases were recorded in 125 (79.6% of the patients at the time of ART initiation. The most frequent opportunistic infections and/or co-morbidities were cryptosporidiosis (14.4%, HIV wasting (14.4%, tuberculosis (13% and candidiasis (17.4%. 97.8% of the patients were taking concomitant medicines. A large percentage of patients (72.4% had done a baseline CD4 test before initiation of therapy with a majority of the patients (85.8% getting their lab results within one week of the collection of the specimens. For some patients (9%, it took up to 8 weeks to get test results. About 21.8% of the patients were hospitalized at least once while on ART and 11.2% of the hospitalized patients died. Conclusion: RMUR is a simple and accurate strategy that can be appropriately modified to suite local settings. It offers a cost-effective and participatory method of identifying any factors that may negatively affect the quality and desired outcomes of ART enabling prompt correction and continuous improvement of treatment related outcomes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 383-390

  11. Clinical effectiveness of dolutegravir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huda Taha,1 Archik Das,2 Satyajit Das1,3 1Integrated Sexual Health Service Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust, Coventry, 2School of Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham, 3Coventry University, Coventry, UK Abstract: Dolutegravir (DTG is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI, which has now been licensed to be used in different countries including the UK. Earlier studies have demonstrated that DTG when used with nucleoside backbone in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients has been well tolerated and demonstrated virological suppression comparable to other INSTIs and superiority against other first-line agents, including efavirenz and boosted protease inhibitors. Like other INSTIs, DTG uses separate metabolic pathways compared to other antiretrovirals and is a minor substrate for CYP-450. It does not appear to have a significant interaction with drugs, which uses the CYP-450 system. Nonetheless, it uses renal solute transporters that may potentially inhibit the transport of other drugs and can have an effect on the elimination of other drugs. However, the impact of this mechanism appears to be very minimal and insignificant clinically. The side effect profiles of DTG are similar to raltegravir and have been found to be well tolerated. DTG has a long plasma half-life and is suitable for once daily use without the need for a boosting agent. DTG has all the potential to be used as a first-line drug in combination with other nucleoside backbones, especially in the form of a single tablet in combination with abacavir and lamivudine. The purpose of this review article is to present the summary of the available key information about the clinical usefulness of DTG in the treatment of HIV infection. Keywords: dolutegravir, integrase inhibitors, HIV, antiretroviral, treatment

  12. Tics and other stereotyped movements as side effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Tics and other stereotyped abnormal movements can be seen as adverse effects of some pharmacologic drugs. Among these drugs, antipsychotics may provoke tardive syndromes after a chronic exposure, primarily in the case of typical antipsychotics. These syndromes include tardive tics, tardive dyskinesia, or tardive akathisia, which present with tics or stereotyped movements as a clinical phenomenon. Psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate) have traditionally been associated with the appearance of tics due to the increased dopamine activity caused by stimulants. Nevertheless, in recent years, several studies have concluded not only that methylphenidate does not exacerbate or reactivate tics but also that tics can improve with its use in patients with associated attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. Antiepileptic drugs, although infrequently, can also induce tics, with carbamazepine and lamotrigine described as tic inducers. Other antiepileptics, including levetiracetam and topiramate, have been proposed as a potential treatment for tic disorders due to a positive effect on tics, especially in those with associated epileptic disorder. Clinical and therapeutic approaches to tics and stereotyped movements after exposure to antipsychotics, stimulants, and antiepileptic drugs will be reviewed in this chapter. PMID:24295631

  13. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  14. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Richard, Lance; Kumar, Maya; Forsythe, Anna; Flores, Natalia M; Moline, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2), productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health questionnaire), and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147) and treated insomnia (n = 2860) in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively), greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%), and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11). Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p insomnia was observed in both the US and 5EU, and the association remained even after treatment

  15. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco DiBonaventura

    were not significant in the 5EU. A significant burden of insomnia was observed in both the US and 5EU, and the association remained even after treatment. Non-adherence due to side effects was common and, in the case of the US, associated with significantly poorer health outcomes.

  16. Heat treatment and mechanical stability behaviour of medium-carbon TRIP-aided bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available bainitic transformation on the mechanical stability of retained austenite for medium-carbon TRIP-aided steel.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations were carried out on medium-carbon steel containing 0.55%C and 1.35%Si. The conditions of heat treatment consisted of isothermal quenching of the specimens to a temperature range of 250 to 550°C, where they were held for 600 and 1800 s. Tensile deformation of steel to the given strain equal 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of total elongation of samples was conducted in order to determine the kinetics of retained austenite transformation into martensite. The retained fraction of the γ phase was determined by the use of the quantitative X-ray phase analysis.Findings: Increasing the carbon concentration to 0.55% in TRIP-type steels makes possible to obtain very high strength properties without a deterioration of the ductility. The retained austenite of the 19% volume fraction can be obtained after the isothermal quenching of the steel to a temperature of 250°C. In these conditions, the matrix of the steel is the ferritic bainite. The size of regular grains of retained austenite is equal up to 3μm, while the rest of γ phase is present in a form of thin films between individual laths of bainite. Diversification of retained austenite form has a reflection in its mechanical stability, connected with two-stage kinetics of martensitic transformation of γ phase.Research limitations/implications: To determine with more detail the stability of retained austenite the knowledge of lattice parameter changes with an isothermal holding temperature is needed.Practical implications: The proposed heat treatment can be useful for manufacturing reinforced structural elements characterized by high strength and ductile properties in the automobile industry.Originality/value: The developed conditions of the heat treatment concern the medium-carbon TRIP-type bainitic steel, offering higher product of UTS UEl compared with

  17. Comparison of efficacy and side-effects of Oxybutynin and Tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanbari Z

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Overactive bladder (OAB is one of the most prevalent diseases of lower urinary system. OAB disease is defined by the Standardization Subcommittee of the International Continence Society as urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia with no proven infection or other obvious pathology. Treatment with the antimuscarinic agents tolterodine and oxybutynin is the mainstay of therapy for overactive bladder. The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and side-effects of tolterodine and oxybutynin in a number of Iranian women."n "nMethods: This study consisted of two trials and done in Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2009; in one trial, 50 patients with overactive bladder were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with 2 mg of twice-daily tolterodine, and in the other to 5 mg of three times a day oxybutynin. Urodynamic investigations, Episodes of urge urinary incontinence and adverse events were also evaluated."n "nResults: The results showed a good association between the questionnaire and cystometry data but urodynamic studies showed significant differences in efficacy. Tow groups showed significant improvements in all Symptoms, but The results showed that the two drugs had no significant differences in efficacy."n "nConclusion: The data obtained by questionnaire indicated that both drugs increased quality of life but there were no significant differences between the two in symptom cure. Dry mouth was the most common side-effect in the two groups but unlike other studies it was higher in the tolterodine group. Therefore, our study did not show any preference between oxybutynin and tolterodine.

  18. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Yisheng W; Fuying Z; Limin W; Junwei Li; Guofu P; Weidong W

    2007-01-01

    Background: Traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with subaxial fracture and dislocation not only indicates a highly unstable spine but can also induce life-threatening complications. This makes first aid critically important before any definitive operative procedure is undertaken. The present study analyzes the various first aid measures and operative procedures for such injury. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-five patients suffered from cervical spinal cord injury with frac...

  19. Genotype-based ancestral background consistently predicts efficacy and side effects across treatments in CATIE and STAR*D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Adkins

    Full Text Available Only a subset of patients will typically respond to any given prescribed drug. The time it takes clinicians to declare a treatment ineffective leaves the patient in an impaired state and at unnecessary risk for adverse drug effects. Thus, diagnostic tests robustly predicting the most effective and safe medication for each patient prior to starting pharmacotherapy would have tremendous clinical value. In this article, we evaluated the use of genetic markers to estimate ancestry as a predictive component of such diagnostic tests. We first estimated each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds using genome-wide SNP data collected in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE (n = 765 and the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D (n = 1892. Next, we performed multiple regression analyses to estimate the predictive power of these ancestral dimensions. For 136/89 treatment-outcome combinations tested in CATIE/STAR*D, results indicated 1.67/1.84 times higher median test statistics than expected under the null hypothesis assuming no predictive power (p<0.01, both samples. Thus, ancestry showed robust and pervasive correlations with drug efficacy and side effects in both CATIE and STAR*D. Comparison of the marginal predictive power of MDS ancestral dimensions and self-reported race indicated significant improvements to model fit with the inclusion of MDS dimensions, but mixed evidence for self-reported race. Knowledge of each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds provides a potent immediate starting point for developing algorithms identifying the most effective and safe medication for a wide variety of drug-treatment response combinations. As relatively few new psychiatric drugs are currently under development, such personalized medicine offers a promising approach toward optimizing pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of radiation side effects; Hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung radiogener Nebenwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Almeling, M. [Druckkammerzentrum Arolsen/Kassel (Germany); Carl, U.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1996-12-01

    Aim: Many reports show that late complications of radiotherapy can be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). This synopsis attempts to review the literature to identify areas of clinical use and further research. Patients and Methods: Clinical and experimental data about HBO treatment of radiation late effects are analysed. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of late radiation side effects are discussed. Results: There is evidence in the literature that HBO is beneficial in the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits. The prophylactic use of HBO has shown to prevent the development of osteoradionecrosis after tooth removal and the loss of titanium implants in irradiated facial bones. The physiologic basis of HBO can be referred to induction of neoangiogenesis and revascularisation. Conclusions: Clinicians can be encouraged to use hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteonecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits following radiation therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Nach zahlreichen Literaturberichten sind Spaetkomplikationen der Strahlentherapie durch hyperbaren Sauerstoff guenstig zu beeinflussen. Ziel dieses Uebersichtsartikels ist es, das vorliegende Datenmaterial ueber hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung spaeter radiogener Nebenwirkungen zusammenzufassen, um eine Grundlage fuer den klinischen Einsatz und weitere experimentelle Untersuchungen zu schaffen. Patienten und Methode: Ergebnisse klinischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen sowie Wirkmechanismen, ueber die hyperbaren Sauerstoff in die pathophysiologischen Ablaeufe radiogener Nebenwirkungen eingreift, werden diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Durch die hyperbare Oxygenierungstherapie koennen klinische Besserungen bei haemorrhagischer Zystitis, Osteoradionekrose der Mandibula, Proktosigmoiditis, Weichteilnekrosen und

  1. [Clinical analysis of patients with chronic hepatitis C who discontinued interferon treatment because of side effects--our experiences and recent reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainokami, S; Hino, K; Shimoda, K; Niwa, H

    1994-07-01

    We prospectively studied side effects about 54 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with 3 to 10 MIU a day of interferon (IFN) alpha, which was administrated for 16 to 24 weeks. Every day, all of them wrote down every symptoms, by themselves, during its treatment. Any symptoms occurred in all patients and each incidence of symptoms such as fever, fatigue, headache, anorexia, arthalgia, myalgia, chill, itching, insomnia, nausea, numbness of hand and foot, irritability, diarrhea, eye ball pain, vomiting, were all higher than those which have been reported by some papers in Japan. So, it was considered that the symptom self-wrighting method by patient was useful to evaluate the entity of side effects. Furthermore, we studied 26 patients, who discontinued IFN treatment because of side effects and analyzed the background factors. Each incidence of symptoms of these patients were not always compatible to those incidences. But by observation of those symptoms, we could know severe side effects earlier. PMID:7521435

  2. Treatment Side-Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Chapter Inspirational Stories Make a Donation Marketplace Clinical Trials Contact Us Careers Connect With Us: Partnered with: ©2016 ... Materials ► Find a Local Chapter ► Run/Walk Information ► Clinical Trials ► Download Symptom ... About Us ► Medical Information ► News & Events ► Make a Difference ► Sponsors ► ...

  3. Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Steve Mills; Anh Thuy Duong; Long Thanh Nguyen; Philip Jacobs; Stan Houston

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was a...

  4. Difficulties facing healthcare workers in the era of AIDS treatment in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto, Masebeo Veronica; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2016-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by the AIDS pandemic and Lesotho is no exception. In many countries, healthcare workers are at the forefront of the fight against AIDS. This study explores the difficulties facing healthcare workers in Lesotho using a combination of qualitative methods - focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that healthcare workers are afraid of contracting HIV from their patients and this affects their delivery of services. In addition, the results revealed that poor infrastructure and shortage of supplies at the facilities hinder healthcare workers from performing their duties effectively. The other concern was the heavy workload and severe time constraints which puts enormous stress on healthcare workers. Stigma and discrimination emerged as major problems for healthcare workers. Addressing the challenges facing healthcare workers is essential in effectively managing the AIDS pandemic facing the continent. PMID:27128878

  5. Treatment adherence: the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS Adhesión al tratamiento: vivencias de adolescentes con HIV/SIDA Adesão ao tratamento: vivências de adolescentes com HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cabral Kourrouski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Living with a chronic condition is difficult at any stage of life, especially when considering HIV/AIDS, a stigmatized condition that elicits so much discrimination and which may become an aggravating factor when it occurs during adolescence. This study aimed to understand the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS concerning medication adherence. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years and six caregivers participated in the study. The organization of data focused on positive and negative aspects related to adherence. The results showed that adolescents have difficulties in medication adherence especially due to their side effects; they try to normalize their lives in such a way that stigma and discrimination do not compromise their quality of life and treatment adherence. Recommendations to encourage treatment adherence are presented.Vivir con una condición crónica es algo difícil en cualquier fase de la vida, sobre todo cuando se habla de HIV/SIDA, condición que trae estigma y discriminación, y cuando ocurre en la adolescencia se muestra como un agravante. El objetivo de este estudio es comprender la experiencia de adolescentes portadores de HIV/SIDA, en lo que se refiere a la adhesión medicamentosa. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo de los datos. Participaron nueve adolescentes con edad entre 12 y 18 años y seis cuidadores. Los datos fueron organizados alrededor de las facilidades y dificultades relacionadas a la adhesión. Los resultados evidenciaron que los adolescentes tienen dificultades en la adhesión al medicamento, colocando esas dificultades principalmente en los efectos colaterales de los mismos; buscan vivir el proceso de normalización, de tal forma que el estigma y discriminación no comprometan su calidad de vida y la adhesión a la terapéutica. Son presentadas recomendaciones para estimular la adhesión al tratamiento.Viver com uma

  6. Salvage trial of trimetrexate-leucovorin for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masur, H; Polis, M A; Tuazon, C U;

    1993-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of trimetrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro antitoxoplasma activity, was assessed in 9 sulfonamide-intolerant patients with AIDS and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 9 patients were treated for 28-149 days with trimetrexate (30-280 mg/m2...... doses for extended periods was not associated with serious toxicity. Trimetrexate alone had dramatic but transient activity in sulfonamide-intolerant patients and thus is not adequate as single-agent therapy for AIDS-associated toxoplasmosis....

  7. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  8. Brain computed tomography of patients with HIV/AIDS before the advent of subsidized treatment program in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective is to study intracranial complications of HIV/AIDS using brain-computed tomography in patients who presented with neurological features before the advent of subsidized HIV/AIDS treatment program with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients′ records retrieved from radiology and medical records departments of the hospital. The studied patients had HIV/AIDS and presented with neurological features and underwent CT scan. Results: A total of 36 patients who tested positive for HIV and who presented with neurological features suspected to be complications of AIDS were examined with CT scan. They consisted of 24 male and 12 females. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The age of the patients ranged from 27 to 45 years. Seventeen patients (47.2% were aged 30-34 years. Twenty-four patients (60% were single while 12 (40% were married. Twenty-seven patients (75% were infected with HIV 1 and 2, five patients (13.9% were infected only with HIV-1 while four were infected with only HIV-2. Presenting neurological complaints include left hemiplegia 13 (36.1%, right hemiplegia 6 (16.7%, coma 7 (19.4%, memory loss/dementia complex 5 (13.9%, convulsion with coma 2 (5.6%, left hemi-pariesis with memory loss 2 (5.6%, and staggering gait 1 (2.8%. The findings in CT scan include infarcts-like lesions 14 (38.9%, multiple ring-enhancing lesions 7 (19.4%, cerebral atrophy 5 (13.9%, multiple nodular lesions 4 (11.1%, acute intracerebral hemorrhage 3 (8.3%, cerebral hemiatrophy 2 (5.6%, and solitary ring-enhancing lesions 1 (2.8%. Eight patients with single or multiple ring enhancing lesions were treated with empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis but only three (37.5% made full recovery. Conclusion: Brain CT scan showed extensive structural damages in patients with HIV/AIDS who were not treated with HAART. Out-of-pocket payment for investigations and treatment and absence of

  9. Socioepidemiologic Profile and Treatment-seeking Behaviour of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary-care Hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram, Abyramy; Sarkar, Sonali; Hamide, Abdoul; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT India has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) for eligible persons living with HIV (PLHA) has been scaled up significantly both in terms of facilities for treatment and number of beneficiaries. This study aimed at describing the profile of HIV/AIDS patients on ART from a tertiary-care hospital and to explore the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour, family support, and perceptions regarding HIV and ART...

  10. Relação entre sintomatologia psicopatológica, adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida na infecção HIV e AIDS Relationship among psychopathological symptoms, treatment adherence and quality of life in HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo observou a existência de relações significativas entre sintomatologia psicopatológica (BSI, adesão ao tratamento (CEAT-VIH e qualidade de vida (WHOQOL-Bref em 125 pessoas HIV-positivo/AIDS em tratamento antirretroviral, atendidos em um hospital do Porto (Portugal. A sintomatologia psicopatológica correlacionou-se negativamente com adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida, e a adesão ao tratamento associou-se positivamente com a qualidade de vida. O modelo preditor de adesão ao tratamento, mediante análise de regressão múltipla, incluiu a ausência de sintomatologia psicopatológica, o comportamento de retirada dos medicamentos na farmácia hospitalar e a presença de efeitos colaterais do tratamento (R² =0,30. Ademais, observou-se um efeito mediador de sintomatologia psicopatológica entre a adesão ao tratamento e a qualidade de vida das pessoas com HIV/AIDS.The study shows evidence of statistical association among psychopathological symptoms (BSI, treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref in 125 HIV-positive/AIDS patients followed at Porto Hospital (Portugal. The psychopathological symptoms present a negative correlation with treatment adherence and quality of life. On the other hand, adherence was positively correlated with quality of life. The model of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment using multiple regression analysis includes absence of psychopathological symptoms, an adherence behavior (i.e. to get the medication at the hospital's pharmacy and the experience of side effects because of medication (R² = 0.30. Besides, psychopathological symptoms have a mediation effect between adherence and quality of life in people with HIV/AIDS.

  11. HIV Stigma Among Substance Abusing People Living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for HIV Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Hilary L Surratt

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54....

  12. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, M.; Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  13. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Badowski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite ...

  14. Biliary duct obstruction treatment with aid of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Knap; Natalia Orlecka; Renata Judka; Aleksandra Juza; Michał Drabek; Maciej Honkowicz; Tomasz Kirmes; Bartosz Kadłubicki; Dominik Sieroń; Jan Baron

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage (PTBD) is a procedure indicated in patients with non-operative lesions, when endoscopic application of prosthesis is impossible due to anatomic reasons, complications or severe general condition of patient. Most often it is a palliative procedure, aiming for live-quality improvement, although not altering prognosis of basic disease. Aim: This study presents own experience in biliary drainage with the aid of percutaneous transhepatic ...

  15. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;

    2008-01-01

    A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...... visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-naïve patients, how to manage...... virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one...

  16. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-Telles Flávio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and followed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%, but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84% by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%, and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%. Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

  17. [Direct hearing aid provision by ENT specialists: Recommendations for prevention and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Ph P; Sedlmaier, B; Hölzl, M

    2009-07-01

    In times of budgeting, rising costs and monetary losses, an increasing number of ENT specialists considers the hearing system sector due to the distinct undersupply and the expected demographic development to be a market of the future and appropriate to enlarge their field of competence. Exact prevalence of direct hearing aid provision by German otorhinolaryngologists as well as its complication rate are not well-known. Retrospectively, all patients were evaluated who presented at our department with complications in the context of outpatient direct hearing aid supply within the last 3 years. Inappropriate fitting contains the danger of malformed or displaced ear impressions with various injury patterns comprising the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Practical advices for prevention of complications include the accurate modeling and placement of sufficient impression pads behind the second bend of the auditory canal, using an adequate type of impression material as well as performing the correct application procedures. Recommendations for diagnostic patterns and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions are presented, the differences between German "traditional" and "direct" hearing aid provision are critically discussed. PMID:19579285

  18. MedlinePlus: HIV/AIDS Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Center) Also in Spanish Side Effects (New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center) Also in Spanish Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes (AIDSinfo) Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and ...

  19. Rates and Predictors of Consistent Condom-use by People Living with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Treatment in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ayiga, Natal

    2012-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been recognized as one of the methods for reducing the risk of HIV transmission, and access to this is being rapidly expanded. However, in a generalized HIV epidemic, ART could increase unprotected sex by people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs). This paper assessed the rates and predictors of consistent condom-use by sexually-active PHAs after initiating ART. The study used cross-sectional data on sexual behaviour of 269 sexually-active ART-experienced individual...

  20. Children's Experiences of End Stage Renal Failure, Coping with Its Treatment and Side-Effects, and Perceived Benefits of Starbright World Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Laura Dees; Barry, Leasha M.

    2003-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess experiences of three children (ages 8-17) with end stage renal failure, including their perceptions of treatment and side effects, coping strategies, and STARBRIGHT World technology, a program that provides peer support through video conferencing with other children. The benefits of STARBRIGHT are…

  1. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase

  2. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wall Bradley; Levin Gregory; Gardiner Robert A; Spry Nigel; Taaffe Dennis R; Newton Robert U; Joseph David; Chambers Suzanne K; Galvão Daniel A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in ...

  3. Health Services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross--sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse depar...

  4. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  5. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  6. ON MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE IMPACT OF CONDOM USE AND THERAPEUTIC TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey B. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the absence of a definite treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS since their appearance, many scientific studies with the help of mathematical models have been formulated to the extent possible to prevent and eradicate the disease. In this article we have formulated a mathematical model that explores the dynamics of the impact of the use of condom and therapeutic treatment simultaneously, as a means (tools against the spread of HIV/AIDS in the heterosexual population. The proposed model uses a nonlinear differential equation system consisting of seven (7 differential equations in seven (7 groups of the population. The model takes into account natural birth rate of the studied population, and the proportion of infected males, which simultaneously uses condom and antiretroviral therapy. The model explores the behavioral change of proportion of infected individuals in the population following the application of control measures (condom use and antiretroviral therapy. It is proved that the effectiveness of preventive measures greatly depends on a number of parameters described. In addition, the results of numerical experiments showed that in the absence of both preventive measures, the entire population is contaminated with the infection. The interaction of the model parameters show that the population with high levels of condom use in the presence of significant adherence to antiretroviral therapy as prophylaxis significantly reduces the level of HIV/AIDS. Thus, prevention of infection is significantly improved with the increasing number of the infected population using condoms and antiretroviral therapy simultaneously

  7. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  8. Epidemiological composition, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patient cohort of the german competence network for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective As its central basis for research, the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet established a nationwide cohort study on HIV-positive patients being in medical care in Germany. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological composition, and clinical as well as treatment characteristics of the KompNet cohort over time. Methods The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multi-center, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semiannually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering a wide range of clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up. Results As of 20.10.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to ten outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprised 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years, 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean: 6.7 years. Due to the short period of recruitment till now, rates of death (0.3%-0.8% and losses to follow up (1.1%-5.5% were low. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risk of transmission was sex between men (MSM: 62.9%. Mean age was 45 years. About two third of patients were classified as CDC-stage B or C. Therapy regimens of currently treated patients complied with recent guidelines. Trends of mean CD4 cell count/μl regarding the initial therapy and concerning the population under treatment reflected the developments and the changing standards of antiretroviral therapy over time. Conclusion The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients estimated as being under treatment in Germany. Its composition can be accounted approximately

  9. COMPARISON OF ANTIRETROVIRAL SCHEMES USED IN INITIAL THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana LENZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in HIV patients is their adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the schemes adopted in the initial therapy of these treatments with their adherence, changes in HAART schemes and treatment costs. The study included patients over 16 years old, HIV positive, in treatment for more than 30 days. Adherence to HAART was calculated based on the withdrawal of the drug, which was related to the total treatment time. We evaluated how many patients changed HAART. The costs of each regimen were also estimated and related to the benefit of each treatment. 142 patients who were between 38 and 1,150 days of treatment were included (57.7% women. The schemes with lower costs, highest adherence and greater benefit were efavirenz with biovir and efavirenz with lamivudine and tenofovir. This study suggested the advantageous therapeutic regimens to start of treatment, both from the point of view of patients and the health system. This information can serve as a subsidy to clinicians in the decision of starting HAART.

  10. Nonextraction treatment of severe crowding with the aid of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    THIS PAPER ILLUSTRATES THE COMBINED NONEXTRACTION ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT WITH THE CORTICOTOMY TECHNIQUE IN AN ADULT PATIENT (AGE: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors' roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved. PMID:22848854

  11. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Aljhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved.

  12. Skin delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases associated with HIV/AIDS by using elastic liposomes / Kevin Bassey Ita

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Kevin Bassey

    2003-01-01

    Due to the immuncompromised status of AIDS patients, secondary infections and malignancies are common. Conditions secondary to AIDS for which patients require treatment include Karposi's sarcoma (treated with methotrexate), varicella-zoster (treated with antivirals such as acyclovir) and herpes simplex (also treated with antivirals like acyclovir or idoxuridme). However the clinical efficacy of these drugs is limited by poor skin permeability. Few reports, however, have deal...

  13. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2010-01-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar...

  14. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation proce...

  15. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    K. SUNDARA KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    There are two fundamental reasons for treatment of wastewater viz., prevention of pollution and thereby protecting the environment, and protecting the public health by safe guarding water supplies andpreventing the spread of water borne diseases. Proper design, construction together with good operation and maintenance are essential for waste water treatment plants (WWTP), in order to produce effluents which are satisfying the safe disposal standards prescribed by the regulatory authorities. I...

  16. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care. PMID:24983302

  17. Implementation science for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R

    2010-12-01

    Implementation science is the scientific study of methods to promote the integration of research findings and evidence-based interventions into health care policy and practice and hence to improve the quality and effectiveness of health services and care. Implementation science is distinguished from monitoring and evaluation by its emphasis on the use of the scientific method. The origins of implementation science include operations research, industrial engineering, and management science. Today, implementation science encompasses a broader range of methods and skills including decision science and operations research, health systems research, health outcomes research, health and behavioral economics, epidemiology, statistics, organization and management science, finance, policy analysis, anthropology, sociology, and ethics. Examples of implementation science research are presented for HIV prevention (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, male circumcision) and HIV and drug use (syringe distribution, treating drug users with antiretroviral therapy and opioid substitution therapy). For implementation science to become an established field in HIV/AIDS research, there needs to be better coordination between funders of research and funders of program delivery and greater consensus on scientific research approaches and standards of evidence. PMID:21045596

  18. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2011-04-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar to the contralateral first molar, and from canine to canine in the mandibular arch was performed. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every 2 weeks. The total treatment time was 5 months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful closure of the anterior open bite with adequate overbite and interdigitation of the teeth were achieved. PMID:24151417

  19. Adenosine AA Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina J. Bleickardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD focus on dopaminergic therapies, including L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, these treatments induce neuropsychiatric side effects. Psychosis, characterized by delusions and hallucinations, is one of the most serious such side effects. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism is a nondopaminergic treatment for PD with clinical and preclinical efficacy. The present studies assessed A2A antagonists SCH 412348 and istradefylline in rodent prepulse inhibition (PPI, a model of psychosis. Dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole (0.3–3 mg/kg, pergolide (0.3–3 mg/kg, and apomorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg significantly disrupted PPI; ropinirole (1–30 mg/kg had no effect; L-dopa (100–300 mg/kg disrupted rat but not mouse PPI. SCH 412348 (0.3–3 mg/kg did not disrupt rodent PPI; istradefylline (0.1–1 mg/kg marginally disrupted mouse but not rat PPI. These results suggest that A2A antagonists, unlike dopamine agonists, have an improved neuropsychiatric side effect profile.

  20. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    formulated as a process synthesis challenge in the sense that a new taskcan be added to the existing treatment line or one or several existing processes can be changed as a result of the emerging needs. Existing plants need retrofitting due to a number of reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow and......Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...... plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments and...

  1. Understanding Sustained Retention in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: a Synthetic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Czaicki, Nancy; Holmes, Charles; Chavan, Saurabh; Tsitsi, Apollo; Odeny, Thomas; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Padian, Nancy; Geng, Elvin

    2016-06-01

    Sustained retention represents an enduring and evolving challenge to HIV treatment programs in Africa. We present a theoretical framework for sustained retention borrowing from ecologic principles of sustainability and dynamic adaptation. We posit that sustained retention from the patient perspective is dependent on three foundational principles: (1) patient activation: the acceptance, prioritization, literacy, and skills to manage a chronic disease condition, (2) social normalization: the engagement of a social network and harnessing social capital to support care and treatment, and (3) livelihood routinization: the integration of care and treatment activities into livelihood priorities that may change over time. Using this framework, we highlight barriers specific to sustained retention and review interventions addressing long-term, sustained retention in HIV care with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27188300

  2. Lessons Learned while Implementing an HIV/AIDs Care and Treatment Program in Rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Moon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique has severe resource constraints, yet with international partnerships, the nation has placed over 145,000 HIV- infected persons on antiretroviral therapies (ART through May 2009. HIV clinical services are provided at .215 clinical venues in all 11 of Mozambique’s provinces. Friends in Global Health (FGH, affiliated with Vanderbilt University in the United States (US, is a locally licensed non-governmental organization (NGO working exclusively in small city and rural venues in Zambézia Province whose population reaches approximately 4 million persons. Our approach to clinical capacity building is based on: 1 technical assistance to national health system facilities to implement ART clinical services at the district level, 2 human capacity development, and 3 health system strengthening. Challenges in this setting are daunting, including: 1 human resource constraints, 2 infrastructure limitations, 3 centralized care for large populations spread out over large distances, 4 continued high social stigma related to HIV, 5 limited livelihood options in rural areas and 6 limited educational opportunities in rural areas. Sustainability in rural Mozambique will depend on transitioning services from emergency foreign partners to local authorities and continued funding. It will also require “wrap-around” programs that help build economic capacity with agricultural, educational, and commercial initiatives. Sustainability is undermined by serious health manpower and infrastructure limitations. Recent U.S. government pronouncements suggest that the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief will support concurrent community and business development. FGH, with its Mozambican government counterparts, see the evolution of an emergency response to a sustainable chronic disease management program as an essential and logical step. We have presented six key challenges that are essential to address in rural Mozambique

  3. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  4. The feasibility of a holistic wellness program for HIV/AIDS patients residing in a voluntary inpatient treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Vanessa

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of an ongoing holistic wellness program in a residential facility treating persons with HIV/AIDS. The goal was to create a voluntary, four week holistic wellness intensive within the established inpatient behavioral health treatment program. Participants were given practicable holistic self care tools to effectively manage HIV related symptoms, general medical issues, addiction, depression, stress and anxiety. The program incorporated evidence-based holistic activities including yoga, therapeutic dance, meditation, Reiki, and reflective journaling. Narrative survey results and post-program evaluation support that an ongoing holistic wellness program within the existing treatment model is feasible and could have numerous potential beneficial effects. This project clearly exemplified the ideal opportunity for holistic nurses to implement innovative holistic interventions within the current healthcare delivery system. It is the author's observation that future studies with a larger participant group to further examine measurable benefits can lend valuable information and insight into the future development of holistic wellness programs for residential treatment facilities. PMID:23686463

  5. Evolution of Antiretroviral Drug Costs in Brazil in the Context of Free and Universal Access to AIDS Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia M.; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed 29 million people since the first case occurred in 1981 and an estimated 40 million people live with HIV/AIDS today. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the immune system. Infected individuals are consequently very susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-positive individuals died within a few years of becoming infected. Then, in 1996, highly acti...

  6. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  7. Multilevel predictors of concurrent opioid use during methadone maintenance treatment among drug users with HIV/AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. RESULTS: Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR = 0.97 for 1 year increase, had economic dependents (AOR = 0.33, or were referred to TB treatment (AOR = 0.53 were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT

  8. Humanitarian Aid or Private Diplomacy? Norman Cousins and the Treatment of Atomic Bomb Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrobon Allen

    2014-01-01

    Individual citizens can often wield considerable influence in international affairs. In 1955, prominent American journalist Norman Cousins launched an initiative to bring 25 Japanese victims of the atomic bomb to the United States to receive treatment. The U.S. State Department made concerted efforts to stop the project, fearing that it would generate negative publicity and conflict with government policy to de-emphasize the dangers of nuclear weapons. Refusing to accept official policies tha...

  9. Masterplan: multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuilen, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized study addresses the question if intensified treatment (multiple targets, nurse practitioner assistance) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) decreases the number of cardiovascular events. The study started in February 2004.The projected time of follow-up was 5 years. The study was closed in July 2010. Enrollment In total 793 patients were included in 9 participating centers (range 64 to 104 per center). Five patients had to be excluded from the analysis. Patients were...

  10. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in...

  11. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879

  12. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use

    OpenAIRE

    Marco DiBonaventura; Lance Richard; Maya Kumar; Anna Forsythe; Flores, Natalia M; Margaret Moline

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National He...

  13. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  14. Functional interpretation of metabolomics data as a new method for predicting long-term side effects: treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Ji; Woo, Sung-il; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Lim, Dong Kyu; Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Jeong Hill; Lim, Johan; Kim, Mi-kyeong; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids are used for the treatment of primary atopic dermatitis (AD); however, their associated risk of serious complications is great due to the presence of vulnerable lesions in young children with AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) are steroid-free, anti-inflammatory agents used for topical AD therapy. However, their use is prohibited in infants pimecrolimus cream with 0.05% desonide cream. We performed urinary metabolomics to predict long-term side effects. The 1% pimecrolimus cream displayed similar efficacy and exceptional safety compared with the 0.05% desonide cream. Metabolomics-based long-term toxicity tests effectively predicted long-term side effects using short-term clinical models. This applicable method for the functional interpretation of metabolomics data sets the foundation for future studies involving the prediction of the toxicity and systemic reactions caused by long-term medication administration. PMID:25491116

  15. Effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on depression, depressive symptoms and side effects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole

    2014-01-01

    of anti-inflammatory interventions. Data Sources: Trials published prior to December, 31st 2013, were identified searching CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Psychinfo, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. Study Selection: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing efficacy and side effects...... Outcome Measures: Depression scores after treatment and side effects. Results: 10 publications covering 14 trials (n=6,262) were included: 10 on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=4,258) and four on cytokine-inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti...... heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression versus depressive symptoms or NSAIDs versus cytokine inhibitors. Sub-analyses particularly emphasized antidepressant properties for the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in general (SMD=-0.29; 95%-CI: -0.49 to -0...

  16. 34 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs Appendix to Subpart K of... Act Pt. 222, Subpt. K, App. Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of...

  17. First aid treatment of critically acute epidural hematoma complicated by cerebral hernia using cranial trepanation and drainage decompression: a report of 16 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁

    2002-01-01

    @@From October 1997 to February 2000, 16 cases of critically acute epidural hematoma (CAEH) complicated by cranial hernia were treated with cranial trepanation and drainage decompression (CTDD), which was used as the first aid treatment before craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  18. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in a laboratory scale settling column unit. Parameters such as color, COD, TSS, turbidity and settled sludge volume have been evaluated. The optimum coagulant dose and pH value were determined by comparing the effectiveness of these coagulants. Results showed other coagulants except lime could eliminate color and COD successfully. In this case, FeSO4 was chosen as an optimum coagulant for color removal because of the lowest required coagulant dose, minimum settled sludge volume and maximum decolorization.

  19. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Erko; Abraham Degarege; Konjit Tadesse; Asnake Mathiwos; Mengistu Legesse

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from randomly selected 299 school children in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia, in April 2010. Stool specimens were examined using a single Kato-Katz thick smear for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) ova. Children who were found positive for S. mansoni were treated with a single oral dose of PZQ at 40 mg/kg bw and interviewed for treatment-related symptoms 24 hours after drug administration. Four weeks post-treatment, stool specimens were collected from the same children and examined following the same procedure as in the pre-treatment. Drug efficacy was determined based on cure and egg reduction rates. Results: Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 74.9% with geometric mean egg count of 268. The evaluated generic PZQ produced an overall cure rate of 73.6% (P<0.000 1, OR: 8.33, CI: 5.3-13.1) and egg reduction rate of 68.2% (P=0.03, F=0.64). The cure rate showed significant association with age (χ²=11, P=0.004), the highest rate being observed in the 15-22 age group. 83% of S. mansoni infected children showed various treatment-related symptoms, the most frequent being headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. These symptoms were associated with age (P<0.001) and pre-treatment intensity of infection (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

  20. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullilove Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  1. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Kaya-Büyükbayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler’s type III and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened.

  2. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  3. Effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion treatment on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as side effect assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as the related side effect.Methods: Gastric cancer patients with ascites who were treated in our hospital from February 2012 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into perfusion chemotherapy group and routine chemotherapy group, and then overall chemotherapy conditions, ascites FGF molecule content, peripheral blood immune function indexes and the degree of side effect were compared between two groups. Results:Average treatment cycles of perfusion chemotherapy group were more than those of routine chemotherapy group, and ascites drainage volume within two cycles of chemotherapy was significantly less than that of routine chemotherapy group; after two cycles of chemotherapy, bFGF, FGF-2, FGF19 and FGFR4 content in ascites of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD56+ and CD3-CD56+ cell content in peripheral blood were higher than those of routine chemotherapy group, and CD3+CD8+ cell content was lower than that of routine chemotherapy group; during chemotherapy, the number of cases with decreased numeration of leukocyte, abnormal liver function, abnormal kidney function and diarrhea of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group.Conclusions: S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy can more effectively improve treatment compliance, suppress ascites, kill gastric cancer cells and improve immune function. It has fewer side effect and is the ideal way to treat gastric cancer with ascites.

  4. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A;

    2008-01-01

    have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten......When the HIV epidemic officially hit western Europe in the early 1980s, central and eastern Europe were almost completely spared due to the isolation of the Soviet Union. However, in the mid-1990s, reported new cases of HIV in eastern European countries began to increase exponentially. While there...... priorities listed below are immediate and sometimes innovative research needs in the context of preventing HIV among the most-at-risk populations. While by no means exhaustive, they are intended to point out gaps in existing knowledge and thus serve as inspiration for future research efforts....

  5. Report on short-term side effects of treatments with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in combination with capecitabine in seven patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, Martijn van; Kam, Boen L.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de; Aken, Maarten O. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Treatment with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue {sup 177}Lu-octreotate results in tumour remission in 47% of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Adding capecitabine to {sup 177}Lu-octreotate, as a radio-sensitiser, may enhance these anti-tumour effects. We now present the short-term toxicity profile of this novel combination. Seven patients were treated with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine (1650 mg/m{sup 2} per day) for 2 weeks with an intended number of four cycles. Toxicity, and especially haematological and renal parameters, were monitored on a weekly basis for the first two cycles and 4 and 6 weeks after subsequent cycles. None of the patients had hand-foot syndrome. One patient had grade 1 stomatitis occurring after one of four cycles. Grade 3 or 4 leukopenia or neutropenia did not occur. One patient had grade 3 anaemia, but none had grade 4 anaemia. One patient had grade 2 thrombocytopenia after the fourth cycle, and one had grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia did not occur. No significant changes in serum creatinine levels were observed. None of the patients had symptoms of cardiac ischaemia. Treatment with the combination of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine was feasible and safe considering acute and subacute side effects. We therefore started a randomised, controlled clinical trial to compare this combination with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate as single agent with regard to anti-tumour effects and side effects. (orig.)

  6. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  7. Discussion on treatment of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen%艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳; 李峰; 王玉光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的理论依据.方法:通过研究古代文献中泄泻与脾的关系的论述,结合现代免疫学及分子生物学对脾的功能研究以及艾滋病相关性腹泻临床治疗方面的报道,分析脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻发生过程中所起的作用以及艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的可行性.结果:脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻的发生、发展过程中起举足轻重的作用.结论:对艾滋病相关性腹泻进行临床治疗,必须重视脾的作用.%Objective: To explore the treatment theoretical basis of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen. Methods: According to the research of ancient literature on relationship between spleen and diarrhea, combination with immunology, molecular biology and clinical treatment of AIDS related diarrhea, to explore the important role of spleen in AIDS related diarrhea and the feasibility of AIDS related diarrhea treated from spleen. Results: Spleen has a important role in the processes, development of AIDS related diarrhea. Conclusion: To treat AIDS related diarrhea, and the role of spleen must be emphasized.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ying; Pan, Xingfang; Zhang, Sai; Jin, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongqiang; Han, Dexin; Wang, Guirong; Hu, Qunliang; Kang, Jingqing; Ding, Shasha; Yang, Yi; Bu, Huaien; Guo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients' basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26339271

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  10. Atosiban versus betamimetics in the treatment of preterm labour in Italy: clinical and economic importance of side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Jaro; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Clerici, Graziano; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of atosiban compared to betamimetics in the treatment of preterm labour within the Italian setting. A systematic literature review identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing atosiban with betamimetics. Meta-analysis of nine RCTs determined that atosiban and betamimetics had similar efficacy in delaying preterm birth by at least 48 h (p=0.910). Use of atosiban was associated with significantly fewer adverse events (patosiban is cost-saving versus ritodrine or isoxuprine. Atosiban cost savings are €657 per patient from the National Health Service payer's perspective; €299 at 18 h of tocolysis to €189 at 48 h from the hospital's perspective. The respective values versus isoxuprine were €303 and €199. From the combined perspective, using atosiban versus ritodrine saved from €425 to €316; and versus isoxuprine from €429 to €326. Owing to its superior safety profile, atosiban is cost-saving versus betamimetics in the treatment of preterm labour in Italy from the payer's, hospital's and combined perspectives. With the approximate 40,000 annual preterm births in Italy the annual savings could be in excess of €13 million for the payer or €3.8-6.2 million for the hospitals. PMID:21620558

  11. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir–cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharoen O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Opass Putcharoen,1 Tanya Do,2 Anchalee Avihingsanon,2 Kiat Ruxrungtham1,2 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug–drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug–drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1 COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2 COBI’s solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1 COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR without affecting actual GFR; 2 potential drug–drug interaction data are insufficient

  12. Influence of external beam technique and brachytherapy quality assurance on the side effects in the combined external beam- and brachytherapy treatment of local advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ), so we did not changed the brachytherapy dose. After changing the external beam technique we treated 55 patients with a minimum follow up of 3 months. There were no major side effects, proctitis in 16,3%, dysuria in 12,7%. The results are significant better in favour of the changed treatment technique. Erectile dysfunction had 33% of the patients, all have been treated with hormone therapy before radiation treatment

  13. [Tyrosine kinase inhibiting the VEGF pathway and elderly people: Tolerance, pre-treatment assessment and side effects management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Marie; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Huillard, Olivier; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Chahwakilian, Anne; Orvoen, Galdric; Arrondeau, Jennifer; Tlemsani, Camille; Cessot, Anatole; Cabanes, Laure; Blanchet, Benoit; Coriat, Romain; Alexandre, Jérôme; Goldwasser, François

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis inhibition is a major antitumor strategy that has emerged during the last decade. Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the VEGF receptor, including sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, regorafenib, pazopanib, and vandetanib reduce tumor growth and metastasis. These agents are approved for the treatment of metastatic diseases in first or second-line. They display a narrow therapeutic index. However, data in the elderly and/or in patients with multiple illnesses remain scarce. This population is classically excluded from clinical trials. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of existing literature regarding antiangiogenic TKI tolerance in the elderly (>70 years old). We also highlight key points of the pre-therapeutic evaluation and summarize the management of common toxicities. PMID:26832420

  14. Pre-Radiotherapy dental evaluation criteria and treatment needs of oral side effects after head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to present pre-radiotherapy evaluation criteria and the main needs for treatment of these patients after the radiation therapy. Were revised articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese language between 1995 and 2009 indexed in Pubmed and Scielo. The keywords were oral cancer and radiotherapy, complications in head and neck radiotherapy, oral pre-radiotherapy evaluation.The adverse complications of radiotherapy in head and neck area could be temporary or late. The late effects, such as radiation caries and osteorradionecrosis could be directly associated with the fact that previous dental evaluation was not performed and can severely affect the post-operatory quality of life. The participation of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team and dental evaluation of the patients that will receive radiotherapy in the head and neck area are of vital importance to improve the post-operatory quality of life of these patients

  15. Efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Góngora Rubio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulae have been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB, but their high costs preclude widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion, i.e. Intralipid (AmB-IL, in 37 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM. We retrospectively reviewed data collected in a non-comparative open study between January 1999 and December 2001. The therapeutic cure was defined as complete resolution or improvement of the clinical symptoms or complete absence or improvement of the mycological alterations of the CSF. The outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, induction phase (IP, and at the end of treatment or consolidation phase (CP with the last available CSF. Prior to the diagnosis of CM, 72% of patients had had one or more OI and 67.57% had a concomitant OI. The median CD4-cell count was 32 cells/mm³, the median leukocyte count in the CSF was 29 cells/mm³ and the median cumulative dose of AmB-IL was 1,200 mg (300-2,500. The therapeutic cure was 57.14% in the IP and 64.86% in the CP. During IP, 9 patients died (24.32% and 4 (10.81% during the CP (p=0.2. Thus, the overall mortality rate was 35.14%. AmB-IL, an inexpensive preparation, might be an alternative to conventional AmB. Some questions remain such as its compatibility, stability and level of toxicity. The benefit is especially important in developing countries, where no drugs other than AmB are available to treat systemic fungal infections.

  16. The effect of a patient-oriented treatment decision aid for risk factor management in patients with diabetes (PORTDA-diab: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denig Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve risk factor management in diabetes, we need to support effective interactions between patients and healthcare providers. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a treatment decision aid that offers personalised information on treatment options and outcomes, and is intended to empower patients in taking a proactive role in their disease management. Important features are: (1 involving patients in setting goals together with their provider; (2 encourage them to prioritise on treatments that maximise relevant outcomes; and (3 integration of the decision aid in the practice setting and workflow. As secondary aim, we want to evaluate the impact of different presentation formats, and learn more from the experiences of the healthcare providers and patients with the decision aid. Methods and design We will conduct a randomised trial comparing four formats of the decision aid in a 2×2 factorial design with a control group. Patients with type 2 diabetes managed in 18 to 20 primary care practices in The Netherlands will be recruited. Excluded are patients with a recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina pectoris, terminal illness, cognitive deficits, >65 years at diagnosis, or not able to read Dutch. The decision aid is offered to the patients immediately before their quarterly practice consultation. The same decision information will be available to the healthcare provider for use during consultation. In addition, the providers receive a set of treatment cards, which they can use to discuss the benefits and risks of different options. Patients in the control group will receive care as usual. We will measure the effect of the intervention on patient empowerment, satisfaction with care, beliefs about medication, negative emotions, health status, prescribed medication, and predicted cardiovascular risk. Data will be collected with questionnaires and automated extraction from medical records in 6 months before and

  17. Comparison of Effects and Side Effects of Two Naloxone-Based Regimens in Treatment of Methadone Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opioid overdose is a common cause of admission in emergency department. In spite of the fact that naloxone is the main therapy for decades, there are controversies about the proper way of its use. This study aimed to compare two most recommended administration modes for naloxone. Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 80 patients with methadone overdose syndrome were randomly divided into two equal groups. The patients in infusion group received a constant infusion of naloxone preparation; while in the patients in PRN group, naloxone was administered only if needed clinically. Severity of withdrawal syndrome was evaluated after 30 min, 3 h, and 12 h of the treatments in both groups. Results: Eighty patients completed the study (10 women and 70 men. Both groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and the severity of intoxication. The severity of withdrawal symptom was significantly lower in the PRN group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Naloxone administration as PRN mode lowers the rate and severity of withdrawal syndrome. It is recommended as the preferred mode of naloxone administration.

  18. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    John KR; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Madhuri Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states) and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria...

  19. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intravenous Ganciclovir Versus Oral Ganciclovir in the Maintenance Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Rachlis; Fiona Smaill; Valery Walker; Lorraine Hotchkies; Amy Jones

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a new product, oral ganciclovir, in comparison to a current therapy, intravenous (IV) ganciclovir, in the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. Design: This was a retrospective economic study of a prospective non-blinded randomised clinical trial. The model included IV ganciclovir induction, IV or oral ganciclovir maintenance and IV ganciclovir reinduction for patients whose CMV retiniti...

  20. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

  1. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  2. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  3. Norepinephrine transporter -3081(A/T) and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor MspI polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular side effects of OROS-methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Kim, Jae-Won; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between norepinephrine genes and cardiovascular side effects of the Osmotic Controlled-Release Oral Delivery System-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One hundred and one children with ADHD (8.7 ± 1.7 years) were recruited from child psychiatric centers at six university hospitals in South Korea. All participants were drug-naive ADHD children treated with OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. During the treatment period the investigators titrated the OROS-MPH dosage on the basis of symptom severity and side effects. Resting heart rate (HR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were examined before and after treatment. The percentage change score (post-treatment - pretreatment/pretreatment × 100) of each parameter was calculated. Genotyping of SLC6A2 -3081(A/T) and G1287A, and alpha-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) MspI and DraI polymorphisms was performed. Clinically significant changes were not found in cardiovascular monitoring during the course of treatment. An increase of HR after OROS-MPH treatment was found to be statistically significant (t = 3.54, p = 0.001). Changes in SBP and DBP were not significant and no specific change was found in the ECGs. However, an additive regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between SLC6A2 -3081(A/T) and percentage change in HR post-treatment (p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, dosage of MPH and response and baseline pulse rate. Children with ADHD having the T/T genotype of SLC6A2 showed a 12.5% increase in HR compared to baseline, whereas children with the A/T or A/A genotype showed a 3.5% and 2.5% increase after OROS-MPH treatment, respectively. There was also a significant association between the ADRA2A MspI genotype and percentage change of DBP post-treatment after controlling for age, gender, dosage of MPH and response and baseline DBP (p = 0

  4. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  5. Opposite Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruya Tuncturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  6. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  7. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  8. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  9. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  10. Itolizumab – a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roshni Menon, Brinda G David Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Ariyur, Pondicherry, India Abstract: Management of psoriasis is a challenge to the treating physician. The chronic inflammatory state of psoriasis with exacerbations and remissions necessitate “on-and-off” treatment schedules. The safety profiles of drugs and tolerability issues for patients are important factors to be considered during treatment. Various biological agents targeting T-cells and the inflammatory cytokines are available for systemic treatment of psoriasis. However, major causes of concern while using these drugs are risk of susceptibility to infection and development of anti-drug antibodies, which will affect the pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, and safety profile of the drug. Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, is a new molecule that acts by immunomodulating the CD6 molecule. CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule required for optimal T-cell stimulation by the antigen-presenting cells. This step is crucial in T-cell proliferation to form Th1 and Th17 cells, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This article deals with the properties of Itolizumab and its role in the treatment of psoriasis. Based on the available published data, Itolizumab seems to have a better adverse effects profile and at the same time comparatively less efficacy when compared to other biological agents available for treating psoriasis. Larger studies with longer duration are required to clearly depict the long-term side effects profile. Keywords: Itolizumab, CD6, psoriasis, monoclonal antibody, biologicals 

  11. Entre tramas e dramas: os significados do tratamento para mulheres de camadas populares vivendo com HIV/Aids Between storylines and dramas: the meanings of HIV/Aids treatment for lower class women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carneiro da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda os significados do tratamento para o HIV/Aids. O referencial metodológico é a pesquisa qualitativa, e o campo de estudo, o serviço de um hospital de referência da Baixada Fluminense. O grupo estudado era composto por dez mulheres vivendo com HIV/ Aids, em terapia antirretroviral (ARV. Os significados do tratamento estão relacionados: 1 ao impacto do diagnóstico; 2 ao momento do tratamento considerando as diferentes fases de convívio com a doença; 3 ao espaço (público e privado onde se vivem preferencialmente a doença e o tratamento; 4 ao fato de se compartilhar ou não a doença e o tratamento com o parceiro; 5 à busca de outras racionalidades (religião e remédios alternativos como contraponto às prescrições médicas; 6 ao estabelecimento ou não de um vínculo afetivo com o médico. Há uma inter-relação estreita entre cuidar-se e cuidar dos filhos, tributária do tratamento ARV. O autocuidado é, antes de tudo, afirmação da vida, o que dá a medida da saúde. Não "ceder ao lugar de doente" significa não se entregar à depressão. A doença materializa-se no corpo com o uso da medicação, mas é possível, apesar das dificuldades, conciliar a rotina com o tratamento ARV. Destaca-se a importância fundamental da variável tempo para a criação de estratégias que possibilitem a inserção da doença e do tratamento no cotidiano.This paper discusses the psychosocial meanings of HIV/Aids treatment, using qualitative methods to assess daily operations of a reference hospital, located in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro's outskirts. In-depth interviews were carried out with 10 women living with HIV/Aids, under antiretroviral (ARV therapy. The meaning of treatment is related to: the impact of the diagnosis; the treatment moment, concerning different phases of living with the disease; the public and private spaces where a woman preferable lives with the disease and does her treatment; sharing or not

  12. Health-related quality of life and occurrence of intestinal side effects after pelvic radiotherapy - evaluation of long-term effects of diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and occurrence of late intestinal side effects were assessed 3-4 years after pelvic radiotherapy for carcinoma of the endometrium and cervix. During 1988-1990, 143 women were included in a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a low fat, low lactose diet on radiation-induced diarrhoea. Of 94 survivors, 79 (84%) answered the request. HRQOL was assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C36 and compared with population-based norms. The women scored lower than the general population on role functioning (81.5 versus 90.6 (p < 0.01)) and higher on diarrhoea (23.8 versus 9.5 (p < 0.01)). Compared with pre-treatment conditions, an increase in cases with pain in the lower back, hips and thighs was seen. Substantial pain and diarrhoea were associated with deterioration in HRQOL. In conclusion, few treatment and/or disease-related effects were detected 3-4 years after radiotherapy, with the exception of increased bowel frequency and pain in the lower back, hips and thighs

  13. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines...

  14. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program. PMID:25299805

  15. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60193-0 Effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy on hepatitis C virus genotype 3 patients from Pakistan:Treatment response, side effects and future prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir Waheed

    2015-01-01

    More than10 million people are suffering from hepatitisC virus(HCV) inPakistan.The available treatment option is a combination of interferon and ribavirin.Treatment response is linked with several factors and also induces a number of side effects.We searched inPubmed,PakMedi Net andGoogleScholar for the articles presenting the effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy onHCV patients fromPakistan, their side effects and future prospects.The major prevalent HCV genotype inPakistan is3.Conventional interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of54%-64% while pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of58%-75%.IL-28BCC genotype is linked with better sustained virological response.Studies on patients withHCV genotype3 infections showed no correlation between treatment response and interferon sensitivity determining region mutations.Interferon therapy is linked with a number of side effects like thyroid dysfuncton, haematological disorders, weight loss, gastrointestinal tractside effects and neuropsychiatric side effects.Unusual side effects of clubbing of fingers and seizures were also observedin a couple of patients.Interferon alpha plus ribavirin therapy showed better response rate inHCV genotype3 patients fromPakistan with number of side effects.A couple of interferon free therapies are light of hope for the patients living withHCV.

  16. Pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS: variáveis associadas à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral Persons living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento de adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS e investigar preditores da adesão entre as variáveis escolaridade, presença de efeitos colaterais, interrupção anterior da terapia anti-retroviral (TARV por conta própria, auto-estima, expectativa de auto-eficácia, estratégias de enfrentamento, suporte social e satisfação com a relação profissional de saúde-usuário. Adesão foi medida pelo auto-relato da perda do número de comprimidos/cápsulas dos medicamentos anti-retrovirais na última semana e mês, sendo considerada satisfatória na ocorrência de omissão inferior a 5% do total prescrito. Participaram 101 pessoas, 60,4% homens, idades entre 20 a 71 anos (M = 37,9 anos, 73,3% sintomáticos. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista e instrumentos auto-aplicáveis. A maioria (n = 73; 72,3% relatou adesão igual ou superior a 95%. Nos resultados da regressão logística, interrupção anterior da TARV e expectativa de auto-eficácia foram preditores significativos da adesão. Faz-se necessária a qualificação da assistência pela constituição de equipes interdisciplinares, para o desenvolvimento de abordagens adequadas às dificuldades médicas e psicossociais de adesão das pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.This study aimed to describe the adherence of persons living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy (ART and to investigate adherence predictors among the following: level of schooling, presence of side effects, current or previous interruption of ART by the persons themselves, self-esteem, self-efficacy expectation, coping strategies, social support, and satisfaction with the health professional-patient relationship. Adherence was measured by self-reported number of ART pills/capsules missed during the previous week and previous month, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 5%. 101 HIV+ adults took part in this study, 60.4% males, ranging from 20 to 71 years

  17. END-TO-END VERSUS END-TO-SIDE ANASTOMOSIS IN THE TREATMENT OF ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA OR TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL FISTULA

    OpenAIRE

    ASKARPOUR, Shahnam; OSTADIAN, Nasrollah; Peyvasteh, Mehran; Alavi, Mostafa; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Background : Dehiscence of esophageal anastomosis is frequent and there are still controversies which type of anastomosis is preferred to diminish its incidence Aim : To compare end-to-end anastomosis versus end-to-side anastomosis in terms of anastomotic leakage, esophageal stricture and gastroesophageal reflux symptom. Methods : This study was carried out for two year starting from 2012. End-to-side and end-to-side anastomosis were compared in terms of anastomotic leakage, esophageal strict...

  18. External beam and HDR intracavitary irradiation: an effective tool in the primary treatment of cervical cancer - excellent 10 year results and low side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to present our 15 years experience in the primary treatment of cervical cancer with a combination of external beam irradiation and high dose rate brachytherapy. Survival data will be presented and the safe use of intrauterine HDR applications will be demonstrated. Material and Methods: From August 1980 to December 1990, 303 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent primary irradiation in a combination of external beam and HDR intracavitary treatment at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Linz, Austria. All patients were classified according to the FIGO rules: Stage I 54 patients, stage II 171, stage III 75 and stage IV 3 patients. 8 patients were lost to follow up. The mean follow up time of survivors is 110 months. Results and Discussion: A complete remission could be achieved in 282 patients, which is 93%; persistent tumour was found in 21 patients at the first follow up check 3 to 5 months after completion of irradiation. The actuarial overall survival probability for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 62 % and 42 % respectively, the disease specific survival probability is 68 % and 64 %. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years is 73 % and 72 % respectively. According to stage, disease specific survival lies at 90 % for stage I, 69 % for stage II, and 48 % for stage III and IV at 5 years, and at 10 years 87 %, 66 % and 41 % respectively. The actuarial local control probability for stages I, II, and III/IV is 90 %, 74 %, and 60 % respectively at 5 yr, and 88 %, 74 %, and 56 % at 10 yr. (Kaplan-Meier calculations). From all 303 patients 34 suffered from 40 severe and moderate side effects (glossary of Chassagne and Sismondi). The rate for grade II complications is 10 % and for grade III 3 %. Conclusion: Intrauterine HDR brachycurietherapy in addition to external beam irradiation for primary treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides the same treatment

  19. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required. PMID:25811312

  20. Efeitos colaterais do tratamento da hepatite C no polo aplicador do ABC Side effects of the hepatitis C treatment at the ABC application center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamy Jay Garcia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar os efeitos colaterais do tratamento da hepatite C com interferon peguilado e ribavirina no Centro de Referência de Imunobiológicos Especiais (CRIE do Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André, de 23/02/2011 a 05/05/2011. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal, por questionário, com amostra não probabilística composta por 340 pacientes que receberam pelo menos uma dose da medicação. RESULTADOS: Os efeitos colaterais apresentados foram cansaço (82,9%, artralgia e/ou mialgia (76,8%, emagrecimento (71,8%, cefaleia (67,6%, desânimo (65,9%, depressão e/ou irritabilidade (64,4%, prurido (60,6%, febre (59,1%, alopecia (51,5%, tosse seca (34,1%, náuseas (11,7%, inapetência (11,7% e tontura (7,9%. Foram relatados até 19 sintomas durante o tratamento. Apenas quatro pacientes (1,2% não apresentaram efeitos colaterais. Ao comparar os interferons, observamos que o uso do alfa-2b causou uma média de 8,01 sintomas por paciente, enquanto o do alfa-2a foi responsável por uma média de 7,50. Os pacientes em uso do interferon alfa-2b apresentaram mais febre, emagrecimento, cefaleia, artralgia e/ou mialgia, cansaço, desânimo, depressão e/ou irritabilidade e tosse seca do que os pacientes em uso do alfa-2a, que, por sua vez, tiveram mais alopecia e prurido. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostra uma grande morbidade relacionada ao tratamento, já que apenas 1,2% dos pacientes não apresentaram efeitos colaterais. Na amostra, o interferon peguilado alfa-2b foi responsável por maior prevalência de febre e emagrecimento quando comparado ao alfa-2a, sendo essa relação estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVE: To review and compare side effects of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at the CRIE of the Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, from February 23 to May 5, 2011. METHODS: Cross-sectional study through questionnaire, with a non-probability sample comprised of 340 patients that had

  1. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Igumbor, Jude; Stewart, Aimee; Holzemer, William

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. This study is based on a secondary data analysis of the records of 642 people with HIV consisting of 311 treatment-naïve AIDS patients and 331 people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. The study findings are mostly presented in tables and analysed using the t-test...

  2. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  3. Treatment of left sided breast cancer for a patient with funnel chest: Volumetric-modulated arc therapy vs. 3D-CRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study presents a rare case of left-sided breast cancer in a patient with funnel chest, which is a technical challenge for radiation therapy planning. To identify the best treatment technique for this case, 3 techniques were compared: conventional tangential fields (3D conformal radiotherapy [3D-CRT]), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The plans were created for a SynergyS® (Elekta, Ltd, Crawley, UK) linear accelerator with a BeamModulator™ head and 6-MV photons. The planning system was Oncentra Masterplan® v3.3 SP1 (Nucletron BV, Veenendal, Netherlands). Calculations were performed with collapsed cone algorithm. Dose prescription was 50.4 Gy to the average of the planning target volume (PTV). PTV coverage and homogeneity was comparable for all techniques. VMAT allowed reducing dose to the ipsilateral organs at risk (OAR) and the contralateral breast compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT: The volume of the left lung receiving 20 Gy was 19.3% for VMAT, 26.1% for IMRT, and 32.4% for 3D-CRT. In the heart, a D15% of 9.7 Gy could be achieved with VMAT compared with 14 Gy for IMRT and 46 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral breast, D15% was 6.4 Gy for VMAT, 8.8 Gy for IMRT, and 10.2 Gy for 3D-CRT. In the contralateral lung, however, the lowest dose was achieved with 3D-CRT with D10% of 1.7 Gy for 3D-CRT, and 6.7 Gy for both IMRT and VMAT. The lowest number of monitor units (MU) per 1.8-Gy fraction was required by 3D-CRT (192 MU) followed by VMAT (518 MU) and IMRT (727 MU). Treatment time was similar for 3D-CRT (3 min) and VMAT (4 min) but substantially increased for IMRT (13 min). VMAT is considered the best treatment option for the presented case of a patient with funnel chest. It allows reducing dose in most OAR without compromising target coverage, keeping delivery time well below 5 minutes

  4. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  5. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  6. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  7. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT.

  8. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervoort Gerald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study.

  9. Volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy vs. 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary chemoradiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Effects on treatment-related side effects and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Hanne Elisabeth; Droege, Leif Hendrik; Hennies, Steffen; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of General Surgery, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced anal carcinoma. This study compared volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of treatment-related side effects and survival. From 1992-2014, 103 consecutive patients with anal carcinoma UICC stage I-III were treated. Concomitant CRT consisted of whole pelvic irradiation, including the iliac and inguinal lymph nodes, with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy per fractions) by VMAT (n = 17) or 3DCRT (n = 86) as well as two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Acute organ and hematological toxicity were assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events version 3.0. Side effects ≥ grade 3 were scored as high-grade toxicity. High-grade acute organ toxicity CTC ≥ 3 (P < 0.05), especially proctitis (P = 0.03), was significantly reduced in VMAT patients. The 2-year locoregional control (LRC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were both 100 % for VMAT patients compared with 80 and 73 % for 3DCRT patients. VMAT was shown to be a feasible technique, achieving significantly lower rates of acute organ toxicity and promising results for LRC and DFS. Future investigations will aim at assessing the advantages of VMAT with respect to late toxicity and survival after a prolonged follow-up time. (orig.) [German] Die primaere Radiochemotherapie (RCT) gilt als Standardtherapie fuer lokal fortgeschrittene Analkarzinome. In dieser Studie wurde die volumetrisch modulierte Rotationstherapie (''volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy'', VMAT) mit der klassischen dreidimensionalen konformalen Radiotherapie (3DCRT) hinsichtlich therapieassoziierter Nebenwirkungen und Ueberleben verglichen. Von 1992-2014 wurden 103 aufeinanderfolgende Patienten mit einem Analkarzinom im UICC-Stadium I-III behandelt. Die kombinierte RCT bestand aus der Bestrahlung des gesamten Beckens inklusive der iliakalen und der inguinalen

  10. Mitigation of organically bound sulphate from water treatment plants at Bruce NGS and impact on steam generator secondary side chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Power is the source of more than 20 per cent of Ontario's electricity and currently operates six reactor units at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (two units) and B (four units) stations located on Lake Huron. This paper discusses the challenges faced and operating experience (OPEX) gained in meeting WANO 1.0 chemistry performance objectives for steam generator secondary side chemistry control, particularly with control of steam generator sulphates. A detailed sampling and analysis program conducted as part of this study concluded that a major contributor to steam generator (SG) elevated sulphates is Organically Bound Sulphate (OBS) in Water Treatment Plants (WTP) effluent. The Bruce A and B WTPs consist of clarification with downstream sand and carbon filtration for Lake Water pre-treatment, which are followed by conventional Ion Exchange (IX) demineralization. Samples taken from various locations in the process stream were analyzed for a variety of parameters including both organic bound and inorganic forms of sulphate. The results are inconclusive with respect to finding the definitive source of OBS. This is primarily due to the condition that the OBS in the samples, which are in relatively low levels, are masked during chemical analysis by the considerably higher inorganic sulphate background. Additionally, it was also determined that on-line Total Organic Carbon (TOC) levels at different WTP locations did not always correlate well with OBS levels in the effluent, such that TOC could not be effectively used as a control parameter to improve OBS performance of the WTP operation. Improvement efforts at both plants focused on a number of areas including optimization of clarifier operation, replacement of IX resins, addition of downstream mobile polishing trailers, testing of new resins and adsorbents, pilot-scale testing with a Reverse Osmosis (RO) rig, review of resin regeneration and backwashing practices, and operating procedure improvements

  11. Effectiveness of one-year pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an open-label prospective study of time in treatment, dose, side-effects and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsøyr, Ole; Haavik, Jan; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    How to generalize from randomized placebo controlled trials of ADHD drug treatment in adults to 'real-world' clinical practice is intriguing. This open-labeled prospective observational study examined the effectiveness of long-term stimulant and non-stimulant medication in adult ADHD including dose, side-effects and comorbidity in a clinical setting. A specialized ADHD outpatient clinic gave previously non-medicated adults (n=250) with ADHD methylphenidate as first-line drug according to current guidelines. Patients who were non-tolerant or experiencing low efficacy were switched to amphetamine or atomoxetine. Primary outcomes were changes of ADHD-symptoms evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and overall severity by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Secondary outcomes were measures of mental distress, and response on the Clinical-Global-Impressions-Improvement Scale. Data at baseline and follow-ups were compared in longitudinal mixed model analyses for time on-medication, dosage, comorbidity, and side-effects. As results, 232 patients (93%) completed examination at the 12 month endpoint, and 163 (70%) remained on medication. Compared with the patients who discontinued medication, those still on medication had greater percentage reduction in ASRS-scores (median 39%, versus 13%, Pside-effects were related to lower effectiveness and more frequent termination of medication. Taken together, one-year treatment with stimulants or atomoxetine was associated with a clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms and mental distress, and improvement of measured function. No serious adverse events were observed. PMID:25453480

  12. Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS%AIDS合并症的经皮介入治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文科; 陆普选; 黄湘荣; 张莉萍; 李苑; 刘锦清; 曹义; 张辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical application value of percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS.Methods Twenty-one AIDS patients with complications were enrolled.CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy and drainage were conducted,and the correct rate of diagnosis,clinical curative effect and complications post-interventional therapy were observed.Results The operations of all patients executed successfully.Fourteen patients underwent 16 times biopsy,11 were correctly diagnosed,the diagnostic accordance rate was 81.25%.Drainage was performed in 6 patients with abscess or cystis,then the lesions completely disappeared in 3,deflated in 2,while the rest one needed continously draining.Partial splenic embolization (50%) was performed in 1 patient,and after operation platelet content increased,while hepatic function decreased temporality.No complicated infection and other severe complications occurred.Conclusion Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS are safe and feasible.Medical staffs should be careful to exposition of HIV infection.%目的 探讨经皮介入技术在艾滋病(AIDS)伴发合并症患者中的临床应用价值.方法 对21例AIDS伴发合并症患者,采用CT引导下经皮穿刺活检或置管引流术,观察介入诊断的正确率、临床疗效及术后并发症.结果 所有患者均获得操作成功.14例患者接受16次穿刺活检,11例(13例次)获得诊断,诊断率81.25%.6例脓肿及囊肿引流,病灶完全消失3例,病灶缩小2例,1例无明显变化,仍持续保留导管引流.1例脾栓塞面积约50%,术后血小板升高,出现暂时性肝功能降低.所有患者均无并发感染及其他严重并发症.未发生医护人员暴露感染.结论 介入技术在AIDS患者合并症的临床应用是安全可行的,但应注意严格预防暴露感染.

  13. Pilot Randomized Trial of Collaborative Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Pain and Depression in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weisberg, Risa B; Herman, Debra S; Bailey, Genie L; Pinkston-Camp, Megan M; Garnaat, Sarah L; Stein, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    In this pilot study, we assessed feasibility and acceptability of a behavior therapy intervention for pain and depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). We randomly assigned 23 participants to HIV-PASS (HIV-Pain and Sadness Study) or a health education control arm for 3 months. On average, participants attended more than 5 sessions (of 7 possible) in both arms. Qualitative data suggest HIV-PASS participants understood key messages and made concrete behavioral changes. HIV-PASS was associated with effects in the expected direction for three of four outcomes, including the primary outcome (pain-related interference with functioning). Findings suggest that HIV-PASS is promising. PMID:27115400

  14. Graphene Side Gate Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Low, Tony; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Various mesoscopic devices exploit electrostatic side gates for their operation. In this paper, we investigate how voltage-biasing of graphene side gates modulates the electrical transport characteristics of graphene channel. We explore myriads of typical side gated devices such as symmetric dual side gates and asymmetric single side gate biasing, in monolayer and bilayer graphene. The side gates modulate the electrostatic doping in the graphene channel whose effect is reflected in transport ...

  15. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  16. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  17. The outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Danish patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, T;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive patients with AIDS were evaluated for efficacy and safety of treatment and secondary prophylaxis directed against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). 89 episodes of PCP were recorded in 75 patients. 63 of the 75 patients (84%) with a first episode of PCP were discharged....... Of 72 patients with a first episode of PCP who were initially treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. 76% completed therapy successfully. Side effects were common, but generally mild and tolerated during continued treatment. 7/11 patients (64%) with a first episode of PCP who required mechanical....../16 (69%) patients who were not receiving prophylaxis (p less than 0.00001). No patients discontinued prophylaxis because of side effects. It is concluded that for most patients with AIDS and PCP, treatment and secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMZ is safe and effective....

  18. Radioimmunoassay and systolic time interval as control parameters for prophylactic and early diagnosis of side-effects of cytostatic therapeutic treatment using adriamycin and methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible, with the aid of a newly developed radioimmunoassay to detect the cytostatic methotrexate in the serum of patients up to concentrations of 1.1x10-8 mol/l. This makes a harmless highdose therapy possible. (orig./MG)

  19. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Suchismita Paul; Rachel Evans; Toby Maurer; Muhe, Lulu M.; Freeman, Esther E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was underta...

  20. The impact of mental health and traumatic life experiences on antiretroviral treatment outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Pence, Brian Wells

    2009-01-01

    Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Accordingly, the goal of HIV care has shifted from delaying death to achieving optimal health outcomes through ART treatment. ART treatment success hinges on medication adherence. Extensive research has demonstrated that the primary barriers to ART adherence include mental illness, especially depression and substance abuse, as well as histories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual ...

  1. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  2. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  3. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process. PMID:26593378

  4. Anti-HIV drug development: structural features and limitations of present day drugs and future challenges in the successful HIV/AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Garima; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an immuno-compromized condition, a sequel to untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inviting several life-threatening diseases, has become one of the most fatal disorders in the recent past because of HIV strain variance due to mutations, passive latency and reservoirs helping in replenishing and reviving the HIV-1 proviral DNA. Scientific efforts have led to the discovery of several effective drugs against HIV and lowered the morbidity and mortality all over the world. However, despite availability of a good number of anti-HIV drugs, the problem, for the foreseeable reasons, stands out as the most chronic disease due to the less tolerability and low accessibility of drugs, life-long expensive treatment, and above all, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. This review dwells upon HIV infection and its proliferation inside the host system, drug targets, different types of drugs, their structural features and mode of interaction with viral targets and drug regimens. It further focuses on topics of latest interest regarding drug development, fixed dose combinations (FDCs), the limitations of present day drugs with their structural features along with their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics and the challenges in finding a permanent cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:23092282

  5. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  6. Dose and Volume of the Irradiated Main Bronchi and Related Side Effects in the Treatment of Central Lung Tumors With Stereotactic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijm, Marloes; Schillemans, W; Aerts, Joachim G; Heijmen, B; Nuyttens, Joost J

    2016-04-01

    High radiation dose to the main bronchi can result in stenosis, occlusion or fistula formation, and death. Only 8 articles have reported side effects to the main bronchi from stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), mostly with only one symptomatic complication per article. Therefore, we calculated the dose to the bronchial structures, such as trachea; mainstem bronchi; intermediate bronchus; upper-, middle-, and lower-lobe bronchus; and the segmental bronchi in 134 patients with central tumors and calculated the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for each of these structures, with toxicity determination based upon computed tomography imaging. No side effects were found in the trachea, and only stenosis occurred in the main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Higher grades of side effects, such as occlusion and atelectasis, were only seen in the upper-, middle-, and lower bronchi and the segmental bronchi. When 0.5cc of a segmental bronchi was irradiated to 50Gy in 5 fractions, it was about 50% likely to be occluded radiographically. For grade 1 radiographically evident side effects, the 50% risk level for a 5-fraction Dmax was 55Gy for mid-bronchi and 65Gy for mainstem bronchi. To assure the relationship between clinical toxicity and side effects to the bronchi, further investigation is needed. PMID:27000511

  7. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  8. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    OpenAIRE

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate.

  9. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  10. "Volunteers are not paid because they are priceless": community health worker capacities and values in an AIDS treatment intervention in urban Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities. PMID:25257547

  11. An assessment of felt needs and expectations of people living with HIV/AIDS seeking treatment at NGOs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megharita M; Garg, Suneela; Nath, Anita; Gupta, Vimal K

    2015-03-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) continue to face stigma and discrimination in society. The felt needs of PLHAs can be met by means of a comprehensive, holistic, and integrated approach by the concerned sectors. This study included 100 PLHAs admitted at 3 care homes run by nongovernmental organizations in New Delhi. As many as 22% of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary Koch's. Unemployment rates were found to increase after disease onset. Majority were satisfied with the medical treatment and overall care provided at these centers. About 25% expressed that they would like the government to provide them with suitable jobs. Less than one third (30%) of the PLHAs expressed satisfaction with their family life whereas the rest yearned for love and acceptance from society. Study findings highlight the important role of nongovernmental organizations and stresses on the need for a holistic approach toward the care of these people. PMID:19443873

  12. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  13. Online Finding Aids: Are They Practical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Christina J.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the uses, practicality, and problems involved in creating online finding aids by state-funded university archivists across the nation. It examines various aspects of online finding aids such as financial considerations, its importance as a research tool, timelines, demographics, and use. The more technical side is also…

  14. A Sustainable Comprehensive Service through Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS in the HIV/AIDS Management Program in Surakarta City of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyo Demartoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find out the demographic, social and economic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA; stakeholders’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward HIV/AIDS and people with HIV/AIDS; comprehensive and sustainable support and service, the application of Greater Involvement of People With HIV/AIDS (GIPA as well as the contribution of stakeholders to the HIV/AIDS management program in Surakarta City. The research method employed was an exploratory one. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling one. The data collection was conducted using observation, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion, and documentation. Technique of analyzing data used was an interactive model of analysis. The result of research showed that in Surakarta, generally PLWHA were productive, male, heterosexual and working as employees, having medical problem and social culture such as developing opportunistic infection, antriretroviral (ARV drug side effect, depression, experiencing discrimination, negative stigma, isolation by the family and society member. The stakeholders of sustainable and comprehensive service in dealing with HIV/AIDS in Surakarta City had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, caring and responsiveness to the PLWHA. A comprehensive and sustainable support and service started during undertaking test; ARV drugs procurement, ethical and non-discriminatory treatment; opportunistic infection prevention and treatment; non-medical therapy and Peer-Group Support. GIPA program and activities through Peer Support Group included treatment consultation; drug compliance supervising service; home visit and hospital visit; socialization of HIV/AIDS to the community and sharing activity. The stakeholders contributed to the HIV/AIDS management program, particularly in the terms of program implementation policy, structure, and process, thereby it could run well through good cooperation, coordination and communication among the stakeholders

  15. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  16. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I;

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects, but in...... spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could be an...... integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations...

  17. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  18. [Consensus document of Gesida and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) regarding combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel consisting of members of the AIDS Study Group (Gesida) and the Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) after reviewing the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals, or presented in medical scientific meetings. Gesida has prepared an objective and structured method to prioritise combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in naïve patients. Recommendations strength (A, B, C) and the evidence which supports them (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria. The current antiretroviral treatment (ART) of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, in pregnancy, in serodiscordant couples with high transmission risk, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, and HIV nephropathy. Guidelines on ART treatment in patients with concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection and an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; 2) when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, therapy will be recommended and only delayed if patient is reluctant to take it, the CD4 are stabilised, and the plasma viral load is low; 3) therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >10(5) copies/mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years. ART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and a third drug (non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected and given priority to using

  19. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration on drug therapy for tuberculosis is a common cause of hospital admission in Africa. Potential causes for clinical deterioration in settings of high HIV-1 prevalence include drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, co-morbid illnesses, poor adherence to therapy, tuberculosis associated-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS and subtherapeutic antitubercular drug levels. It is important to derive a rapid diagnostic work-up to determine the cause of clinical deterioration as well as specific management to prevent further clinical deterioration and death. We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration. METHOD: A prospective observational study conducted during the first quarter of 2007. We defined clinical deterioration as clinical worsening or failure to stabilise after 14 or more days of antitubercular treatment, resulting in hospital referral. We collected data on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, HIV-1 status and antiretroviral treatment, and investigated reasons for clinical deterioration as well as outcome. RESULTS: During this period, 352 TB patients met inclusion criteria; 296 were admitted to hospital accounting for 17% of total medical admissions (n = 1755. Eighty three percent of TB patients (291/352 were known to be HIV-1 co-infected with a median CD4 count of 89cells/mm(3 (IQR 38-157. Mortality among TB patients admitted to hospital was 16% (n = 48. The median duration of hospital admission was 9.5 days (IQR 4-18, longer than routine in this setting (4 days. Among patients in whom HIV-1 status was known (n = 324, 72% of TB patients (n = 232 had an additional illness to tuberculosis; new AIDS defining illnesses (n = 80 were the most frequent additional illnesses (n = 208 in HIV-1 co-infected patients (n

  20. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir-cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcharoen, Opass; Do, Tanya; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI)-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV) as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug-drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug-drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1) COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2) COBI's solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1) COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) without affecting actual GFR; 2) potential drug-drug interaction data are insufficient, warranting caution when initiating COBI in conjunction with concomitant medication or in individuals with multiple comorbidities; 3) food plays a pivotal role in boosting darunavir exposure, warranting caution and patient education on the importance of taking COBI-containing regimens with appropriate amounts

  1. Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We have had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate grounds. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to the recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly with cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in the pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group in comparison to the cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (mortality rate 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p = 0.07, relative risk = 3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) of patients on pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) on cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p = 0.02, relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). The commonest complication of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be used in developing countries. PMID:25411350

  2. 'Side-by-side'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    France is a nuclear power nation. And this is not going to change. However, at the same time, the country is also pursuing massive investments in the expansion of renewable energies. According to France's President Nicolas Sarkozy, the motto should be: 'side-by-side' rather than 'one or the other'. For the PV sector, whose success was unbroken during the crisis in 2009, the signal is positive and could mean sustained growth. (orig.)

  3. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  4. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...

  5. Fístula linfática após tratamento cirúrgico de síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico à direita Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes Araujo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fístula linfática como complicação de correção de síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico é um evento muito raro. Relatamos um caso de fístula linfática à direita e apresentamos uma breve revisão do tratamento de quilotórax pós-cirúrgico.Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax.

  6. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  7. 快捷护理程序在重型颅脑外伤急救中的应用%Application of shortcut nursing procedure in first-aid treatment of patients with severe head trau-ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳英; 刘燕兰

    2008-01-01

    目的 提高重型颅脑外伤的急救水平,降低死亡率.方法 运用临床护理程序对患者实施护理,将105例急救患者随机分为对照组50例和实验组55例,对照组采用以前的抢救流程,实验组运用自行制订的重型颅脑外伤临床快捷护理程序对患者进行急救护理,对2组患者的死亡率及抢救所用的时间进行比较,观察临床快捷护理程序运用于急救过程中的效果.结果 实验组的死亡率及抢救所用的时间均比对照组低,且差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论 在急救过程中运用临床快捷护理程序不仅可以提高急救水平,降低患者的死亡率,而且可以有效的指导护士进行抢救,提高了护士自身的专业及业务水平.%Objective To improve level of first-aid treatment of severe head trauma and reduce fa-tality. Methods Clinical nursing procedures were applied to patients.Patients need first-aid treatment (105 cases) were divided into the control group(50 cases) and the experimental group(55 cases).The con-trol group adopted routine first-aid procedure,the experimental group was given first-aid nursing with self-designed shortcut nursing procedure for severe head trauma.The effect of application of shortcut nursing procedure was observed by comparing the fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment between the two groups. Results The fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment in the experimental groupwas lower than that of the control group, P<0.05. Conclusions Application of shortcut nursing proce-dure in first-aid treatment can not only improve level of first-aid treatment and reduce fatality, but also can instruct nurses how to rescue patients and improve their professional and vocational level.

  8. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  9. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  10. NSAID-associated adverse effects and acid control aids to prevent them: a review of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesdal, Jørgen; Brown, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    NSAIDs are central to the clinical management of a wide range of conditions. However, NSAIDs in combination with gastric acid, which has been shown to play a central role in upper gastrointestinal (GI) events, can damage the gastroduodenal mucosa and result in dyspeptic symptoms and peptic lesions such as ulceration.NSAID-associated GI mucosal injury is an important clinical problem. Gastroduodenal ulcers or ulcer complications occur in up to 25% of patients receiving NSAIDs. However, these toxicities are often not preceded by indicative symptoms. Data obtained from the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System have shown that 50-60% of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer cases can remain clinically silent and do not present until complications occur. Therefore, prophylactic treatment to prevent GI complications may be necessary in a substantial proportion of NSAID users, especially those in groups associated with a high risk of developing these complications. Use of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective NSAIDs, also known as 'coxibs', substantially reduces the incidence of upper GI toxicities seen with non-selective NSAIDs. However, there are concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of coxibs. For this reason, the US FDA recommends minimal use of coxibs and only when strictly necessary. Additionally, rofecoxib has been removed from the US market and sales of valdecoxib have been suspended. Furthermore, upper GI toxicities still occur in patients receiving coxibs. Therefore, cotherapies are required to prevent and/or heal upper GI effects associated with NSAID use. Effective prophylactic and treatment strategies include misoprostol, histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The key role that gastric acid plays in upper GI adverse events among NSAID users suggests that it is important to choose the most effective agent for acid control to alleviate symptoms, heal mucosal erosions and improve the reduced quality of life in

  11. The role of South African traditional health practitioners in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; A study of their practices and use of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Walwyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this study, we investigated the dominant practices of THPs towards HIV positive patients and whether these practices have changed following widespread public awareness campaigns covering HIV and its treatment. Method The study used a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire in the home language of the interviewee. A total of 52 THPs from four provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu Natal and Eastern Cape were interviewed. 38% of the respondents were based in the rural areas, and 69% classified themselves as inyangas, with the remainder being sangomas. Findings All of the THPs in the survey offered treatment for HIV, although only 20% claimed to be able to cure the disease. 88% prepared their own medication, mostly from plant material, and sold their products as aqueous extracts in labelled bottles. None of these products had been systematically evaluated, and there was mostly no record keeping, either of the patient, or of the medicine itself. Quality control practices such as expiry dates, controlled storage conditions and batch records were totally unknown in our sample. Only 38% of the THPs had received training on HIV/AIDS although 75% believed that they were well informed about the disease. Our own assessment was that only 50% had a working knowledge of HIV; more disturbingly 37% believe that only traditional medicines should be used for the treatment of HIV and a further 50% believe that both traditional medicines and ARVs can be taken simultaneously. Interpretation Despite ongoing public educational campaigns on HIV, some of which have specifically targeted THPs, the care of HIV positive

  12. AIDS, a development challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

  13. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral

  14. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  15. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinapori, Roberta; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The fixed-dose combination (FDC) elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF) is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat) associated with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC's efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients' needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV-infected patients. PMID:26345643

  16. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; b) Therapy should be recommended when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, except when CD4 are stabilized, there is low plasma viral load, or the patient not willing; c) Therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/ μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a ritonavir boosted protease

  17. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinapori R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Prinapori,1 Antonio Di Biagio2 1Infectious Diseases, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy Abstract: The fixed-dose combination (FDC elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat associated with two nucleos(tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC’s efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients’ needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV

  18. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)

  19. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Elionai C. de L.; Mussel, Wagner N.; Resende, Jarbas M.; Yoshida, Maria I., E-mail: mirene@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Fialho, Silvia L.; Barbosa, Jamile; Fialho, Silvia L. [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)

  20. SU-E-T-483: Treatment Planning Study of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Left-Sided Breast and Chestwall Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To perform the comparison of dose distributions and dosevolume- histograms generated by VMAT and conventional field-in-field technique for left-sided breast and chestwall cancers; to determine whether VMAT offers more dosimetric benefits than does the field-in-field technique. Methods: All VMAT and field-in-filed plans were produced in Eclipse(version 10). Five plans were generated for left-sided breast and leftsided chestwall with supraclavicular nodes, respectively. A clockwise arc (CW) and a counter-clockwise arc (CCW) were used with start and stop angles being 310o±10o and 140o±10o. Collimator angles were 30o for CW and 330o for CCW. The conformity index (CI) is the ratio of V95% over PTV. The homogeneity index (HI) is the ratio of the difference between D2% and D98% over the prescribed dose. The V5, as an indicator of low dose bath to organs-at-risk, was used for ipsilateral lung, heart, contralateral lung, and contralateral breast. The V20, as an indicator of radiation pneumonitis, was used for ipsilateral lung. Results: Breast/chestwall VMAT delivers much higher low dose bath to ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung and contralateral breast/chestwall for both intact breast and chestwall with nodes. V5 for heart is increased in VMAT plans. V20 for ipsilateral lung is lower in VMAT plans. PTV coverage is similar for both techniques. For one particular chestwall patient with supraclavicular and internal mammary nodes, VMAT offers superior dose coverage of PTVs with slightly more low-dose-wash to heart, contralateral lung and contralateral breast. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is generally no benefit using VMAT for left-sided intact breast, due to large low-dose-bath (5Gy) to normal tissues with insignificant improvement in PTV coverage. Dosimetric benefits will be seen in VMAT plans for some chestwall patients with large size, and/or internal mammary nodes, etc. Whether a chestwall patient is treated with VMAT should be carefully

  1. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  2. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambert Elodie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  3. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  4. The TCM Remedies for Treatment of AIDS——A Clinical Report of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guihua; Mao Shuzhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of TCM remedies in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Method: 60 cases of AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) were divided into four different TCM patterns and treated accordingly. Results: Of the 60 cases, 52 patients (86.7%)experienced remarkable improvement in general symptoms and lab findings, including virus loading and CD4 T lymphocyte count. Conclusion: The TCM remedies could definitely improve the symptoms and signs of AIDS or ARC, enhance the immune function, decrease the possibility of contracting opportunistic infection, improve the life quality, and prolong the survival period, with no apparent toxic and side effects.

  5. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  6. THE INFORMAL SIDE OF MATHEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    ANCA CROITORU

    2011-01-01

    For the efficiency of mathematics education, one should constantlyteach mathematics from its both sides perspective: the (formal) scientific side and the (informal) human, spiritual and cultural side.

  7. One-sided arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within 'the limits of the dial

  8. An optimization based framework for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants: Case study on side-stream nitrogen removal technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist;

    2014-01-01

    Existing WWTPs need retrofitting due to several d iffe rent reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow and co mposition, change in the effluent limitat ions , as well as changes in the wastewater treatment trends. Specifically, increased nitrogen limitations in the regulations for the WWTP...

  9. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice; Radiologisch praxisrelevante Prophylaxe und Therapie von Nebenwirkungen jodhaltiger Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [German] Durch den zunehmenden Einsatz jodhaltiger Kontrastmittel in der Radiologie steigt auch die Rate der Nebenwirkungen; zu den wichtigsten gehoeren die kontrastmittelinduzierte Nephropathie, anaphylaktoide Reaktion, thyreotoxische Krise und Extravasation. Bei Patienten mit mittelgradig eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion wird eine Prophylaxe durch Hydrierung und Reduktion der KM-Menge empfohlen. Bei hochgradig eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion sollte die Kontrastmittelgabe nur noch kontrolliert im interdisziplinaeren Konsens erfolgen. Eine nachgewiesen wirkungsvolle Prophylaxe anaphylaktoider Reaktionen ist bisher nicht bekannt. Bei Nachweis einer sublatenten Hyperthyreose ist die Gabe von Natriumperchlorat eine sinnvolle Gegenmassnahme. Eine kontrastmittelinduzierte Nephropathie ist meistens transient und sollte mehrfach im Verlauf kontrolliert werden. Leichte allgemeine anaphylaktoide Reaktionen koennen mit Antihistaminika und Kortikosteroiden behandelt werden. Auch die Wahl des Roentgenkontrastmittels koennte Einfluss auf das Risiko von Nebenwirkungen haben. (orig.)

  10. CHARTS项目对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境的影响分析%Analysis of the Impact of CHARTS on the AIDS Prevention and Treatment Policy Environment in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文凤梅; 明平勇; 李娜; 左海燕; 苏维; 张建新

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中英艾滋病策略支持项目(CHARTS)对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境变化的作用和影响,为改进艾滋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用问卷调查与关键人物访谈相结合的方法.结果 省级多部门艾滋病战略规划数量显著增加,规划针对的目标人群明显扩大;政府部门的关注度和社会力量参与度不断提高,并呈现出合作的趋势;艾滋病预防政策和策略更加完善,受益人群面不断扩大;对艾滋病受害者的治疗、关怀和支持的政策和策略进一步完善,尤其是对艾滋病孤儿和脆弱儿童的关怀支持力度进一步加大;项目督导评估系列工作基本实现了从无到有.结论 在CHARTS项目支持下,四川省艾滋病防治政策环境得到显著改善,但仍然面临诸多挑战.%OBJECTIVE To know the effect and impact of CHARTS on the changes of AIDS prevention and treatment policy environment in Sichuan province, so as to provide reference for improving the job of AIDS prevention and treatment. METHODS Questionnaire Survey and Key—informant interview were used in our study. RESULTS The number of provincial multisec-toral Strategic Planning for AIDS prevention and treatment significantly increased, and the target population included in the strategic planning also significantly expanded; The degree of attention paid to AIDS prevention and treatment by government departments and the degree of participation in AIDS prevention and treatment for social forces continuously improved, and there was a trend of cooperation. The policies and strategies for AIDS prevention were perfected, and the range of benefited population continuously expanded. Policies and strategies of AIDS treatment, care and support focused on the victims further improved, especially the caring and supporting efforts for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children. The series of jobs in project supervision and evaluation basically realized from scratch. CONCLUSION Under the

  11. Dosimetric Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, Static Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and 3D Conformal Planning for the Treatment of a Right-Sided Reconstructed Chest Wall and Regional Nodal Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishruta A. Dumane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared 3D conformal planning, static field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT to investigate the suitable treatment plan and delivery method for a right-sided reconstructed chest wall and nodal case. The dose prescribed for the reconstructed chest wall and regional nodes was 50.4 Gy. Plans were compared for target coverage and doses of the lungs, heart, contralateral breast, and healthy tissue. All plans achieved acceptable coverage of the target and IMNs. The best right lung sparing achieved with 3D was a V20 Gy of 31.09%. Compared to it, VMAT reduced the same by 10.85% and improved the CI and HI over 3D by 18.75% and 2%, respectively. The ipsilateral lung V5 Gy to V20 Gy decreased with VMAT over IMRT by as high as 17.1%. The contralateral lung V5 Gy was also lowered with VMAT compared to IMRT by 16.22%. The MU and treatment beams were lowered with VMAT over IMRT by 30% and 10, respectively, decreasing the treatment time by >50%. VMAT was the treatment plan and delivery method of choice for this case due to a combination of improved lung sparing and reduced treatment time without compromising target coverage.

  12. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  13. 艾滋病相关性肺动脉高压诊治近况%AIDS Related Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵贺红(综述); 冯萍(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) has become the most serious disaster diseases for humanity.With widely application of antiretroviral therapy,the survival time of patients with HIV and opportunistic infections largely under control non-infectious complications, including pulmonary aterial hypertension (PAH) by more and more at ention in the international.In fact,has become an independent disorder for death of HIV-infected patients.The pathogenesis of HIV infection leads to pulmonary hypertension has not been ful y elucidated.Lack of specific clinical manifestations;treatment have a lot of restrictions compared with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and poor prognosis.SO early detection and intervention can improve the quality of life and survival of HIV-PAH patients. In the process of the treatment of people living with HIV can not explain the symptoms associated with cardiac and pulmonary in Clinical, consideration should be given to HIV-related PAH (HRPH)[1].%获得性人类免疫缺陷病已经成为人类疾病史上的灾难性疾病,随着抗逆转录病毒治疗的广泛应用,HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)患者的生存时间及机会性感染在很大程度上得到控制,而非感染性并发症包括肺动脉高压在国际上受到越来越多的重视,实际上肺动脉高压已成为HIV感染患者死亡的独立危险因素。 HIV感染导致肺动脉高压的发病机制尚未完全阐明,其临床表现缺乏特异性,治疗上较特发性性肺动脉高压又有很多限制,预后较差,早期发现和干预可提高患者的生活质量和生存率。在HIV感染者的治疗过程中,出现不能解释的与心肺相关症状时,应考虑到HIV相关的肺动脉高压,并及时给予干预以期提高HIV患者的生存率。

  14. Aid, public expenditure, and Dutch disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Adam; Bevan, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary policy debates on the macroeconomics of aid often concentrate on short-run Dutch disease effects, ignoring the possible supply side impact of aid— financed public expenditure. We develop a simple model of aid and public expenditure in which public infrastructure capital generates an inter-temporal productivity spillover for both tradable and non-tradable sectors, where these productivity effects may display sector-specific biases. The model also allows for non-homo...

  15. Side-wall sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.

    1969-11-01

    A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.

  16. Desafios da adesão ao tratamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids no Brasil Challenges of treatment adherence by people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Melchior; Maria Ines Battistella Nemes; Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar; Cássia Maria Buchalla

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar as dificuldades referentes à adesão ao tratamento de pacientes vivendo com HIV/Aids em terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa baseada em 34 entrevistas com pacientes em tratamento de diversos serviços ambulatoriais do estado de São Paulo em 1998-1999. O grupo compreendeu pessoas de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos, sexo, tempo no tratamento e diferentes graus de adesão de acordo com a percepção da equipe de saúde. As entrevistas foram focali...

  17. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also...

  18. Itolizumab – a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Menon R, David BG. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 2015;8:215–22.On page 215, please note correspondence should have been listed as:   Roshni Menon, D II/17,JIPMER Campus, Dhanvanthri Nagar,Pondicherry, India 605006Tel +91 944 320 8140Email roshnijagdish@gmail.com.On page 215, the first sentence of the Introduction was “Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by exacerbations and remissions affecting 1%–3% of the world’s population, and approximately 20% of patients have moderate to severe disease.1,2” however should have been “Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by exacerbations and remissions affecting 1%–3% of the world’s population. Approximately 20% of patients have moderate to severe disease.1,2”On page 217, 219, and 221 the running header was “Itolizumab – aCD6 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of psoriasis” however should have been “Itolizumab – a humanized anti CD6 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of psoriasis”.On page 218, Table 1, the second column heading was listed as “Anand et al25 n=40 (moderate–severe psoriasis” however should have been “Anand et al25 n=40/32 weeks (moderate–severe psoriasis”.Read the original article 

  19. Late radiation injuries of the intestine and their treatment. [Side effects of x-ray and gamma therapy of gynecologic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumors of female genitalia and some other tumors in which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumors, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites, and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients, these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation injuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet.

  20. The development of PROQOL-HIV : an international instrument to assess the health-related quality of life of persons living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Duracinsky, M.; Herrmann, S.; Berzins, B.; Armstrong, A. R.; Kohli, R.; Le Coeur, Sophie; A. Diouf; Fournier, I.; Schechter, M.; Chassany, O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important outcome in HIV/AIDS infection and treatment. However, most existing HIV-HRQL instruments miss important issues (eg, sleeping problems, lipodystrophy). They were developed before highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART), and in a single language. We sought to develop a contemporary HIV-HRQL instrument (PROQOL-HIV) in multiple languages that accounts for HAART treatment and side effects. This article details the 3-stage c...

  1. Side-Channel Oscilloscope

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Sumanta

    2011-01-01

    Side-Channel Analysis used for codebreaking could be used constructively as a probing tool for internal gates in integrated circuits. This paper outlines basic methods and mathematics for that purpose

  2. Iatrogenic Violence? Lived experiences of recipients of aid that targets vulnerable children in Makete, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian aid does not always achieve its intended outcomes but may have unintended side-effects which harm rather than help recipient communities in the long run. In the context of aid, iatrogenic violence refers to circumstances where aid intended to benefit recipients instead causes social disruption. The relations between donor and recipient contribute significantly to the outcomes of aid. This article aims to explore the recipient side of donor–recipient relationships in humanitarian ...

  3. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of 103Pd or 125I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson χ2 test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade ≥2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D-CRT patients and 7% of

  4. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2013-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state. 498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program. 304 patients were evaluated in the process of drug and non-drug treatment. Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corresponds with any of the defined clinico-pathogenetic variants of the disease. Thus, prevailing of atopic bronchial asthma with probability of 0.7 is defined with Savda categories with deficiency' (P<0.01) variants in Chinese Medicine. The combination of infectious-dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74% of cases belongs to the categories of an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma, in 83% of cases

  5. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  6. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...

  7. Bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological and neurological side effects. Report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghika, J; Ghika-Schmid, F; Fankhauser, H; Assal, G; Vingerhoets, F; Albanese, A; Bogousslavsky, J; Favre, J

    1999-08-01

    The authors report the underestimated cognitive, mood, and behavioral complications in patients who have undergone bilateral contemporaneous pallidotomy, as seen in their early experience with functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) that is accompanied by severe motor fluctuations before pallidal stimulation. Four patients, not suffering from dementia, with advanced (Hoehn and Yahr Stages III-IV), medically untreatable PD featuring severe "on-off" fluctuations underwent bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP). All patients were evaluated according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantations (CAPIT) protocol without positron emission tomography scans but with additional neuropsychological cognitive, mood, and behavior testing. For the first 3 to 6 months postoperatively, all patients showed a mean improvement of motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in the best "on" (21%) and worst "off" (40%) UPDRS III motor subscale, a mean 30% improvement in the UPDRS II activities of daily living (ADL) subscore, and 60% on the UPDRS IV complications of treatment subscale. Dyskinesia disappeared almost completely, and the mean daily duration of the off time was reduced by an average of 60%. Despite these good results in the CAPIT scores, one patient experienced a partially regressive corticobulbar syndrome with dysphagia, dysarthria, and increased drooling. No emotional lability was found in this patient, but he did demonstrate severe bilateral postoperative pretarsal blepharospasm (apraxia of eyelid opening), which interfered with walking and which required treatment with high-dose subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. No patient showed visual field defects or hemiparesis, but postoperative depression, changes in personality, behavior, and executive functions were seen in two individuals. Postoperative abulia was reported by the family of one patient, who lost his preoperative

  8. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  9. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  10. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  11. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  12. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  14. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  15. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  16. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  17. Vulnerabilidades presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica Vulnerabilidades presentes en la ruta vivida por pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica Vulnerabilities present in the path experienced by patients with HIV / AIDS in treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kelly Rabelo de Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grande avanço no tratamento da AIDS deu-se com o surgimento da terapia antiretroviral. Entretanto, diversas vulnerabilidades podem estar presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes durante o tratamento. Objetivou-se analisar as vulnerabilidades dos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica. Estudo qualitativo realizado com sete usuários com AIDS considerados em falha terapêutica, em uma Unidade de Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado em HIV/AIDS, em Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretação dos dados, utilizou-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo. Nos discursos, percebeu-se que os depoentes enfrentavam conflitos na família e, no ambiente de trabalho, dificuldades de relacionamento com as pessoas e estigma. Observou-se que os pacientes haviam vivenciado diversas situações que os tornaram mais suscetíveis à infecção por HIV e ao adoecimento.Un gran avance en el tratamiento del SIDA se llevó a cabo con el advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral. Sin embargo, numerosas vulnerabilidades pueden estar presentes en la ruta vivida por los pacientes durante el tratamiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las vulnerabilidades de los pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica. Estudio cualitativo en que fueran incluidos siete usuarios con el SIDA y en falla terapéutica, atendidos en una Unidad de Servicios Ambulatorios en VIH / SIDA, en Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretar los datos, se utilizó una técnica de análisis de contenido. Por medio de los discursos, verificó-se que los pacientes enfrentaban conflictos en la familia y, en el trabajo, relaciones difíciles con la gente y el estigma. Fue observado que los pacientes han experimentado muchas situaciones que les hizo más susceptibles a la infección por el VIH y la enfermedad.A major breakthrough in AIDS treatment occurred with the advent of antiretroviral therapy. However, several vulnerabilities may be present in the path experienced by patients during treatment. This

  18. Intractable diffuse alopecia caused by multifactorial side-effects in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia: connection to iatrogenic failure of estrogen secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiyama, Tomoko; Arakawa, Akiko; Hattori, Sayoko; Konishi, Keisuke; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infantile acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) may cause failure to thrive and hypogonadism due to hypopituitarism induced by chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy. We report the case of a 22-year-old girl with a genetic predisposition to pattern hair loss who developed inveterate diffuse alopecia. The patient had onset of ALL at 8 years old and underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alopecia gradually advanced over her whole body. Her vellus scalp hair gradually came out, and hair loss progressed again at 8 years, after BMT. She later developed iatrogenic failure of secretion of estrogen and was treated with estrogen substitution therapy for 14 months from the age of 20. There was a small increase in the volume of hair during therapy, but alopecia returned to the former level after the therapy was suspended. Histopathologic examinations of the scalp performed during estrogen substitution therapy and 2 years after suspension of the therapy showed a 60% decrease in the number of hair follicles and prominent development of vellus hair. We conclude that estrogen influenced hair growth in the context of a genetic predisposition for pattern hair loss in this case. PMID:22211668

  19. Anorexia-cachexia and obesity treatment may be two sides of the same coin: role of the TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, V W W; Lin, S; Brown, D A; Salis, A; Breit, S N

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia-cachexia associated with cancer and other diseases is a common and often fatal condition representing a large area of unmet medical need. It occurs most commonly in advanced cancer and is probably a consequence of molecules released by tumour cells, or tumour-associated interstitial or immune cells. These may then act directly on muscle to cause atrophy and/or may cause anorexia, which then leads to loss of both fat and lean mass. Although the aetiological triggers for this syndrome are not well characterized, recent data suggest that MIC-1/GDF15, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily cytokine produced in large amounts by cancer cells and as a part of other disease processes, may be an important trigger. This cytokine acts on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem to cause anorexia leading to loss of lean and fat mass and eventually cachexia. In animal studies, the circulating concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15 required to cause this syndrome are similar to those seen in patients with advanced cancer, and at least some epidemiological studies support an association between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and measures of nutrition. This article will discuss its mechanisms of central appetite regulation, and the available data linking this action to anorexia-cachexia syndromes that suggest it is a potential target for therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia and conversely may also be useful for the treatment of severe obesity. PMID:26620888

  20. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2014-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state .498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program .304 patients were evalu-ated in the process of drug and non-drug treatment .Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corre-sponds with any of the defined clinico-pathogenetic variants of the disease .Thus ,prevailing of atopic bron-chial asthma with probability of 0 .7 is defined with Savda categories with such as ‘Lungs energy deficien-cy’ ,‘Spleen energy deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P <0 .01) variants in Chinese Medicine . The combination of infectious-dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with atopy with a probability of 0 .8 is accompanied by the categories of ‘Hot and Full’ asthma with such variants as‘Lungs energy deficiency’ ‘Spleen energy deficiency’ ,‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P < 0 .01) .Patients with an easier case of Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing diagnos-tic categories of ‘External ,Full and Cold’ asthma .Patients with a harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74%of cases belongs to the categories of ‘Internal ,Empty and Hot’ asthma .So ,hormone dependency of the disease in 69% of cases is accompanied by the ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ variant and ,if there is an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma ,in 83% of cases ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yang deficiency’ variants are defined .

  1. Right Brain Scan Could Aid in Stroke Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158078.html Right Brain Scan Could Aid in Stroke Recovery: Study It ... language recovery in those who suffer stroke in brain's left side, researchers find To use the sharing ...

  2. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties of...... pharmacologically active substances or specific products for the treatment of sexual dysfunction such as sildenafil. Above all, it should be acknowledged that relatively few data are available in this field and in particular that there is a lack of controlled studies....

  3. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 +- 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 +- 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 +- 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 +- 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  4. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jambert Elodie; Bärnighausen Till; Diedrichsen Ellen; Waning Brenda; Li Yun; Pouw Mieke; Moon Suerie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been...

  5. Clinical Research of Add Dingchuan Tang in the Treatment of Cough by AIDS Patients%定喘汤治疗艾滋病患者咳嗽的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超杰; 姜枫

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the clinical research of add dingchuan tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients. Methods: 86 ca-ses were divided into treatment group and observation group according to random number table. The control group were given Jizhi syrup orally and the treatment group were given add Dingchuan Tang treatment. Both groups take 7 days as one course of treatment. Results; The effective rate was 92.9% in treatment group and 75. 0% in control group. The curative effect of treatment group was better than control by comparison. The difference has statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Add Dingchuan Tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients has curative effect.%目的:观察定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:按随机数字表法将86例患者分为治疗组和对照组.对照组口服急支糖浆治疗;治疗组服用中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗,两组均7d为1疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为92.9%,对照组有效率为75.0%,两组有效率比较,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效确切.

  6. Summary Side Event on Partnerships for Inclusive Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pfisterer, Stella

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan (South Korea) in November 2011, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development together with the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Global Compact, the International Business Leaders Forum, the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Partnerships Resource Centre and UNDP, hosted a side event about Partnerships for Inclusive Business. A summary of this side event can be found by clicking on the link below.

  7. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come...... – years where parts of the U.S. Army and intelligence community set up a rampant torture regime all across the world. Yet, the connection between a so-called “dark side,” “working” this “dark side,” and the torture that followed is not a given, but, instead, a consequence of a set of very specific legal...... half—dark side—documents the making and nature of the dark side by analyzing a series of legal memos from the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Council and from the White House and concludes by relating its findings to traditional ideas about emergency action, national security, and torture. By...

  8. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  9. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for left-sided breast cancer and all regional nodes improves target volumes coverage and reduces treatment time and doses to the heart and left coronary artery, compared with a field-in-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared two intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for left-sided breast treatment, involving lymph node irradiation including the internal mammary chain. Inverse planned arc-therapy (VMAT) was compared with a forward-planned multi-segment technique with a mono-isocenter (MONOISO). Ten files were planned per technique, delivering a 50-Gy dose to the breast and 46.95 Gy to nodes, within 25 fractions. Comparative endpoints were planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to surrounding structures, and treatment delivery time. PTV coverage, homogeneity and conformality were better for two arc VMAT plans; V95%PTV-T was 96% for VMAT vs 89.2% for MONOISO. Homogeneity index (HI)PTV-T was 0.1 and HIPTV-N was 0.1 for VMAT vs 0.6 and 0.5 for MONOISO. Treatment delivery time was reduced by a factor of two using VMAT relative to MONOISO (84 s vs 180 s). High doses to organs at risk were reduced (V30left lung = 14% using VMAT vs 24.4% with MONOISO; dose to 2% of the volume (D2%)heart = 26.1 Gy vs 32 Gy), especially to the left coronary artery (LCA) (D2%LCA = 34.4 Gy vs 40.3 Gy). However, VMAT delivered low doses to a larger volume, including contralateral organs (mean dose [Dmean]right lung = 4 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 3.2 Gy). These were better protected using MONOISO plans (Dmeanright lung = 0.8 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 0.4 Gy). VMAT improved PTV coverage and dose homogeneity, but clinical benefits remain unclear. Decreased dose exposure to the LCA may be clinically relevant. VMAT could be used for complex treatments that are difficult with conventional techniques. Patient age should be considered because of uncertainties concerning secondary malignancies. (author)

  10. First Aid Procedures for Dental Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Nancy Happel; Londeree, Kathy

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for first aid procedures for temporary relief of dental emergencies include information on: (1) dental first aid supplies; (2) treatment of oral injuries; (3) orthodontic emergencies; (4) toothaches; and (5) prolonged bleeding due to an extraction. Consulting a dentist as soon as possible is strongly recommended. (JN)

  11. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  12. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte;

    2004-01-01

    reviews, we seek to map out the channels through which ARVs are being made available to people and to describe and assess the social implications of the present system of distribution. Four channels of access to ARV medicines were common in mid-2003: (i) Medicines were provided free in structured research...... follow the regimen regularly. Health workers must consider whether patients will be able to purchase the drugs or not. In a kind of popular social pharmacy, people assess who can and should and does get access to ARVs. Further research should examine the whole range of ARV access channels in different...... practitioners, mainly based in Kampala, provided discrete treatment for those who could afford it. (iv) Finally, medicines were ‘facilitated' along informal networks, supplying friends and relatives on a less regular basis, sometimes for free, sometimes for cash. However, access to ARVs remains highly uneven...

  13. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  14. Recent Advances of Treatment in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Lymphoma%艾滋病相关淋巴瘤的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2010-01-01

    艾滋病相关淋巴瘤是常见的艾滋病(AIDS)相关肿瘤之一,高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)被广泛采用后,艾滋病相关淋巴瘤患者的免疫功能增强,对化疗的耐受性提高,预后明显改善.临床研究表明,以HAART与CHOP方案或R-CHOP方案联合治疗弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤安全有效.HAART治疗后,传统的化疗方案治疗AIDS相关Burkitt淋巴瘤(AIDS-BL)患者存活率仍然很低,而采用Burkitt淋巴瘤特定的短期强烈多药联合方案及LMB-86方案可使AIDS-BL的完全有效率和总生存率明显改善.

  15. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  16. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    accounts of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment to consist of explanations of sexual practices or of biomedical details that would not be readily accessible to the general reader. But despite its somewhat misleading, overly ambitious, and functionalist title, Dickinson's book should interest all students of...... social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage" and...

  17. Pen-side testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-side diagnostic testing is often required to provide real time information about the health status of an animal or herd. The rapid results are generally needed in the face of a disease outbreak where the diagnostician/clinician is presented with dead or dying animals. Another use of pen-side tests is as part of a preventive medicine/herd health programme, where the information can be used for determining pathogen incidence and prevalence in the herd, identifying potential carrier animals or evaluating subtle changes in overall herd health as a result of management changes. Still another area is as a part of health certification before sale or stocking, or during processing following slaughter. Advanced testing methods, which in the past were only appropriate for use in a laboratory setting, have now been formatted for use in the field. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and immunochromatorgraphy have greatly enhanced diagnostic pen-side capabilities. These test systems allow for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of target antigen or antibody and require little or no scientific equipment. Because of the wide format flexibility these immunochemical technologies allow, they have come to dominate the diagnostic industry, both in the laboratory and in the field. Using liquid phase or precipitating chromogens, the tests can be visually interpreted and do not need instrumentation. Immunochromatography, a simplified assay system, has found widespread application as a field or pen-side test. The entire assay takes only one or two steps, and the results appear within 5-10 minutes. In the future, DNA based diagnostics will become more adaptable for use in the field. The DNA hybridization systems are at present cumbersome and require elevated temperatures. Companies are currently working to develop fast formulas that provide results in less than an hour, have a limited number of steps and can be performed at lower temperatures. (author)

  18. Simulations: The dark side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics methods. Both methods are, in principle, simple. However, simple does not mean risk-free. In the literature, many of the pitfalls in the field are mentioned, but usually as a footnote --and these footnotes are scattered over many papers. The present paper focuses on the "dark side" of simulation: it is one big footnote. I should stress that "dark", in this context, has no negative moral implication. It just means: under-exposed.

  19. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  20. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  1. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility

  2. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  3. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  4. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  5. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  6. Analyzing One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Subduction Arising from Mantle Convection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. S.; Becker, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    domain equal to that of the sticky air layer and the top temperature boundary condition. Otherwise, the temperature at the surface of the convective domain increases with time, leading to slab break-off and the cessation of subduction. Prior to the eventual cessation of subduction, subduction appears one-sided due to the inability to fully reform an overriding plate at the trench location due to a decreased heat flow at the surface resulting from an improperly implemented sticky air layer. We observe that plasticity as a function of pressure promotes one-sided subduction as compared to plasticity strictly as a function of depth. The negative dynamic pressure above a two-sided, asymmetric subducting slab alters the material properties through the pressure-dependent plasticity formulation, which effectively weakens the yield threshold by 10's of MPa and creates a positive feedback which can aid the transition from an asymmetric, two-sided configuration to one-sided subduction. We analyze the yielding processes and energetics which cause subduction to evolve from an initially imposed two-sided symmetric state, to a two-sided asymmetric state, to one-sided, and back to a two-sided configuration.

  7. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  8. Treatment of pain and suffering in aids patients Tratamiento del dolor y el sufrimiento en los pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida -SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several aspects of painful syndromes that are frequent in AIDS patients. It describes the impact of pain in the quality of life and in the daily experiences of these persons as well. The medical and palliative cares are explained and some considerations on autonomous decisions at the end of life are analysed. Emphasis is made on the fact that AIDS patients suffer total pain; therefore they require total therapy so that pain and suffering are reduced to a minimum and the right not to suffer is respected. El presente artículo discute diversos aspectos de los síndromes dolorosos frecuentes en pacientes con sida. Describe, así mismo, el impacto que tiene el dolor en la calidad de vida y en las experiencias diarias de estas personas. Explica la asistencia médica y paliativa y analiza algunos aspectos de las decisiones autónomas al final de la vida. Se hace énfasis en que el paciente con sida sufre dolor total y requiere por lo tanto una terapia total para que el dolor y el sufrimiento se reduzcan al mínimo y se cumpla el derecho a no sufrir innecesariamente.

  9. 单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗椎体压缩性骨折%CLINICAL STUDY ON ONE SIDE APPROACH PERCUTANEOUS VERTEBROPLASTY TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROTIC VERTEBRAL COMPRESSION FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣凯; 黄丽娟; 陈少明; 张颂阳; 吴兆亚; 赵庆(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

      Aim:To study the clinical effect of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: The retrospective analysis was carried out among 12 cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with PVP, including 2 males and 10 females. Results: The operations were successfuly performed. Marked or complete pain relief was achieved in al patients. VAS scores were 8.58±0.67 pre-operation,and 1.92±0.67 post- operation. There was a significant difference in VAS scores before surgery and post-surgery (P<0.05). Conclusions: One side approach percutaneous vertebroplasty is a reliable and successful strategy of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.%  目的:探讨单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折的有效性,并进行临床分析总结经验。方法:骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折12例,其中男2例,女10例。通过临床回顾的方法,对单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折进行临床分析总结。结果:所有患者胸腰背疼痛均明显缓解或消失。VAS评分:术前8.58±0.67,术后1.92±0.67,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:单侧入路PVP是治疗OVCF安全有效的方法,能够有效缓解疼痛。

  10. The Impact of Institutional Grant Aid on College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I exploit exogenous differences in institutional policies regarding the treatment of home equity in grant aid allocation to estimate a causal impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Because institutional grant aid is typically not awarded randomly, the college-estimated home equity value serves as an instrumental…

  11. Putting the Side first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    SIDE Minerals is a relative newcomer to the South African mining industry. It combines coal and anthracite mining and has base and precious metal interests. Side Minerals has offices in Boksburg from where its mining operations in Delmas, Witbank and Carolina in the Eastern Transvaal, and Newcastle in Natal are controlled. Lakeside Colliery at Witbank -a mine with a life expectancy of 15 years - is both an underground and opencast operation with an annual production capacity of 1,2 Mt of high, medium and low grade coal. Opencast extraction there is by the strip mining method. This is done on contract by Concor Mining Opencast Division, a member of the Concor Holding Group. A high wall face provides entry to the underground operations. Eastside Colliery at Carolina, which has the capacity to produce 480 000 tons of coal a year, is currently an opencast operation with underground mining scheduled to begin during 1994. Westside Colliery near Delmas is on a care and maintenance basis, but it has the capacity to produce 600 000 tons of low grade phosphorous coal which is required by the ferro-alloy and steel industries. 2 figs.

  12. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  14. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  15. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  16. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  17. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  18. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  19. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  20. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  1. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  2. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  3. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  4. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  5. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  6. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  7. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  8. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  9. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  10. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  11. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  12. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  13. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: Although recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is widely used to aid radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost in all clinical studies it was used in adults and there are very few data concerning paediatric group of patients. The Aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in DTC patients 18 yr old or younger. Material and Methods: Twenty five children/adolescents (median age 15, range 7-18) with the diagnosis of DTC were treated using the approved adult regimen (one 0.9 mg im. injection daily on two consecutive days) and therapeutic activity of 131I (median 3.7 GBq, range 2.2-3.8 GBq). Thyroglobulin concentration was evaluated on the 1. and 6. day of stimulation, and whole body scan (WBC) on the 6. day. Subsequently the patients were followed-up every 6 months, including single diagnostic 131I WBS. The median follow up after the treatment was 28 months. Results: In 16 children radioiodine treatment was given as an adjuvant treatment after total/near total thyroidectomy. In another 9 children distant metastases (mainly to lungs) were recognized. Peak TSH concentration post-rhTSH exceeded 25 mU/liter in all children. In all children the peak stimulated thyroglobulin was achieved on day 6 of stimulation (median 4 ng/ml, range 0.17-1080.0 ng/ml). In children treated with radioiodine as an adjunct to total thyroidectomy, in all but two cases complete remission was achieved. Two patients needed subsequent radioiodine retreatment. All are now free of disease. Among patients with distant metastases in 3 (33%) complete remission and in 6 (67%) partial remission (decrease in thyroglobulin concentration and decrease in radioiodine uptake on WBS) was achieved. In none but one patients there were side effects after rhTSH application. In one patient on the second day after the first rhTSH dose rush was observed, that resolved after anti

  14. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  15. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  16. O uso da L-carnitina como adjuvante no tratamento da miocardiopatia dilatada em criança com Aids Usage of L-carnitine as adjuvant in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Zélia Zanoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a resposta cardiovascular à L-carnitina de um paciente com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva decorrente de miocardiopatia dilatada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva grave devido à miocardiopatia dilatada pela síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida. O tratamento para as manifestações clínicas foi instituído, com pouca resposta clínica. Com objetivo de melhorar o desempenho energético/metabólico dos cardiomiócitos, foi instituída terapia com L-carnitina. Observou-se significativa melhora clínica do paciente, em relação ao desempenho cardíaco, mesmo antes do início do tratamento com os fármacos antirretrovirais. COMENTÁRIOS: A L-carnitina é um composto que facilita o transporte dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa para dentro da mitocôndria. Nesse caso, o uso da L-carnitina parece ser clinica e bioquimicamente justificado.OBJECTIVE: To present the cardiovascular response to L-carnitine of a patient with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child with a clinical history of severe congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The treatment for the symptoms resulted in a poor clinical response. In order to improve the energetic performance/metabolism of cardiomyocytes, therapy with L-carnitine was established. There was significant clinical improvement of the cardiac performance of the patient, even before starting the treatment with antiretroviral drugs. COMMENTS: L-carnitine is a compound that facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. In this case the administration of L-carnitine appears to be clinically and biochemical justified.

  17. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  18. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  19. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  20. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  1. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  2. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  3. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  4. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  5. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  6. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  7. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri K

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  8. TAXTOX - a retrospective study regarding the side effects of docetaxel given as part of the adjuvant treatment to patients with primary breast cancer in Denmark from 2007 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, Lise; Nielsen, Mette; Moeller, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    given as three cycles of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) and epirubicin (90 mg/m(2)) followed by three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)). Because of an apparent high incidence of side effects, especially febrile neutropenia (FN) and non-hematologic side effects, the DBCG (The Danish Breast Cancer...

  9. EMDR用于艾滋病患者心理康复研究——以某一艾滋病患者创伤心理治疗的成功个案为例%Research on Application of EMDR to Psychological Rehabilitation of AIDS Patients——A Case Study of a Successful Trauma Psychological Treatment of AIDS Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆玲

    2012-01-01

    Being infected with HIV is a severe traumatic event in the body.The patient often suffers a great mental stress,accompanied by emotional problems to different degrees.This study applied EMDR to the treatment of an AIDS patient with depression and difficulties in interpersonal communication.The therapeutic outcomes showed that application of EMDR to AIDS patient is effective.Thus,a further study on the application is necessary.%感染艾滋病病毒对于生命和躯体安全都是一个严重的创伤性事件,患者往往会承受巨大的精神压力,并有不同程度的情感障碍问题。本文采用EMDR方法对一例具有抑郁情绪和人际交往障碍的艾滋病患者进行治疗,治疗结果显示对HIV/AIDS患者采用EMDR方法能获得良好的效果,因此有必要进行更深入的研究和应用。

  10. HIV reverse transcriptase gene mutations in anti-retroviral treatment naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mohanakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to find out the mutational variations of reverse transcriptase (RT gene of HIV, after the traditional drug usage among anti-retroviral therapy naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV Reactive patients, who were exposed for indigenous medicines such as Siddha, Ayurveda etc., for a minimum period of 6 months were taken for this study. Among 40 patients, two samples (5.55% demonstrated high-level mutational resistance variations for nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI and non-NRTI. The predominant polymorphisms detected were K122E (91.7%, V60I (91.7%, V35T (89%, Q207E (89%, D177E (89%, T200A (86.1%, S48T (83.33%, K173A (80.6%.

  11. West-Side Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  12. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  13. The Importance of Non Struck Side Occupants in Side Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, R. J.; Brown, R.; Thomas, P; P. Fay

    1998-01-01

    In a representative sample of tow-away side collisions from the UK Midlands, one third of front seat occupants were alone, on the struck side of the car. The other two thirds were either a non struck side occupant alone or two occupants sitting together. Occupant restraint, especially in perpendicular side impacts, was a notable factor in determining injury outcome for belted non struck side occupants. With both front seats occupied, there was a reduction in AIS 2+ injury to belted non struck...

  14. Aid with Multiple Personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Jose G. Montalvo; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, we study the supply of aid money in 112 developing countries over the period 1960-1999 and find that the presence of multiple donors in a given country renders aid less effective. In particular, an aid-receiving country at the median of the donor fractionalization distribution will grow one percentage point faster than a country at the 75th percentile. This is in part becau...

  15. Computer Aided Measurement Laser (CAML): technique to quantify post-mastectomy lymphoedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Felici, Antonella; Ljoka, Concetta; Di Cori, Sandro; Rosato, Nicola; Foti, Calogero

    2012-10-01

    Lymphoedema can be a side effect of cancer treatment. Eventhough several methods for assessing lymphoedema are used in clinical practice, an objective quantification of lymphoedema has been problematic. The aim of the study was to determine the objectivity, reliability and repeatability of the computer aided measurement laser (CAML) technique. CAML technique is based on computer aided design (CAD) methods and requires an infrared laser scanner. Measurements are scanned and the information describing size and shape of the limb allows to design the model by using the CAD software. The objectivity and repeatability was established in the beginning using a phantom. Consequently a group of subjects presenting post-breast cancer lymphoedema was evaluated using as a control the contralateral limb. Results confirmed that in clinical settings CAML technique is easy to perform, rapid and provides meaningful data for assessing lymphoedema. Future research will include a comparison of upper limb CAML technique between healthy subjects and patients with known lymphoedema.

  16. Computer Aided Measurement Laser (CAML): technique to quantify post-mastectomy lymphoedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphoedema can be a side effect of cancer treatment. Eventhough several methods for assessing lymphoedema are used in clinical practice, an objective quantification of lymphoedema has been problematic. The aim of the study was to determine the objectivity, reliability and repeatability of the computer aided measurement laser (CAML) technique. CAML technique is based on computer aided design (CAD) methods and requires an infrared laser scanner. Measurements are scanned and the information describing size and shape of the limb allows to design the model by using the CAD software. The objectivity and repeatability was established in the beginning using a phantom. Consequently a group of subjects presenting post-breast cancer lymphoedema was evaluated using as a control the contralateral limb. Results confirmed that in clinical settings CAML technique is easy to perform, rapid and provides meaningful data for assessing lymphoedema. Future research will include a comparison of upper limb CAML technique between healthy subjects and patients with known lymphoedema.

  17. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  18. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  19. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  20. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  1. Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhouse Jack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI class. Results In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir (PMPA were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy. Conclusions In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

  2. 生物多糖助凝剂应用于再生水处理的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Bio-polysaccharide Flocculant-aid in Reclaimed Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 李育宏; 李秀昆; 姜威; 姜润林; 周丽媛

    2011-01-01

    再生水回用是解决水资源短缺的主要方法之一,而提高再生水水质和处理能力,降低成本至关重要.通过混凝烧杯试验,初步研究了一种新型生物多糖助凝剂配合聚合氯化铝应用于再生水处理的助凝效果.结果表明,与单独使用聚合氯化铝相比,添加少量生物多糖助凝剂不仅可改善出水水质,而且至少可提高20%的水处理能力,同时降低17.8%的药剂成本,具有巨大的经济效益和社会效益.%Reclaimed water reuse is a main method to solve the lack of water resources, whereas to improve the water quality of reclaimed water and water treatment capacity and to reduce the cost treating reclaimed water are essential. The enhanced coagulation effect of a new bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid coupled with polymeric aluminum chloride ( PAC ) in the reclaimed water treatment was preliminarily studied by coagulation jar test. The results show that compared to PAC alone, adding a small amount of bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid can not only improve the effluent quality, but also increase the water treatment capacity at least by 20%, while reducing the cost of reagents by 17.8%. The enormous economic and social benefits can be obtained.

  3. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  4. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p <0.05) (mean age: 37.3 years; 73.7% women; n = 171). At the second follow-up, two and three patients reported side effects...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  5. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  6. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  7. Effect of 482 AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral treatment%482例艾滋病患者高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽赛娜木·艾合买提; 阿里木·帕塔尔; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 潘珂君; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of AIDS cases with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, provide scientiifc evidence for effective antiviral therapy treatment. Method CD4 +T lymphocyte count, changes of the viral load, incidence of opportunistic infections and cause of death in 482 AIDS patients who received highly active anti-retroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Result The average age of 482 AIDS patients were (35.7±11.0) years old, most were men [318 cases (66.0%)], 337 cases (69.9%) were Uyghur ethnic, HIV infection occurred mainly via sexual contact (60.7%). CD4+T lymphocyte counts increased signiifcantly after treatment for 3, 18, 24 months. There were statistically signiifcant differences in the detection results of CD4+T lymphocyte count between the pre-treatment and the post-treatment for 3, 18 and 24 months (P<0.05). 75.8%patients with the therapy efifciency. Opportunistic infections rate was 57.1%(275/482), most was thrush [31.3%(86/275)]. Fractures mortality was 13.5%, respiratory failure was the primary cause of death. Conclusion It is effective to carry out highly active anti-retroviral therapy on AIDS patients.%目的综合评价高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果,为改善抗病毒治疗工作提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析接受高效抗逆转录病毒治疗的482例艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量的变化、机会性感染发生情况以及死亡原因等。结果482例艾滋病患者的平均年龄为(35.7±11.0)岁,多为男性[318例(66.0%)];337例(69.9%)为维吾尔族,感染途径以性接触(60.7%)为主。CD4+T淋巴细胞水平在治疗3、18、24个月后均明显上升,与治疗前相比差异具有显著性(P<0.05);至2014年6月,继续接受随访的240例患者中,病毒完全抑制例数达182例(75.8%)。机会性感染发生率为57.1%(275/482),主要以鹅口疮[31.3%(86/275)]为主。482例患者死亡65例(13.5%

  8. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program. PMID:26737310

  9. A novel method to aid in the visualisation and treatment of uterine fibroids with MRgFUS in patients with abdominal scars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, Summia, E-mail: summia.zaher@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Gedroyc, Wladyslaw, E-mail: w.gedroyc@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lyons, Deidre, E-mail: deidre.lyons@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Regan, Lesley, E-mail: l.regan@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this research was to identify a method for performing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) of symptomatic uterine fibroids in patients with abdominal scars, by visualisation of these scars on MR images. 25 patients who presented with treatable symptomatic uterine fibroids and having transverse abdominal scars were treated with MRgFUS. A solution containing MRI contrast paramagnetic iron oxide particles was used to demark the skin surface scar tissue on the treatment planning MR images. During treatment, the focused ultrasound energy was steered around the scar based on its enhanced visual location. After the treatment, contrast enhanced MR images were acquired for immediate results evaluation. Adverse events and fibroid related symptoms were captured during the 6-months follow up period. All the women were treated with no complications. No episodes of skin burns, ulceration or skin redness were reported. The post-treatment contrast-enhanced MR images showed an average fibroid non-perfused volume ratio of 64%. At their 6-month follow-up, 92% of the patients reported a clinical improvement. Using paramagnetic iron oxide solution to highlight transverse abdominal scars helps in their identification on MR images, thereby enabling the operator to avoid scars and facilitating the treatment of women who were previously excluded.

  10. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  11. Fatores associados à interrupção de tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, 1999 - 2002 Cofactors of antiretroviral treatment interruption in cases of adults with AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Brito

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de analisar os fatores associados à interrupção do tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS, no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, realizou-se estudo nas unidades locais de referência no atendimento à AIDS. MÉTODOS: Tomou-se como critério de não interrupção o comparecimento a pelo menos 80% das visitas programadas à farmácia para o recebimento das drogas prescritas, por um período de seis meses consecutivos, após a data da prescrição. RESULTADOS: O estudo compreendeu 498 casos, dos quais 52,4% já chegaram a um serviço especializado com alguma condição indicativa de imunodeficiência. O percentual total de não interrupção foi de 64,1%. Não foi encontrada associação com as variáveis sexo, categoria de exposição e contagem de CD4+, nem com o tipo de esquema anti-retroviral. Os resultados da análise multivariada revelaram associações significativas entre interrupção e início do tratamento após internamento hospitalar, uso de drogas, tratamento psiquiátrico, baixo grau de escolaridade e idade de 25 a 34 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a interrupção do tratamento é um problema crítico nos seis primeiros meses seguintes ao início da terapia anti-retroviral em indivíduos virgens de tratamento, e, especialmente, entre os adultos jovens, com história prévia de tratamento psiquiátrico, que usam ou fizeram uso de drogas lícitas ou ilícitas até um ano antes de iniciar o tratamento com anti-retrovirais, que iniciam a terapia após internamento hospitalar e têm baixo nível de escolaridade.BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine factors associated to the interruption of antiretroviral treatment in adults with AIDS in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS: This was a population-based study, using data from the State's sources of vital statistics. Interruption was calculated using data on the number of programmed visits to the pharmacies, taking into

  12. Analysis of the efficacy of free antiviral treatment among HIV/AIDS patients in Taishan City%台山市艾滋病免费抗病毒治疗疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡月仙; 余大年; 王立华; 刘仲昌; 林晓; 方健玲; 陈雪冰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨台山市艾滋病抗病毒治疗的效果,为进一步开展有效的抗病毒治疗工作提供依据.方法 收集2005-2011年台山抗病毒治疗患者的相关资料,统计分析患者基本情况、治疗方案、治疗前后CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量、临床症状体征、终止治疗情况以及生存状况的变化.结果 139例病人,静脉吸毒感染占66.91%,男性71.94%,已婚或同居62.59%,年龄25~55岁的占92.80%.病人CD4+T淋巴细胞计数治疗1年后与治疗前基线相比,平均增长204.02/mm3;治疗后86.67%病人病毒载量<40拷贝/mL;各种机会感染症状体征发生率由治疗前的58.06%下降到治疗后1年的3.22%;55.39%的病人出现各种药物不良反应;停药病人占12.95%,死亡病例占7.19%,失访病例占11.51%;病人生存率提高,维持治疗3年生存率达到80.00%.结论 抗病毒治疗效果显著,服药依从性直接关系到治疗效果.%Objective To explore the efficacy of antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients and provide scientific basis for further effective therapy . Methods Relevant information on the antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients from 2005 to 2011 in Taishan was collected. The basic information of patients, their treatment regimes, CD4+ T cell counts before and after treatment, viral load, clinical symptoms and signs, termination of treatment and changes of living conditions were statistically analyzed. Results Of the 139 patients, 66.91% were infected via intravenous drug use,71. 94% were male, 62. 59% were married or cohabiting, 92. 80% were aged from 25 to 55 years. After antiviral treatment for one year, the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were increased by 204. 02/mm3 compared to the baseline before treatment; the viral load in 86. 67% patients after the treatment was <40 copy/mL; the incidence of various opportunistic infections with clinical symptoms and signs was decreased from 58. 06% to 3. 22% after one year treatment

  13. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid, but the...... AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the...

  14. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  15. Why is There No AIDS Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rey Biel

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...

  16. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

  17. Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Strose Villaça

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é considerada, atualmente, uma doença sistêmica, cujas alterações estruturais e metabólicas podem levar à disfunção muscular esquelética. Esta afeta negativamente o desempenho muscular respiratório e periférico, a capacidade funcional, a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e mesmo a sobrevida. A indicação de suplementação de substâncias ergogênicas para pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica baseia-se no fato de que estas drogas podem evitar, ou minimizar, o catabolismo e/ou estimular a síntese protéica, diminuindo a depleção de massa muscular e aumentando a capacidade de exercício. A presente revisão sumariza o conhecimento disponível acerca da utilização de esteróides anabolizantes, creatina, L-carnitina, aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e hormônio de crescimento em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. A vantagem do uso dessas substâncias ergogênicas parece residir no aumento da massa magra e/ou na indução de modificações bioenergéticas. Nesse contexto, a maior experiência acumulada é com os esteróides anabolizantes. Entretanto, os benefícios clínicos em relação à melhora da capacidade de exercício e força muscular, bem como os efeitos na morbimortalidade, não foram, até a presente data, consistentemente demonstrados. A suplementação ergogênica pode vir a se constituir numa ferramenta adjuvante para o tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica avançada, especialmente naqueles com depleção muscular e/ou fraqueza periférica.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients

  18. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  19. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  20. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  2. Drug treatment and familiar music aids an attention shift from vision to somatosensation in Parkinson's disease on the reach-to-eat task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2011-03-01

    Sensory control of the natural skilled movement of reaching for a food target to eat (reach-to-eat) is closely coupled to the successive phases of the movement. Control subjects visually fixate the target from hand movement onset to the point that the digits contact the food, at which point they look away. This relationship between sensory attention and limb movement suggests that whereas limb advance is under visual control, grasping, limb withdrawal, and releasing the food to the mouth is guided by somatosensation. The pattern of sensory control is altered in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD subjects may visually fixate the target for longer durations prior to movement initiation, during the grasp, and during the initial portion of hand withdrawal suggesting that vision compensates for a somatosensory impairment. Because both medication and listening to favorite musical pieces have been reported to normalize some movements in subjects with PD, the present study compared the effect of medication and listening to preferred musical pieces on sensory attention shifts from vision to somatosensation during the reach-to-eat movement. Biometric measures of eye movement and the movement of the reaching limb were collected from PD subjects and aged-matched control subjects in four conditions in their own homes: off medication, off medication with music, on medication, and on medication with music. Unmedicated PD subjects were slower to visually disengage the target after grasping it. Their disengage latency was shortened by both music and medication. Medication and music did not improve other aspects of reaching, including reaching duration and the ratings of the movement elements of limb advance, grasping, and limb withdrawal. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that one way in which medication and music may aid movement in PD by normalizing somatosensory control of forelimb movement thus reducing compensatory visual monitoring. PMID:21073905

  3. 早期抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响%Survival effect regarding earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 安伟锋; 马彦民; 李宁; 朱谦; 孙定勇; 黄学勇; 许汴利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect of initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients at different stages so as to explore the best time of initiation with the treatment.Methods Information regarding the dates of AIDS patient initially receiving the anti-retroviral therapy during 2007-2012 was collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Integrated Control System.According to the level of baseline immunology,all the participants were divided into earlier treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts between 350/ μl and 500/μl) and conventional treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts ≤350/ μl).Data was analyzed under Survival and Review methods.Results A total number of 16 282 cases were selected.The mortality of conventional treatment group was obviously higher than the earlier treatment group (5.78/100 person year vs.1.64/100 person year),and the median survival time was lower than the earlier treatment group (2.07 year vs.3.15 year).The cumulative survival rate of the 6-year conventional treatment group was lower than the earlier treatment group (77.39% vs.92.10%,x2=156.00,P < 0.01).By means of multi-variable analysis,we found that factors as age,gender,marital status,route of transmission,schedule on initial therapy,number of symptoms at the baseline etc.in the conventional treatment group were associated with survival time of patients after the ART initiation (P<0.05),while gender,schedule for initial therapy,number of symptoms at baseline etc.in the earlier treatment group,were associated with survival time of patients after the initiation of ART (P<0.05).Conclusion Earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time.%目的 比较不同时间开始抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响,并探讨抗病毒治疗最佳时机.方法 利用国家艾滋病抗病毒治疗信息系统,收集2007-2012年河南省加入抗病毒治疗的艾滋病患者基本

  4. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  5. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  6. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  7. Side-hairline Correction in Korean Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyun Park, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: In East Asian patients, both side-hairline correction surgery and zygoma reduction can be considered eligible treatment options for the purpose of midface slimming. Especially in patients with a type 3 zygomatic bone structure, side-hairline correction surgery may be more effective than zygoma reduction surgery for midface slimming.

  8. Three sided complex adaptative systems

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hulst, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce two three sided adaptative systems as toy models to mimic the exchange of commodities between buyers and sellers. These models are simple extensions of the minority game, exhibiting similar behaviour as well as some new features. The main difference between our two models is that in the first the three sides are equivalent while in the second, one choice appears as a compromise between the two other sides. Both models are investigated numerically and compared with the original minority game.

  9. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  10. Stress, Motivation and Professional Satisfaction among Health Care Workers in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Centers in Urban Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Siril, Hellen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Hawkins, Claudia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Michelle S.; Ismail, Shabbir; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Shortages of health care workers (HCWs) represents a serious challenge to ensuring effective HIV care in resource-limited settings (RLS). Stress, motivation, and job satisfaction have been linked with HCW retention and are important in addressing HCW shortages. In this cross-sectional study HCW stress, motivation and perceived ability to meet patient needs were assessed in PEPFAR-supported urban HIV care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in Tanzania. A self-administered questionnaire measuring mot...

  11. The right side in congenital heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schuuring, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Life expectancy of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased dramatically during the past years, due to the successes of cardiac surgery. At present, nearly all of these children with CHD can be operated at young age and more than 90% reach adulthood. At adult age, however, many patients with CHD are at risk of complications. This thesis focused on the right sided complications often seen in patients with CHD, the implications on survival, the various treatment options availa...

  12. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  13. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  14. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  15. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a...... positive and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  16. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  17. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  18. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  19. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  20. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...... labour capacity that prevents the real exchange rate from appreciating....

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  2. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mobile Kidney Failure and Its Treatment Featured Website: Bionic Man Past ... But sunlight also has a dangerous side. It can harm your skin and even your eyes. The good news is you can take some ...

  3. Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Magdalena Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.

  4. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.

    2012-06-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  5. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  6. 符合治疗条件的HIV感染者/AIDS病人未接受HAART的影响因素%Influencing factors of HIV/AIDS patients eligible for HARRT but not receive antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    It is confirmed that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)is the most effective treatment for HIV infection now,but the proportion of treatment for eligible infected people is not high.The influence factors are various,mainly includes low cognitive level of patients,limited service,insufficient funding,social discrimination,drug toxicity and lifelong treatment.For expanding the treatment and increasing the coverage,four proposals are made:firstly,to improve the enthusiasm of patients; secondly,to reduce the burden of patients; thirdly,to strengthen the construction of grass-roots; and fourthly,to build a good social environment to reduce or eliminate discrimination.%高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)目前已被证实是针对艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染的最有效的治疗方法.但目前符合治疗标准的HIV感染者和艾滋病(AIDS)病人接受治疗的比例并不高,其影响因素是多方面的,主要包括:病人认知程度低、服务提供有限、资金投入不足、社会歧视、服药本身不良反应和需终身服药等.为扩大治疗和提高覆盖率,建议:一要提高病人治疗积极性;二要减轻病人治疗负担;三要加强基层建设;四要营造良好的社会环境,减少和消除歧视.

  7. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  8. Multinodular goiter treatment with radioiodine aided by recombinant human TSH in different doses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is not an optimal treatment for multinodular goiter (MNG). Surgery is the main therapeutic option because it decreases thyroid volume, reduces compression symptoms and provide histological diagnosis. Radioiodine (131I) is an efficient therapeutic option for the treatment of MNG mainly when surgery is not indicated or when the patient refused it. However, high activities of 131I are frequently required for clinically significant results. This procedure increases the body radiation exposure and the hospitalization costs. Recombinant human TSH (rh TSH) allows a reduction in the administered activity of 131I with effective thyroid volume (TV) reduction. However, this combination therapeutic can increase collateral effects. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low and intermediate doses of rh TSH compared to placebo, associated with a fixed activity of 131I in MNG treatment. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with MNG received 0.1 mg of rh TSH (group I, n=10), 0.01 mg of rh TSH (group II, n=10), or placebo (control group, n=10). After 24 hours, 30 mCi of 131I was given to all patients. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) was determined before and 24 hours after rh TSH. Before and 2, 7, 180 and 360 days after the TV was measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI). The smallest cross-sectional area of tracheal lumen (Scat) was also measured with MRI before, 2 and 7 days after treatment. Antithyroid antibodies, TSH, T3 and free T4 were assessed regularly. Results: After 6 months, the decrease in TV was more significant in groups I (30.3 +- 16.5%) and II (22.6 +- 14.5%), than in control group (5.0 +- 14.6%; p=0.01). After 12 months, TV decreased more in group I (39.2 +- 16.9%) and group II (38.8 +- 24.4%) than in group III (23.4 +- 23.59%) but it was not statistically significant (p=0.205). During the first 30 days,total T3 and free T4 increased, without reaching thyrotoxic levels and TSH decreased. After 12 months, 8 patients developed

  9. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... side effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  11. AIDS: predicting cases nationally and locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, B R; Hagard, S

    1988-09-17

    Models for predicting the future course of the AIDS epidemic can be divided into five types: trend extrapolation models, compartment models, models based on the incubation period, comparison models, and models produced by expert committees. To predict the numbers of cases of AIDS in the United Kingdom and in East Anglia and Cambridge a two stage approach was chosen using trend extrapolation for the national case reports followed by reduction in scale to the two localities. The method predicted that about 2700 cases would be reported nationally during 1990 and about 6000 during 1992. The number of people with AIDS expected to present for treatment in East Anglia during 1990 was 48, and during 1992 was 105; for Cambridge the corresponding figures were 20 and 43. These figures with their estimated 95% confidence intervals will be used for planning local services for people with AIDS, and they emphasise the need for preventive action. PMID:3147734

  12. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  13. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  16. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  17. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  19. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  20. META-ANALYSIS OF PAIN RELIEF EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS OF TRIPTANS IN THE TREATMENT OF MIGRAINE%曲坦类药物对偏头痛疗效及副作用的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩喜梅; 毛西京; 满玉红; 于挺敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relative efficacy and side effects of 7 kinds of triptans in the treatment of migraine. Methods: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane collaboration database, CALIS and SAGE foreign periodical net, CNKI, VIP database were searched for randomized control trials of triptans from January 1995 to June 2010. Meta-analysis was performed for the included studies using RevMan 5.0 software. Results: A total of 127 articles were searched out and 56 of them were enrolled in present meta-analysis. The pain relief rate at 2 hours and sustained efficacy at 24 hours in rizatriptan 10 mg and at 2 hours in 5 mg were significantly higher than that in placebo. All 3 doses of eletriptan (20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg) had higher efficacy than placebo. Sumatriptan 50 mg, 100 mg orally disintegrating tablet and 50 mg tablet were more effective than placebo, 100 mg tablet was more effective than placebo except sustained pain relief rate at 24 hours. Almotriptan 12.5 mg was more effective than placebo, pain relief rate of 6.25 mg and 25 mg after 2 hours were significantly higher than that in placebo. Zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and 5 mg were more effective than placebo. In both frovatriptan 2.5 mg and naratriptan 2.5 mg, the efficacy at 2 hours were significantly higher than that in placebo. In almotriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, zolmitriptan 2.5 mg and 10 mg tablet, spray sumatriptan 5 mg and 10 mg, the incidence rate of side effects were similar to placebo. Conclusion: All 7 kinds of triptans had certain efficacy and tolerance.%目的:评估七种曲坦药物治疗偏头痛的效能及副作用.方法:检索Medline,PubMed,Cochrane 图书馆、CALIS外文期刊网、SAGE外文期刊网,中国知网,维普全文数据库.检索年限为1995年1月~ 2010年6月.纳入曲坦类药物治疗的随机安慰剂对照试验.采用Cochrane协作网提供的RevMan 5.0软件对纳入文献进行Meta分析.结果:共检索到127篇文献,纳入符合标准的56篇进行分析.利扎曲坦10 mg的2