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Sample records for aids treatment side

  1. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  2. Managing Your Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Related information How ... any reason. Return to top More information on Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Explore other publications ...

  3. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Mathiesen, L R; Søeberg, B;

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1...... on 94 occasions and 19 (14%) patients required multiple transfusions. The mortality among the AIDS patients was significantly lower compared to historical controls. In our experience zidovudine treatment is reasonably well tolerated and the side effects are manageable....

  4. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  5. Assessment of Chair-side Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Restorations: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Baroudi, Kusai; Ibraheem, Shukran Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper aimed to evaluate the application of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and the factors that affect the survival of restorations. Materials and Methods: A thorough literature search using PubMed, Medline, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library and Grey literature were performed from the year 2004 up to June 2014. Only relevant research was considered. Results: The use of chair-side CAD/CAM systems is promising in all dental...

  6. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  7. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; pnonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  8. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any new symptoms or a change in symptoms. Treatments for lymphedema are designed to reduce swelling, prevent it from ... the head and neck, you may need physical therapy. Reducing your risk of lymphedema Research continues to look into what factors cause ...

  9. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  10. 46 CFR 197.314 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.314 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.314 First aid and... consists of— (i) Basic first aid supplies; and (ii) Any additional supplies necessary to treat minor...

  11. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  12. HIV/AIDS Adherence: Teaching about Treatment and Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jena Nicols

    2008-01-01

    Advances in HIV/AIDS treatment have dramatically changed the nature of HIV/AIDS education and prevention, creating new opportunities and challenges. This activity is designed to help participants reflect on the impact that HIV treatment can have on a person's life. It also enables trainers to engage participants in a dialogue about the impact of…

  13. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjaerg, L L; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt; Søeberg, B;

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1......,200 mg to 600 mg, 9 others were temporarily off drug. HIV antigen was analyzed in serum samples from 93 patients. Of these, 28 (52%) of 54 initially HIV antigen-positive became antigen-negative, 7 (18%) of 39 initially HIV antigen-negative became antigen-positive within the first 8 weeks of zidovudine...

  14. onlineDeCISion.org: a web-based decision aid for DCIS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Schneider, Katharine H; Soeteman, Djøra; Stout, Natasha; Schrag, Deborah; Fordis, Michael; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-11-01

    Women diagnosed with DCIS face complex treatment decisions and often do so with inaccurate and incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits involved. Our objective was to create a tool to guide these decisions for both providers and patients. We developed a web-based decision aid designed to provide clinicians with tailored information about a patient’s recurrence risks and survival outcomes following different treatment strategies for DCIS. A theoretical framework, microsimulation model (Soeteman et al., J Natl Cancer 105:774–781, 2013) and best practices for web-based decision tools guided the development of the decision aid. The development process used semi-structured interviews and usability testing with key stakeholders, including a diverse group of multidisciplinary clinicians and a patient advocate. We developed onlineDeCISion.​org to include the following features that were rated as important by the stakeholders: (1) descriptions of each of the standard treatment options available; (2) visual projections of the likelihood of time-specific (10-year and lifetime) breast-preservation, recurrence, and survival outcomes; and (3) side-by-side comparisons of down-stream effects of each treatment choice. All clinicians reviewing the decision aid in usability testing were interested in using it in their clinical practice. The decision aid is available in a web-based format and is planned to be publicly available. To improve treatment decision making in patients with DCIS, we have developed a web-based decision aid onlineDeCISion.​org that conforms to best practices and that clinicians are interested in using in their clinics with patients to better inform treatment decisions. PMID:26475704

  15. Improving treatment decisions from radiographs: effect of a decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Mileman; W.B. van den Hout

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether dental students’ accuracy of treatment decision making for dentine caries using radiographs improved after using a decision aid (DA). Methods: Dental students (n = 227) assessed the need for treatment for proximal surfaces of a test set of radiographs for a scenario patient.

  16. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank. PMID:12321757

  17. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: People living with HIV/AIDS need to be periodically educated and informed about various issues associated with the disease severity and antiretroviral treatment along with its side-effects so that they could better cope with disease and its treatment outcomes over time and be able to seek early treatment accordingly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2897-2901

  18. The politics of despair: AIDS and the failure of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I D

    1995-01-01

    The recent AIDS-related death of a friend forced Dr. Iain Mackie to think about the disease and the lack of positive news about it. Despite a flood of recent studies that brought pessimistic news about the treatments now in use, Mackie tries to remain optimistic. "I may be treating only myself as I feed off the politics of optimism," he says, "but at least I will not be feeding off the politics of despair." The article appears as Canada marks another National AIDS Week Oct. 2-8.

  19. Side by side tests of two SDHW systems with solar collectors with and without antireflection treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Han, Jiangong; Perers, Bengt;

    2015-01-01

    Two low flow SDHW systems based on mantle tanks are tested side by side in a laboratory test facility for solar heating systems under the same weather and operation conditions. The systems are identical with the exception that one system is equipped with a solar collector with antireflection...... agreement between measured and calculated thermal performances for both systems. The extra thermal performance of the system with the solar collector with the anti reflection treated glass cover is a strong function of the solar fraction. In sunny periods with high solar fractions the percentage extra...... treated glass while the other system has a collector with a normal glass. Measurements of the thermal performance of the two systems have been carried out for a long measuring period. The thermal performances of the systems have also been calculated with a detailed simulation model. There is a good...

  20. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  1. Willingness to pay to avoid metastatic breast cancer treatment side effects: results from a conjoint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lalla, Deepa; Carlton, Rashad; Santos, Eduardo; Bramley, Thomas; D’Souza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients are treated with a variety of regimens with differing side effects that can reduce the patients’ quality of life. This study assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid side effects related to MBC treatment using conjoint analysis. Methods An online, self-administered conjoint analysis survey of US adult female MBC patients was conducted to elicit preferences for MBC treatment side effects. Attributes included in the analysis were hair loss, ...

  2. Direct treatment costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Perelman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the direct medical costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal from the perspective of the National Health Service. METHODS A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted for 150 patients from five specialized centers in Portugal in 2008. Data on utilization of medical resources during 12 months and patients’ characteristics were collected. A unit cost was applied to each care component using official sources and accounting data from National Health Service hospitals. RESULTS The average cost of treatment was 14,277 €/patient/year. The main cost-driver was antiretroviral treatment (€ 9,598, followed by hospitalization costs (€ 1,323. Treatment costs increased with the severity of disease from € 11,901 (> 500 CD4 cells/µl to € 23,351 (CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/ µl. Cost progression was mainly due to the increase in hospitalization costs, while antiretroviral treatment costs remained stable over disease stages. CONCLUSIONS The high burden related to antiretroviral treatment is counterbalanced by relatively low hospitalization costs, which, however, increase with severity of disease. The relatively modest progression of total costs highlights that alternative public health strategies that do not affect transmission of disease may only have a limited impact on expenditure, since treatment costs are largely dominated by constant antiretroviral treatment costs.

  3. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  4. ANTIPSYCHOTIC SIDE-EFFECT – POTENTIAL RISK OF PATIENTS REJECTING THEIR TREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Tatalović-Vorkapić, Sanja; Graovac, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotics side-effects pose an enormous problem in psychiatric treatment. The choice of antipsychotics is a crucial issue in the treatment as both patients' cooperation and compliance often depend upon it. Severe side-effects might sometimes cause the treatment interruption, to which each patient is entitled. Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features include social and interpersonal deficits, discomfort with close relationships, as well as cognitive and perceptual distorti...

  5. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Reinhard; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Lange-Lindberg, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97) accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity) which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors ...

  6. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97 accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors in cancer treatment. Toxic effects are also one of the factors affecting health related quality of life (HRQOL during chemotherapy. Mistletoe extracts belong to the group of so called „unconventional methods“ and are used in Germany as complementary cancer treatments. It has been postulated that the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes could help reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity and enhance treatment tolerability. The German social health insurance covers the prescription of ML I standardized mistletoe extracts when those are prescribed as palliative cancer treatments with the aim of improving HRQOL. Research questions: * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes reduce their toxicity? * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes contribute to improve quality of life? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on survival? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on tumor-remission? Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in following databases: The Cochrane Library, DIMDI Superbase and Dissertation Abstracts. We included systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCT. Appraisal of literature was done by two authors independently. Checklists were used to guide literature appraisal. The Jadad-Score was used to score quality of RCT. Evidence was summarized in tables and in narrative form. Results and discussion: The

  7. Linezolid as rescue treatment for left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Bruun, Louise E; Rasmussen, R V;

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE...

  8. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  9. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be wi...

  10. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs....

  11. A single TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fiber for photocatalytic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; XU Jingjing; YUAN Chunwei; LIN Jian; YIN Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    By means of TiO2-layer-on-SiO2-layer, anatase TiO2 was deposited on novel side- glowing optical fibers, which can provide side UV radiation along the whole fiber length. FE-SEM images show that the double layers adhered well to the side-glowing optical fiber, and the TiO2 coating was homogeneous and smooth. The decomposition reaction of reactive brilliant red dye X-3B on a single TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fiber indicated that the side-scattering UV light intensity was strong enough for photocatalytic oxidation reaction. Therefore, TiO2-coated side-glowing optical fibers open up a new way to use the optical fiber reactor in photocatalytic wastewater treatment.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of metal-induced side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stejskal, Vera; Hudecek, Romuald; Stejskal, Jenny; Sterzl, Ivan

    2006-12-01

    Environmental factors are recognized as a cause of the increasing frequency of allergic and autoimmune diseases. In addition to external pollutants, metal ions released from dental restorations or from other body implants might trigger inflammation in susceptible subjects. In humans, genes governing metal-induced inflammation and autoimmunity are not yet known. In clinical praxis, metal-sensitive patients will present various symptoms ranging from oral mucosal changes and skin disease to excessive fatigue and autoimmune diseases. Since genetic markers of genetic susceptibility in man are not known, one has to rely on the phenototypic markers. Such biomarkers might be certain detoxification enzymes but also the presence of metal-specific memory cells in the blood. With the increasing use of metal implants in medicine and dentistry, it is important to have a proper tool for the diagnosis of metal allergy in susceptible subjects. After nickel, gold is now the second most common sensitizer. In addition to patch test, an in vitro blood test, an optimized commercially available lymphocyte transformation test (MELISA) is discussed. Both tests were used for the diagnosis of metal allergy in a selected group of 15 patients who suffered from clinical metal sensitivity in addition to other health problems. The concordance of the two tests was good but MELISA detected more metal allergies than patch test. The removal of incompatible dental material (RID) resulted in long-term health improvement in the majority of patients. We postulate that in vivo, metal ions activate T-cells, initiating systemic inflammation, which, through cytokines, affects the brain and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. We postulate that in vivo metal ions will activate T-cells starting systemic inflammation which, through cytokines affect the brain and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The treatment and rehabilitation of metal sensitive patients is based on a firm understanding and

  13. Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS, Treatment Options, and Major Challenges with Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the inability of modern medicine to find a cure for it has placed HIV as one of the most dreaded pathogens of the 21(st) century. With millions of people infected with HIV, it was once thought to result in "medical apocalypse". However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is now possible to control HIV. Adherence to ART helps to keep the viral load under control and prolong the time of progression to AIDS, resulting in near normal life expectancy. Even with the introduction of ART, a substantial number of patients fail to adhere due to a variety of reasons, including adverse side effects, drug abuse, mental disorders, socioeconomic status, literacy, and social stigma. With the availability of so many options for HIV treatment at each stage of the disease progression, physicians can switch between the treatment regimens to avoid and/or minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Close monitoring, major social reforms, and adequate counselling should also be implemented to circumvent other challenges. PMID:27054050

  14. Computational Study of Porous Treatment for Altering Flap Side-Edge Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes calculations are used to investigate porous side-edge treatment as a passive means for flap noise reduction. Steady-state simulations are used to infer effects of the treatment on acoustically relevant features of the mean flow near the flap side edge. Application of the porous treatment over a miniscule fraction of the wetted flap area (scaling with the flap thickness) results in significantly weaker side-edge vortex structures via modification of the vortex initiation and roll-up processes. At high flap deflections, the region of axial flow reversal associated with the breakdown of the side-edge vortex is also eliminated, indicating an absence of vortex bursting in the presence of the treatment. Potential ramifications of the mean-flow modifications for flap-noise reduction are examined in the light of lessons learned from recent studies on flap noise. Computations confirm that any noise reduction benefit via the porous treatment would be achieved without compromising the aerodynamic effectiveness of the flap. Results of the parameter study contribute additional insight into the measured data from the 7x10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames and provide preliminary guidance for specifying optimal treatment characteristics in terms of treatment location, spatial extent, and flow resistance of the porous skin.

  15. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  16. A General Introduction of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a general introduction of HIV/AIDS treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China during the past 20 years. Although the role of TCM in treatment of HIV/AIDS is promising, there is still a long way to go.

  17. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT. PMID:27644905

  18. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  19. Side effects and tolerability of post-exposure prophylaxis with zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir/ritonavir: a comparative study with HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Juan; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Background In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART),the use of antiretrovirals as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was the most important strategy for preventing occupational exposure to blood or fluids containing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the tolerability,safety,and side effects of a HAART regimen containing three antiretroviral drugs,consisting of zidovudine,lamivudine,and lopinavir/ ritonavir,in healthcare personnel (HCP) who experienced occupational exposure to HIV.Methods The tolerability,safety,and side effects in 26 HCPs who experienced PEP and in 27 HIV/AIDS patients with HAART regimen,AZT+3TC+Lpv/r,were evaluated between January 2010 and December 2012.Results The most frequent clinical side effect was fatigue (in 23 cases,88.5%),and gastroenterological symptoms were the second most common side effects in HCP with PEP.Liver dysfunction was found in 10 cases (38.5%),while drug rash was found in 18 cases (69.2%) after PEP.The prevalence of side effects in HCPs who experienced PEP was higher than that in HIV/AIDS patients P <0.05.One nurse (3.8%) experienced severe gastrointestinal symptoms,which led to withdrawal of PEP.No HIV infection was found during 6-month follow-up period.Conclusion HCPs who received occupational PEP with triple-drug regimen,AZT+3TC+Lpv/r,experienced different side effects,and the tolerability and safety of PEP regimen were good in this cohort.

  20. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  1. Oral antibiotic treatment of left-sided infectious endocarditis verified by 16S-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Louise E; Tønder, Niels; Hansen, Thomas Fritz;

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...... describing the effects of oral antibiotic treatment in IE, and only in patients with right-sided endocarditis. In this case report we present a patient with left-sided Streptococcus endocarditis successfully treated with oral antibiotic drugs.......Treatment of infectious endocarditis (IE) comprises intravenously administered antibiotic medications given at high doses for 4-6 weeks--sometimes even longer. Approximately 50% of patients referred to tertiary care centres require additional surgical intervention. At present there are few papers...

  2. A TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection model and optimal control treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. J.; Torres, D. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a population model for TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection transmission dynamics, which considers antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and treatments for latent and active tuberculosis. The HIV-only and TB-only sub-models are analyzed separately, as well as the TB-HIV/AIDS full model. The respective basic reproduction numbers are computed, equilibria and stability are studied. Optimal control theory is applied to the TB-HIV/AIDS model and optimal treatment strategies for co-infected indivi...

  3. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  4. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    -related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily......Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment...... identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects. The...

  5. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  6. Functional Treatment of an Asymmetry Case Having Left Side Paralysis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenduz, Meliha; Uslu, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    This case report presents the results of functional and myofunctional treatment of a 9-year, 5-month-old male patient with laterognathy, facial asymmetry and dentofacial deformity. The patient had a history of herpes encephalitis at age 8.5 months and palsy on the left side in early childhood, and his left side remained paralyzed as a sequela. The patient had dentoalveolar asymmetry with a Class I right and Class III left canine relation, a 1.5 mm midline deviation, anterior cross-bite, an overjet of −3 mm and an overbite of 3 mm. The dentoalveolar and facial asymmetries were corrected using a modified removable appliance, with an acrylic vestibular shield inserted on the right side to guide the mandible in the upper arch and an acrylic plate with artificial teeth in the lower arch. The patient was instructed to practice myofunctional exercises regularly. In total, treatment, including observation, was completed in a period of 2 years and 10 months, at which time, a marked correction in facial asymmetry and profile and improvement in smile esthetics could be observed. PMID:20613926

  7. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  8. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  9. Short and long period optimization of drug doses in the treatment of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO A. L. CAETANO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical optimization techniques are useful in solving problems of computing the best inputs for systems described by mathematical models and when the objectives can be stated in a quantitative form. This work concerns the problem of optimizing the drug doses in the treatment of AIDS in terms of achieving a balance between the therapeutic response and the side effects. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of HIV viruses and CD4 cells is used to compute the short term optimal drug doses in the treatments of patients with AIDS by a direct method of optimization using a cost function of Bolza type. The model parameters were fitted to actual published clinical data. In order to simplify the numerical procedures, the control law is expressed as a series and the sub-optimal control is obtained by truncating the higher terms. When the patient reaches a clinically satisfactory state, the LQR - Linear Quadratic Regulator technique is used to determine the long period maintenance doses for the drugs. The doses computed using the LQR technique tend to be smaller than equivalent constant-dose therapy in terms of increase in the counts of CD4+T cells and reduction of the density of free viruses.Técnicas de otimização numérica são úteis na solução de problemas de determinação da melhor entrada para sistemas descritos por modelos matemáticos e cujos objetivos podem ser expressos de uma maneira quantitativa. Este trabalho aborda o problema de otimizar as dosagens dos medicamentos no tratamento da AIDS em termos de um balanço entre a resposta terapêutica e os efeitos colaterais. Um modelo matemático para descrever a dinâmica do vírus HIV e células CD4 é utilizado para calcular a dosagem ótima do medicamento no tratamento a curto prazo de pacientes com AIDS por um método de otimização direta utilizando uma função custo do tipo Bolza. Os parâmetros do modelo foram ajustados com dados reais obtidos da literatura. Com o objetivo de

  10. Emergency first-aid treatment of gunshot and stab wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, V; Deeny, P

    The number of violent crimes in Great Britain is on the increase and therefore there is a possibility that nurses will encounter a casualty with stab or gunshot wounds. On encountering a casualty with stab or gunshot wounds, the first aider must immediately assess the scene to avoid personal injury or risk to life. No matter how ugly or bad the injuries look, the basic principles of first aid still apply. Never attempt to remove any penetrating object still in situ as this may cause more serious bleeding. Any penetrating injury to the chest may result in instant respiratory distress. Make use of people present at the scene of the injury. Always ensure that the emergency services are notified immediately. PMID:8038560

  11. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J

    1990-06-01

    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months. PMID:2385457

  12. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N

    2001-05-01

    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  13. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  14. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  15. The Treatment of Snake Bites in a First Aid Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avau, Bert; Borra, Vere; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; De Buck, Emmy

    2016-01-01

    Background The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. Methods A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management. Data was extracted and the body of evidence was appraised according to the GRADE approach. Principal findings The pressure immobilization technique was identified as the only evidence-based first aid technique with effectiveness on venom spread. However, additional studies suggest that proper application of this technique is not feasible for laypeople. Evidence concerning other first aid measures, such as the application of a tourniquet, suggests avoiding the use of these techniques. Conclusions The practical recommendation for the treatment of snakebite in a first aid setting is to immobilize the victim, while awaiting the emergency services. However, given the low to very low quality of the data collected, high quality randomized controlled trials concerning the efficacy and feasibility of different variations of the pressure immobilization technique are warranted. PMID:27749906

  16. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent......Transport of ions in an applied electric field holds many applications within both civil and environmental engineering, e.g. for removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion, remediation of heavy metals from soils and other waste materials and recently for desalination...... of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition...

  17. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  18. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  19. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  20. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  1. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    gathered during fieldwork as participants and observers in a Catholic AIDS treatment clinic and through interviews with service providers in Uganda. We use these data to think both creatively and systematically about the meanings and limitations of pastoral power and therapeutic citizenship....

  2. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  3. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarder N. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ancient malady, which is one of the world’s most wide spread infectious bacterial agents. Fully one-third of the world’s population is already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the greatest burden of disease and infection borne by people in developing countries. Tuberculosis disease is still out of control. Alarming spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and emergence of drug resistance is now further complicating the major problem. HIV not only makes the diagnosis of TB more difficult; it contributes to an increase in TB incidence. The rate of breakdown to clinical TB in individuals infected both with HIV and tuberculosis is many times higher than in those without HIV. The present vaccine is not sufficient to reduce the death rate by eradicating TB with HIV/AIDS. The present review is based on the prevention and treatment of TB patient and co-infected with HIV/AIDS and effect of HIV/AIDS on the treatment and prevention of TB. It will help assuming idea about future steps in prevention and treatment of TB among HIV/AIDS patients.

  4. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. OBSERVATION ON CLINICAL THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF MRI-AIDED ENCLOSURE NEEDLING IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BLOOD RHEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江钢辉; 李艳慧; 庄子齐; 潘文宇; 黄勇; 李健萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRl)-aided enclosure needling in the treatment of stroke patients and changes of the related blood rheology. Methods: A total of 61stroke patients were randomized into MR I-aided enclosure needling group (MRI-aided acupuncture group) (n = 31 ) and conventional acupuncture group (n= 30). For patients of MRl-aided acupuncture group, acupuncture needles were inserted into the subcutaneous tissues around the focus-projection scalp area displayed by MRI, with the needle tips toward the center of the projection region and with two needles being about 2 crn apart, combined with other acupoints according to the concrete syndromes or symptoms. For patients of conventional acupuncture group, Motor Area (MS 6)and Sensory Area (MS 7) on the contralateral side of the focus were punctured. The treatment was conducted once daily, continuously for 30 days. Results: After treatment, of the 31 cases in MRl-aided acupuncture group, 20 werecured basically, 10 responded with significant improvement of symptoms and signs, one case had some improvement.While in conventional acupuncture group, of the 30 cases, 11 were cured basically, 15 responded with striking amelioration of symptoms and signs and 4 had some amelioration. Ridit analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of MRI-aided acupuncture group was significantly superior to that of conventional acupuncture group (P < 0.05). After treatment,the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, whole blood reduction viscosity, hemagglutination index, and the total score of the two groups all decreased significantly in comparison with those of pre-treatment of each group,while whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, vascular sclerosis index and the total score of MRl-aided acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of conventional acupuncture group ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ), suggesting that the effect of theformer group in bettering blood rheology was

  6. Factors associated with treatment for latent tuberculosis in persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to identify factors associated with non-initiation of prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBi in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA, based on a prospective cohort study of PLWA ≥ 18 years of age in two referral services for HIV/AIDS. Of the 232 patients eligible for treatment of LTBi, 69.8% initiated treatment. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, only treatment in one of the two referral services was associated with non-initiation of treatment for LTBi (p < 0.001. TB incidence in the cohort was 0.6/100 person-years. TB incidence in patients that initiated treatment of LTBi was 0.4/100 person-years, compared to 1.2/100 person-years in those that did not initiate treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study’s most interesting finding was that the main factor associated with the likelihood of treatment for LTBi was the health service where the patient was treated.

  7. AIDS Treatments Efficiency Analysis Based on Cost Efficiency Data Envelopment Analysis Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Fuping; XU Yin

    2007-01-01

    Three data envelopment analysis (DEA) models were used to analyse the relative efficiencies of four AIDS treatments in AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) Study 193A(1 309 patients in total, classified into 4 age groups). Results from the output-oriented BCC model show that Treatment 4 ( 600 mg of zidovudine plus 400 mg of didanosine plus 400 mg of nevirapine) is particularly efficient for age group 14-25, but not efficient for the older age groups; Treatment 1 (600 mg of zidovudine alternating monthly with 400 mg of didanosine)and Treatment 2 (600 mg of zidovudine plus 2.25 mg of zalcitabine) are efficient for the age groups 35-45 and 45- ; age group 25-35does not have a particularly efficient treatment, but Treatments 1 and 2 are relatively good. The cost efficiency BCC model, which takes the treatment cost into account, gives similar results as the output-oriented model. Results from the indirect output-oriented BCC model, which allows the replacement among medicines, show that the efficiency of Treatment 2 has greatly decreased compared with that of the output-oriented model, and a set of optimal medicine amounts for different age groups is obtained.

  8. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Blaszczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51% of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61% patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%, and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP.

  9. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  10. Prevention, control and treatment of HIV-AIDS among injecting drug use in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, Bachti; Susanto, Herman; Roesli, Rully; Yusuf, Hadi; Hinduan, Zahrotur; Mase, Johannes C; Surahman, Eri; van der Ven, Andre

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing a growing HIV-epidemic that in many areas is driven by injecting drug use (IDU). IDUs underutilize health services, partly because of legal aspects which also cause that many are held in prison, where further HIV- transmission may take place. Most HIV-infected patients present with advanced HIV-AIDS and many deaths before starting antiretroviral treatment. The growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia has socio-economical implications for individual patients as well as for the health system and for society. IMPACT, a multidisciplinary university-based program in Bandung, West-Java, integrates HIV-prevention and treatment, combining research and implementation. Biomedical, public health and sociobehavioral expertise is used for educational programs for adolescents; scaling-up HIV-testing, harm reduction strategies and care for HIV/AIDS in hospital, community and prison; and institutional as well as individual capacity building related to IDU and HIV/AIDS. It is expected that these activities can make a significant contribution to control of HIV-AIDS in the context of injecting drug use in West-Java and Indonesia as a whole. PMID:19920301

  11. Side Effects Related to 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Lauren R; Eglini, Ariana N; McMichael, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been studied for the treatment of hair loss in men, with finasteride being the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Increasingly, in recent years, off-label use of these drugs has been employed in the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in women. Side effects with 5 α-reductase inhibitors can include changes in sexual function, and recent publications have characterized an increasing prevalence of these in men. A review of 20 peer-reviewed articles found that very few side effects, or adverse events, related to sexual function have been reported in studies in which dutasteride or finasteride has been used to treat hair loss in women. Future publications should investigate not only the efficacy of these drugs in treating FPHL and FFA, but the side effect profile in patients as well. PMID:27050696

  12. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  13. The application of film-forming amines in secondary side chemistry treatment of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World wide a number of nuclear power plants are in operation with steam-water cycles based on a mixed metallurgy concept and / or a non-optimal Balance-of-Plant (BoP) design. Together with limitations of the applied water chemistry treatment, these conditions could enforce the enrichment of impurities, which will be accumulated in the tube sheet region of the steam generators and thus form an aggressive environment with respect to corrosion of steam generator construction materials. The use of surface active agents like film forming amines (FFA) has become widely recognized in the fossil power plant sector, showing a decrease of corrosion product generation by improving the surface conditions. The adherent non wettable film acts as a shield that limits the access of water and hydrated species to the metal or metal oxide surface. This barrier lowers the corrosion rate by inhibiting the mass transfer between surface and solution. This paper deals with the application of film forming amines as complementary conditioning agents in the steam-water cycle of a PWR. The decision for complementing the existing secondary side water chemistry treatment with a controlled and time limited application of film forming amines was part of a project, which has been developed by a pilot plant with PWRs of western design and AREVA NP GmbH. The performance and conditions of the steam generators in those units should be improved. It covers the results of the application with respect to corrosion product transport control, minimization of impurity accumulation in the SGs and improved plant performance. (authors)

  14. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  15. Computer Aided Design of Heat Treatment for AISI P20+Ni Mold Steel with Good Machinability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-bin; GAO Wen; HE Yan-lin; LI Lin

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design of heat treatment for AISI P20 mold steel with good machinability is attempted to proceed by the commercial software package Thermo-Calc (TCP+DICTRA). Through experimental and theoretical analysis of phase transformation during heat treatment, further knowledge of designing proper heat treatment is obtained. Then the machinability of AISI P20+Ni steel under given heat treatment condition is studied and the influencing factors to their machinability are analyzed. It is shown that heat treatment designed by computer simulation of carbide transformation is applicable to AISI P20+Ni steel with good machinability; AISI P20+Ni steel with tempered sorbite treated by quenching &tempering has optimal machinability; normalizing at the temperature of 910℃ & tempering can avoid cracking and result in acceptable machinability in small thickness module.

  16. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  17. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CT-AIDED SURROUNDING NEEDLING TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wenyu; LI Yanhui; LIN Guohua

    2002-01-01

    121 cases of ischemic stroke were randomly divided into CT-aided surrounding needling group (CTASN, 61 cases) and scalp Acupuncture group (SA, 60 cases). After 30 sessions of treatment the therapeutic results of the two groups are significantly different (P < 0.05), the therapeutic effect of CTASN group is better than that of SA group. The plasma contents of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a of the two groups change considerably after acupuncture treatment, the change in CTASN group is more obvious.

  18. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  19. Developing and Implementing Monitoring and Evaluation Methods in the New Era of Expanded Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John

    2004-01-01

    The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…

  20. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  1. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lukacs, S.; B. Tschobotko; Szabo, N. A.; Andrew Symes

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Tra...

  2. Poor response to tuberculosis treatment with regimens without rifampicin in immunosuppressed AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnel M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted on 79 advanced immunosuppressed AIDS patients from 1997 to 1999, during which nine cases of tuberculosis (TB were diagnosed. The main clinical and laboratory characteristics and the response to TB treatment were reviewed. The clinical manifestations of TB were: pulmonary (six cases, extrapulmonary (two cases and disseminated (one case. These patients were being treated with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART and were not responding. In three cases an optional regimen without rifampicin (RMP was indicated to maintain HAART during TB treatment. A clinical response to TB treatment (disappearance of fever was observed in 6/9 patients during a mean of 73 days (SD = 96. The three unresponsive patients were those treated without RMP. A switch to TB regimens containing RMP was proposed and successful. In our study, though it was limited by a small sample size, the response to TB regimens without rifampin was poor in immunossupressed patients failing HAART.

  3. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT, EFFLUENT REUSE, AND SLUDGE HANDLING FOR THE SIDE LEATHER TANNING INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of the treatability of unsegregated, unequalized, and unneutralized wastewaters from a side-leather tanning industry utilizing the hair pulping process by primary and secondary biological and gravity separation in clarifier-thickeners, whereas the secondary treatmen...

  4. Hepatotoxicity during Treatment for Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Maruza, Magda; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima P. Militão

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is frequently reported as an adverse reaction during the treatment of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of hepatotoxicity and to identify predictive factors for developing hepatotoxicity after people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) start treatment for tuberculosis. This was a prospective cohort study with PLWHA who were monitored during the first 60 days of tuberculosis treatment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Hepatotoxicity was considered increased levels of aminotransferase, namely those that rose to three times higher than the level before initiating tuberculosis treatment, these levels being associated with symptoms of hepatitis. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed by the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Hepatotoxicity was observed in 53 (30.6%) of the 173 patients who started tuberculosis treatment. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that the use of fluconazole, malnutrition and the subject being classified as a phenotypically slow acetylator increased the risk of hepatotoxicity significantly. The incidence of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis in PLWHA was high. Those classified as phenotypically slow acetylators and as malnourished should be targeted for specific care to reduce the risk of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis. The use of fluconazole should be avoided during tuberculosis treatment in PLWHA. PMID:27332812

  5. Randomized Multi-center Study of Baofuxin for Treatment of Bleeding Side-effect Induced by IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尚纯; 王翠萍; 程渭玉; 韩学军; 王素贞; 戚娟芳; 刘莹; 付伟

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Baofuxin for treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD.Method The study is a multi-center trial. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups, Baofuxin group ( 90 cases) and Indomethacin group ( 90 cases). In the Baofuxin group, the subjects took the medicine on the first day of menses, once a bag,twice a day for 10 days. In the Indomethacin group, only one capsule was taken once a time, twice a day for 7 days. The treatment was given for three menstrual cycles.The subjects were asked to record their bleeding~spotting by using menstrual diary card not only during the treatment cycles but also during the three months previous and after the treatment cycles. The menstrual profile was analyzed by using MDSv2. 3 program that was provided by WHO.Results Within each 90-day reference period of treatment and post-treatment cycles,the number of bleeding/spotting days decreased obviously and bleeding/spotting free days were greatly increased. Both medicines have little effect on number of episode of bleeding/spotting. The subjects who thought the treatment were highly effective were 81. 1% in the Baofuxin group and 56. 2% in the Indomethacin group respectively (P< 0.01).Conclusion Both Baofuxin and indomethacin are highly effective on treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD, but Baofuxin had longer effects and was more acceptable.

  6. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    NOVELTY - A silicon transducer chip (1) has parallel backplate and movable diaphragm (12) and forms an electrical capacitor. The chip and electronic circuit chip (3) are provided on either sides of intermediate chip (2). The chip (2) has openings (4,10) between two sides of the chip, to allow sound...... towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...

  7. Epinephrine (adrenaline) in the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R

    2004-01-01

    Epinephrine (adrenaline), the initial treatment of choice for systemic anaphylaxis, is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist with bidirectional, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated pharmacological effects on target organs, and a narrow therapeutic index. In a recent study, 0.95% of a geographically-defined population was found to have had epinephrine dispensed for out-of-hospital use; dispensing rates within this population varied from 1.44% for individuals under age 17 years to 0.32% for those older than 65 years. Although epinephrine is widely available in the community, it is not necessarily given in a timely manner when anaphylaxis occurs. Individuals with anaphylaxis may fail to respond to first-aid treatment with epinephrine for a variety of reasons. These include: (1) delay in treatment (in an animal model, epinephrine injection at the nadir of shock fails to provide sustained haemodynamic recovery); (2) administration of epinephrine by sub-optimal routes such as subcutaneous injection or inhalation from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler instead of intramuscular injection; (3) administration of an inappropriately low epinephrine dose due to the limitations currently imposed by the availability of only two fixed-dose auto-injectors: EpiPen Jr 0.15 mg or EpiPen 0.3 mg; and (4) injection of 'outdated' epinephrine, with inadvertent administration of an inadequate dose. Additional fixed-dose formulations of epinephrine are needed to facilitate optimal first-aid dosing in patients of all ages and sizes.

  8. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  9. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  10. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-01-01

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  11. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  12. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  13. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badowski ME

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol, anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone, or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide. The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (–2.0 to 3.2 kg, dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes. Keywords: dronabinol, weight loss, HIV/AIDS, HIV wasting syndrome, cachexia

  14. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-02-01

    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making. PMID:25155561

  15. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodríguez JE; López A; Instituto Sexológico Murciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if they can produce increases in the IELT using a masturbator in subjects with premature ejaculation, producing improvements in the quality and satisfaction of the sexuality of the patient. Methods:To carry out the study it will arrange of the utilization of a masturbation device aid for six weeks that they will use at least during 5 minutes without overcoming the half daily hour in the manual masturbation. The measures of results will be the differentiation of the basal and final IELT by means of the average of both results, obtaining the differential percentage of the above mentioned measures. Results:There was obtained a sample of 9 heterosexual participants of ages included between 20 and 42 years. The time of latency increased from the first week of treatment producing up to 57 %of increase in the IELT in the masturbation and up to 79.9 %of improvement during the coitus. Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE) has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  16. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-02-01

    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making.

  17. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F; Mason, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a heuristic framework for the stages of the addiction cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology includes the binge/intoxication stage, the withdrawal/negative affect stage, and the preoccupation/anticipation (craving) stage, which represent neuroadaptations in three neurocircuits (basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively). The identification of excellent and validated animal models, the development of human laboratory models, and an enormous surge in our understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms have provided a revisionist view of addiction that emphasizes the loss of brain reward function and gain of stress function that drive negative reinforcement (the dark side of addiction) as a key to compulsive drug seeking. Reversing the dark side of addiction not only explains much of the existing successful pharmacotherapies for addiction but also points to vast new opportunities for future medications to alleviate this major source of human suffering. PMID:26514207

  18. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shunsuke eOhnishi; Hiroshi eTakeda

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  19. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; TAKEDA, HIROSHI

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  20. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  1. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta

    2010-01-01

    IN_PRESS Introduction and objectives: In Uganda, there are over 1 million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing kno...

  2. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T.; Atzori, C.; Miller, R.F.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007 and inc...

  3. Staying on the Roller Coaster with Clients: Implications of the New HIV/AIDS Medical Treatments for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    There have been dramatic improvements in the medical treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. This article provides an overview of the new medical treatments, highlights some of the salient psychosocial issues that impact both clients and counselors, discusses common counselor responses, and suggests some helpful interventions. (Author/MKA)

  4. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig;

    2009-01-01

    , fewer psychotic symptoms, and higher rate of workers than those with the worst treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: In the evaluation, CANSEPT showed validity in discriminating the patients of interest and was well tolerated by the patients. CANSEPT could secure inclusion of correct patients in the clinic......; underestimating residual symptoms, negative symptoms, and side effects; or being to open for individual interpretation. The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a new method of classification according to treatment response and, thus, to identify patients in functional remission. METHOD: A naturalistic......, cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment...

  5. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara; Miller, Robert F;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007...... and included individual treatment data of AIDS-associated PCP from a tricenter study. We calculated pooled estimates of reported outcome of second-line treatment using averaged odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies with sufficient detail of second-line treatment and outcome, including data from 82......-SMX should be used as a second-line treatment for those failing first-line treatments with regimens other than TMP-SMX....

  6. Dynamic hip screw with locking side plate: a viable treatment option for intertrochanteric fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh Barwar; Sanjay Meena; Shashi Kant Aggarwal; Prashant Garhwal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Dynamic hip screw (DHS) is recommended for the fixation of stable intertrochanteric fractures.Its postoperative cut-out rate ranges from 1% to 6%.In osteoporotic bone,normal screws in DHS blade provide less anchorage compared to locking screws.This study aims to compare DHS with locking side plate and conventional side plate.Methods:Fifty consecutive patients with intertrochanteric fractures were randomly allocated for fixation with a standard DHS (group A) and locking DHS (Combi plate,group B).We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes for the conventional DHS and locking DHS in intertrochanteric fractures.Functional outcome was evaluated using the Parker mobility score.Results:Coxa valga was found more frequently in group A than in group B (12% vs.0%,P=0.42).Coxa vara showed the same trend (12% vs.8%,P=0.81).Rate of restoration of postoperative neck-shaft angle within 20° of sound side was higher in group B (8% cases) than in group A (4% cases,P=0.98).The rate of anteversion angle restoration within 10° of sound side was also higher in group B (100% vs.88%,P=0.85).The average lag screw slippage in group A and group B was 3.2 mm and 4.2 mm,the average fracture union duration was 17.1 weeks and 16.4 weeks,and the mean Parker score was 5.6 and 5.8 respectively.Screw cut-out was seen in one patient in group A.No cut-out was seen in any of the patient in group B.No patient developed deep infection,avascular necrosis,deep vein thrombosis or any other significant complications.Conclusion:The present study demonstrated that treating intertrochanteric fracture with a locking DHS allows sound bone healing and is not associated with any major complications.Although this report is promising,it should be interpreted with caution because only a prospective study with a large sample size would allow definitive conclusion.

  7. Efficiency and side effects of isotretinoin usage in the treatment of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Çiler Çıkım; Muammer Seyhan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Design: Although satisfying results with isotretinoin therapy were reported in treatment of severe or moderate but resistant acne vulgaris; the data about this treatment modality in Turkey is insufficient. Therefore we aimed to asses the clinical efficiency of isotretinoin treatment in patients with severe or moderate but resistant acne.MATERIAL-METHOD: Ninety four patients were enrolled into the study. The patients were evaluated for clinical symptoms and biochemical parameter...

  8. One sided UV-C treatments maintain quality of fresh-cut green onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage quality of fresh-cut green onions as affected by UV-C treatments, so in this research the effect of UV-C treatments on quality was investigated in fresh-cut green onions. Four different UV-C treatments were used for ultraviole radiation to onions, and non-treated samples as evaluated control group. After UV-C treatments onions were stored at 5°C and 85-90% RH for 15 days. Quality attributes of samples were evaluated periodically in terms of antioxidant activity, electroliyte leakage, color, weight loss, decay percentage and inner leaf extension. Electrolyte leakage of fresh-cut green onions was getting high with the higher doses of UV-C so, the lower doses can be used for controlled pathogen growth because of both lower electrolyte leakage and lower decay percentage at the day 10th. L* value of white stem tissues maintain best in UV-C5 treatment whereas green color of hollow green tissues was retained best in UV-C3 treatment. Onions in UV-C15 treatment were shown noticeable yellowing however inner leaf extension of onions was effectively controlled by the UV-C15 treatment. Antioxidant activity of fresh-cut green onion was enhanced higher doses of UV-C treatments, especially UV-C15. (author)

  9. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  10. Responding to medical crises: AIDS treatment, responsibilisation and the logic of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The framing of HIV/AIDS as a crisis has facilitated the rollout of large-scale intervention programmes that represent an enormous effort at mainstreaming biomedical rationalities and neoliberal notions of responsibilisation and self-care. Based on a 'logic of choice' (Mol 2008) and 'responsibilised citizenship' (Robins 2005a), although veiled in a language of rights and partnership, the heavy focus on individual behaviour and a pharmaceutical 'solution' to AIDS shifts the burden of responsibility for the success of the heavily funded programmes onto the shoulders of the patients and conceals alternative forms of responsibility. Analysing how HIV-positive people in Tanzania navigate life with HIV and the complex treatment regimens, this paper looks beyond biomedical rationality, which places the preservation of individual biological life at the centre of its logic, and analyses people's constant struggle to negotiate the meaning of 'responsible behaviour' in the context of their lived realities. This repositions the notion of responsibility in the realm of the social and reveals the rationality behind apparently irrational practices. PMID:23898836

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of Faculty Members Working in Dental Institutions towards the Dental Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marya, Charumohan; Rekhi, Amit; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dentists have an ethical responsibility to provide treatment to HIV-infected patients, particularly because oral lesions are common among these patients. However, there are no official guidelines as to how to treat people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) or how to screen for potentially infectious people. Materials and Method. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based study which assessed the knowledge and attitude of the faculty members towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS was carried out in the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences, Faridabad, and Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. Results. The willingness to treat patients with HIV was found to be 86.0% among the faculty members in the present study. The majority (79%) of the faculty members thought that treating an HIV-positive patient is ethical responsibility of the dentist. There was a positive attitude (88.0%) among faculty members that routine dental care should be a part of the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. The level of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS was acceptable in the present study. However, continuing dental education (CDE) programmes should be conducted on a regular basis for updating the knowledge level of the faculty members towards the dental treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:27379262

  12. Analysis of an HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence is formulated. The infectious period is partitioned into the asymptotic and the symptomatic phases according to clinical stages. The constant recruitment rate, disease-induced death, drug therapies, as well as a nonlinear incidence, are incorporated into the model. The basic reproduction number R0 of the model is determined by the method of next generation matrix. Mathematical analysis establishes that the global dynamics of the spread of the HIV infectious disease are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. If R0≤1, the disease always dies out and the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable. If R0>1, the disease persists and the unique endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region.

  13. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P;

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects.......05). CONCLUSIONS--The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS....

  14. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  15. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  16. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin, he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment.

  17. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, S; Tschobotko, B; Szabo, N A; Symes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain) immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin), he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin) and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment. PMID:23844314

  18. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  19. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  20. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices. PMID:27681153

  1. MYOPATHY AS A SIDE EFFECT OF STATIN THERAPY: MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with proven efficacy that reduce cardiovascular risk and are well tolerated by most patients. Myopathy as a side effect of statin therapy is one of the most common reasons for their withdrawal. Its severity can range from asymptomatic increase of serum CPK to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Therefore it is necessary to remember about the possibility of its occurrence.The exact molecular mechanisms of muscle damage by statins are still unknown. Various hypotheses are suggested in this respect: fatty acid oxidation disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased protein degradation in myocytes due to changes in atrogin-1 and ubiquitin activity, activation of autoimmune processes, intracellular depletion of essential metabolites, destabilization of cell membranes, impaired expression of genes involved in apoptosis and protein degradation. The theory that the reduction of intramuscular CoQ10 level is the cause of myopathy prevails. Additional intake of CoQ10 seems promising, but is not evidence-based.

  2. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A.; van Riel, A.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are gi

  3. The treatment of spastic cerebral palsy by side to side neurorrhaphy of peripheral nerves%周围神经侧侧缝合治疗痉挛性脑性瘫痪的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    修先伦; 王宁; 张少成; 祝玉玺; 王季; 王吉波

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss a new method and its mechanism for the treatment of spastic cerebral palsy. Methods 6 cases were treated.The injurious nerve trunk was kept abreast of neighbor donor nerve at suitable segement, the epineurium and fascicu of two neighboring area were incised to appear nerve fibers,then side to side anastomosed each other through the epineurium and fascicu. Result All cases were followed up for 4~ 15 months.The spastic limb and deformity of all cases have obvious relieve, 5 cases had no spasm without extra stimulation and have the main function recovered.Conclusion Side to side neurorrhaphy is a new method to treat spastic cerebral palsy.After operation, the spastic muscle could obtain normal never control,thereby,the cervical orientation area was changed.

  4. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-04-20

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  5. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  6. Compulsory Maintenance Treatment Program Amongst Iranian Injection Drug Users and Its Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    ESKANDARIEH, Sharareh; Jafari, Firoozeh; Yazdani, Somayeh; Hazrati, Nazanin; Saberi-Zafarghandi, Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive substance use can cause a broad variety of mental health disorders and social health problems for the drug users, their family and society. Objectives: The Ministry of Health, Treatment, and Medical Education of Iran has recently proclaimed an estimated number of 2 million drug abusers and 200,000 injecting drug users (IDUs). Patients and Methods: For data collection, the directory of mental, social health, and Addiction designed a questionnaire in cooperation with Dr...

  7. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  8. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care and treatment in the decentralization of services delivery in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care and treatment and its determinants across levels of health service administration in Vietnam. METHODS: We interviewed 1016 patients at 7 hospitals and health centers in three epicenters, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City. The Satisfaction with HIV/AIDS Treatment Interview Scale (SATIS was developed, and 3 dimensions were constructed using factor analysis, namely "Quality and Convenience"; "Availability and Responsiveness"; and "Competence of health care workers". RESULTS: In a band score of (0; 10, the mean scores of all domains were large; it was the highest in "Competence of health workers" (9.34±0.84, and the lowest in "Quality and Convenience" (9.03±1.04. The percentages of respondents completely satisfied with overall service quality and treatment outcomes were 42.4% and 18.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors related to higher satisfaction included female sex, older age, and living with spouses or partners. Meanwhile, lower satisfaction was found among patients who were attending provincial and district clinics; in the richest group; had higher CD4 count; and drug users. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of improving the quality of HIV/AIDS services at the provincial and district clinics. Potential strategies include capacity building for health workers, integrative service delivery, engagements of family members in treatment supports, and additional attention and comprehensive care for drug users with HIV/AIDS.

  9. Self-reported side-effects of anti-retroviral treatment among IDUs: a 7-year longitudinal study (APROCO-COPILOTE COHORT ANRS CO-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Villes, Virginie; Raffi, François; Protopopescu, Camelia; Preau, Marie; Salmon, Dominique; Taieb, Audrey; Lang, Jean-Marie; Verdon, Renaud; Chene, Geneviève; Spire, Bruno

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of potent anti-retroviral treatment (ART) has transformed HIV disease into a chronic condition with the prospect, for the patient, of strict adherence to effective but life-long treatments. Within this framework, a major issue that can negatively affect adherence is the side-effects of the treatment. To date, studies documenting how individuals HIV-infected through drug injection (IDUs) experience ART-related side effects are sparse. Longitudinal data collected from the APROCO-COPILOTE cohort have been used to compare the experience of ART-related side-effects who have been HIV-infected via injecting drug use and non-IDU patients. A 20-item list was used to collect self-reported side-effects over a 7-year follow up period. Of 922 patients, 15% were IDUs. At any given visit, IDUs reported a significantly higher number of side-effects and had approximately twice the risk of reporting any side effect than non-IDUs. Most commonly reported side-effects were dry skin, fatigue, vomiting, bone troubles, insomnia. After adjustment for social conditions, depressive symptoms, use of sleeping pills and time since HIV diagnosis, IDUs reported experiencing significantly more side-effects than non-IDUs. Whether or not this is related to sensitivity to pain or to other comorbidities is difficult to establish. Further research is needed to understand how substitution treatment can mediate the relationship between exposure to opioids and side-effects. Providing appropriate care to reduce side-effects, thereby increasing adherence to ART in this population, remains a major challenge especially in those countries scaling up ART. Incorporating symptom management and improving access to analgesic medications within a model of comprehensive care for HIV-infected IDUs, could reduce the impact of drug-related and HIV-related harms and induce better long-term treatment outcomes and quality of life. PMID:17689377

  10. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  11. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisheng, W; Fuying, Z; Limin, W; Junwei, Li; Guofu, P; Weidong, W

    2007-01-01

    patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years). At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3%) patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%). In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%). Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124) had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B) had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236) of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach—anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon's experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated. PMID:21139782

  12. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng W

    2007-01-01

    decompression, 31 patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years. At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3% patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%. In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%. Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124 had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236 of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach-anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon′s experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated.

  13. Analysis of prosthetic replacement in treatment of femoral neck fracture on the hemiplegia side in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯明利; 沈惠良; 胡怀健; 雍宜民; 曹立; 王玮

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of prosthetic replacement in treatment of femoral neck fractures on the hemiplegia side in the elderly.Methods: From May 1990 to May 2000, 189 elderly patients with femoral neck fractures were treated with prosthetic replacement in my hospital. Twenty-nine hemiplegia patients, who suffered from stroke previously,had Garden type Ⅲ and type Ⅳ femoral neck fractures on the hemiplegia side. Thirty non-hemiplegia patients were chosen randomly. The two groups were followed-up for 27-98 months (average: 59 months). The age, hospitalization days, operating time, blood loss, blood transfusion,complications during perioperative period and long-term complications were compared between the two groups and the results of femoral head replacement and total hip replacement in the hemiplegia group were also compared.Results: All the patients of the two groups survived the perioperative period. No significant difference was found in the age, hospitalization days, operation time,blood loss and blood transfusion and long-term complications between the two groups ( P > 0.05 ). However there was significant difference in complications during perioperative period between the two groups ( P < 0.05 ).Five patients died in the hemiplegia group with the mortality of 17.2% and two died in the non-hemiplegia group with the mortality of 6.7 % 11 months to 5 years after operation. There was significant difference in long-term complications between the femoral head replacement and the total hip replacement in the hemiplegia group (P <0.05). The result of the total hip replacement was better than that of the femoral head replacement.Conclusions: Prosthetic replacement is a reliable method in treatment of Garden type Ⅲ and type Ⅳfemoral neck fractures on the hemiplegia side in the elderly,and patients are safe during perioperative period. More complications during perioperative period occur in the hemiplegia group, and long-term complications are

  14. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1 bone mineral density; 2 cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3 body composition (lean mass and fat mass; 4 blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5 lipids and glycemic control; and 6 quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1 resistance/impact loading exercise, (2 resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3 usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention. Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of

  15. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1) bone mineral density; 2) cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3) body composition (lean mass and fat mass); 4) blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5) lipids and glycemic control; and 6) quality of life and psychological distress. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention). The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically

  16. Treatment Outcomes of AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma under a Routine Antiretroviral Therapy Program in Lilongwe, Malawi: Bleomycin/Vincristine Compared to Vincristine Monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mwafongo, Albert A.; ROSENBERG, Nora E.; Wingston Ng'ambi; Werner, Alexandra B.; Garneau, William M.; Joe Gumulira; Sam Phiri; Mina C Hosseinipour

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) being the most prevalent AIDS-associated cancer in resource limited settings, optimal treatment options remain unknown. We assessed whether bleomycin/vincristine compared to vincristine monotherapy was associated with improved treatment outcomes for AIDS-associated KS among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Malawi. Methods All patients initiating cART and chemotherapy for AIDS-related KS were identified from an electronic da...

  17. The significance of Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT after yttrium-90 radioembolization treatment in the prediction of extrahepatic side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Muckle, Marianne; Sabet, Amir; Biermann, Kim; Haslerud, Torjan; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Unwanted deposition of {sup 90}Y microspheres in organs other than the liver during radioembolization of liver tumours may cause severe side effects such as duodenal ulcer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of posttherapy bremsstrahlung (BS) SPECT/CT images of the liver in comparison to planar and SPECT images in the prediction of radioembolization-induced extrahepatic side effects. A total of 188 radioembolization procedures were performed in 123 patients (50 women, 73 men) over a 2-year period. Planar, whole-body and BS SPECT/CT imaging were performed 24 h after treatment as a part of therapy work-up. Any focally increased extrahepatic accumulation was evaluated as suspicious. Clinical follow-up and gastroduodenoscopy served as reference standards. The studies were reviewed to evaluate whether BS SPECT/CT imaging was of benefit. In the light of anatomic data obtained from SPECT/CT, apparent extrahepatic BS in 43% of planar and in 52% of SPECT images proved to be in the liver and hence false-positive. The results of planar scintigraphy could not be analysed further since 12 images were not assessable due to high scatter artefacts. On the basis of the gastrointestinal (GI) complications and the results of gastroduodenoscopy, true-positive, true-negative, false-positive and false-negative results of BS SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging in the prediction of GI ulcers were determined. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of SPECT and SPECT/CT in the prediction of GI ulcers were 13%, 88%, 8%, 92% and 82%, and 87%, 100%, 100%, 99% and 99%, respectively. Despite the low quality of BS images, BS SPECT/CT can be used as a reliable method to confirm the safe distribution of {sup 90}Y microspheres and in the prediction of GI side effects. (orig.)

  18. Node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Does VMAT improve treatment plan quality with respect to IMRT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasler, M.; Bartelt, S.; Lutterbach, J. [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center Singen, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Georg, D. [Medical University Vienna/AKH Wien, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present work was to explore plan quality and dosimetric accuracy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer. Methods: VMAT and IMRT plans were generated with the Pinnacle{sup 3} V9.0 treatment planning system for 10 lymph node-positive left-sided breast cancer patients. VMAT plans were created using a single arc and IMRT was performed with 4 beams using 6, 10, and 15 MV photon energy, respectively. Plans were evaluated both manually and automatically using ArtiView trademark. Dosimetric plan verification was performed with a 2D ionization chamber array placed in a full scatter phantom. Results: Photon energy had no significant influence on plan quality for both VMAT and IMRT. Large variability in low doses to the heart was found due to patient anatomy (range V{sub 5} {sub Gy} 26.5-95 %). Slightly more normal tissue dose was found for VMAT (e.g., V{sub Tissue30%} = 22 %) than in IMRT (V{sub Tissue30%} = 18 %). The manual and ArtiView trademark plan evaluation coincided very accurately for most dose metrics (difference < 1 %). In VMAT, 96.7 % of detector points passed the 3 %/3 mm gamma criterion; marginally better accuracy was found in IMRT (98.3 %). Conclusion: VMAT for node-positive left-sided breast cancer retains target homogeneity and coverage when compared to IMRT and allows maximum doses to organs at risk to be reduced. ArtiView trademark enables fast and accurate plan evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Tics and other stereotyped movements as side effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Tics and other stereotyped abnormal movements can be seen as adverse effects of some pharmacologic drugs. Among these drugs, antipsychotics may provoke tardive syndromes after a chronic exposure, primarily in the case of typical antipsychotics. These syndromes include tardive tics, tardive dyskinesia, or tardive akathisia, which present with tics or stereotyped movements as a clinical phenomenon. Psychostimulants (mainly methylphenidate) have traditionally been associated with the appearance of tics due to the increased dopamine activity caused by stimulants. Nevertheless, in recent years, several studies have concluded not only that methylphenidate does not exacerbate or reactivate tics but also that tics can improve with its use in patients with associated attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. Antiepileptic drugs, although infrequently, can also induce tics, with carbamazepine and lamotrigine described as tic inducers. Other antiepileptics, including levetiracetam and topiramate, have been proposed as a potential treatment for tic disorders due to a positive effect on tics, especially in those with associated epileptic disorder. Clinical and therapeutic approaches to tics and stereotyped movements after exposure to antipsychotics, stimulants, and antiepileptic drugs will be reviewed in this chapter.

  20. Recent Advances of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; ZOU Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980's over 40 million individuals have infected with HIV worldwide and over 12 million have died.In China by 2009 there had been 319,877 cases were identified as HIV/AIDS.1 AIDS has become not only a severe medical problem but also a social and economic issue.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of dolutegravir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huda Taha,1 Archik Das,2 Satyajit Das1,3 1Integrated Sexual Health Service Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust, Coventry, 2School of Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham, 3Coventry University, Coventry, UK Abstract: Dolutegravir (DTG is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI, which has now been licensed to be used in different countries including the UK. Earlier studies have demonstrated that DTG when used with nucleoside backbone in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients has been well tolerated and demonstrated virological suppression comparable to other INSTIs and superiority against other first-line agents, including efavirenz and boosted protease inhibitors. Like other INSTIs, DTG uses separate metabolic pathways compared to other antiretrovirals and is a minor substrate for CYP-450. It does not appear to have a significant interaction with drugs, which uses the CYP-450 system. Nonetheless, it uses renal solute transporters that may potentially inhibit the transport of other drugs and can have an effect on the elimination of other drugs. However, the impact of this mechanism appears to be very minimal and insignificant clinically. The side effect profiles of DTG are similar to raltegravir and have been found to be well tolerated. DTG has a long plasma half-life and is suitable for once daily use without the need for a boosting agent. DTG has all the potential to be used as a first-line drug in combination with other nucleoside backbones, especially in the form of a single tablet in combination with abacavir and lamivudine. The purpose of this review article is to present the summary of the available key information about the clinical usefulness of DTG in the treatment of HIV infection. Keywords: dolutegravir, integrase inhibitors, HIV, antiretroviral, treatment

  2. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco; Richard, Lance; Kumar, Maya; Forsythe, Anna; Flores, Natalia M; Moline, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2), productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health questionnaire), and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147) and treated insomnia (n = 2860) in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively), greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%), and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11). Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p insomnia was observed in both the US and 5EU, and the association remained even after treatment

  3. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco DiBonaventura

    were not significant in the 5EU. A significant burden of insomnia was observed in both the US and 5EU, and the association remained even after treatment. Non-adherence due to side effects was common and, in the case of the US, associated with significantly poorer health outcomes.

  4. Comparison of efficacy and side-effects of Oxybutynin and Tolterodine in the treatment of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanbari Z

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Overactive bladder (OAB is one of the most prevalent diseases of lower urinary system. OAB disease is defined by the Standardization Subcommittee of the International Continence Society as urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia with no proven infection or other obvious pathology. Treatment with the antimuscarinic agents tolterodine and oxybutynin is the mainstay of therapy for overactive bladder. The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and side-effects of tolterodine and oxybutynin in a number of Iranian women."n "nMethods: This study consisted of two trials and done in Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2009; in one trial, 50 patients with overactive bladder were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with 2 mg of twice-daily tolterodine, and in the other to 5 mg of three times a day oxybutynin. Urodynamic investigations, Episodes of urge urinary incontinence and adverse events were also evaluated."n "nResults: The results showed a good association between the questionnaire and cystometry data but urodynamic studies showed significant differences in efficacy. Tow groups showed significant improvements in all Symptoms, but The results showed that the two drugs had no significant differences in efficacy."n "nConclusion: The data obtained by questionnaire indicated that both drugs increased quality of life but there were no significant differences between the two in symptom cure. Dry mouth was the most common side-effect in the two groups but unlike other studies it was higher in the tolterodine group. Therefore, our study did not show any preference between oxybutynin and tolterodine.

  5. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of radiation side effects; Hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung radiogener Nebenwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Almeling, M. [Druckkammerzentrum Arolsen/Kassel (Germany); Carl, U.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1996-12-01

    Aim: Many reports show that late complications of radiotherapy can be successfully treated by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). This synopsis attempts to review the literature to identify areas of clinical use and further research. Patients and Methods: Clinical and experimental data about HBO treatment of radiation late effects are analysed. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of late radiation side effects are discussed. Results: There is evidence in the literature that HBO is beneficial in the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits. The prophylactic use of HBO has shown to prevent the development of osteoradionecrosis after tooth removal and the loss of titanium implants in irradiated facial bones. The physiologic basis of HBO can be referred to induction of neoangiogenesis and revascularisation. Conclusions: Clinicians can be encouraged to use hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of radiation cystitis, osteonecrosis of the mandible, hemorrhagic proctitis, soft tissue necrosis and neurologic deficits following radiation therapy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Nach zahlreichen Literaturberichten sind Spaetkomplikationen der Strahlentherapie durch hyperbaren Sauerstoff guenstig zu beeinflussen. Ziel dieses Uebersichtsartikels ist es, das vorliegende Datenmaterial ueber hyperbare Oxygenierung (HBO) zur Behandlung spaeter radiogener Nebenwirkungen zusammenzufassen, um eine Grundlage fuer den klinischen Einsatz und weitere experimentelle Untersuchungen zu schaffen. Patienten und Methode: Ergebnisse klinischer und experimenteller Untersuchungen sowie Wirkmechanismen, ueber die hyperbaren Sauerstoff in die pathophysiologischen Ablaeufe radiogener Nebenwirkungen eingreift, werden diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Durch die hyperbare Oxygenierungstherapie koennen klinische Besserungen bei haemorrhagischer Zystitis, Osteoradionekrose der Mandibula, Proktosigmoiditis, Weichteilnekrosen und

  7. Genotype-based ancestral background consistently predicts efficacy and side effects across treatments in CATIE and STAR*D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Adkins

    Full Text Available Only a subset of patients will typically respond to any given prescribed drug. The time it takes clinicians to declare a treatment ineffective leaves the patient in an impaired state and at unnecessary risk for adverse drug effects. Thus, diagnostic tests robustly predicting the most effective and safe medication for each patient prior to starting pharmacotherapy would have tremendous clinical value. In this article, we evaluated the use of genetic markers to estimate ancestry as a predictive component of such diagnostic tests. We first estimated each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds using genome-wide SNP data collected in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE (n = 765 and the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D (n = 1892. Next, we performed multiple regression analyses to estimate the predictive power of these ancestral dimensions. For 136/89 treatment-outcome combinations tested in CATIE/STAR*D, results indicated 1.67/1.84 times higher median test statistics than expected under the null hypothesis assuming no predictive power (p<0.01, both samples. Thus, ancestry showed robust and pervasive correlations with drug efficacy and side effects in both CATIE and STAR*D. Comparison of the marginal predictive power of MDS ancestral dimensions and self-reported race indicated significant improvements to model fit with the inclusion of MDS dimensions, but mixed evidence for self-reported race. Knowledge of each patient's unique mosaic of ancestral backgrounds provides a potent immediate starting point for developing algorithms identifying the most effective and safe medication for a wide variety of drug-treatment response combinations. As relatively few new psychiatric drugs are currently under development, such personalized medicine offers a promising approach toward optimizing pharmacotherapy for psychiatric conditions.

  8. Aspidosperma subincanum II. Usefulness of uleine and ribonucleic fragments in the treatment of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Maes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aids patients were treated during a year with three different food supplements commercially available: para-pau-aspido (Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae; 2Leid (nucleic acids and cytokines; and Para Immuno (propolis, pollen and royal jelly. All foods, given either alone or in combination, proved useful to all AIDS patients who received the supplements, be these under tri-therapy (Triomine: stavudine, lamivudine, névirapine or left unattended.

  9. [Clinical analysis of patients with chronic hepatitis C who discontinued interferon treatment because of side effects--our experiences and recent reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainokami, S; Hino, K; Shimoda, K; Niwa, H

    1994-07-01

    We prospectively studied side effects about 54 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with 3 to 10 MIU a day of interferon (IFN) alpha, which was administrated for 16 to 24 weeks. Every day, all of them wrote down every symptoms, by themselves, during its treatment. Any symptoms occurred in all patients and each incidence of symptoms such as fever, fatigue, headache, anorexia, arthalgia, myalgia, chill, itching, insomnia, nausea, numbness of hand and foot, irritability, diarrhea, eye ball pain, vomiting, were all higher than those which have been reported by some papers in Japan. So, it was considered that the symptom self-wrighting method by patient was useful to evaluate the entity of side effects. Furthermore, we studied 26 patients, who discontinued IFN treatment because of side effects and analyzed the background factors. Each incidence of symptoms of these patients were not always compatible to those incidences. But by observation of those symptoms, we could know severe side effects earlier. PMID:7521435

  10. 血友病甲合并艾滋病的治疗%Treatment of hemophilia A patients with AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴振声; 卢洪洲

    2012-01-01

    血友病甲患者输注凝血因子时易感染人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV),上述患者除接受针对血友病的治疗外,还需接受正规的高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)等.本文综述血友病甲合并艾滋病的临床治疗.%People with hemophilia A may easily suffer from infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of the clotting factors infusion frequently. So hemophilia A patients with AIDS should receive additional treatments of HAART . This review summarizes the treatment of hemophilia A patients with AIDS.

  11. Evaluation of the treatment of both sides of raw chicken breasts with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for the inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho; Oh, Mi Wha; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is an emerging nonthermal microbial inactivation technique. In this study, agar and raw chicken breast were inoculated with Escherichia coli and treated with an APP jet based on cold arc plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum conditions for the plasma treatment of an APP jet in order to maximize the efficiency of E. coli inactivation. The combination of N2+O2 (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) and a longer treatment time (10 min) resulted in the highest inactivation of E. coli on agar plates with an optimum treatment distance of 20 mm. The samples in dry and wet conditions showed similar reductions in E. coli count when one side of the samples was treated at a given treatment time. Treating both sides-2.5 min on each side-resulted in a higher growth inhibition of E. coli than treatment of a single side only for 5 min. However, there was no significant difference between one-side treated samples (10 min) and both-sides treated samples (5+5 min). When the concentration of E. coli in the chicken breast sample was 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g, the reduction rate of the E. coli was the highest, followed by 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) CFU/g; however, no difference was found between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/g. In conclusion, various treatment conditions may affect the inactivation efficiency of E. coli. In the present study, the optimum condition was determined as the treatment distance of 20 mm and longer treatment time (10 min) with the addition of oxygen to the nitrogen gas flow. Furthermore, the cell concentration of sample was an important parameter for the efficacy of the inactivation process.

  12. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In view of the widespread lack of knowledge of first aid procedures in cases of dental trauma, this article describes the current state of knowledge and highlights the need for education of those likely to witness or be victims of dental trauma while practising sports. Dental and oral injuries, the commonest type of orofacial injuries, are often sustained by athletes playing contact sports; indeed, they represent the most frequent type of sporting injury. Studies of a large group of children and adults have shown that as many as 31% of all orofacial injuries are caused by sporting activities. Furthermore, current literature on the subject emphasizes that awareness of appropriate triage procedures following dental trauma is unsatisfactory. Delay in treatment is the single most influential factor affecting prognosis. What should we know and, more importantly, what should we do? Immediate replantation of an avulsed tooth is the best treatment option at the site of the accident. If replantation is impossible, milk is the preferred transport medium for the avulsed tooth. There is a general low level of awareness about the need for prompt triage of traumatic dental injuries sustained in sports, despite their relative frequency. When a cohort of Swiss basketball players was interviewed, only half were aware that an avulsed tooth could be replanted. Cheap, commercially available tooth storage devices containing an isotonic transport medium (so-called 'Save-a-Tooth boxes'), can maintain the viability of an avulsed tooth for up to 72 hours, prior to replantation. More readily available storage media such as milk, sterile saline or even saliva may be used, but knowledge of this information is rare among sports participants. For example, just 6.6% of the Swiss basketball players interviewed were aware of the 'Tooth Rescue box' products. Sporting organizations seem to offer very little information about sports-related risks or preventive strategies for orodental trauma. Having

  13. Western health practitioners’ view about African traditional health practitioners’ treatment and care of people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JV Summerton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available African traditional health practitioners are an important source of health care for many South Africans. Thus, they are a health resource in this society. However, the integration of traditional health practitioners into the mainstream of health care is a complex process. Various factors contribute to this complexity, including the skepticism and reservation with which some western health practitioners view traditional health practitioners. This paper highlights the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the traditional healing system for people living with HIV/AIDS, as perceived by western health practitioners. The use of traditional practitioners as a choice of health care is attributed to both the strengths and weaknesses of this system of health care. The strength of the traditional healing system is in its sharing of the worldview and belief system of its users, it being an alternative to an inefficient western health care system (official system, privacy and absence of time limitations per consultation, treating patients psychologically, and scientifically unexplained physiological relief of the symptoms of specific illnesses. The perceived weaknesses of the traditional healing system include harmful treatment regimens, especially for people living with HIV/AIDS; prolonging the seeking of appropriate health care when traditional remedies fail to produce the desired effect; destroying interpersonal relationships of people living with HIV/AIDS through witchcraft accusations; psychological torment caused by the belief that HIV/AIDS can be cured by traditional remedies/intervention; and increasing the workload of western practitioners who are requested by patients to conduct multiple HIV tests after undergoing various traditional treatment regimens to cure HIV/AIDS. It is recommended that traditional practitioners be encouraged to adapt harmful traditional healing practices to the benefit of their patients in a non-judgemental and non

  14. Review of the safety, efficacy, and side effect profile of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar 1 disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez JM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodi M Gonzalez1, Peter M Thompson1, Troy A Moore1,21University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2South Texas Veterans Health Care System, TX, USAObjective: Asenapine is approved for acute manic and mixed states in bipolar disorder. The objective is to review the efficacy of asenapine in bipolar disorder, with a particular focus on acceptability and adherence to treatment.Methods: Five clinical trials were conducted in bipolar disorder manic or mixed states: two 3-week trials (n = 976 comparing asenapine to placebo, a 9-week extension (n = 504, and a 40-week extension (n = 107. One trial was conducted comparing asenapine to placebo (n = 326 as adjunctive therapy for subjects with an incomplete response to lithium or valproate. All trials were conducted in the USA and internationally.Results: Asenapine was found to be efficacious for manic and mixed states in bipolar disorder compared with placebo control, and compares equally well to olanzapine on efficacy measures after 3 weeks of treatment. Asenapine was not found to be efficacious for depression symptoms. Common asenapine side effects in the 40-week extension trial were sedation, insomnia, and dizziness, and 31% reported clinically significant weight gain, compared with 55% reporting clinically significant weight gain with olanzapine. Additionally, 18% had clinically significant changes in fasting blood glucose levels compared to 22% of those on olanzapine. In terms of patient acceptability, one concern may be sublingual administration requiring no liquids or food for 10 minutes after dosing and a twice-daily regimen. Suggestions about addressing barriers to adherence and acceptability are provided.Conclusion: Asenapine is a promising new medication in bipolar disorder. Asenapine in the long-term has a more favorable weight gain profile compared to olanzapine. No benefit was seen for depression symptoms, a major patient-reported concern. Some side effects do not remit

  15. Treatment adherence: the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS Adhesión al tratamiento: vivencias de adolescentes con HIV/SIDA Adesão ao tratamento: vivências de adolescentes com HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cabral Kourrouski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Living with a chronic condition is difficult at any stage of life, especially when considering HIV/AIDS, a stigmatized condition that elicits so much discrimination and which may become an aggravating factor when it occurs during adolescence. This study aimed to understand the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS concerning medication adherence. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years and six caregivers participated in the study. The organization of data focused on positive and negative aspects related to adherence. The results showed that adolescents have difficulties in medication adherence especially due to their side effects; they try to normalize their lives in such a way that stigma and discrimination do not compromise their quality of life and treatment adherence. Recommendations to encourage treatment adherence are presented.Vivir con una condición crónica es algo difícil en cualquier fase de la vida, sobre todo cuando se habla de HIV/SIDA, condición que trae estigma y discriminación, y cuando ocurre en la adolescencia se muestra como un agravante. El objetivo de este estudio es comprender la experiencia de adolescentes portadores de HIV/SIDA, en lo que se refiere a la adhesión medicamentosa. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo de los datos. Participaron nueve adolescentes con edad entre 12 y 18 años y seis cuidadores. Los datos fueron organizados alrededor de las facilidades y dificultades relacionadas a la adhesión. Los resultados evidenciaron que los adolescentes tienen dificultades en la adhesión al medicamento, colocando esas dificultades principalmente en los efectos colaterales de los mismos; buscan vivir el proceso de normalización, de tal forma que el estigma y discriminación no comprometan su calidad de vida y la adhesión a la terapéutica. Son presentadas recomendaciones para estimular la adhesión al tratamiento.Viver com uma

  16. Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Steve Mills; Anh Thuy Duong; Long Thanh Nguyen; Philip Jacobs; Stan Houston

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was a...

  17. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  18. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intensified antiretroviral treatment strategies in HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J M; Berg, L T; Postma, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    There have been great technological advances in the use of antiretroviral therapies to slow down disease progression in HIV/AIDS. Combinations of therapeutics and the use of several diagnostic methods have resulted in both declines in mortality and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The hig

  19. Salvage trial of trimetrexate-leucovorin for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masur, H; Polis, M A; Tuazon, C U;

    1993-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of trimetrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro antitoxoplasma activity, was assessed in 9 sulfonamide-intolerant patients with AIDS and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 9 patients were treated for 28-149 days with trimetrexate (30-280 mg/m...

  20. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., first degree burns and splinters. Ointments, salves, antiseptics, and dressings to minor injuries are..., applying antiseptic and nonprescription medication and bandages on the first visit and follow-up visits... antiseptic constitutes first aid where it is required by work duties that soil the bandage. (ii)...

  1. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;

    2008-01-01

    A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...... visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-naïve patients, how to manage...... country to another, especially in Central and Eastern parts of Europe. These guidelines are intended to help clinicians achieve the best care for their patients. In some countries, particularly where the quality of and access to care are not optimal, these guidelines should help AIDS societies...

  2. Brain computed tomography of patients with HIV/AIDS before the advent of subsidized treatment program in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective is to study intracranial complications of HIV/AIDS using brain-computed tomography in patients who presented with neurological features before the advent of subsidized HIV/AIDS treatment program with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients′ records retrieved from radiology and medical records departments of the hospital. The studied patients had HIV/AIDS and presented with neurological features and underwent CT scan. Results: A total of 36 patients who tested positive for HIV and who presented with neurological features suspected to be complications of AIDS were examined with CT scan. They consisted of 24 male and 12 females. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The age of the patients ranged from 27 to 45 years. Seventeen patients (47.2% were aged 30-34 years. Twenty-four patients (60% were single while 12 (40% were married. Twenty-seven patients (75% were infected with HIV 1 and 2, five patients (13.9% were infected only with HIV-1 while four were infected with only HIV-2. Presenting neurological complaints include left hemiplegia 13 (36.1%, right hemiplegia 6 (16.7%, coma 7 (19.4%, memory loss/dementia complex 5 (13.9%, convulsion with coma 2 (5.6%, left hemi-pariesis with memory loss 2 (5.6%, and staggering gait 1 (2.8%. The findings in CT scan include infarcts-like lesions 14 (38.9%, multiple ring-enhancing lesions 7 (19.4%, cerebral atrophy 5 (13.9%, multiple nodular lesions 4 (11.1%, acute intracerebral hemorrhage 3 (8.3%, cerebral hemiatrophy 2 (5.6%, and solitary ring-enhancing lesions 1 (2.8%. Eight patients with single or multiple ring enhancing lesions were treated with empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis but only three (37.5% made full recovery. Conclusion: Brain CT scan showed extensive structural damages in patients with HIV/AIDS who were not treated with HAART. Out-of-pocket payment for investigations and treatment and absence of

  3. Relação entre sintomatologia psicopatológica, adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida na infecção HIV e AIDS Relationship among psychopathological symptoms, treatment adherence and quality of life in HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo observou a existência de relações significativas entre sintomatologia psicopatológica (BSI, adesão ao tratamento (CEAT-VIH e qualidade de vida (WHOQOL-Bref em 125 pessoas HIV-positivo/AIDS em tratamento antirretroviral, atendidos em um hospital do Porto (Portugal. A sintomatologia psicopatológica correlacionou-se negativamente com adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida, e a adesão ao tratamento associou-se positivamente com a qualidade de vida. O modelo preditor de adesão ao tratamento, mediante análise de regressão múltipla, incluiu a ausência de sintomatologia psicopatológica, o comportamento de retirada dos medicamentos na farmácia hospitalar e a presença de efeitos colaterais do tratamento (R² =0,30. Ademais, observou-se um efeito mediador de sintomatologia psicopatológica entre a adesão ao tratamento e a qualidade de vida das pessoas com HIV/AIDS.The study shows evidence of statistical association among psychopathological symptoms (BSI, treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref in 125 HIV-positive/AIDS patients followed at Porto Hospital (Portugal. The psychopathological symptoms present a negative correlation with treatment adherence and quality of life. On the other hand, adherence was positively correlated with quality of life. The model of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment using multiple regression analysis includes absence of psychopathological symptoms, an adherence behavior (i.e. to get the medication at the hospital's pharmacy and the experience of side effects because of medication (R² = 0.30. Besides, psychopathological symptoms have a mediation effect between adherence and quality of life in people with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Children's Experiences of End Stage Renal Failure, Coping with Its Treatment and Side-Effects, and Perceived Benefits of Starbright World Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Laura Dees; Barry, Leasha M.

    2003-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess experiences of three children (ages 8-17) with end stage renal failure, including their perceptions of treatment and side effects, coping strategies, and STARBRIGHT World technology, a program that provides peer support through video conferencing with other children. The benefits of STARBRIGHT are…

  5. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, M.; Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  6. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Erko

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

  7. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase

  8. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, D.

    1996-04-18

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author).

  9. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  10. Health Services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross--sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse depar...

  11. ON MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE IMPACT OF CONDOM USE AND THERAPEUTIC TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey B. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the absence of a definite treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS since their appearance, many scientific studies with the help of mathematical models have been formulated to the extent possible to prevent and eradicate the disease. In this article we have formulated a mathematical model that explores the dynamics of the impact of the use of condom and therapeutic treatment simultaneously, as a means (tools against the spread of HIV/AIDS in the heterosexual population. The proposed model uses a nonlinear differential equation system consisting of seven (7 differential equations in seven (7 groups of the population. The model takes into account natural birth rate of the studied population, and the proportion of infected males, which simultaneously uses condom and antiretroviral therapy. The model explores the behavioral change of proportion of infected individuals in the population following the application of control measures (condom use and antiretroviral therapy. It is proved that the effectiveness of preventive measures greatly depends on a number of parameters described. In addition, the results of numerical experiments showed that in the absence of both preventive measures, the entire population is contaminated with the infection. The interaction of the model parameters show that the population with high levels of condom use in the presence of significant adherence to antiretroviral therapy as prophylaxis significantly reduces the level of HIV/AIDS. Thus, prevention of infection is significantly improved with the increasing number of the infected population using condoms and antiretroviral therapy simultaneously

  12. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  13. The Effectiveness of Drug Abuse Treatment: Implications for Controlling AIDS/HIV Infection. Background Paper 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper examines evidence for the effectiveness of treatment for drug abuse and evaluates the role of drug abuse treatment as a strategy to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) spread. Because most intravenous (IV) drug users are not in treatment, the study also examines other approaches to HIV prevention. The remainder of the…

  14. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  15. Related factor analysis of 48 dead patients with AIDS anti-viral treatment%艾滋病抗病毒治疗48例死亡患者相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦秋玲; 韦克召; 韦超; 潘利永; 韦幕葵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the related factors of the death in patients undergoing AIDS anti-viral treatment in our hospital. Methods The data were collected by the DataFax antiviral therapy information system which was used to analyze related conditions of dead patients with anti-viral treatment in our hospital. Results In the total of 315 AIDS patients accepted treatment from April of 2008 to June of 2010, in which 48 patients died. Of all the patients showed AIDS clinical Ⅲ stage or V stage symptoms before treatment. Among them the CD4 cell minimum value was 4 cell/μl, the maximum value was 263 cell/μl with the average of 36.4 cell/μl. The minimum treatment time was 1 d, the maximum time was 2 years and a half, of which 38 patients were treated for less than 3 months. 42 patients died due to AIDS-related diseases, including 9 patients who died of unsuccessful treatment. 11 cases died of opportunistic infections and gave up treatment during the treatment at home.22 patients died of AIDS-related diseases in 0.5 month to 8 months after stopping the treatment. Four eases died by suicide,and two cases with an unknown cause of death. Conclusion The main cause of death in our patients undergoing AIDS antiviral treatment was AIDS related disease, others include treatment discontinuation, economic hardship, discrimination and drug side effects.%目的 分析本院艾滋病抗病毒治疗死亡患者的相关因素.方法 利用国家统一使用的DataFax抗病毒治疗信息系统所收集的数据资料,对抗病毒治疗死亡患者的相关情况进行分析.结果 共有315例艾滋病患者接受治疗,有48例抗病毒治疗患者死亡.治疗前所有患者出现艾滋病临床Ⅲ期或Ⅳ期表现,CD4细胞最小值为4个/μl,最大值为263个/μl,平均为36.4个/μl.接受治疗时间最短1 d,最长2年半,其中39例的治疗时间小于3个月.死于艾滋病相关性疾病42例,其中9例系统治疗无效死亡,11例治疗过程中出现机会性感

  16. CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON STAGE-AIDED TREATMENT OF 62 CASES OF PERIPHERAL FACIAL PARALYSIS WITH ACUPUNCTURE,MOXIBUSTION AND CUPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜军; 周友龙

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To probe the best therapy for peripheral facial paralysis.Methods: A total of 122 cases of facial paralysis patients were randomized into treatment group (n=62, treating the disease by stages) and control group (n=60).For patients at the acute stage in treatment group, main point Yifeng (TE 17) was pricked first, followed by performing cupping and moxibustion, for patients at the resting stage, main point Hegu (LI 4) was punctured with reducing needling method, combined with other acupoints in the light of the concrete situations.For patients at the restoration stage, main point Zusanli (ST 36) was punctured with reinforcing method in combination with seven-star-needle tapping at the local affected region.Patients of control group were treated with routine method by puncturing Fengchi (GB 20), Yifeng (TE 17), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), etc..The treatment was conducted once daily, with 10 days being a therapeutic course.Results: Following 3 courses of treatment, of the 62 cases in treatment group, 44 (70.9%) were cured, 12 (19.4%) had remarkable improvement in their symptoms and signs, 6 (9.7%) had amelioration, with the cure plus markedly effective rate being 90.3%; of the 60 cases in control group, 30 (50.0%) were cured, 12 (20.0%) had apparent improvement, 16 (26.7%) had amelioration, and the rest 2 (3.3%) failed in the treatment, with the cure plus markedly effective rate being 70.0%.Ridit analysis showed that the cure rate and cure plus markedly effective rate of treatment group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Stage-aided acupuncture treatment is superior to routine treatment for facial palsy.

  17. estimation and Projection of hIV/AIds epidemic and Treatment demand in Beijing and hunan Province with spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Guo-wu Liu; and Ning Wang; Min Liu; Min Zheng; Xi Chen; Hong-yan Lu; Hong-guang Chen; Jun Zheng; Gui-ying Li; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the HIV/AIDS epidemic and treatment demand and predict the situation in the next ifve years with Spectrum. Methods Using Spectrum (version:3.54) to estimate the number of new HIV infections, number of people living with HIV, need for ART in adults and children, need for PMTCT and cotrimoxazole in Beijing and Hunan Province. Data used in the model including high-risk populations monitoring data and demographic information, was collected from Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and extracted from statistical yearbooks and published literatures. Results Few new HIV/AIDS were reported in Beijing prior to 1994, however, the number of HIV infections was increasing rapidly from 1995 to 2008, and decreased after that, increased rapidly again after 2012. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years with young patients aged 15-24 years peaked in 2010 and decreased rapidly after that. Few HIV-infected patients were reported before 1997 in Hunan Province, and the number of new infections was increasing rapidly since 1998. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years since 2000 with young patients aged 15-24 years in need of antiretroviral therapy increasing continuously. Conclusions After HIV infection was ifrst founded in Beijing and Hunan Province, there was a slow growth and then a rapid growth of HIV epidemic. According to prediction of Spectrum, the demand for antiretroviral therapy in Beijing would begin to decline since 2011, meanwhile, the HIV epidemic in Hunan Province would enter a rapid growth period with the demand for antiviral therapy continuing to increase. In this study, Spectrum was applied to estimate the HIV epidemic situation and need for treatment in the next ifve years in Beijing and Hunan Province. It provides the basis for health

  18. Skin delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases associated with HIV/AIDS by using elastic liposomes / Kevin Bassey Ita

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Kevin Bassey

    2003-01-01

    Due to the immuncompromised status of AIDS patients, secondary infections and malignancies are common. Conditions secondary to AIDS for which patients require treatment include Karposi's sarcoma (treated with methotrexate), varicella-zoster (treated with antivirals such as acyclovir) and herpes simplex (also treated with antivirals like acyclovir or idoxuridme). However the clinical efficacy of these drugs is limited by poor skin permeability. Few reports, however, have deal...

  19. Transforming Australia's HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Bill

    2014-07-01

    This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'.

  20. COMPARISON OF ANTIRETROVIRAL SCHEMES USED IN INITIAL THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana LENZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in HIV patients is their adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the schemes adopted in the initial therapy of these treatments with their adherence, changes in HAART schemes and treatment costs. The study included patients over 16 years old, HIV positive, in treatment for more than 30 days. Adherence to HAART was calculated based on the withdrawal of the drug, which was related to the total treatment time. We evaluated how many patients changed HAART. The costs of each regimen were also estimated and related to the benefit of each treatment. 142 patients who were between 38 and 1,150 days of treatment were included (57.7% women. The schemes with lower costs, highest adherence and greater benefit were efavirenz with biovir and efavirenz with lamivudine and tenofovir. This study suggested the advantageous therapeutic regimens to start of treatment, both from the point of view of patients and the health system. This information can serve as a subsidy to clinicians in the decision of starting HAART.

  1. Nonextraction treatment of severe crowding with the aid of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    THIS PAPER ILLUSTRATES THE COMBINED NONEXTRACTION ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT WITH THE CORTICOTOMY TECHNIQUE IN AN ADULT PATIENT (AGE: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors' roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved. PMID:22848854

  2. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Aljhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved.

  3. Adenosine AA Receptor Antagonists Do Not Disrupt Rodent Prepulse Inhibition: An Improved Side Effect Profile in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina J. Bleickardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD focus on dopaminergic therapies, including L-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists. However, these treatments induce neuropsychiatric side effects. Psychosis, characterized by delusions and hallucinations, is one of the most serious such side effects. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism is a nondopaminergic treatment for PD with clinical and preclinical efficacy. The present studies assessed A2A antagonists SCH 412348 and istradefylline in rodent prepulse inhibition (PPI, a model of psychosis. Dopamine receptor agonists pramipexole (0.3–3 mg/kg, pergolide (0.3–3 mg/kg, and apomorphine (0.3–3 mg/kg significantly disrupted PPI; ropinirole (1–30 mg/kg had no effect; L-dopa (100–300 mg/kg disrupted rat but not mouse PPI. SCH 412348 (0.3–3 mg/kg did not disrupt rodent PPI; istradefylline (0.1–1 mg/kg marginally disrupted mouse but not rat PPI. These results suggest that A2A antagonists, unlike dopamine agonists, have an improved neuropsychiatric side effect profile.

  4. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2010-01-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar...

  5. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation proce...

  6. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his/her household

  7. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2011-04-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar to the contralateral first molar, and from canine to canine in the mandibular arch was performed. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every 2 weeks. The total treatment time was 5 months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful closure of the anterior open bite with adequate overbite and interdigitation of the teeth were achieved. PMID:24151417

  8. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SUNDARA KUMAR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two fundamental reasons for treatment of wastewater viz., prevention of pollution and thereby protecting the environment, and protecting the public health by safe guarding water supplies andpreventing the spread of water borne diseases. Proper design, construction together with good operation and maintenance are essential for waste water treatment plants (WWTP, in order to produce effluents which are satisfying the safe disposal standards prescribed by the regulatory authorities. In this work a computer program in C++ has been developed for comprehensive design of wastewater treatment plant which incorporates activated sludge process as biological treatment method. All the units of WWTP areincluded in the design and the program is developed in a very user friendly manner by referring various standard procedures and manuals. The validity of the software has been verified by test running andcomparison with an existing plant data. This program not only helps in sizing the treatment units but also helps in understanding the plant’s capacity as well as in deciding the future expansion works needed for increased hydraulic and organic loadings.

  9. Understanding Sustained Retention in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: a Synthetic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Czaicki, Nancy; Holmes, Charles; Chavan, Saurabh; Tsitsi, Apollo; Odeny, Thomas; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Padian, Nancy; Geng, Elvin

    2016-06-01

    Sustained retention represents an enduring and evolving challenge to HIV treatment programs in Africa. We present a theoretical framework for sustained retention borrowing from ecologic principles of sustainability and dynamic adaptation. We posit that sustained retention from the patient perspective is dependent on three foundational principles: (1) patient activation: the acceptance, prioritization, literacy, and skills to manage a chronic disease condition, (2) social normalization: the engagement of a social network and harnessing social capital to support care and treatment, and (3) livelihood routinization: the integration of care and treatment activities into livelihood priorities that may change over time. Using this framework, we highlight barriers specific to sustained retention and review interventions addressing long-term, sustained retention in HIV care with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27188300

  10. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments......Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...... and resulting increase in the number of alternative wastewater treatment technologies, as well as stricter effluentlimit values imposed by regulations; it became increasingly harder to identify the mostfeasible decision regarding the WWTP network design. Retrofitting of existing treatmentplants can also...

  11. First Do No Harm: An Analysis of the Risk Aspects and Side Effects of Clinical Holistic Medicine Compared With Standard Psychiatric Biomedical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical holistic medicine (CHM is short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP complemented with bodywork and philosophical exercises, to be more efficient in treating patients with severe mental and physical illness. STPP has already been found superior to psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU and thus able to compete with psychiatric standard treatment as the treatment of choice for all non-organic mental illnesses; we have found the addition of bodywork and philosophy of life to STPP to accelerate the process of existential healing and recovery (salutogenesis. In this paper we compare the side effects, suicidal risk, problems from implanted memory and implanted philosophy of CHM with psychopharmacological treatment. Method: Qualitative and quantitative comparative review. Results: In all aspects of risks, harmfulness, and side effects, we have been considering, CHM was superior to the standard psychiatric treatment. The old principle of “first do no harm“ is well respected by CHM, but not always by standard psychiatry. CHM seems to be able to heal the patient, while psychopharmacological drugs can turn the patient into a chronic, mentally ill patient for life. Based on the available data CHM seems another alternative to patients with mental illness. There seem to be no documentation at all for CHM being dangerous, harmful, having side effects of putting patients at risk for suicide. As CHM uses spontaneous regression there is no danger for the patient developing psychosis as, according to some experts, has been seen with earlier intensive psychodynamic methods. CHM is an efficient, safe and affordable cure for a broad range of mental illnesses.

  12. Lessons Learned while Implementing an HIV/AIDs Care and Treatment Program in Rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Moon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique has severe resource constraints, yet with international partnerships, the nation has placed over 145,000 HIV- infected persons on antiretroviral therapies (ART through May 2009. HIV clinical services are provided at .215 clinical venues in all 11 of Mozambique’s provinces. Friends in Global Health (FGH, affiliated with Vanderbilt University in the United States (US, is a locally licensed non-governmental organization (NGO working exclusively in small city and rural venues in Zambézia Province whose population reaches approximately 4 million persons. Our approach to clinical capacity building is based on: 1 technical assistance to national health system facilities to implement ART clinical services at the district level, 2 human capacity development, and 3 health system strengthening. Challenges in this setting are daunting, including: 1 human resource constraints, 2 infrastructure limitations, 3 centralized care for large populations spread out over large distances, 4 continued high social stigma related to HIV, 5 limited livelihood options in rural areas and 6 limited educational opportunities in rural areas. Sustainability in rural Mozambique will depend on transitioning services from emergency foreign partners to local authorities and continued funding. It will also require “wrap-around” programs that help build economic capacity with agricultural, educational, and commercial initiatives. Sustainability is undermined by serious health manpower and infrastructure limitations. Recent U.S. government pronouncements suggest that the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief will support concurrent community and business development. FGH, with its Mozambican government counterparts, see the evolution of an emergency response to a sustainable chronic disease management program as an essential and logical step. We have presented six key challenges that are essential to address in rural Mozambique

  13. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  14. The feasibility of a holistic wellness program for HIV/AIDS patients residing in a voluntary inpatient treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Vanessa

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of an ongoing holistic wellness program in a residential facility treating persons with HIV/AIDS. The goal was to create a voluntary, four week holistic wellness intensive within the established inpatient behavioral health treatment program. Participants were given practicable holistic self care tools to effectively manage HIV related symptoms, general medical issues, addiction, depression, stress and anxiety. The program incorporated evidence-based holistic activities including yoga, therapeutic dance, meditation, Reiki, and reflective journaling. Narrative survey results and post-program evaluation support that an ongoing holistic wellness program within the existing treatment model is feasible and could have numerous potential beneficial effects. This project clearly exemplified the ideal opportunity for holistic nurses to implement innovative holistic interventions within the current healthcare delivery system. It is the author's observation that future studies with a larger participant group to further examine measurable benefits can lend valuable information and insight into the future development of holistic wellness programs for residential treatment facilities. PMID:23686463

  15. Contralateral breast doses depending on treatment set-up positions for left-sided breast tangential irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Chan Seong; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Byeong Gi; Chung, Yoon Sun; Park, Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate Contralateral Breast Doses with Supine and Prone Positions for tangential Irradiation techniques for left-sided breast Cancer We performed measurements for contralateral doses using Human Phantom at each other three plans (conventional technique, Field-in-Field, IMRT, with prescription of 50 Gy/25fx). For the measurement of contralateral doses we used Glass dosimeters on the 4 points of Human Phantom surface (0 mm, 10 mm, 30 mm, 50 mm). For the position check at every measurements, we had taken portal images using EPID and denoted the incident points on the human phantom for checking the constancy of incident points. The contralateral doses in supine position showed a little higher doses than those in prone position. In the planning study, contralateral doses in the prone position increased mean doses of 1.2% to 1.8% at each positions while those in the supine positions showed mean dose decreases of 0.8% to 0.9%. The measurements using glass dosimeters resulted in dose increases (mean: 2.7%, maximum: 4% of the prescribed dose) in the prone position. In addition, the delivery techniques of Field-in-field and IMRT showed mean doses of 3% higher than conventional technique. We evaluated contralateral breast doses depending on different positions of supine and prone for tangential irradiations. For the phantom simulation of set-up variation effects on contralateral dose evaluation, although we used humanoid phantom for planning and measurements comparisons, it would be more or less worse set-up constancy in a real patient. Therefore, more careful selection of determination of patient set-up for the breast tangential irradiation, especially in the left-sided breast, should be considered for unwanted dose increases to left lung and heart. In conclusion, intensive patient monitoring and improved patient set-up verification efforts should be necessary for the application of prone position for tangential irradiation of left-sided breast cancer.

  16. CT-Based Brachytherapy Treatment Planning using Monte Carlo Simulation Aided by an Interface Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Moslemi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In brachytherapy, radioactive sources are placed close to the tumor, therefore, small changes in their positions can cause large changes in the dose distribution. This emphasizes the need for computerized treatment planning. The usual method for treatment planning of cervix brachytherapy uses conventional radiographs in the Manchester system. Nowadays, because of their advantages in locating the source positions and the surrounding tissues, CT and MRI images are replacing conventional radiographs. In this study, we used CT images in Monte Carlo based dose calculation for brachytherapy treatment planning, using an interface software to create the geometry file required in the MCNP code. The aim of using the interface software is to facilitate and speed up the geometry set-up for simulations based on the patient’s anatomy. This paper examines the feasibility of this method in cervix brachytherapy and assesses its accuracy and speed. Material and Methods: For dosimetric measurements regarding the treatment plan, a pelvic phantom was made from polyethylene in which the treatment applicators could be placed. For simulations using CT images, the phantom was scanned at 120 kVp. Using an interface software written in MATLAB, the CT images were converted into MCNP input file and the simulation was then performed. Results: Using the interface software, preparation time for the simulations of the applicator and surrounding structures was approximately 3 minutes; the corresponding time needed in the conventional MCNP geometry entry being approximately 1 hour. The discrepancy in the simulated and measured doses to point A was 1.7% of the prescribed dose.  The corresponding dose differences between the two methods in rectum and bladder were 3.0% and 3.7% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Comparing the results of simulation using the interface software with those of simulation using the standard MCNP geometry entry showed a less than 1

  17. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  18. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use

    OpenAIRE

    Marco DiBonaventura; Lance Richard; Maya Kumar; Anna Forsythe; Flores, Natalia M; Margaret Moline

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits) between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2) to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3) to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000) and 5EU (N = 62,000) National He...

  19. 艾滋病医学营养治疗%Medical nutrition treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江华

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition, a major factor for poor prognosis, has been found to be prevalent in AIDS patients or people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by some domestic studies.For patients undergoing anti-retroviral treatment (ART),routinal screening of malnutrition should be performed so as to identify the condition at an early stage.Nutrition counseling lays fundamental to medical nutrition treatment (MNT) and appears effective in promoting calorie/protein intake to meet daily standards.For those whose calorie/protein intake can not reach the standards after nutrition counseling, enteral nutrition ( EA ) should be given as a first-line option.Blood lipids should be monitored for those who are receiving ART.Dyslipidemia can be addressed by adjustment of dietary structure.In conclusion,malnutrition has been a major challenge for PLWHA in China.Calorie and protein intake should be a focus in HIV/AIDS caring programs.Furthermore, MNT should be incorporated in national or community guidelines for treatment of HIV/AIDS.%营养不良是导致人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者和艾滋病患者出现不良预后的重要因紊,国内一些研究证据发现,营养不良在HIV感染者和艾滋病患者中普遍存在.对接受抗病毒治疗的患者,都应定期对其进行常规营养不良筛查,以早期发现营养不良.营养咨询是医学营养治疗的基础,可有效促进蛋白质和热量摄入达到标准.时于经咨询后经口摄入仍不能达标的患者,应首先给予肠内营养支持.血脂是接受艾滋病抗病毒治疗(ART)患者需要长期关注的问题,对于脂代谢异常者,应首先考虑调整膳食结构.总之,营养不良已经成为中国HIV感染者和艾滋病患者面临的主要挑战.现有各种艾滋病关怀项目应重视患者的热量和蛋白质摄入问题.应将医学营养治疗纳入国家和社区艾滋病治疗指南的一部分.

  20. L-Asparaginase as potent anti-leukemic agent and its significance of having reduced glutaminase side activity for better treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, L N; Doble, Mukesh; Rekha, V P B; Pulicherla, K K

    2012-08-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is one of the leading types of malignant disorder seen in children. Viral infections, genetic factors and exposure to chemical carcinogens are some of the factors responsible for causing ALL. Treatment strategies followed for curing ALL include chemotherapy or radiation therapy, wherein, chemotherapy involves the use of the enzymatic drug L-Asparaginase. The enzyme can be produced from various plants, animals, bacterial and fungal sources but, among them, bacterial sources are widely used for production of this enzyme. The enzyme is non-human in origin having certain bottle necks with L-Asparaginase therapy in the form of side effects such as pancreatitis, thrombosis which are mainly due to glutaminase side activity. Hence, present-day research is mainly focussed on minimizing or completely eliminating the glutaminase activity of the enzyme L-Asparaginase. This review is focussed on the complications associated with glutaminase side activity and use of glutaminase free enzymatic drug L-Asparaginase in treating ALL and the other developments related to the modification of the drug for quality treatment. PMID:22684410

  1. Multilevel predictors of concurrent opioid use during methadone maintenance treatment among drug users with HIV/AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. RESULTS: Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR = 0.97 for 1 year increase, had economic dependents (AOR = 0.33, or were referred to TB treatment (AOR = 0.53 were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT

  2. Evaluation of clinical and immunological markers for predicting virological failure in a HIV/AIDS treatment cohort in Busia, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ferreyra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings where viral load (VL monitoring is scarce or unavailable, clinicians must use immunological and clinical criteria to define HIV virological treatment failure. This study examined the performance of World Health Organization (WHO clinical and immunological failure criteria in predicting virological failure in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. METHODS: In a HIV/AIDS program in Busia District Hospital, Kenya, a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort analysis was performed in April 2008 for all adult patients (>18 years old on ART for ≥12 months, treatment-naive at ART start, attending the clinic at least once in last 6 months, and who had given informed consent. Treatment failure was assessed per WHO clinical (disease stage 3 or 4 and immunological (CD4 cell count criteria, and compared with virological failure (VL >5,000 copies/mL. RESULTS: Of 926 patients, 123 (13.3% had clinically defined treatment failure, 53 (5.7% immunologically defined failure, and 55 (6.0% virological failure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of both clinical and immunological criteria (combined in predicting virological failure were 36.4%, 83.5%, 12.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis, clinical and immunological criteria were found to perform relatively poorly in predicting virological failure of ART. VL monitoring and new algorithms for assessing clinical or immunological treatment failure, as well as improved adherence strategies, are required in ART programs in resource-limited settings.

  3. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  4. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  5. Masterplan: multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuilen, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized study addresses the question if intensified treatment (multiple targets, nurse practitioner assistance) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) decreases the number of cardiovascular events. The study started in February 2004.The projected time of follow-up was 5 years. The study was closed in July 2010. Enrollment In total 793 patients were included in 9 participating centers (range 64 to 104 per center). Five patients had to be excluded from the analysis. Patients were...

  6. Functional interpretation of metabolomics data as a new method for predicting long-term side effects: treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Ji; Woo, Sung-il; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Lim, Dong Kyu; Hong, Ji Yeon; Park, Jeong Hill; Lim, Johan; Kim, Mi-kyeong; Kwon, Sung Won

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids are used for the treatment of primary atopic dermatitis (AD); however, their associated risk of serious complications is great due to the presence of vulnerable lesions in young children with AD. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) are steroid-free, anti-inflammatory agents used for topical AD therapy. However, their use is prohibited in infants pimecrolimus cream with 0.05% desonide cream. We performed urinary metabolomics to predict long-term side effects. The 1% pimecrolimus cream displayed similar efficacy and exceptional safety compared with the 0.05% desonide cream. Metabolomics-based long-term toxicity tests effectively predicted long-term side effects using short-term clinical models. This applicable method for the functional interpretation of metabolomics data sets the foundation for future studies involving the prediction of the toxicity and systemic reactions caused by long-term medication administration. PMID:25491116

  7. Effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on depression, depressive symptoms and side effects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole

    2014-01-01

    of anti-inflammatory interventions. Data Sources: Trials published prior to December, 31st 2013, were identified searching CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Psychinfo, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. Study Selection: Randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing efficacy and side effects...... Outcome Measures: Depression scores after treatment and side effects. Results: 10 publications covering 14 trials (n=6,262) were included: 10 on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=4,258) and four on cytokine-inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti...... heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression versus depressive symptoms or NSAIDs versus cytokine inhibitors. Sub-analyses particularly emphasized antidepressant properties for the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in general (SMD=-0.29; 95%-CI: -0.49 to -0...

  8. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  9. PET/Computed Tomography in Breast Cancer: Can It Aid in Developing a Personalized Treatment Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Malapure, Sumeet; Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has significantly improved the management of breast cancer. FDG, however, is not tumor-specific and various image interpretation pitfalls may occur due to false-positive and false-negative causes of FDG uptake. PET/CT imaging with more specific radiopharmaceuticals may provide useful information about the pathophysiology in such cases. In the present article, we reviewed the use of whole-body FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-16α-17β-Fluoroestradiol PET/CT imaging to determine if these can be used to develop personalized treatment design for the better management of breast cancer. PMID:27321033

  10. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  11. A strontium-90 sequestrant for first-aid treatment of radiation emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratake, Mamoru; Hatanaka, Eisuke; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Akashi, Makoto; Nakayama, Morio

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydrophilic porous polymer beads with phosphonic acid groups (PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP) were synthesized, and assessed as a radioactive strontium-90 sequestrant for the treatment of the radiation emergency. Strontium ions were rapidly absorbed into the blood from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration to rats, and distributed to the target organ, i.e., bones. Over 40% of the administered strontium was absorbed into the blood, while the remainder was discharged in the feces within 48 h after the administration. When the PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP beads were administered to rats subsequent to the strontium solution, the strontium had accumulated less in the femur. Consequently, the oral administration of the PGMA-EGDMA-TTA-MP beads was effective in suppressing the absorption of strontium from the GI tract.

  12. From directly observed therapy to accompagnateurs: enhancing AIDS treatment outcomes in Haiti and in Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behforouz, H L; Farmer, P E; Mukherjee, J S

    2004-06-01

    Like tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is associated with poverty and social inequalities, conditions that hamper the delivery of care. Like tuberculosis, treatment of HIV infection requires multidrug regimens, and the causative agent acquires drug resistance, which can be transmitted to others. A pilot project in rural Haiti introduced DOT-HAART (directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the care of patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A similar DOT-HAART effort was launched in Boston for patients with drug-resistant HIV disease who had experienced failure of unsupervised therapy. In both settings, community health promoters or accompagnateurs provide more than DOT: they offer psychosocial support and link patients to clinical staff and available resources. DOT-HAART in these 2 settings presents both challenges and opportunities. These models of care can be applied to other poverty-stricken populations in resource-poor settings.

  13. Catastrophic Health Expenditure amongst People Living with HIV/AIDS Availing Antiretroviral Treatment Services at Two Tertiary Care Health Facilities in District of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla, Monika Agarwal, Jai Vir Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Anand Kumar Srivastava, Vijay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Decentralisation of ART programme up to grass root level, integration of HIV/AIDS-related services into primary health care services and bridging of the loop holes like effective convening of various government benefit schemes to patients during their visit to ART centre and there by promoting utilisation could reduce their financial burden for care and treatment."

  14. First aid treatment of critically acute epidural hematoma complicated by cerebral hernia using cranial trepanation and drainage decompression: a report of 16 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁

    2002-01-01

    @@From October 1997 to February 2000, 16 cases of critically acute epidural hematoma (CAEH) complicated by cranial hernia were treated with cranial trepanation and drainage decompression (CTDD), which was used as the first aid treatment before craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  15. 34 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs Appendix to Subpart K of... Act Pt. 222, Subpt. K, App. Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of...

  16. Treatment with intravenous pamidronate is a good alternative in case of gastrointestinal side effects or contraindications for oral bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkmans Ben AC

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In case of contraindications or intolerance during treatment with oral bisphosphonates (OB, administration of pamidronate intravenously is a widely used alternative. In this study we compared the effect on change in bone mineral density (BMD of the spine and hip during long term treatment with pamidronate iv in comparison to OB. Methods We studied 61 patients receiving treatment for at least two years. In case of contraindications or intolerance (within 3 months of an OB, pamidronate iv was started. BMD was measured on a Hologic 4500 and a Lunar DPX-IQ at the spine (L1-L4 and total hip. Results Thirty-one patients were enrolled in the OB group and 30 in the intravenous pamidronate group. Mean follow-up duration (SD was 4.3 (1.3 years. We observed a significant increase (p Conclusion We conclude that intravenous pamidronate is a good alternative for oral bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in patients with contraindications or intolerance during treatment with oral bisphosphonates.

  17. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in a laboratory scale settling column unit. Parameters such as color, COD, TSS, turbidity and settled sludge volume have been evaluated. The optimum coagulant dose and pH value were determined by comparing the effectiveness of these coagulants. Results showed other coagulants except lime could eliminate color and COD successfully. In this case, FeSO4 was chosen as an optimum coagulant for color removal because of the lowest required coagulant dose, minimum settled sludge volume and maximum decolorization.

  18. Transplantation of selected or transgenic blood stem cells – a future treatment for HIV/AIDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hütter Gero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interaction with the chemokine receptor, CCR5, is a necessary precondition for maintaining HIV-1 infection. Individuals with the CCR5-delta32 deletion who lack this receptor are highly resistant to infection by the most common forms of HIV-1. We recently reported on the successful transplantation in an HIV-1-positive patient of allogeneic stem cells homozygous for the CCR5-delta32 allele, which stopped viral replication for more than 27 months without antiretroviral therapy. Here, we report on the results of a meeting regarding the potential implications and future directions of stem cell-targeted HIV treatments. The meeting drew together an international panel of hematologists, immunologists, HIV specialists and representatives from bone marrow donor registries. The meeting came to an agreement to support further attempts to use CCR5-delta32 deleted stem cells, for example, prescreened cord blood stem cells, to treat probable HIV-1-positive patients with malignancies. Furthermore, improvement of HIV-1 therapy that interferes with the entry mechanism seems to be a promising approach in HIV-1-infected patients with no matching CCR5-delta32 deleted donor.

  19. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Erko; Abraham Degarege; Konjit Tadesse; Asnake Mathiwos; Mengistu Legesse

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from randomly selected 299 school children in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia, in April 2010. Stool specimens were examined using a single Kato-Katz thick smear for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) ova. Children who were found positive for S. mansoni were treated with a single oral dose of PZQ at 40 mg/kg bw and interviewed for treatment-related symptoms 24 hours after drug administration. Four weeks post-treatment, stool specimens were collected from the same children and examined following the same procedure as in the pre-treatment. Drug efficacy was determined based on cure and egg reduction rates. Results: Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 74.9% with geometric mean egg count of 268. The evaluated generic PZQ produced an overall cure rate of 73.6% (P<0.000 1, OR: 8.33, CI: 5.3-13.1) and egg reduction rate of 68.2% (P=0.03, F=0.64). The cure rate showed significant association with age (χ²=11, P=0.004), the highest rate being observed in the 15-22 age group. 83% of S. mansoni infected children showed various treatment-related symptoms, the most frequent being headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. These symptoms were associated with age (P<0.001) and pre-treatment intensity of infection (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

  20. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  1. Effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion treatment on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as side effect assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as the related side effect.Methods: Gastric cancer patients with ascites who were treated in our hospital from February 2012 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into perfusion chemotherapy group and routine chemotherapy group, and then overall chemotherapy conditions, ascites FGF molecule content, peripheral blood immune function indexes and the degree of side effect were compared between two groups. Results:Average treatment cycles of perfusion chemotherapy group were more than those of routine chemotherapy group, and ascites drainage volume within two cycles of chemotherapy was significantly less than that of routine chemotherapy group; after two cycles of chemotherapy, bFGF, FGF-2, FGF19 and FGFR4 content in ascites of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD56+ and CD3-CD56+ cell content in peripheral blood were higher than those of routine chemotherapy group, and CD3+CD8+ cell content was lower than that of routine chemotherapy group; during chemotherapy, the number of cases with decreased numeration of leukocyte, abnormal liver function, abnormal kidney function and diarrhea of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group.Conclusions: S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy can more effectively improve treatment compliance, suppress ascites, kill gastric cancer cells and improve immune function. It has fewer side effect and is the ideal way to treat gastric cancer with ascites.

  2. Report on short-term side effects of treatments with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in combination with capecitabine in seven patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, Martijn van; Kam, Boen L.; Kwekkeboom, Dik J. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krenning, Eric P. [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Herder, Wouter W. de; Aken, Maarten O. van [Erasmus MC, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Treatment with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue {sup 177}Lu-octreotate results in tumour remission in 47% of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Adding capecitabine to {sup 177}Lu-octreotate, as a radio-sensitiser, may enhance these anti-tumour effects. We now present the short-term toxicity profile of this novel combination. Seven patients were treated with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine (1650 mg/m{sup 2} per day) for 2 weeks with an intended number of four cycles. Toxicity, and especially haematological and renal parameters, were monitored on a weekly basis for the first two cycles and 4 and 6 weeks after subsequent cycles. None of the patients had hand-foot syndrome. One patient had grade 1 stomatitis occurring after one of four cycles. Grade 3 or 4 leukopenia or neutropenia did not occur. One patient had grade 3 anaemia, but none had grade 4 anaemia. One patient had grade 2 thrombocytopenia after the fourth cycle, and one had grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Grade 4 thrombocytopenia did not occur. No significant changes in serum creatinine levels were observed. None of the patients had symptoms of cardiac ischaemia. Treatment with the combination of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate and capecitabine was feasible and safe considering acute and subacute side effects. We therefore started a randomised, controlled clinical trial to compare this combination with {sup 177}Lu-octreotate as single agent with regard to anti-tumour effects and side effects. (orig.)

  3. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullilove Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  4. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N

    2007-02-26

    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking--essentially an institutional collective consciousness--while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience--dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  5. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Kaya-Büyükbayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler’s type III and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened.

  6. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  7. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A;

    2008-01-01

    have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten......When the HIV epidemic officially hit western Europe in the early 1980s, central and eastern Europe were almost completely spared due to the isolation of the Soviet Union. However, in the mid-1990s, reported new cases of HIV in eastern European countries began to increase exponentially. While there...... priorities listed below are immediate and sometimes innovative research needs in the context of preventing HIV among the most-at-risk populations. While by no means exhaustive, they are intended to point out gaps in existing knowledge and thus serve as inspiration for future research efforts....

  8. Reliability and validity of a treatment fidelity assessment for motivational interviewing targeting sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Lovejoy, Travis I

    2013-12-01

    This study psychometrically evaluates the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code (MITI) to assess fidelity to motivational interviewing to reduce sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS. 74 sessions from a pilot randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing to reduce sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV were coded with the MITI. Participants reported sexual behavior at baseline, 3-month, and 6-months. Regarding reliability, excellent inter-rater reliability was achieved for measures of behavior frequency across the 12 sessions coded by both coders; global scales demonstrated poor intraclass correlations, but adequate percent agreement. Regarding validity, principle components analyses indicated that a two-factor model accounted for an adequate amount of variance in the data. These factors were associated with decreases in sexual risk behaviors after treatment. The MITI is a reliable and valid measurement of treatment fidelity for motivational interviewing targeting sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  9. The Summer Treatment Program Meets the South Side of Chicago: Bridging Science and Service in Urban After-School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Stacy L; Chacko, Anil; Van Gessel, Christine; O'Boyle, Caroline; Pelham, William E

    2012-05-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes efforts to apply the principles and strategies of an empirically-supported treatment for children with disruptive behaviour problems to a park after-school program serving children in urban poverty. METHOD: Collaboration with staff proceeded in stages: (1) relationship building, needs assessment, and resource mapping; (2) intervention adaptation and implementation; and (3) implementation support, problem-solving, and sustainability. RESULTS: Four tools capitalised on inherent strengths of the parks, accommodated child and staff needs, and emerged as feasible and effective: Group Discussion, Good Behaviour Game, Peers as Leaders, and Good News Notes. CONCLUSIONS: Recreational settings offer opportunities for mental health promotion for children in urban poverty.

  10. Discussion on treatment of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen%艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳; 李峰; 王玉光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的理论依据.方法:通过研究古代文献中泄泻与脾的关系的论述,结合现代免疫学及分子生物学对脾的功能研究以及艾滋病相关性腹泻临床治疗方面的报道,分析脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻发生过程中所起的作用以及艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的可行性.结果:脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻的发生、发展过程中起举足轻重的作用.结论:对艾滋病相关性腹泻进行临床治疗,必须重视脾的作用.%Objective: To explore the treatment theoretical basis of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen. Methods: According to the research of ancient literature on relationship between spleen and diarrhea, combination with immunology, molecular biology and clinical treatment of AIDS related diarrhea, to explore the important role of spleen in AIDS related diarrhea and the feasibility of AIDS related diarrhea treated from spleen. Results: Spleen has a important role in the processes, development of AIDS related diarrhea. Conclusion: To treat AIDS related diarrhea, and the role of spleen must be emphasized.

  11. A randomised trial of differentiated prednisolone treatment in active rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical benefits and skeletal side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Podenphant, J; Florescu, A;

    1999-01-01

    to have a protective effect against bone loss in the hand and distal forearm. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not allow any firm conclusions for or against the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone. The data suggest that the beneficial effects of prednisolone are not as clear cut in established......, radiograph of the hands (Larsen score), and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, distal forearm and hand. At one year 26 patients had withdrawn from the investigation leaving 76 patients for evaluation. RESULTS: The results showed that disease activity in the prednisolone treated group was reduced...... within two weeks. In the DMARD alone group disease activity was gradually reduced over months. At six months there was no difference between the groups as evaluated by an improvement score using a number of ACR criteria. Prednisolone in the present set up was not able to protect significantly against...

  12. [Tyrosine kinase inhibiting the VEGF pathway and elderly people: Tolerance, pre-treatment assessment and side effects management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Marie; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Huillard, Olivier; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey; Chahwakilian, Anne; Orvoen, Galdric; Arrondeau, Jennifer; Tlemsani, Camille; Cessot, Anatole; Cabanes, Laure; Blanchet, Benoit; Coriat, Romain; Alexandre, Jérôme; Goldwasser, François

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis inhibition is a major antitumor strategy that has emerged during the last decade. Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the VEGF receptor, including sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, regorafenib, pazopanib, and vandetanib reduce tumor growth and metastasis. These agents are approved for the treatment of metastatic diseases in first or second-line. They display a narrow therapeutic index. However, data in the elderly and/or in patients with multiple illnesses remain scarce. This population is classically excluded from clinical trials. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of existing literature regarding antiangiogenic TKI tolerance in the elderly (>70 years old). We also highlight key points of the pre-therapeutic evaluation and summarize the management of common toxicities. PMID:26832420

  13. Pre-Radiotherapy dental evaluation criteria and treatment needs of oral side effects after head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to present pre-radiotherapy evaluation criteria and the main needs for treatment of these patients after the radiation therapy. Were revised articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese language between 1995 and 2009 indexed in Pubmed and Scielo. The keywords were oral cancer and radiotherapy, complications in head and neck radiotherapy, oral pre-radiotherapy evaluation.The adverse complications of radiotherapy in head and neck area could be temporary or late. The late effects, such as radiation caries and osteorradionecrosis could be directly associated with the fact that previous dental evaluation was not performed and can severely affect the post-operatory quality of life. The participation of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team and dental evaluation of the patients that will receive radiotherapy in the head and neck area are of vital importance to improve the post-operatory quality of life of these patients

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  15. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

  16. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir–cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharoen O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Opass Putcharoen,1 Tanya Do,2 Anchalee Avihingsanon,2 Kiat Ruxrungtham1,2 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug–drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug–drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1 COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2 COBI’s solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1 COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR without affecting actual GFR; 2 potential drug–drug interaction data are insufficient

  17. Comparison of Effects and Side Effects of Two Naloxone-Based Regimens in Treatment of Methadone Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opioid overdose is a common cause of admission in emergency department. In spite of the fact that naloxone is the main therapy for decades, there are controversies about the proper way of its use. This study aimed to compare two most recommended administration modes for naloxone. Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 80 patients with methadone overdose syndrome were randomly divided into two equal groups. The patients in infusion group received a constant infusion of naloxone preparation; while in the patients in PRN group, naloxone was administered only if needed clinically. Severity of withdrawal syndrome was evaluated after 30 min, 3 h, and 12 h of the treatments in both groups. Results: Eighty patients completed the study (10 women and 70 men. Both groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and the severity of intoxication. The severity of withdrawal symptom was significantly lower in the PRN group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Naloxone administration as PRN mode lowers the rate and severity of withdrawal syndrome. It is recommended as the preferred mode of naloxone administration.

  18. The effect of a patient-oriented treatment decision aid for risk factor management in patients with diabetes (PORTDA-diab: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denig Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve risk factor management in diabetes, we need to support effective interactions between patients and healthcare providers. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a treatment decision aid that offers personalised information on treatment options and outcomes, and is intended to empower patients in taking a proactive role in their disease management. Important features are: (1 involving patients in setting goals together with their provider; (2 encourage them to prioritise on treatments that maximise relevant outcomes; and (3 integration of the decision aid in the practice setting and workflow. As secondary aim, we want to evaluate the impact of different presentation formats, and learn more from the experiences of the healthcare providers and patients with the decision aid. Methods and design We will conduct a randomised trial comparing four formats of the decision aid in a 2×2 factorial design with a control group. Patients with type 2 diabetes managed in 18 to 20 primary care practices in The Netherlands will be recruited. Excluded are patients with a recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina pectoris, terminal illness, cognitive deficits, >65 years at diagnosis, or not able to read Dutch. The decision aid is offered to the patients immediately before their quarterly practice consultation. The same decision information will be available to the healthcare provider for use during consultation. In addition, the providers receive a set of treatment cards, which they can use to discuss the benefits and risks of different options. Patients in the control group will receive care as usual. We will measure the effect of the intervention on patient empowerment, satisfaction with care, beliefs about medication, negative emotions, health status, prescribed medication, and predicted cardiovascular risk. Data will be collected with questionnaires and automated extraction from medical records in 6 months before and

  19. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  20. Wording effects and the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Wouters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the immense burden of HIV/AIDS on health systems in sub-Saharan Africa and the intricate link between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems, health care providers need a valid and reliable instrument to assess mental health rapidly. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS may constitute such an instrument. The aims of this study were to: (1 examine the factor structure of the HADS in a population of South African HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART; and (2 identify and control the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects in vulnerable respondent groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The translated scale was administered to 716 HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in the public sector ART program in South Africa. A combined confirmatory factor analysis and correlated-traits-correlated-methods framework was used to determine the preferred factor structure of the HADS, while controlling for the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects. When assessing the structure without a negative wording factor, all three factor structures displayed an acceptable fit to the data. The three-factor solution best fitted the data. Addition of a method factor significantly improved the fit of all three factor solutions. Using χ(2 difference testing, Razavi's one-factor solution displayed a superior fit compared to the other two factor solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The study outcomes support the use of the HADS as a valid and reliable means to screen for mental health problems in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in a public-sector ART program in a resource-limited context. The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating and correcting for wording effects when examining the factor structure of the screening instrument in vulnerable patient groups. In light of the inter-relationships between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems and the scarcity of adequate screening tools, additional studies on this topic are required.

  1. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  2. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  3. Opposite Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ruya Tuncturk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep neck infections are mortal diseases that need emergency treatment. It can occur at any age but usually in pediatric ages. In this report, a left cervical carotid space abscess of a pediatric patient was discussed. It was interesting that the only origin of the left carotid sheath abscess was right inferior first molar tooth decay. Right neck spaces were all clean. Patient had no immunosupression and also there were no congenital masses such as branchial cleft cysts, foreign bodies, or masses suspicious for malignancies in cervical ultrasound and MRI. We discussed this rare condition under the light of the literature.

  4. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intravenous Ganciclovir Versus Oral Ganciclovir in the Maintenance Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Rachlis; Fiona Smaill; Valery Walker; Lorraine Hotchkies; Amy Jones

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a new product, oral ganciclovir, in comparison to a current therapy, intravenous (IV) ganciclovir, in the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. Design: This was a retrospective economic study of a prospective non-blinded randomised clinical trial. The model included IV ganciclovir induction, IV or oral ganciclovir maintenance and IV ganciclovir reinduction for patients whose CMV retiniti...

  5. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    John KR; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Madhuri Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states) and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria...

  6. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  7. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  8. Itolizumab – a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with a better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roshni Menon, Brinda G David Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Ariyur, Pondicherry, India Abstract: Management of psoriasis is a challenge to the treating physician. The chronic inflammatory state of psoriasis with exacerbations and remissions necessitate “on-and-off” treatment schedules. The safety profiles of drugs and tolerability issues for patients are important factors to be considered during treatment. Various biological agents targeting T-cells and the inflammatory cytokines are available for systemic treatment of psoriasis. However, major causes of concern while using these drugs are risk of susceptibility to infection and development of anti-drug antibodies, which will affect the pharmacokinetic properties, efficacy, and safety profile of the drug. Itolizumab, a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, is a new molecule that acts by immunomodulating the CD6 molecule. CD6 is a co-stimulatory molecule required for optimal T-cell stimulation by the antigen-presenting cells. This step is crucial in T-cell proliferation to form Th1 and Th17 cells, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. This article deals with the properties of Itolizumab and its role in the treatment of psoriasis. Based on the available published data, Itolizumab seems to have a better adverse effects profile and at the same time comparatively less efficacy when compared to other biological agents available for treating psoriasis. Larger studies with longer duration are required to clearly depict the long-term side effects profile. Keywords: Itolizumab, CD6, psoriasis, monoclonal antibody, biologicals 

  9. Health-related quality of life and occurrence of intestinal side effects after pelvic radiotherapy - evaluation of long-term effects of diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and occurrence of late intestinal side effects were assessed 3-4 years after pelvic radiotherapy for carcinoma of the endometrium and cervix. During 1988-1990, 143 women were included in a clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a low fat, low lactose diet on radiation-induced diarrhoea. Of 94 survivors, 79 (84%) answered the request. HRQOL was assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C36 and compared with population-based norms. The women scored lower than the general population on role functioning (81.5 versus 90.6 (p < 0.01)) and higher on diarrhoea (23.8 versus 9.5 (p < 0.01)). Compared with pre-treatment conditions, an increase in cases with pain in the lower back, hips and thighs was seen. Substantial pain and diarrhoea were associated with deterioration in HRQOL. In conclusion, few treatment and/or disease-related effects were detected 3-4 years after radiotherapy, with the exception of increased bowel frequency and pain in the lower back, hips and thighs

  10. Long-term safety, efficacy and side-effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment for type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a one centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Spraul, M; Mühlhauser, I; Gause, R; Berger, M

    1989-07-01

    A follow-up study of 116 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was conducted after 4.5 +/- 0.2 years. The average HbA1c-value of these patients decreased by 1% to 6.7 +/- 0.1% during this observation period. Typical side effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion such as skin inflammation at the catheter insertion site occurred with similar frequency as has been reported previously by other authors. Diabetic ketoacidosis (0.14 per patient year) and disabling hypoglycaemia (0.1 per patient year, including 0.05 hypoglycaemic coma per patient-year) occurred at substantially lower rates than in other comparable studies with Type 1 diabetic patients at a similar degree of metabolic control. Subgroup evaluation suggested that a normal (less than 5.6%) HbA1c-value at follow-up was associated with increased incidence of disabling hypoglycaemia, whereas poor metabolic control (HbA1c greater than 7.5%) was associated with increased rates of skin complications and hospital treatment for ketoacidosis. Thus, under the policies of this diabetes centre, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion has proved to be beneficial to a large proportion of experienced adult Type 1 diabetic patients, who voluntarily had opted for, and continued with, this particular mode of insulin treatment.

  11. Entre tramas e dramas: os significados do tratamento para mulheres de camadas populares vivendo com HIV/Aids Between storylines and dramas: the meanings of HIV/Aids treatment for lower class women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carneiro da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda os significados do tratamento para o HIV/Aids. O referencial metodológico é a pesquisa qualitativa, e o campo de estudo, o serviço de um hospital de referência da Baixada Fluminense. O grupo estudado era composto por dez mulheres vivendo com HIV/ Aids, em terapia antirretroviral (ARV. Os significados do tratamento estão relacionados: 1 ao impacto do diagnóstico; 2 ao momento do tratamento considerando as diferentes fases de convívio com a doença; 3 ao espaço (público e privado onde se vivem preferencialmente a doença e o tratamento; 4 ao fato de se compartilhar ou não a doença e o tratamento com o parceiro; 5 à busca de outras racionalidades (religião e remédios alternativos como contraponto às prescrições médicas; 6 ao estabelecimento ou não de um vínculo afetivo com o médico. Há uma inter-relação estreita entre cuidar-se e cuidar dos filhos, tributária do tratamento ARV. O autocuidado é, antes de tudo, afirmação da vida, o que dá a medida da saúde. Não "ceder ao lugar de doente" significa não se entregar à depressão. A doença materializa-se no corpo com o uso da medicação, mas é possível, apesar das dificuldades, conciliar a rotina com o tratamento ARV. Destaca-se a importância fundamental da variável tempo para a criação de estratégias que possibilitem a inserção da doença e do tratamento no cotidiano.This paper discusses the psychosocial meanings of HIV/Aids treatment, using qualitative methods to assess daily operations of a reference hospital, located in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro's outskirts. In-depth interviews were carried out with 10 women living with HIV/Aids, under antiretroviral (ARV therapy. The meaning of treatment is related to: the impact of the diagnosis; the treatment moment, concerning different phases of living with the disease; the public and private spaces where a woman preferable lives with the disease and does her treatment; sharing or not

  12. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  13. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60193-0 Effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy on hepatitis C virus genotype 3 patients from Pakistan:Treatment response, side effects and future prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir Waheed

    2015-01-01

    More than10 million people are suffering from hepatitisC virus(HCV) inPakistan.The available treatment option is a combination of interferon and ribavirin.Treatment response is linked with several factors and also induces a number of side effects.We searched inPubmed,PakMedi Net andGoogleScholar for the articles presenting the effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy onHCV patients fromPakistan, their side effects and future prospects.The major prevalent HCV genotype inPakistan is3.Conventional interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of54%-64% while pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of58%-75%.IL-28BCC genotype is linked with better sustained virological response.Studies on patients withHCV genotype3 infections showed no correlation between treatment response and interferon sensitivity determining region mutations.Interferon therapy is linked with a number of side effects like thyroid dysfuncton, haematological disorders, weight loss, gastrointestinal tractside effects and neuropsychiatric side effects.Unusual side effects of clubbing of fingers and seizures were also observedin a couple of patients.Interferon alpha plus ribavirin therapy showed better response rate inHCV genotype3 patients fromPakistan with number of side effects.A couple of interferon free therapies are light of hope for the patients living withHCV.

  14. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines...

  15. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthoj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Abstract These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating people suffering from schizophrenia. Based on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5) ( Bandelow et al. 2008a ,b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242, see Table 1 ). This second part of the updated guidelines covers long-term treatment as well as the management of relevant side effects. These guidelines are primarily concerned with the biological treatment (including antipsychotic medication and other pharmacological treatment options) of adults suffering from schizophrenia.

  16. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program.

  17. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program. PMID:25299805

  18. Pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS: variáveis associadas à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral Persons living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento de adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS e investigar preditores da adesão entre as variáveis escolaridade, presença de efeitos colaterais, interrupção anterior da terapia anti-retroviral (TARV por conta própria, auto-estima, expectativa de auto-eficácia, estratégias de enfrentamento, suporte social e satisfação com a relação profissional de saúde-usuário. Adesão foi medida pelo auto-relato da perda do número de comprimidos/cápsulas dos medicamentos anti-retrovirais na última semana e mês, sendo considerada satisfatória na ocorrência de omissão inferior a 5% do total prescrito. Participaram 101 pessoas, 60,4% homens, idades entre 20 a 71 anos (M = 37,9 anos, 73,3% sintomáticos. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista e instrumentos auto-aplicáveis. A maioria (n = 73; 72,3% relatou adesão igual ou superior a 95%. Nos resultados da regressão logística, interrupção anterior da TARV e expectativa de auto-eficácia foram preditores significativos da adesão. Faz-se necessária a qualificação da assistência pela constituição de equipes interdisciplinares, para o desenvolvimento de abordagens adequadas às dificuldades médicas e psicossociais de adesão das pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.This study aimed to describe the adherence of persons living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy (ART and to investigate adherence predictors among the following: level of schooling, presence of side effects, current or previous interruption of ART by the persons themselves, self-esteem, self-efficacy expectation, coping strategies, social support, and satisfaction with the health professional-patient relationship. Adherence was measured by self-reported number of ART pills/capsules missed during the previous week and previous month, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 5%. 101 HIV+ adults took part in this study, 60.4% males, ranging from 20 to 71 years

  19. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, S; Koczwara, B; Miller, M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer amongst women. Women with breast cancer frequently consult dietitians for advice, and increasingly advice on complementary alternative medicines (CAM). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of CAM administered orally on cancer-related outcomes. Databases were searched for studies recruiting women with a history of breast cancer reporting on the use of CAM administered orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids for any 1 or more of the following: alleviation of cancer-related symptoms and treatment side effects, improvement to quality of life, physical and emotional wellbeing, survival, and mortality. Twenty-two studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Ten CAM categories were established with no more than 4 articles published in each category. Although the evidence is of varying quality there is some data to support that guarana and Ganoderma lucidum may improve fatigue, whereas glutamine may also be effective in improving oral mucositis symptoms. Overall, the current available evidence is inconclusive to make definitive recommendations regarding the effectiveness for individuals' use of CAM in women with breast cancer. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials exploring safety, toxicity, and other potential adverse effects of CAM are required. PMID:25811312

  20. Efeitos colaterais do tratamento da hepatite C no polo aplicador do ABC Side effects of the hepatitis C treatment at the ABC application center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamy Jay Garcia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar os efeitos colaterais do tratamento da hepatite C com interferon peguilado e ribavirina no Centro de Referência de Imunobiológicos Especiais (CRIE do Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André, de 23/02/2011 a 05/05/2011. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal, por questionário, com amostra não probabilística composta por 340 pacientes que receberam pelo menos uma dose da medicação. RESULTADOS: Os efeitos colaterais apresentados foram cansaço (82,9%, artralgia e/ou mialgia (76,8%, emagrecimento (71,8%, cefaleia (67,6%, desânimo (65,9%, depressão e/ou irritabilidade (64,4%, prurido (60,6%, febre (59,1%, alopecia (51,5%, tosse seca (34,1%, náuseas (11,7%, inapetência (11,7% e tontura (7,9%. Foram relatados até 19 sintomas durante o tratamento. Apenas quatro pacientes (1,2% não apresentaram efeitos colaterais. Ao comparar os interferons, observamos que o uso do alfa-2b causou uma média de 8,01 sintomas por paciente, enquanto o do alfa-2a foi responsável por uma média de 7,50. Os pacientes em uso do interferon alfa-2b apresentaram mais febre, emagrecimento, cefaleia, artralgia e/ou mialgia, cansaço, desânimo, depressão e/ou irritabilidade e tosse seca do que os pacientes em uso do alfa-2a, que, por sua vez, tiveram mais alopecia e prurido. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostra uma grande morbidade relacionada ao tratamento, já que apenas 1,2% dos pacientes não apresentaram efeitos colaterais. Na amostra, o interferon peguilado alfa-2b foi responsável por maior prevalência de febre e emagrecimento quando comparado ao alfa-2a, sendo essa relação estatisticamente significante (p OBJECTIVE: To review and compare side effects of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at the CRIE of the Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil, from February 23 to May 5, 2011. METHODS: Cross-sectional study through questionnaire, with a non-probability sample comprised of 340 patients that had

  1. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  2. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT.

  3. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  4. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  5. The outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Danish patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, T;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive patients with AIDS were evaluated for efficacy and safety of treatment and secondary prophylaxis directed against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). 89 episodes of PCP were recorded in 75 patients. 63 of the 75 patients (84%) with a first episode of PCP were discharged....../16 (69%) patients who were not receiving prophylaxis (p less than 0.00001). No patients discontinued prophylaxis because of side effects. It is concluded that for most patients with AIDS and PCP, treatment and secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMZ is safe and effective....

  6. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  7. Volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy vs. 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary chemoradiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Effects on treatment-related side effects and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Hanne Elisabeth; Droege, Leif Hendrik; Hennies, Steffen; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen [University Medical Center Goettingen, Dept. of General Surgery, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced anal carcinoma. This study compared volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) in terms of treatment-related side effects and survival. From 1992-2014, 103 consecutive patients with anal carcinoma UICC stage I-III were treated. Concomitant CRT consisted of whole pelvic irradiation, including the iliac and inguinal lymph nodes, with 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy per fractions) by VMAT (n = 17) or 3DCRT (n = 86) as well as two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. Acute organ and hematological toxicity were assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) for Adverse Events version 3.0. Side effects ≥ grade 3 were scored as high-grade toxicity. High-grade acute organ toxicity CTC ≥ 3 (P < 0.05), especially proctitis (P = 0.03), was significantly reduced in VMAT patients. The 2-year locoregional control (LRC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were both 100 % for VMAT patients compared with 80 and 73 % for 3DCRT patients. VMAT was shown to be a feasible technique, achieving significantly lower rates of acute organ toxicity and promising results for LRC and DFS. Future investigations will aim at assessing the advantages of VMAT with respect to late toxicity and survival after a prolonged follow-up time. (orig.) [German] Die primaere Radiochemotherapie (RCT) gilt als Standardtherapie fuer lokal fortgeschrittene Analkarzinome. In dieser Studie wurde die volumetrisch modulierte Rotationstherapie (''volumetric intensity-modulated arc therapy'', VMAT) mit der klassischen dreidimensionalen konformalen Radiotherapie (3DCRT) hinsichtlich therapieassoziierter Nebenwirkungen und Ueberleben verglichen. Von 1992-2014 wurden 103 aufeinanderfolgende Patienten mit einem Analkarzinom im UICC-Stadium I-III behandelt. Die kombinierte RCT bestand aus der Bestrahlung des gesamten Beckens inklusive der iliakalen und der inguinalen

  8. Graphene Side Gate Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Low, Tony; Chiu, Hsin-Ying; Zhu, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Various mesoscopic devices exploit electrostatic side gates for their operation. In this paper, we investigate how voltage-biasing of graphene side gates modulates the electrical transport characteristics of graphene channel. We explore myriads of typical side gated devices such as symmetric dual side gates and asymmetric single side gate biasing, in monolayer and bilayer graphene. The side gates modulate the electrostatic doping in the graphene channel whose effect is reflected in transport ...

  9. Randomized Double-blinded and Controlled Clinical Trial on Treatment of HIV/AIDS by Zhongyan-4 (中研-4号)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of Zhongyan-4 (中研-4号, ZY-4, a Chinese herbal preparation worked out according to the therapeutic principle of supplementing qi, nourishing Yin,clearing heat and detoxication) in treating HIV/AIDS patients in the early or middle stage. Methods: Adopted was randomized double-blinded and placebo-parallel-controlled method, with 72 HIV/AIDS patients randomly divided into the ZY-4 group (36 patients) treated with ZY-4 and the control group (36 patients) treated with placebo. The treatment course was six months. The index of CD4+ , CD8+ counts, body weight, clinical symptom scoring were estimated at 4 time points (0, 1, 3 and 6 month in the course), and also the viral load before and after treatment. The whole course of observation was completed in 63 patients, 30 in the ZY-4group and 33 in the control group. Results: CD4 + count in the ZY-4 group got elevated by 7.70 ± 150.96/mm3on average, while that in the control group lowered by 27.33±85.28 /mm3. Fifteen out of the 30 patients in the ZY-4 group had their CD4+ count increased, which was evidently much higher than that in the control group (8/33, P<0.05), suggesting that the efficacy of ZY-4 is superior to that of placebo in elevating CD4 +count. Moreover, ZY-4 showed actions in elevating CD45RA+ and CD8+ count, reducing HIV virus load, improving clinical symptom/sign and increasing body weight of patients. No obvious adverse reaction was found in the clinical trial. Conclusion: ZY-4 has an immunity-protective and/or rebuilding function in HIV/AIDS patients in the early and middle stage, and also shows effects in lowering viral load, increasing body weight and improving symptoms and signs to a certain degree.

  10. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervoort Gerald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study.

  11. Mitigation of organically bound sulphate from water treatment plants at Bruce NGS and impact on steam generator secondary side chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce Power is the source of more than 20 per cent of Ontario's electricity and currently operates six reactor units at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A (two units) and B (four units) stations located on Lake Huron. This paper discusses the challenges faced and operating experience (OPEX) gained in meeting WANO 1.0 chemistry performance objectives for steam generator secondary side chemistry control, particularly with control of steam generator sulphates. A detailed sampling and analysis program conducted as part of this study concluded that a major contributor to steam generator (SG) elevated sulphates is Organically Bound Sulphate (OBS) in Water Treatment Plants (WTP) effluent. The Bruce A and B WTPs consist of clarification with downstream sand and carbon filtration for Lake Water pre-treatment, which are followed by conventional Ion Exchange (IX) demineralization. Samples taken from various locations in the process stream were analyzed for a variety of parameters including both organic bound and inorganic forms of sulphate. The results are inconclusive with respect to finding the definitive source of OBS. This is primarily due to the condition that the OBS in the samples, which are in relatively low levels, are masked during chemical analysis by the considerably higher inorganic sulphate background. Additionally, it was also determined that on-line Total Organic Carbon (TOC) levels at different WTP locations did not always correlate well with OBS levels in the effluent, such that TOC could not be effectively used as a control parameter to improve OBS performance of the WTP operation. Improvement efforts at both plants focused on a number of areas including optimization of clarifier operation, replacement of IX resins, addition of downstream mobile polishing trailers, testing of new resins and adsorbents, pilot-scale testing with a Reverse Osmosis (RO) rig, review of resin regeneration and backwashing practices, and operating procedure improvements

  12. Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS%AIDS合并症的经皮介入治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文科; 陆普选; 黄湘荣; 张莉萍; 李苑; 刘锦清; 曹义; 张辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical application value of percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS.Methods Twenty-one AIDS patients with complications were enrolled.CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy and drainage were conducted,and the correct rate of diagnosis,clinical curative effect and complications post-interventional therapy were observed.Results The operations of all patients executed successfully.Fourteen patients underwent 16 times biopsy,11 were correctly diagnosed,the diagnostic accordance rate was 81.25%.Drainage was performed in 6 patients with abscess or cystis,then the lesions completely disappeared in 3,deflated in 2,while the rest one needed continously draining.Partial splenic embolization (50%) was performed in 1 patient,and after operation platelet content increased,while hepatic function decreased temporality.No complicated infection and other severe complications occurred.Conclusion Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS are safe and feasible.Medical staffs should be careful to exposition of HIV infection.%目的 探讨经皮介入技术在艾滋病(AIDS)伴发合并症患者中的临床应用价值.方法 对21例AIDS伴发合并症患者,采用CT引导下经皮穿刺活检或置管引流术,观察介入诊断的正确率、临床疗效及术后并发症.结果 所有患者均获得操作成功.14例患者接受16次穿刺活检,11例(13例次)获得诊断,诊断率81.25%.6例脓肿及囊肿引流,病灶完全消失3例,病灶缩小2例,1例无明显变化,仍持续保留导管引流.1例脾栓塞面积约50%,术后血小板升高,出现暂时性肝功能降低.所有患者均无并发感染及其他严重并发症.未发生医护人员暴露感染.结论 介入技术在AIDS患者合并症的临床应用是安全可行的,但应注意严格预防暴露感染.

  13. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  14. Heart Failure in an Infant With Pierre Robin Sequence: Is There a Diagnostic Test to Aid in Treatment Planning and Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskup, Nataliya; Francis, Stacey H

    2015-11-01

    This case report describes an infant with Pierre Robin sequence who was managed conservatively until he presented at 4 months of age with right-sided heart failure. This rare clinical presentation displays the physiologic response to chronic respiratory obstruction and the acid-base disturbances, which become evident on metabolic panel and blood gas. We suggest that these tests can be added to the workup, especially in conservatively managed infants, to help predict which infants may fail conservative treatment and to avoid the rare complication of heart failure in infants with Pierre Robin sequence.

  15. Pilot Randomized Trial of Collaborative Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Pain and Depression in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weisberg, Risa B; Herman, Debra S; Bailey, Genie L; Pinkston-Camp, Megan M; Garnaat, Sarah L; Stein, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    In this pilot study, we assessed feasibility and acceptability of a behavior therapy intervention for pain and depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). We randomly assigned 23 participants to HIV-PASS (HIV-Pain and Sadness Study) or a health education control arm for 3 months. On average, participants attended more than 5 sessions (of 7 possible) in both arms. Qualitative data suggest HIV-PASS participants understood key messages and made concrete behavioral changes. HIV-PASS was associated with effects in the expected direction for three of four outcomes, including the primary outcome (pain-related interference with functioning). Findings suggest that HIV-PASS is promising. PMID:27115400

  16. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  17. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Radioimmunoassay and systolic time interval as control parameters for prophylactic and early diagnosis of side-effects of cytostatic therapeutic treatment using adriamycin and methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible, with the aid of a newly developed radioimmunoassay to detect the cytostatic methotrexate in the serum of patients up to concentrations of 1.1x10-8 mol/l. This makes a harmless highdose therapy possible. (orig./MG)

  19. The outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Danish patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, T;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive patients with AIDS were evaluated for efficacy and safety of treatment and secondary prophylaxis directed against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). 89 episodes of PCP were recorded in 75 patients. 63 of the 75 patients (84%) with a first episode of PCP were discharged....... Of 72 patients with a first episode of PCP who were initially treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. 76% completed therapy successfully. Side effects were common, but generally mild and tolerated during continued treatment. 7/11 patients (64%) with a first episode of PCP who required mechanical....../16 (69%) patients who were not receiving prophylaxis (p less than 0.00001). No patients discontinued prophylaxis because of side effects. It is concluded that for most patients with AIDS and PCP, treatment and secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMZ is safe and effective....

  20. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  1. TAXTOX - a retrospective study regarding the side effects of docetaxel given as part of the adjuvant treatment to patients with primary breast cancer in Denmark from 2007 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, Lise; Nielsen, Mette; Moeller, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 docetaxel was introduced as part of the adjuvant setting offered to high risk breast cancer patients in Denmark. Meta-analyses had shown that taxane-containing chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of relapse and death by 20-30%, apparently with moderate side effects. The treatment...... was given as three cycles of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) and epirubicin (90 mg/m(2)) followed by three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)). Because of an apparent high incidence of side effects, especially febrile neutropenia (FN) and non-hematologic side effects, the DBCG (The Danish Breast Cancer...... Cooperative Group) initiated a retrospective study of adverse reactions to the newly introduced regime and all patients were offered primary prophylaxis with growth factors (G-CSF) pr 1/1-2008....

  2. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  3. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  4. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  5. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  6. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Suchismita Paul; Rachel Evans; Toby Maurer; Muhe, Lulu M.; Freeman, Esther E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was underta...

  7. The impact of mental health and traumatic life experiences on antiretroviral treatment outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Pence, Brian Wells

    2009-01-01

    Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Accordingly, the goal of HIV care has shifted from delaying death to achieving optimal health outcomes through ART treatment. ART treatment success hinges on medication adherence. Extensive research has demonstrated that the primary barriers to ART adherence include mental illness, especially depression and substance abuse, as well as histories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual ...

  8. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  9. TSG助听器用于耳鸣患者的临床结果%The Effect of TSG Hearing Aids on the Treatment of Tinnitus Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海红; 张峰; 张华; 冯定香

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估TSG助听器(GN Resound Live 9 TS)改善患者耳鸣的效果,从而检验该技术用于治疗单纯性耳鸣和耳鸣伴有听力障碍患者的可行性和疗效.方法 采用耳鸣残疾评估量表(TinnitusHandicap Inventory,THI)作为评估素材,分别对9名受试者在TSG助听器配戴前后的耳鸣残疾程度进行评估.结果 ①全部受试者配戴GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器前后THI总分和各条目得分均有显著性差异(P<0.0001) ; ②GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器配戴前后受试者THI的功能性、情感性及严重性得分均得到显著性改善(P<0.0001).结论 GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器对单纯耳鸣受试者或耳鸣伴有轻中度感音神经性听力损失者均显示出明显的改善作用.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of Tinnitus Sound Generator (TSG) hearing aid (GN Resound Live 9 TS) in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess the degree of tinnitus in 9 subjects before and after wearing TSG hearing aids. Results The THI scores after 8 weeks of trial were significantly lower than the baseline scores(P<0.0001). The significant improvements were found in the functional, emotional and catastrophic THI scores after wearing the TSG hearing aids(P<0.0001).Conclusion Based on the assessment results, the GN Resound Live 9 TS hearing aid is an effective instrument to treat tinnitus patients with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses or with normal hearing even after a short period of use.

  10. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I;

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  11. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  12. An assessment of felt needs and expectations of people living with HIV/AIDS seeking treatment at NGOs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megharita M; Garg, Suneela; Nath, Anita; Gupta, Vimal K

    2015-03-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) continue to face stigma and discrimination in society. The felt needs of PLHAs can be met by means of a comprehensive, holistic, and integrated approach by the concerned sectors. This study included 100 PLHAs admitted at 3 care homes run by nongovernmental organizations in New Delhi. As many as 22% of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary Koch's. Unemployment rates were found to increase after disease onset. Majority were satisfied with the medical treatment and overall care provided at these centers. About 25% expressed that they would like the government to provide them with suitable jobs. Less than one third (30%) of the PLHAs expressed satisfaction with their family life whereas the rest yearned for love and acceptance from society. Study findings highlight the important role of nongovernmental organizations and stresses on the need for a holistic approach toward the care of these people. PMID:19443873

  13. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E

    2011-08-01

    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  14. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  15. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗政策和策略分析与思考%Analysis of antiretroviral treatment policy and strategy for AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 赵燕; 晋灿瑞; 陈清峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 把握艾滋病抗病毒治疗政策和策略现状,分析存在的问题,为调整完善艾滋病抗病毒治疗机制提供建议.方法 采用文献回顾、数据资料收集和现场调查的方法.结果 中国制定落实了艾滋病病人免费抗病毒治疗的政策和策略,建立了医疗机构和疾病预防控制机构服务相结合的治疗模式,探索建立了免费抗病毒治疗的药品供应、经费保障机制,将抗病毒治疗药品纳入城镇职工基本医疗保险支付范围,推动了抗病毒治疗工作的迅速开展,明显降低了病人的病死率.当前抗病毒治疗工作面临治疗服务规模和能力有限、治疗药品供应和管理机制不能适合治疗发展需要、治疗与现行基本医疗保障体系脱节、流动人口异地治疗办法尚不完善等问题.结论 需要进一步健全以定点医疗机构为依托的抗病毒治疗服务体系,结合医改重建满足治疗需求的免费抗病毒治疗药品供应保障机制,将抗病毒治疗纳入现行的医疗保障范围,加快探索异地抗病毒治疗的办法.%Objective To understand the current situation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) policies and strategies for AIDS response in China, analyze problems confronted, and recommend the adjustment and improvement of ART mechanism. Methods Literature review, data and documental materials collection and field study were conducted. Results China developed and implemented free ART policies and strategies for AIDS patients, established ART models combining services by medical institutions and disease control institutions, and explored model of free ART drug supply and funding. ART expenditure was included in the basic medical insurance system of urban and township employees. These measures promoted rapid progress of ART service provision and significantly decreased mortality rate of AIDS patients. The problems faced by the present ART mechanism include: limitation in terms of scale and capacity

  16. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  17. 'Side-by-side'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    France is a nuclear power nation. And this is not going to change. However, at the same time, the country is also pursuing massive investments in the expansion of renewable energies. According to France's President Nicolas Sarkozy, the motto should be: 'side-by-side' rather than 'one or the other'. For the PV sector, whose success was unbroken during the crisis in 2009, the signal is positive and could mean sustained growth. (orig.)

  18. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  19. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  20. Profile of once-daily darunavir/cobicistat fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Navarro, Adrian Curran Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Efficacy is the main objective of antiretroviral treatment and adherence is one of the cornerstones to achieve it. For this reason, treatment simplification is of key importance with regard to antiretroviral regimens. Rezolsta® (darunavir/cobicistat is the first fixed-dose combination containing a protease inhibitor approved for HIV treatment. This coformulation includes darunavir, a protease inhibitor that has shown its efficacy and safety in naïve and treatment-experienced patients, and cobicistat, the new pharmacokinetic enhancer that is expected to replace ritonavir. Bioequivalence between ritonavir and cobicistat as darunavir boosters has been shown in studies involving healthy volunteers. Furthermore, efficacy and safety of darunavir/cobicistat observed in phase III studies, including naïve and pretreated patients without darunavir-associated resistance mutations, are comparable to historical data of darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily formulation. Adverse events with darunavir/cobicistat are scarce and mild, and basically include skin reactions and gastrointestinal disturbances. Although small increases in plasma creatinine are expected in patients receiving cobicistat due to the inhibition of creatinine transporters in kidney tubules, actual glomerular filtrate rate remains unaltered. Cobicistat does not have an inducer effect on metabolic pathways and shows much more selective inhibition than ritonavir. Therefore, isoenzyms different from CYP3A4 are supposed to be less affected by cobicistat, and thus fewer drug–drug interactions are expected. Keywords: darunavir, cobicistat, fixed-dose combination, HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment

  1. [Consensus document of Gesida and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) regarding combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel consisting of members of the AIDS Study Group (Gesida) and the Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) after reviewing the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals, or presented in medical scientific meetings. Gesida has prepared an objective and structured method to prioritise combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in naïve patients. Recommendations strength (A, B, C) and the evidence which supports them (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria. The current antiretroviral treatment (ART) of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, in pregnancy, in serodiscordant couples with high transmission risk, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, and HIV nephropathy. Guidelines on ART treatment in patients with concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection and an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; 2) when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, therapy will be recommended and only delayed if patient is reluctant to take it, the CD4 are stabilised, and the plasma viral load is low; 3) therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >10(5) copies/mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years. ART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and a third drug (non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected and given priority to using

  2. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration on drug therapy for tuberculosis is a common cause of hospital admission in Africa. Potential causes for clinical deterioration in settings of high HIV-1 prevalence include drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, co-morbid illnesses, poor adherence to therapy, tuberculosis associated-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS and subtherapeutic antitubercular drug levels. It is important to derive a rapid diagnostic work-up to determine the cause of clinical deterioration as well as specific management to prevent further clinical deterioration and death. We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration. METHOD: A prospective observational study conducted during the first quarter of 2007. We defined clinical deterioration as clinical worsening or failure to stabilise after 14 or more days of antitubercular treatment, resulting in hospital referral. We collected data on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, HIV-1 status and antiretroviral treatment, and investigated reasons for clinical deterioration as well as outcome. RESULTS: During this period, 352 TB patients met inclusion criteria; 296 were admitted to hospital accounting for 17% of total medical admissions (n = 1755. Eighty three percent of TB patients (291/352 were known to be HIV-1 co-infected with a median CD4 count of 89cells/mm(3 (IQR 38-157. Mortality among TB patients admitted to hospital was 16% (n = 48. The median duration of hospital admission was 9.5 days (IQR 4-18, longer than routine in this setting (4 days. Among patients in whom HIV-1 status was known (n = 324, 72% of TB patients (n = 232 had an additional illness to tuberculosis; new AIDS defining illnesses (n = 80 were the most frequent additional illnesses (n = 208 in HIV-1 co-infected patients (n

  3. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  4. Fístula linfática após tratamento cirúrgico de síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico à direita Chylothorax after surgical treatment of right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Lopes Araujo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fístula linfática como complicação de correção de síndrome do desfiladeiro torácico é um evento muito raro. Relatamos um caso de fístula linfática à direita e apresentamos uma breve revisão do tratamento de quilotórax pós-cirúrgico.Chylothorax as a complication of the surgical treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome is a quite rare event. We report a case of right-sided chylothorax and present a brief review on the treatment of postoperative chylothorax.

  5. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir-cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcharoen, Opass; Do, Tanya; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI)-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV) as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug-drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug-drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1) COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2) COBI's solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1) COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) without affecting actual GFR; 2) potential drug-drug interaction data are insufficient, warranting caution when initiating COBI in conjunction with concomitant medication or in individuals with multiple comorbidities; 3) food plays a pivotal role in boosting darunavir exposure, warranting caution and patient education on the importance of taking COBI-containing regimens with appropriate amounts

  6. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochstadt Jenny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  7. 快捷护理程序在重型颅脑外伤急救中的应用%Application of shortcut nursing procedure in first-aid treatment of patients with severe head trau-ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳英; 刘燕兰

    2008-01-01

    目的 提高重型颅脑外伤的急救水平,降低死亡率.方法 运用临床护理程序对患者实施护理,将105例急救患者随机分为对照组50例和实验组55例,对照组采用以前的抢救流程,实验组运用自行制订的重型颅脑外伤临床快捷护理程序对患者进行急救护理,对2组患者的死亡率及抢救所用的时间进行比较,观察临床快捷护理程序运用于急救过程中的效果.结果 实验组的死亡率及抢救所用的时间均比对照组低,且差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论 在急救过程中运用临床快捷护理程序不仅可以提高急救水平,降低患者的死亡率,而且可以有效的指导护士进行抢救,提高了护士自身的专业及业务水平.%Objective To improve level of first-aid treatment of severe head trauma and reduce fa-tality. Methods Clinical nursing procedures were applied to patients.Patients need first-aid treatment (105 cases) were divided into the control group(50 cases) and the experimental group(55 cases).The con-trol group adopted routine first-aid procedure,the experimental group was given first-aid nursing with self-designed shortcut nursing procedure for severe head trauma.The effect of application of shortcut nursing procedure was observed by comparing the fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment between the two groups. Results The fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment in the experimental groupwas lower than that of the control group, P<0.05. Conclusions Application of shortcut nursing proce-dure in first-aid treatment can not only improve level of first-aid treatment and reduce fatality, but also can instruct nurses how to rescue patients and improve their professional and vocational level.

  8. HIV/AIDS合并普外科疾病临床诊治分析%Clinical diagnosis and treatment of general surgical diseases of HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 何清; 陶红光; 宗华; 钱福永; 李红春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨合并普外科疾病HIV/AIDS患者手术治疗的疗效及职业防护。方法本院自2011年1月至2014年1月共对91例HIV/AIDS合并普外科疾病患者实施了手术,对其临床资料和处理方法进行回顾性分析。结果91例普外科手术包括:左半肝切除术1例,胆囊切除+胆总管切开取石+T管引流术2例,腹腔镜下胆囊切除术1例;甲状腺癌根治术1例,甲状腺次全切除术2例,乳腺癌改良根治术1例;腹股沟疝修补术4例,直肠良性肿瘤切除术2例,阑尾切除术1例,乙状结肠穿孔修补+降结肠造瘘术1例,胃癌根治术1例,小肠部分切除术1例,肛瘘切除或挂线术23例,肛周脓肿切开引流术9例,混合痔切除术2例;颈部淋巴结结核病灶清除术12例,腋窝脓肿切开引流术5例,浅表淋巴结活检术16例,浅表肿物切除术6例。术后Ⅰ类切口患者未使用抗菌药物,Ⅱ、Ⅲ类切口患者使用抗菌药物预防感染或治疗。91例患者均安全度过围手术期,无1例死亡。术后伤口一期愈合45例,延期愈合46例。在所有手术中发生1例手术医生职业暴露,经过紧急局部处理和定时检测,未口服抗病毒药物,未发生HIV感染。结论 HIV/AIDS不是普外科手术的禁忌证,合理的手术治疗是挽救部分HIV/AIDS患者唯一有效的方法。医务人员应对HIV/AIDS患者实施手术应持积极态度;只要术中严格职业防护,严守操作规程,医务人员是可以避免医源性感染的。建议各大综合性医院开设感染手术室,积极收治此类患者;且能够建立完善的职业暴露处理预案和保障体系。%Objective To investigate the effects of surgical treatment for general surgical diseases of HIV/AIDS patients and to study the occupational protection. Methods From January 2011 to January 2014, a total of 91 HIV/AIDS patients with general surgical diseases were taken kinds of operations

  9. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  10. EXPLORING SUBSTANCE USE AND HIV TREATMENT FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROCOGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Attonito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive (NC impairment remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH and may be exacerbated by alcohol and drug use. This cross-sectional study assesses the degree to which alcohol and other drug use, time from HIV diagnosis to treatment, and years living with HIV affect three areas of NC functioning among HIV-seropositive adults. NC functioning in 370 PLWH living in Miami, FL was assessed using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT, the Short Category Test, Booklet Format (SCT, and the Color Trails Test 2 (CTT2. Participants reported the number of days using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine over the previous three months, the number of known years living with HIV and length of time from HIV diagnosis to seeking care. Bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression were used to test associations between independent and dependent variables. Mean scores on NC measures were significantly lower than published norms; 39% of participants scored >1 standard deviation below normative sample means on >2 NC tests. No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure. Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β=1.031; p=0.007. In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a .32 (p=0.05 point and 1.18 (p=0.03 point poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively. Results suggest that both marijuana use and duration of HIV infection may affect cognitive functioning among PLWH in ways that may impair their ability to follow important treatment guidance.

  11. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  12. Cost-efficacy of European AIDS Clinical Society-recommended initial antiretroviral regimens for treatment of HIV infection in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Aldir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Guidelines are based on clinical trial data as well as expert opinion and do not reflect economic considerations. Cost-efficacy analysis of recommended regimens allows for a ranking which takes into account both clinical and economic considerations. The aim of the present analysis was thus complement the information provided by the EACS (v6 guidelines regarding recommended initial treatment for HIV-1 infection. Methods: The methodology used was that described in Blasco et al. 2011 [1], but applied to Portugal in terms of (i resource prices, (ii resource utilization upon ART initiation, regimen switch and treatment of adverse events, and (iii subsequent regimen selection according to the initial regimen and the reason for switch. Regarding costs, the payer (National Healthcare Service perspective was considered taking into account only differential direct costs. The time horizon was 48 weeks. Summary of results: In this analysis, efficacy ranged from 66% with ABC/3TC+LPV/r to 86% for TDF/FTC+RAL. TDF/FTC+NVP was the least expensive regimen both in terms of the 48 weeks’ cost of the initial regimen and in terms of the total 48 weeks’ costs (i.e., including sequential therapy and other direct medical costs (7,592#x20AC;. Nonetheless, once cost and efficacy are considered simultaneously, TDF/FTC+NVP ranks third (11,419#x20AC;, ABC/3TC+EFV ranks second (11,073#x20AC; and TDF/FTC+EFV (also available, in a single tablet regimen ranks first (10,888#x20AC; indicating that this is the regimen yielding the lowest cost per suppressed patient. Among regimens containing boosted protease inhibitors, TDF/FTC+DRV/r was the regimen with the lowest cost/efficacy ratio (13,020#x20AC; and TDF/FTC+ATV/r had the highest ratio (15,102#x20AC;. Conclusions: Viral suppression is a relevant efficacy outcome not only due to individual benefits but also from a public health perspective. In this analysis, TDF/FTC+EFV was the initial ART regimen with

  13. NSAID-associated adverse effects and acid control aids to prevent them: a review of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesdal, Jørgen; Brown, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    NSAIDs are central to the clinical management of a wide range of conditions. However, NSAIDs in combination with gastric acid, which has been shown to play a central role in upper gastrointestinal (GI) events, can damage the gastroduodenal mucosa and result in dyspeptic symptoms and peptic lesions such as ulceration.NSAID-associated GI mucosal injury is an important clinical problem. Gastroduodenal ulcers or ulcer complications occur in up to 25% of patients receiving NSAIDs. However, these toxicities are often not preceded by indicative symptoms. Data obtained from the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System have shown that 50-60% of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer cases can remain clinically silent and do not present until complications occur. Therefore, prophylactic treatment to prevent GI complications may be necessary in a substantial proportion of NSAID users, especially those in groups associated with a high risk of developing these complications. Use of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective NSAIDs, also known as 'coxibs', substantially reduces the incidence of upper GI toxicities seen with non-selective NSAIDs. However, there are concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of coxibs. For this reason, the US FDA recommends minimal use of coxibs and only when strictly necessary. Additionally, rofecoxib has been removed from the US market and sales of valdecoxib have been suspended. Furthermore, upper GI toxicities still occur in patients receiving coxibs. Therefore, cotherapies are required to prevent and/or heal upper GI effects associated with NSAID use. Effective prophylactic and treatment strategies include misoprostol, histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The key role that gastric acid plays in upper GI adverse events among NSAID users suggests that it is important to choose the most effective agent for acid control to alleviate symptoms, heal mucosal erosions and improve the reduced quality of life in

  14. Permanent magnetic field treatment of nonpenetrating corneal injuries at oil drilling site medical aid stations in Udmurt ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaykova, M.V.; Gorkunov, E.S.; Liyaskin, M.I.; Osipov, N.A.; Koshevoy, V.P.; Vlasova, E.F.; Solovev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic trials were conducted with permanent magnetic field magnetotherapy in the management of nonpenetrating corneal injuries. The low intensity fields (10 mTesla) were applied to closed eyelids of 100 workers, 20-30 years of age, injured at oil drilling sites in Udmurtia, with another 100 workers treated in the conventional manner without adjunct magnetotherapy to provide a control group. Treatment consisted of 3-20 half-hour sessions following foreign body removal. In the experimental group 98% of the patients showed recovery of 0.9-1.0 visual acuity, with superficial traumatic keratitis evident in only 2% of the subjects. Full recovery of visual acuity was obtained in only 89% of the control group, with 11% of the patients in that group presenting with traumatic keratitis. In addition, discharge time for the former group was 2.5 days on the average, and 4.5 days for the control group. The severity of complications in the magnetotherapy group was also less pronounced than in the control cohort.

  15. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral

  16. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinapori, Roberta; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The fixed-dose combination (FDC) elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF) is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat) associated with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC's efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients' needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV-infected patients. PMID:26345643

  17. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  18. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; b) Therapy should be recommended when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, except when CD4 are stabilized, there is low plasma viral load, or the patient not willing; c) Therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/ μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a ritonavir boosted protease

  19. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinapori R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Prinapori,1 Antonio Di Biagio2 1Infectious Diseases, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy Abstract: The fixed-dose combination (FDC elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat associated with two nucleos(tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC’s efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients’ needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV

  20. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Elionai C. de L.; Mussel, Wagner N.; Resende, Jarbas M.; Yoshida, Maria I., E-mail: mirene@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Fialho, Silvia L.; Barbosa, Jamile; Fialho, Silvia L. [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)

  1. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  2. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  3. One-sided arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    When is an argument to be called one-sided? When is putting forward such an argument fallacious? How can we develop a model for critical discussion, such that a fallaciously one-sided argument corresponds to a violation of a discussion rule? These issues are dealt with within 'the limits of the dial

  4. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  5. The TCM Remedies for Treatment of AIDS——A Clinical Report of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Guihua; Mao Shuzhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of TCM remedies in treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Method: 60 cases of AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) were divided into four different TCM patterns and treated accordingly. Results: Of the 60 cases, 52 patients (86.7%)experienced remarkable improvement in general symptoms and lab findings, including virus loading and CD4 T lymphocyte count. Conclusion: The TCM remedies could definitely improve the symptoms and signs of AIDS or ARC, enhance the immune function, decrease the possibility of contracting opportunistic infection, improve the life quality, and prolong the survival period, with no apparent toxic and side effects.

  6. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  7. Effect of Plasma, RF, and RIE Treatments on Properties of Double-Sided High Voltage Solar Cells with Vertically Aligned p-n Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola O. Semenenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Si-based solar cells with vertically aligned p-n junctions operating at high voltage were designed and fabricated. The plasma treatments and antireflection coating deposition on the working surfaces of both single- and multijunction cells were made using the special holders. It was shown that additional treatment of solar cells in argon plasma prior to hydrogen plasma treatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon antireflection films led to the improvement of the cell efficiency by up to 60%. Radio frequency waves support plasma generation and improve photoelectric conversion mainly due to reduction of internal stresses at the interfaces. Application of reactive ion etching technique removes the broken layer, reduces elastic strain in the wafer, decreases recombination of charge carriers in the bulk, and provides cell efficiency increase by up to ten times.

  8. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice; Radiologisch praxisrelevante Prophylaxe und Therapie von Nebenwirkungen jodhaltiger Kontrastmittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [German] Durch den zunehmenden Einsatz jodhaltiger Kontrastmittel in der Radiologie steigt auch die Rate der Nebenwirkungen; zu den wichtigsten gehoeren die kontrastmittelinduzierte Nephropathie, anaphylaktoide Reaktion, thyreotoxische Krise und Extravasation. Bei Patienten mit mittelgradig eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion wird eine Prophylaxe durch Hydrierung und Reduktion der KM-Menge empfohlen. Bei hochgradig eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion sollte die Kontrastmittelgabe nur noch kontrolliert im interdisziplinaeren Konsens erfolgen. Eine nachgewiesen wirkungsvolle Prophylaxe anaphylaktoider Reaktionen ist bisher nicht bekannt. Bei Nachweis einer sublatenten Hyperthyreose ist die Gabe von Natriumperchlorat eine sinnvolle Gegenmassnahme. Eine kontrastmittelinduzierte Nephropathie ist meistens transient und sollte mehrfach im Verlauf kontrolliert werden. Leichte allgemeine anaphylaktoide Reaktionen koennen mit Antihistaminika und Kortikosteroiden behandelt werden. Auch die Wahl des Roentgenkontrastmittels koennte Einfluss auf das Risiko von Nebenwirkungen haben. (orig.)

  9. Side-wall sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B.

    1969-11-01

    A side-wall sampler which is capable of taking samples from the walls of test holes to a depth of 1,000 ft or more is described. Samples have been extracted from till, clay, silt, and fine- to coarse-grained sands in drift and nonindurated bedrock from more than 1,000 test holes in S. Saskatchewan. Side-hole sampling is faster and cheaper than conventional sampling methods and is ideally suited for geological investigations. Mineralogical paleonto- locical and radiocarbon analyses have been determined on side-hole cores.

  10. CHARTS项目对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境的影响分析%Analysis of the Impact of CHARTS on the AIDS Prevention and Treatment Policy Environment in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文凤梅; 明平勇; 李娜; 左海燕; 苏维; 张建新

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中英艾滋病策略支持项目(CHARTS)对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境变化的作用和影响,为改进艾滋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用问卷调查与关键人物访谈相结合的方法.结果 省级多部门艾滋病战略规划数量显著增加,规划针对的目标人群明显扩大;政府部门的关注度和社会力量参与度不断提高,并呈现出合作的趋势;艾滋病预防政策和策略更加完善,受益人群面不断扩大;对艾滋病受害者的治疗、关怀和支持的政策和策略进一步完善,尤其是对艾滋病孤儿和脆弱儿童的关怀支持力度进一步加大;项目督导评估系列工作基本实现了从无到有.结论 在CHARTS项目支持下,四川省艾滋病防治政策环境得到显著改善,但仍然面临诸多挑战.%OBJECTIVE To know the effect and impact of CHARTS on the changes of AIDS prevention and treatment policy environment in Sichuan province, so as to provide reference for improving the job of AIDS prevention and treatment. METHODS Questionnaire Survey and Key—informant interview were used in our study. RESULTS The number of provincial multisec-toral Strategic Planning for AIDS prevention and treatment significantly increased, and the target population included in the strategic planning also significantly expanded; The degree of attention paid to AIDS prevention and treatment by government departments and the degree of participation in AIDS prevention and treatment for social forces continuously improved, and there was a trend of cooperation. The policies and strategies for AIDS prevention were perfected, and the range of benefited population continuously expanded. Policies and strategies of AIDS treatment, care and support focused on the victims further improved, especially the caring and supporting efforts for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children. The series of jobs in project supervision and evaluation basically realized from scratch. CONCLUSION Under the

  11. Aid, public expenditure, and Dutch disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher S. Adam; Bevan, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary policy debates on the macroeconomics of aid often concentrate on short-run Dutch disease effects, ignoring the possible supply side impact of aid— financed public expenditure. We develop a simple model of aid and public expenditure in which public infrastructure capital generates an inter-temporal productivity spillover for both tradable and non-tradable sectors, where these productivity effects may display sector-specific biases. The model also allows for non-homo...

  12. Dosimetric Comparison of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy, Static Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, and 3D Conformal Planning for the Treatment of a Right-Sided Reconstructed Chest Wall and Regional Nodal Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishruta A. Dumane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared 3D conformal planning, static field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT to investigate the suitable treatment plan and delivery method for a right-sided reconstructed chest wall and nodal case. The dose prescribed for the reconstructed chest wall and regional nodes was 50.4 Gy. Plans were compared for target coverage and doses of the lungs, heart, contralateral breast, and healthy tissue. All plans achieved acceptable coverage of the target and IMNs. The best right lung sparing achieved with 3D was a V20 Gy of 31.09%. Compared to it, VMAT reduced the same by 10.85% and improved the CI and HI over 3D by 18.75% and 2%, respectively. The ipsilateral lung V5 Gy to V20 Gy decreased with VMAT over IMRT by as high as 17.1%. The contralateral lung V5 Gy was also lowered with VMAT compared to IMRT by 16.22%. The MU and treatment beams were lowered with VMAT over IMRT by 30% and 10, respectively, decreasing the treatment time by >50%. VMAT was the treatment plan and delivery method of choice for this case due to a combination of improved lung sparing and reduced treatment time without compromising target coverage.

  13. Side Payments in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Hauser; Duncan I. Simester; Birger Wernerfelt

    1997-01-01

    Side payments, known politely as gainsharing and pejoratively as bribery, are prevalent in marketing. Indeed, many management schools have added ethics modules to their basic marketing courses to discuss these issues and there is much discussion of side payments in the literature (e.g., Adams 1995, Borrus [Borrus, Amy. 1995. A world of greased palms. (November 6) 36–38.], Mauro [Mauro, Paolo. 1997. Why worry about corruption? . Washington, D.C.], Mohl [Mohl, Bruce. 1996. Auto dealers color su...

  14. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also...

  15. Iatrogenic Violence? Lived experiences of recipients of aid that targets vulnerable children in Makete, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    Humanitarian aid does not always achieve its intended outcomes but may have unintended side-effects which harm rather than help recipient communities in the long run. In the context of aid, iatrogenic violence refers to circumstances where aid intended to benefit recipients instead causes social disruption. The relations between donor and recipient contribute significantly to the outcomes of aid. This article aims to explore the recipient side of donor–recipient relationships in humanitarian ...

  16. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  17. Late radiation injuries of the intestine and their treatment. [Side effects of x-ray and gamma therapy of gynecologic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumors of female genitalia and some other tumors in which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumors, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites, and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients, these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation injuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet.

  18. [Is physiological saline really physiological? Hyponatreamia treatment--small deviations from the rules of appropriate therapy create serious complications and side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkiewski, Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Physiological saline can hardly be treated as physiological as it contains qualitatively and quantitatively different amounts of electrolytes. In particular, it contains 50% more chlorine ions than serum. Physiological saline can cause metabolic acidosis and in diabetic patients hyperchloremic acidosis. In comparison with Ringer solution and plasma-lyte, physiological saline is causing higher number of untoward effects and mortality associated with surgery. Ringer solution should be used in the situations requiring expansion of extracellular fluid. Physiological saline is a solution of choice in hypochloremic alkalosis in the case of brain injuries quite unfavourable is unnecessary rapid correction with physiological saline which can lead to serious sequelae in form of brain oedema and central extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic demyelinisation) and permanent brain lesions. The hyponatremia's treatment depends on severity of symptoms, neurological deficit motivates immediate 4-6 mmol/l infusion, but further correction should be prolonged to 24-hrs; cautious correction corresponds to 8-mmol/l for 24 hrs. The modern treatment encompasses the introduction of vasopressin receptors antagonist--vaptans.

  19. Itolizumab – a humanized anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody with better side effects profile for the treatment of psoriasis [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon R

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Menon R, David BG. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 2015;8:215–22.On page 215, please note correspondence should have been listed as:   Roshni Menon, D II/17,JIPMER Campus, Dhanvanthri Nagar,Pondicherry, India 605006Tel +91 944 320 8140Email roshnijagdish@gmail.com.On page 215, the first sentence of the Introduction was “Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by exacerbations and remissions affecting 1%–3% of the world’s population, and approximately 20% of patients have moderate to severe disease.1,2” however should have been “Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by exacerbations and remissions affecting 1%–3% of the world’s population. Approximately 20% of patients have moderate to severe disease.1,2”On page 217, 219, and 221 the running header was “Itolizumab – aCD6 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of psoriasis” however should have been “Itolizumab – a humanized anti CD6 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of psoriasis”.On page 218, Table 1, the second column heading was listed as “Anand et al25 n=40 (moderate–severe psoriasis” however should have been “Anand et al25 n=40/32 weeks (moderate–severe psoriasis”.Read the original article 

  20. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  1. Costing of scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment in Mexico Costos del tratamiento de VIH/SIDA en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the net effect of introducing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART in Mexico on total annual per-patient costs for HIV/AIDS care, taking into account potential savings from treatment of opportunistic infections and hospitalizations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective patient chart review and collection of unit cost data were performed to describe the utilization of services and estimate costs of care for 1003 adult HIV+ patients in the public sector. RESULTS: HAART is not cost-saving and the average annual cost per patient increases after initiation of HAART due to antiretrovirals, accounting for 90% of total costs. Hospitalizations do decrease post-HAART, but not enough to offset the increased cost. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up access to HAART is feasible in middle income settings. Since antiretrovirals are so costly, optimizing efficiency in procurement and prescribing is paramount. The observed adherence was low, suggesting that a proportion of these high drug costs translated into limited health benefits.OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto neto de la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TARAA en México sobre los costos anuales totales por paciente en el tratamiento de VIH/SIDA, tomando en cuenta el posible ahorro en el tratamiento de infecciones oportunistas y hospitalización. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico, mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los pacientes y la recolección de datos de costos unitarios para describir la utilización de los servicios y calcular los costos de la atención de 1 003 pacientes adultos VIH positivos en el sector público. RESULTADOS: La TARAA no ahorra costos y el costo promedio anual por paciente aumenta después de su inicio debido a los antirretrovirales, que representan 90% del costo total. Las hospitalizaciones disminuyen después de iniciada la TARAA, pero no lo suficiente como para compensar el

  2. 艾滋病相关性肺动脉高压诊治近况%AIDS Related Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵贺红(综述); 冯萍(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) has become the most serious disaster diseases for humanity.With widely application of antiretroviral therapy,the survival time of patients with HIV and opportunistic infections largely under control non-infectious complications, including pulmonary aterial hypertension (PAH) by more and more at ention in the international.In fact,has become an independent disorder for death of HIV-infected patients.The pathogenesis of HIV infection leads to pulmonary hypertension has not been ful y elucidated.Lack of specific clinical manifestations;treatment have a lot of restrictions compared with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and poor prognosis.SO early detection and intervention can improve the quality of life and survival of HIV-PAH patients. In the process of the treatment of people living with HIV can not explain the symptoms associated with cardiac and pulmonary in Clinical, consideration should be given to HIV-related PAH (HRPH)[1].%获得性人类免疫缺陷病已经成为人类疾病史上的灾难性疾病,随着抗逆转录病毒治疗的广泛应用,HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)患者的生存时间及机会性感染在很大程度上得到控制,而非感染性并发症包括肺动脉高压在国际上受到越来越多的重视,实际上肺动脉高压已成为HIV感染患者死亡的独立危险因素。 HIV感染导致肺动脉高压的发病机制尚未完全阐明,其临床表现缺乏特异性,治疗上较特发性性肺动脉高压又有很多限制,预后较差,早期发现和干预可提高患者的生活质量和生存率。在HIV感染者的治疗过程中,出现不能解释的与心肺相关症状时,应考虑到HIV相关的肺动脉高压,并及时给予干预以期提高HIV患者的生存率。

  3. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of 103Pd or 125I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson χ2 test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade ≥2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D-CRT patients and 7% of

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Causes Fewer Side Effects than Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy When Used in Combination With Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, Kevin; Blacksburg, Seth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: richard.stock@moutsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To measure the benefits of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) when used in combination with brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with localized prostate cancer who received external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in combination with brachytherapy with at least 1 year follow-up (n = 812). Combination therapy consisted of {sup 103}Pd or {sup 125}I implant, followed by a course of EBRT. From 1993 to March 2003 521 patients were treated with 3D-CRT, and from April 2003 to March 2009 291 patients were treated with IMRT. Urinary symptoms were prospectively measured with the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire with a single quality of life (QOL) question; rectal bleeding was assessed per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema. The Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare toxicities experienced by patients who were treated with either IMRT or 3D-CRT. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to rule out possible confounding factors. Results: Within the first 3 months after treatment, patients treated with 3D-CRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 19% mild, 44% moderate, and 37% severe; patients treated with IMRT scored their urinary symptoms as follows: 36% mild, 47% moderate, and 17% severe (p < 0.001). The 3D-CRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 35% positive, 20% neutral, and 45% negative; IMRT patients rated their QOL as follows: 51% positive, 18% neutral, and 31% negative (p < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up there was no longer any difference in urinary morbidity between the two groups. Logistic regression confirmed the differences in International Prostate Symptom Score and QOL in the acute setting (p < 0.001 for both). Grade {>=}2 rectal bleeding was reported by 11% of 3D

  6. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2013-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state. 498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program. 304 patients were evaluated in the process of drug and non-drug treatment. Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corresponds with any of the defined clinico-pathogenetic variants of the disease. Thus, prevailing of atopic bronchial asthma with probability of 0.7 is defined with Savda categories with deficiency' (P<0.01) variants in Chinese Medicine. The combination of infectious-dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74% of cases belongs to the categories of an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma, in 83% of cases

  7. Does white coat hypertension require treatment over age 80?: Results of the hypertension in the very elderly trial ambulatory blood pressure side project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulpitt, Christopher J; Beckett, Nigel; Peters, Ruth; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Ji-Guang; Comsa, Marius; Fagard, Robert H; Dumitrascu, Dan; Gergova, Vesselka; Antikainen, Riitta L; Cheek, Elizabeth; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    White coat hypertension is considered to be a benign condition that does not require antihypertensive treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured in 284 participants in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial (HYVET), a double-blind randomized trial of indapamide sustained release 1.5 mg±perindopril 2 to 4 mg versus matching placebo in hypertensive subjects (systolic blood pressure 160-199 mm Hg) aged >80 years. ABP recordings (Diasys Integra II) were obtained in 112 participants at baseline and 186 after an average follow-up of 13 months. At baseline, clinic blood pressure (CBP) exceeded the morning ABP by 32/10 mm Hg. Fifty percent of participants fulfilled the established criteria for white coat hypertension. The highest ABP readings were in the morning (average 140/80 mm Hg), the average night-time pressure was low at 124/72 mm Hg, and the average 24-hour blood pressure was 133/77 mm Hg. During follow-up, the systolic/diastolic blood pressure placebo-active differences averaged 6/5 mm Hg for morning ABP, 8/5 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, and 13/5 mm Hg for CBP. The lowering of blood pressure over 24 hours supports the reduction in blood pressure with indapamide sustained release±perindopril as the explanation for the reduction in total mortality and cardiovascular events observed in the main HYVET study. Because we estimate that 50% had white coat hypertension in the main study, this condition may benefit from treatment in the very elderly.

  8. Analysis and Research Direction of Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS%中医药治疗艾滋病的现状及研究方向初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the present situation research direction of Chinese Medicine in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Methods; Analyze the present situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of AIDS combined with the experience of traditional Chinese medicine with retrospective analysis and comparative analysis methods. Results: Chinese medicine can obviously improve the life quality of AIDS ( AIDS) and improve the clinical symptoms. As well as reduce the opportunistic infections of part of the infected people and the adverse reactions of antiviral treatment with stability CD4 + cells. But the strength is not enough for CD4 + cells and viral load and quality problems. Conclusion: TCM should sum up experience, wisdom and seize the opportunity to prolong the incubation period with low viral load, preparation quality standards as breakthrough alleviating adverse reactions of antiviral drug combined with multidis-ciplinary and multiple areas. Reference citation;Zhang Yi. Analysis and Research Direction of Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS[ J]. China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2013,28(5) :620 -621.%目的:分析中医药治疗艾滋病的现状,并探讨今后的研究方向.方法:结合中医药治疗艾滋病的临床经验,采用回顾性分析、比较分析等方法,分析中医药治疗艾滋病的现状.结果:中医药可明显提高艾滋病患者(AIDS)的生存质量和生活质量,改善AIDS的临床症状,稳定和升高其CD4+T淋巴细胞,减少部分感染者及患者的机会性感染,降低抗病毒治疗的不良反应.但存在药效强度不够、对CD4+T淋巴和病毒载量的疗效难以肯定、制剂质量不稳定等问题.结论:中医应总结经验,集中智慧,抓住机遇,以延长临床潜伏期为目标,以低水平病毒载量为攻击靶点,以治疗“两低”、制剂质量标准为突破,缓解抗病毒药物的不良反应,多学科、多地区联合攻关.

  9. Side effects of targeted biological agents in the treatment of psoriasis%靶向生物制剂在银屑病治疗中的不良反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱腾; 李新宇

    2014-01-01

    Studies have suggested that psoriasis is closely related to autoimmunity.Interleukin (IL)-12/type 1 T helper (Th1) cells and IL-23/Th17 pathways play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.In recent years,a number of biological agents targeting these pathways have emerged,which also bring a series of side effects by interfering with immune homeostasis despite their desirable efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis.The authors discuss the side effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors,IL-12/IL-23 inhibitors and IL-17 inhibitors in the treatment of psoriasis,such as infection,cancer and cardiovascular diseases.It is believed that more efficient and safer targeted biological agents will be developed for the treatment of psoriasis in the future.%银屑病与自身免疫密切相关,IL-12/Th1与IL-23/Th17途径是参与银屑病发病的主要机制.近年来,针对上述主要免疫发病环节出现了很多靶向生物制剂.靶向治疗在发挥良好疗效的同时干扰了免疫稳态,引起了一系列不良反应.概述TNF-α抑制剂、IL-12/IL-23抑制剂和IL-17抑制剂治疗银屑病后在感染、肿瘤、心血管疾病等方面的不良反应.相信随着研究的不断深入,更高效安全的靶向生物制剂将会用于银屑病患者的治疗.

  10. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H Y; Cole, Donald

    2013-04-16

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were 'HIV' or 'AIDS' and 'community-based care' or 'CBC'. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  11. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...

  12. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  13. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  14. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  15. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  16. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  17. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  18. Intractable diffuse alopecia caused by multifactorial side-effects in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia: connection to iatrogenic failure of estrogen secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiyama, Tomoko; Arakawa, Akiko; Hattori, Sayoko; Konishi, Keisuke; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infantile acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) may cause failure to thrive and hypogonadism due to hypopituitarism induced by chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy. We report the case of a 22-year-old girl with a genetic predisposition to pattern hair loss who developed inveterate diffuse alopecia. The patient had onset of ALL at 8 years old and underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alopecia gradually advanced over her whole body. Her vellus scalp hair gradually came out, and hair loss progressed again at 8 years, after BMT. She later developed iatrogenic failure of secretion of estrogen and was treated with estrogen substitution therapy for 14 months from the age of 20. There was a small increase in the volume of hair during therapy, but alopecia returned to the former level after the therapy was suspended. Histopathologic examinations of the scalp performed during estrogen substitution therapy and 2 years after suspension of the therapy showed a 60% decrease in the number of hair follicles and prominent development of vellus hair. We conclude that estrogen influenced hair growth in the context of a genetic predisposition for pattern hair loss in this case. PMID:22211668

  19. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    half—dark side—documents the making and nature of the dark side by analyzing a series of legal memos from the Department of Justice's Office of Legal Council and from the White House and concludes by relating its findings to traditional ideas about emergency action, national security, and torture....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  20. Vulnerabilidades presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica Vulnerabilidades presentes en la ruta vivida por pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica Vulnerabilities present in the path experienced by patients with HIV / AIDS in treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kelly Rabelo de Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grande avanço no tratamento da AIDS deu-se com o surgimento da terapia antiretroviral. Entretanto, diversas vulnerabilidades podem estar presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes durante o tratamento. Objetivou-se analisar as vulnerabilidades dos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica. Estudo qualitativo realizado com sete usuários com AIDS considerados em falha terapêutica, em uma Unidade de Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado em HIV/AIDS, em Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretação dos dados, utilizou-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo. Nos discursos, percebeu-se que os depoentes enfrentavam conflitos na família e, no ambiente de trabalho, dificuldades de relacionamento com as pessoas e estigma. Observou-se que os pacientes haviam vivenciado diversas situações que os tornaram mais suscetíveis à infecção por HIV e ao adoecimento.Un gran avance en el tratamiento del SIDA se llevó a cabo con el advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral. Sin embargo, numerosas vulnerabilidades pueden estar presentes en la ruta vivida por los pacientes durante el tratamiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las vulnerabilidades de los pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica. Estudio cualitativo en que fueran incluidos siete usuarios con el SIDA y en falla terapéutica, atendidos en una Unidad de Servicios Ambulatorios en VIH / SIDA, en Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretar los datos, se utilizó una técnica de análisis de contenido. Por medio de los discursos, verificó-se que los pacientes enfrentaban conflictos en la familia y, en el trabajo, relaciones difíciles con la gente y el estigma. Fue observado que los pacientes han experimentado muchas situaciones que les hizo más susceptibles a la infección por el VIH y la enfermedad.A major breakthrough in AIDS treatment occurred with the advent of antiretroviral therapy. However, several vulnerabilities may be present in the path experienced by patients during treatment. This

  1. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte;

    2004-01-01

    The price of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Uganda has fallen dramatically in recent years and more people are under treatment. By mid-2003 it was estimated that 10 000 people were taking ARVs. Drawing on participant observation, qualitative interviews, work with key informants and document re...

  2. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2014-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state .498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program .304 patients were evalu‐ated in the process of drug and non‐drug treatment .Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corre‐sponds with any of the defined clinico‐pathogenetic variants of the disease .Thus ,prevailing of atopic bron‐chial asthma with probability of 0 .7 is defined with Savda categories with such as ‘Lungs energy deficien‐cy’ ,‘Spleen energy deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P <0 .01) variants in Chinese Medicine . The combination of infectious‐dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with atopy with a probability of 0 .8 is accompanied by the categories of ‘Hot and Full’ asthma with such variants as‘Lungs energy deficiency’ ‘Spleen energy deficiency’ ,‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P < 0 .01) .Patients with an easier case of Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing diagnos‐tic categories of ‘External ,Full and Cold’ asthma .Patients with a harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74%of cases belongs to the categories of ‘Internal ,Empty and Hot’ asthma .So ,hormone dependency of the disease in 69% of cases is accompanied by the ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ variant and ,if there is an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma ,in 83% of cases ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yang deficiency’ variants are defined .

  3. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2014-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state .498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program .304 patients were evalu-ated in the process of drug and non-drug treatment .Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corre-sponds with any of the defined clinico-pathogenetic variants of the disease .Thus ,prevailing of atopic bron-chial asthma with probability of 0 .7 is defined with Savda categories with such as ‘Lungs energy deficien-cy’ ,‘Spleen energy deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P <0 .01) variants in Chinese Medicine . The combination of infectious-dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with atopy with a probability of 0 .8 is accompanied by the categories of ‘Hot and Full’ asthma with such variants as‘Lungs energy deficiency’ ‘Spleen energy deficiency’ ,‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P < 0 .01) .Patients with an easier case of Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing diagnos-tic categories of ‘External ,Full and Cold’ asthma .Patients with a harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74%of cases belongs to the categories of ‘Internal ,Empty and Hot’ asthma .So ,hormone dependency of the disease in 69% of cases is accompanied by the ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ variant and ,if there is an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma ,in 83% of cases ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yang deficiency’ variants are defined .

  4. Summary Side Event on Partnerships for Inclusive Business

    OpenAIRE

    Pfisterer, Stella

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDuring the 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan (South Korea) in November 2011, the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development together with the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Global Compact, the International Business Leaders Forum, the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Partnerships Resource Centre and UNDP, hosted a side event about Partnerships for Inclusive Business. A summary of this side event can be found by clicking on the link below.

  5. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based care (CBC can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  6. Depo-provera treatment does not abrogate protection from intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with an attenuated AIDS virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Genescà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, progesterone treatment of female monkeys immunized with live, attenuated SHIV89.6 abrogated the generally consistent protection from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV challenge. The mechanisms responsible for the loss of protection remain to be defined. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Depo-Provera administration alters protection from intravenous SIV challenge in SHIV-immunized female macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two groups of female macaques were immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 and then challenged intravenously with SIVmac239. Four weeks before challenge, one animal group was treated with Depo-Provera, a commonly used injectable contraceptive progestin. As expected, SHIV-immunized monkeys had significantly lower peak and set-point plasma viral RNA levels compared to naïve controls, but in contrast to previously published findings with vaginal SIV challenge, the Depo-Provera SHIV-immunized animals controlled SIV replication to a similar, or even slightly greater, degree than did the untreated SHIV-immunized animals. Control of viral replication from week 4 to week 20 after challenge was more consistent in the progesterone-treated, SHIV-immunized animals than in untreated, SHIV-immunized animals. Although levels of interferon-gamma production were similar, the SIV-specific CD8(+ T cells of progesterone-treated animals expressed more functions than the anti-viral CD8(+ T cells from untreated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Depo-Provera did not diminish the control of viral replication after intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with a live-attenuated lentivirus. This result contrasts with the previously reported effect of Depo-Provera(R on protection from vaginal SIV challenge and strongly implies that the decreased protection from vaginal challenge is due to effects of progesterone on the genital tract rather than to systemic effects. Further, these results

  7. Colorectal cancers choosing sides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albuquerque, Cristina; Bakker, Elvira R. M.; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the majority of sporadic colorectal cancer which predominantly occur in the distal colon, most mismatch repair deficient tumours arise at the proximal side. At present, these regional preferences have not been explained properly. Recently, we have screened colorectal tumours for mutat

  8. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent for the Palliative Treatment of Obstructing Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer under Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Comparison of the Clinical Results according to Stent Diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pyeong Guk; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Hae Won; Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of self-expandable metallic stent for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer under fluoroscopic guidance, and to compare results according to the stent diameter. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 31 self-expandable metallic stents were placed into 25 patients for palliative purposes. The rates of technical success, clinical success, complications associated with stent insertion, patient survival, and primary stent patency were evaluated. The results were also compared between two groups: 13 patients using stents with a diameter of 22 mm and 12 patients using stents with a diameter of 26 mm. The technical and clinical success rates were 93.5 and 90.3%, respectively. The complications included severe abdominal pain (6.5%), minor rectal bleeding (9.7%), stent migration (9.7%), and tumor ingrowth or overgrowth (9.7%). No statistical differences in technical were detected between the two groups for the clinical success rate and complication rates. The mean survival time was 5.5 +- 1.4 months. The primary stent patency rates were 91.3% at 5 months, 85.2% at 10 months, and 77.4% at 15 months. The mean period of stent patency was 12.4 +- 2.6 months. The mean period of primary stent patency was 16.4 +- 2.6 months in the 26 mm stent group, and significantly higher than 5.4 +- 1.4 months in the 22 mm stent group (p=0.031). A self-expandable metallic stent under fluoroscopic guidance, for the palliative treatment of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer, was feasible and effective, and yielded good clinical results. The period of primary stent patency of the 26 mm stent group was longer than the 22 mm stent group, and the complication rate was not significantly different between the two stent groups

  9. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  10. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jambert Elodie; Bärnighausen Till; Diedrichsen Ellen; Waning Brenda; Li Yun; Pouw Mieke; Moon Suerie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been...

  11. Clinical Research of Add Dingchuan Tang in the Treatment of Cough by AIDS Patients%定喘汤治疗艾滋病患者咳嗽的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超杰; 姜枫

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the clinical research of add dingchuan tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients. Methods: 86 ca-ses were divided into treatment group and observation group according to random number table. The control group were given Jizhi syrup orally and the treatment group were given add Dingchuan Tang treatment. Both groups take 7 days as one course of treatment. Results; The effective rate was 92.9% in treatment group and 75. 0% in control group. The curative effect of treatment group was better than control by comparison. The difference has statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Add Dingchuan Tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients has curative effect.%目的:观察定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:按随机数字表法将86例患者分为治疗组和对照组.对照组口服急支糖浆治疗;治疗组服用中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗,两组均7d为1疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为92.9%,对照组有效率为75.0%,两组有效率比较,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效确切.

  12. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  13. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  14. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy for left-sided breast cancer and all regional nodes improves target volumes coverage and reduces treatment time and doses to the heart and left coronary artery, compared with a field-in-field technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared two intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for left-sided breast treatment, involving lymph node irradiation including the internal mammary chain. Inverse planned arc-therapy (VMAT) was compared with a forward-planned multi-segment technique with a mono-isocenter (MONOISO). Ten files were planned per technique, delivering a 50-Gy dose to the breast and 46.95 Gy to nodes, within 25 fractions. Comparative endpoints were planning target volume (PTV) coverage, dose to surrounding structures, and treatment delivery time. PTV coverage, homogeneity and conformality were better for two arc VMAT plans; V95%PTV-T was 96% for VMAT vs 89.2% for MONOISO. Homogeneity index (HI)PTV-T was 0.1 and HIPTV-N was 0.1 for VMAT vs 0.6 and 0.5 for MONOISO. Treatment delivery time was reduced by a factor of two using VMAT relative to MONOISO (84 s vs 180 s). High doses to organs at risk were reduced (V30left lung = 14% using VMAT vs 24.4% with MONOISO; dose to 2% of the volume (D2%)heart = 26.1 Gy vs 32 Gy), especially to the left coronary artery (LCA) (D2%LCA = 34.4 Gy vs 40.3 Gy). However, VMAT delivered low doses to a larger volume, including contralateral organs (mean dose [Dmean]right lung = 4 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 3.2 Gy). These were better protected using MONOISO plans (Dmeanright lung = 0.8 Gy and Dmeanright breast = 0.4 Gy). VMAT improved PTV coverage and dose homogeneity, but clinical benefits remain unclear. Decreased dose exposure to the LCA may be clinically relevant. VMAT could be used for complex treatments that are difficult with conventional techniques. Patient age should be considered because of uncertainties concerning secondary malignancies. (author)

  15. First Aid Procedures for Dental Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Nancy Happel; Londeree, Kathy

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for first aid procedures for temporary relief of dental emergencies include information on: (1) dental first aid supplies; (2) treatment of oral injuries; (3) orthodontic emergencies; (4) toothaches; and (5) prolonged bleeding due to an extraction. Consulting a dentist as soon as possible is strongly recommended. (JN)

  16. Engineered Ionizable Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymes, Gisela D; Grosman, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    One of the great challenges of mechanistic ion-channel biology is to obtain structural information from well-defined functional states. In the case of neurotransmitter-gated ion channels, the open-channel conformation is particularly elusive owing to its transient nature and brief mean lifetime. In this Chapter, we show how the analysis of single-channel currents recorded from mutants engineered to contain single ionizable side chains in the transmembrane region can provide specific information about the open-channel conformation without any interference from the closed or desensitized conformations. The method takes advantage of the fact that the alternate binding and unbinding of protons to and from an ionizable side chain causes the charge of the protein to fluctuate by 1 unit. We show that, in mutant muscle acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (AChRs), this fluctuating charge affects the rate of ion conduction in such a way that individual proton-transfer events can be identified in a most straightforward manner. From the extent to which the single-channel current amplitude is reduced every time a proton binds, we can learn about the proximity of the engineered side chain to the lumen of the pore. And from the kinetics of proton binding and unbinding, we can calculate the side-chain's affinity for protons (pK a), and hence, we can learn about the electrostatic properties of the microenvironment around the introduced ionizable group. The application of this method to systematically mutated AChRs allowed us to identify unambiguously the stripes of the M1, M2 and M3 transmembrane α-helices that face the pore's lumen in the open-channel conformation in the context of a native membrane. PMID:26381938

  17. Pen-side testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-side diagnostic testing is often required to provide real time information about the health status of an animal or herd. The rapid results are generally needed in the face of a disease outbreak where the diagnostician/clinician is presented with dead or dying animals. Another use of pen-side tests is as part of a preventive medicine/herd health programme, where the information can be used for determining pathogen incidence and prevalence in the herd, identifying potential carrier animals or evaluating subtle changes in overall herd health as a result of management changes. Still another area is as a part of health certification before sale or stocking, or during processing following slaughter. Advanced testing methods, which in the past were only appropriate for use in a laboratory setting, have now been formatted for use in the field. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and immunochromatorgraphy have greatly enhanced diagnostic pen-side capabilities. These test systems allow for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of target antigen or antibody and require little or no scientific equipment. Because of the wide format flexibility these immunochemical technologies allow, they have come to dominate the diagnostic industry, both in the laboratory and in the field. Using liquid phase or precipitating chromogens, the tests can be visually interpreted and do not need instrumentation. Immunochromatography, a simplified assay system, has found widespread application as a field or pen-side test. The entire assay takes only one or two steps, and the results appear within 5-10 minutes. In the future, DNA based diagnostics will become more adaptable for use in the field. The DNA hybridization systems are at present cumbersome and require elevated temperatures. Companies are currently working to develop fast formulas that provide results in less than an hour, have a limited number of steps and can be performed at lower temperatures. (author)

  18. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  19. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  20. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    accounts of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment to consist of explanations of sexual practices or of biomedical details that would not be readily accessible to the general reader. But despite its somewhat misleading, overly ambitious, and functionalist title, Dickinson's book should interest all students...... of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage...

  1. Recent Advances of Treatment in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Lymphoma%艾滋病相关淋巴瘤的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2010-01-01

    艾滋病相关淋巴瘤是常见的艾滋病(AIDS)相关肿瘤之一,高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)被广泛采用后,艾滋病相关淋巴瘤患者的免疫功能增强,对化疗的耐受性提高,预后明显改善.临床研究表明,以HAART与CHOP方案或R-CHOP方案联合治疗弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤安全有效.HAART治疗后,传统的化疗方案治疗AIDS相关Burkitt淋巴瘤(AIDS-BL)患者存活率仍然很低,而采用Burkitt淋巴瘤特定的短期强烈多药联合方案及LMB-86方案可使AIDS-BL的完全有效率和总生存率明显改善.

  2. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  3. Analyzing One-Sided vs. Two-Sided Subduction Arising from Mantle Convection Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. S.; Becker, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    domain equal to that of the sticky air layer and the top temperature boundary condition. Otherwise, the temperature at the surface of the convective domain increases with time, leading to slab break-off and the cessation of subduction. Prior to the eventual cessation of subduction, subduction appears one-sided due to the inability to fully reform an overriding plate at the trench location due to a decreased heat flow at the surface resulting from an improperly implemented sticky air layer. We observe that plasticity as a function of pressure promotes one-sided subduction as compared to plasticity strictly as a function of depth. The negative dynamic pressure above a two-sided, asymmetric subducting slab alters the material properties through the pressure-dependent plasticity formulation, which effectively weakens the yield threshold by 10's of MPa and creates a positive feedback which can aid the transition from an asymmetric, two-sided configuration to one-sided subduction. We analyze the yielding processes and energetics which cause subduction to evolve from an initially imposed two-sided symmetric state, to a two-sided asymmetric state, to one-sided, and back to a two-sided configuration.

  4. 全结肠旷置加回直逆蠕动侧侧吻合术治疗高龄慢传输型便秘%Total colonic exclusion plus side to side ileorectal antiperistaltic anastomosis in the treatment for elderly patients with slow transit constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁召; 陈钰; 江从庆; 吴云华; 郑科炎; 秦前波; 钱群

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估全结肠旷置、回直逆蠕动侧侧吻合术治疗高龄特发性结肠慢传输便秘的安全性和可行性.方法 回顾性分析2009年5月至201 1年9月间在武汉大学中南医院接受全结肠旷置、回直逆蠕动侧侧吻合术的13例高龄结肠慢传输型便秘患者的临床资料.结果 13例患者中男5例,女8例,年龄63~82(平均74)岁,病程7~38(中位10)年.手术时间(55±4)min,术中出血量(30±2) ml,术后住院时间10~16(平均11.4)d,术后首次排粪时间为术后2~8(平均4)d.无手术意外及术后严重并发症发生.术后随访6~29(中位12)月.术后12个月患者每日排粪3~4次,无便秘复发或腹泻.术后14个月发生盲袢综合征1例.术后6个月,Wexner便秘评分较术前显著降低(5.4±2.1比22.8±3.3,P<0.05),胃肠道生活质量指数较术前显著提高(120.8±13.0比93.6±20.5,P<0.05).结论 全结肠旷置、回直逆蠕动侧侧吻合术为高龄结肠慢传输便秘患者的一种安全、有效、简便的手术方式,可显著的缓解患者的临床症状.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and safety of total colonic exclusion plus side to side antiperistaltic ileorectal anastomosis in the treatment for elderly patients with slow transit constipation (STC).Methods Clinical data of 13 patients with severe idiopathic STC undergoing the above novel procedure in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between May 2009 and September 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.The Wexner constipation score and gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI) before and 6 months after operation were compared.Results There were 8 female and 5 male patients,with a mean age of 74 years(range 63-82 years).No procedure-related deaths or any serious complication occurred.The length of follow-up ranged from 6 to 29 months(median,12 months).The duration of surgery was (55±4) min.Blood loss was (30±2) ml.The postoperative hospital stay ranged 10 to 16 days (mean 11.4 days

  5. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  6. Putting the Side first

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    SIDE Minerals is a relative newcomer to the South African mining industry. It combines coal and anthracite mining and has base and precious metal interests. Side Minerals has offices in Boksburg from where its mining operations in Delmas, Witbank and Carolina in the Eastern Transvaal, and Newcastle in Natal are controlled. Lakeside Colliery at Witbank -a mine with a life expectancy of 15 years - is both an underground and opencast operation with an annual production capacity of 1,2 Mt of high, medium and low grade coal. Opencast extraction there is by the strip mining method. This is done on contract by Concor Mining Opencast Division, a member of the Concor Holding Group. A high wall face provides entry to the underground operations. Eastside Colliery at Carolina, which has the capacity to produce 480 000 tons of coal a year, is currently an opencast operation with underground mining scheduled to begin during 1994. Westside Colliery near Delmas is on a care and maintenance basis, but it has the capacity to produce 600 000 tons of low grade phosphorous coal which is required by the ferro-alloy and steel industries. 2 figs.

  7. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  8. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  9. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-09-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts.

  10. The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Eleonora; Biscardi, Andrea; Villani, Silvia; Clemente, Nicola; Senatore, Gianluca; Filicori, Filippo; Antonacci, Nicola; Baldoni, Franco; De Werra, Carlo; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Background Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery. Methods/design This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol

  11. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  12. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  13. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  14. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  15. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  16. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  17. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  18. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  19. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  20. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  1. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  2. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  3. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  4. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  5. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  6. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  7. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  8. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  9. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  10. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  11. 单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗椎体压缩性骨折%CLINICAL STUDY ON ONE SIDE APPROACH PERCUTANEOUS VERTEBROPLASTY TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROTIC VERTEBRAL COMPRESSION FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣凯; 黄丽娟; 陈少明; 张颂阳; 吴兆亚; 赵庆(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

      Aim:To study the clinical effect of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: The retrospective analysis was carried out among 12 cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with PVP, including 2 males and 10 females. Results: The operations were successfuly performed. Marked or complete pain relief was achieved in al patients. VAS scores were 8.58±0.67 pre-operation,and 1.92±0.67 post- operation. There was a significant difference in VAS scores before surgery and post-surgery (P<0.05). Conclusions: One side approach percutaneous vertebroplasty is a reliable and successful strategy of treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.%  目的:探讨单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折的有效性,并进行临床分析总结经验。方法:骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折12例,其中男2例,女10例。通过临床回顾的方法,对单侧入路经皮椎体成形术治疗骨质疏松椎体压缩性骨折进行临床分析总结。结果:所有患者胸腰背疼痛均明显缓解或消失。VAS评分:术前8.58±0.67,术后1.92±0.67,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:单侧入路PVP是治疗OVCF安全有效的方法,能够有效缓解疼痛。

  12. Has donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS displaced aid for other health issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2008-03-01

    Advocates for many developing-world health and population issues have expressed concern that the high level of donor attention to HIV/AIDS is displacing funding for their own concerns. Even organizations dedicated to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment have raised this issue. However, the issue of donor displacement has not been evaluated empirically. This paper attempts to do so by considering donor funding for four historically prominent health agendas--HIV/AIDS, population, health sector development and infectious disease control--over the years 1992 to 2005. The paper employs funding data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee, supplemented by data from other sources. Several trends indicate possible displacement effects, including HIV/AIDS' rapidly growing share of total health aid, a concurrent global stagnation in population aid, the priority HIV/AIDS control receives in US funding, and HIV/AIDS aid levels in several sub-Saharan African states that approximate or exceed the entirety of their national health budgets. On the other hand, aggregate donor funding for health and population quadrupled between 1992 and 2005, allowing for funding growth for some health issues even as HIV/AIDS acquired an increasingly prominent place in donor health agendas. Overall, the evidence indicates that displacement is likely occurring, but that aggregate increases in global health aid may have mitigated some of the crowding-out effects.

  13. Music and Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Sara M. K.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems a...

  14. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  15. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  16. Rh-TSH (Thyrogen) aided radioiodine therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Background: Although recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is widely used to aid radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), almost in all clinical studies it was used in adults and there are very few data concerning paediatric group of patients. The Aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in DTC patients 18 yr old or younger. Material and Methods: Twenty five children/adolescents (median age 15, range 7-18) with the diagnosis of DTC were treated using the approved adult regimen (one 0.9 mg im. injection daily on two consecutive days) and therapeutic activity of 131I (median 3.7 GBq, range 2.2-3.8 GBq). Thyroglobulin concentration was evaluated on the 1. and 6. day of stimulation, and whole body scan (WBC) on the 6. day. Subsequently the patients were followed-up every 6 months, including single diagnostic 131I WBS. The median follow up after the treatment was 28 months. Results: In 16 children radioiodine treatment was given as an adjuvant treatment after total/near total thyroidectomy. In another 9 children distant metastases (mainly to lungs) were recognized. Peak TSH concentration post-rhTSH exceeded 25 mU/liter in all children. In all children the peak stimulated thyroglobulin was achieved on day 6 of stimulation (median 4 ng/ml, range 0.17-1080.0 ng/ml). In children treated with radioiodine as an adjunct to total thyroidectomy, in all but two cases complete remission was achieved. Two patients needed subsequent radioiodine retreatment. All are now free of disease. Among patients with distant metastases in 3 (33%) complete remission and in 6 (67%) partial remission (decrease in thyroglobulin concentration and decrease in radioiodine uptake on WBS) was achieved. In none but one patients there were side effects after rhTSH application. In one patient on the second day after the first rhTSH dose rush was observed, that resolved after anti

  17. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  18. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  19. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  20. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  1. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  2. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  3. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  4. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  5. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. Treatment of pain and suffering in aids patients Tratamiento del dolor y el sufrimiento en los pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida -SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several aspects of painful syndromes that are frequent in AIDS patients. It describes the impact of pain in the quality of life and in the daily experiences of these persons as well. The medical and palliative cares are explained and some considerations on autonomous decisions at the end of life are analysed. Emphasis is made on the fact that AIDS patients suffer total pain; therefore they require total therapy so that pain and suffering are reduced to a minimum and the right not to suffer is respected. El presente artículo discute diversos aspectos de los síndromes dolorosos frecuentes en pacientes con sida. Describe, así mismo, el impacto que tiene el dolor en la calidad de vida y en las experiencias diarias de estas personas. Explica la asistencia médica y paliativa y analiza algunos aspectos de las decisiones autónomas al final de la vida. Se hace énfasis en que el paciente con sida sufre dolor total y requiere por lo tanto una terapia total para que el dolor y el sufrimiento se reduzcan al mínimo y se cumpla el derecho a no sufrir innecesariamente.

  8. AIDS: resource materials for school personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, G B; Metress, E; Price, J H

    1987-01-01

    The AIDS dilemma continues to escalate, leaving a legacy that probably will affect the nation for years to come. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Surgeon General have noted that in the absence of a vaccine or treatment for AIDS, education remains the only effective means to prevent the spread of the disease. Thus, schools have an important role in protecting the public health. To respond appropriately to the situation, school personnel must become familiar with relevant information and resources available concerning AIDS. This article first provides essential information about AIDS using a question-and-answer format. Second, policy statements addressing school attendance by students infected with the virus that causes AIDS are presented. Third, hotlines that can be used to obtain more detailed information about AIDS are described. Fourth, organizations that can provide information for school health education about AIDS are identified. Fifth, an annotated list of audiovisual materials that schools can use to provide education about AIDS is provided. Sixth, a bibliography of publications relevant to school health education about AIDS is offered.

  9. 重组人促甲状腺素介导分化型甲状腺癌的131I治疗%Recombinant human thyrotropin-aided radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 龙亚红; 邢家骝; 田嘉禾; 徐白萱; 方毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of recombinant human thyrotropin(rhTSH)on serum concentration of endogenous thyrotropin(TSH), free triiodothyronine(FT3), free thyroxine(FT4), thyroglobulin antibody(TGAb), and thyroglobulin(Tg). To evaluate the efficacy of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC). Methods The study recruitment took place between November 2007 and March 2009. 62 patients(including 45 females)with biopsy confirmed DTC had undergone total or nearly total thyroidectomy, and received 131I treatment. 31 patients(including 22 females), median age of 45 years(23-72), received radioiodine treatment 4 weeks after L-thyroxine(T4)withdrawal. The other 31 patients(including 23 females), median age of 44 years(14-70), underwent rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment. Before and after rhTSH injection, serum TSH, FT3, FT4, TGAb, and thyroglobulin were tested. Post-radiotherapy whole body scan was performed 5 to 7 days after radioiodine treatment and qualitatively and blindly evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians. Follow-up took place 6 to 12 months after radioiodine treatment. The efficacy of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment was evaluated by whole body scan with diagnostic dose radioiodine. SPSS 13.0 statistical software was applied. Results (1)Before and after rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment, the serum TSH was(1.08±4.01)vs(140.26±27.20)mIU/L(P<0.05), thyroglobulin(23.75±132.92)vs(169.58±178.49)μg/L(P<0.05), FT3(4.52±1.16)vs(4.42±1.11)pmol/L(P>0.05), and FT4(15.09±5.83)vs(13.66±5.85)pmol/L(P>0.05),respectively.(2)rhTSH-aided radioiodine ablation treatment had the same effect as L-T4withdrawal aided. The complete response ratio was 77.4% vs 71.0%(P>0.05)by radioiodine whole body scan of diagnostic dose. Conclusion rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment of DTC was effective and safe, and did at least at equivalent degree as did L-T4withdrawal. Furthermore, Serum thyroglobulin level could be

  10. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  11. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri K

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  12. O uso da L-carnitina como adjuvante no tratamento da miocardiopatia dilatada em criança com Aids Usage of L-carnitine as adjuvant in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Zélia Zanoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a resposta cardiovascular à L-carnitina de um paciente com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva decorrente de miocardiopatia dilatada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva grave devido à miocardiopatia dilatada pela síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida. O tratamento para as manifestações clínicas foi instituído, com pouca resposta clínica. Com objetivo de melhorar o desempenho energético/metabólico dos cardiomiócitos, foi instituída terapia com L-carnitina. Observou-se significativa melhora clínica do paciente, em relação ao desempenho cardíaco, mesmo antes do início do tratamento com os fármacos antirretrovirais. COMENTÁRIOS: A L-carnitina é um composto que facilita o transporte dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa para dentro da mitocôndria. Nesse caso, o uso da L-carnitina parece ser clinica e bioquimicamente justificado.OBJECTIVE: To present the cardiovascular response to L-carnitine of a patient with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child with a clinical history of severe congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The treatment for the symptoms resulted in a poor clinical response. In order to improve the energetic performance/metabolism of cardiomyocytes, therapy with L-carnitine was established. There was significant clinical improvement of the cardiac performance of the patient, even before starting the treatment with antiretroviral drugs. COMMENTS: L-carnitine is a compound that facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. In this case the administration of L-carnitine appears to be clinically and biochemical justified.

  13. EMDR用于艾滋病患者心理康复研究——以某一艾滋病患者创伤心理治疗的成功个案为例%Research on Application of EMDR to Psychological Rehabilitation of AIDS Patients——A Case Study of a Successful Trauma Psychological Treatment of AIDS Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆玲

    2012-01-01

    Being infected with HIV is a severe traumatic event in the body.The patient often suffers a great mental stress,accompanied by emotional problems to different degrees.This study applied EMDR to the treatment of an AIDS patient with depression and difficulties in interpersonal communication.The therapeutic outcomes showed that application of EMDR to AIDS patient is effective.Thus,a further study on the application is necessary.%感染艾滋病病毒对于生命和躯体安全都是一个严重的创伤性事件,患者往往会承受巨大的精神压力,并有不同程度的情感障碍问题。本文采用EMDR方法对一例具有抑郁情绪和人际交往障碍的艾滋病患者进行治疗,治疗结果显示对HIV/AIDS患者采用EMDR方法能获得良好的效果,因此有必要进行更深入的研究和应用。

  14. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  15. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  16. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  17. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  18. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  19. HIV感染者和艾滋病患者抗病毒疗效及耐药分析%Effect of anti-HIV treatment and drug-resistance HIV among infected persons and AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姝; 张佳峰; 高红; 焦素黎; 许国章

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究浙江省宁波市HIV感染者和艾滋病人(HIV/AIDS)抗病毒治疗(HAART)效果和发生耐药情况.方法 收集156例HIV-1型阳性病例血样,包括114例AIDS病人和42例未治疗感染者,检测CD4+T淋巴细胞数和HIV病毒载量,通过测序获得pol基因序列,经美国斯坦福大学HIV国际耐药数据库分析,获得毒株耐药情况.结果 成功获得42例病例的pol序列;在HIV感染者中,HIV毒株对蛋白酶抑制剂分别有8例潜在耐药和2例中度耐药;在艾滋病人中,病毒载量低于最低检测限(50 IU/mL)的有100例,占87.7%;HIV毒株对核苷类和非核苷类抑制剂分别有4例和5例高度耐药;该人群的CD4+T淋巴细胞绝对数为14~1 060个/μL,平均为(314±28)个/μL.结论 宁波市多数HIV感染者和艾滋病人对现有的抗病毒药物敏感,抗病毒治疗效果良好.%Objective To study the effect of anti-HTV treatment and status of drag-resistance among HTV /AIDS patients. Methods Whole blood samples were collected from HIV infected persons with or without anti-HIV treatment and AIDS patients. The absolute number of CD4 * T lymphocyte and virus load of the subjects were detected. The virus RNA was amplified with nested-PCR and then sequenced. The drug resistance of HIV-1 strains isolated were obtained by comparison with Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Results Forty-two sequences of pol gene were obtained. Drug resistance to Pis was detected,including 8 potential resistance and 2 intermediate resistance,in HIV infected persons without treatment. Drug resistance to NRTIs was detected,including 4 high-level resistance,and to NNRTIs was detected,including 5 high-level resistance,in AIDS patients. The mean value of absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocyte was 314 ±28 /Μl.with the lowest of 14/μxL and the highest of 1 060/Μl. Conclusion Most of HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to the anti-HIV drug at present and a good treatment effect is achieved.

  20. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  1. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p ... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  2. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  3. 生物多糖助凝剂应用于再生水处理的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Bio-polysaccharide Flocculant-aid in Reclaimed Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 李育宏; 李秀昆; 姜威; 姜润林; 周丽媛

    2011-01-01

    再生水回用是解决水资源短缺的主要方法之一,而提高再生水水质和处理能力,降低成本至关重要.通过混凝烧杯试验,初步研究了一种新型生物多糖助凝剂配合聚合氯化铝应用于再生水处理的助凝效果.结果表明,与单独使用聚合氯化铝相比,添加少量生物多糖助凝剂不仅可改善出水水质,而且至少可提高20%的水处理能力,同时降低17.8%的药剂成本,具有巨大的经济效益和社会效益.%Reclaimed water reuse is a main method to solve the lack of water resources, whereas to improve the water quality of reclaimed water and water treatment capacity and to reduce the cost treating reclaimed water are essential. The enhanced coagulation effect of a new bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid coupled with polymeric aluminum chloride ( PAC ) in the reclaimed water treatment was preliminarily studied by coagulation jar test. The results show that compared to PAC alone, adding a small amount of bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid can not only improve the effluent quality, but also increase the water treatment capacity at least by 20%, while reducing the cost of reagents by 17.8%. The enormous economic and social benefits can be obtained.

  4. Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhouse Jack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI class. Results In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir (PMPA were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy. Conclusions In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

  5. Effect of 482 AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral treatment%482例艾滋病患者高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽赛娜木·艾合买提; 阿里木·帕塔尔; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 潘珂君; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of AIDS cases with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, provide scientiifc evidence for effective antiviral therapy treatment. Method CD4 +T lymphocyte count, changes of the viral load, incidence of opportunistic infections and cause of death in 482 AIDS patients who received highly active anti-retroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Result The average age of 482 AIDS patients were (35.7±11.0) years old, most were men [318 cases (66.0%)], 337 cases (69.9%) were Uyghur ethnic, HIV infection occurred mainly via sexual contact (60.7%). CD4+T lymphocyte counts increased signiifcantly after treatment for 3, 18, 24 months. There were statistically signiifcant differences in the detection results of CD4+T lymphocyte count between the pre-treatment and the post-treatment for 3, 18 and 24 months (P<0.05). 75.8%patients with the therapy efifciency. Opportunistic infections rate was 57.1%(275/482), most was thrush [31.3%(86/275)]. Fractures mortality was 13.5%, respiratory failure was the primary cause of death. Conclusion It is effective to carry out highly active anti-retroviral therapy on AIDS patients.%目的综合评价高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果,为改善抗病毒治疗工作提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析接受高效抗逆转录病毒治疗的482例艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量的变化、机会性感染发生情况以及死亡原因等。结果482例艾滋病患者的平均年龄为(35.7±11.0)岁,多为男性[318例(66.0%)];337例(69.9%)为维吾尔族,感染途径以性接触(60.7%)为主。CD4+T淋巴细胞水平在治疗3、18、24个月后均明显上升,与治疗前相比差异具有显著性(P<0.05);至2014年6月,继续接受随访的240例患者中,病毒完全抑制例数达182例(75.8%)。机会性感染发生率为57.1%(275/482),主要以鹅口疮[31.3%(86/275)]为主。482例患者死亡65例(13.5%

  6. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders.

  7. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-04-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  8. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  9. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  10. The Siding Spring Hazard at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin; Stevenson, Rachel; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 136,000 km in Oct 2014, giving Mars orbiting spacecraft an up-close and unprecedented view of this dynamically new comet. However, 100 minutes after the closest approach to the nucleus, Mars passes within 30,000 km of the comet's orbit. Here, large dust grains may be found on impacting trajectories, potentially posing a fatal hazard to the spacecraft. Such large grains must be ejected from the comet nucleus well before the time of encounter. Therefore, we propose IRAC imaging of this comet to assess the present-day gas production rate, which will aid dust impact hazard assessment.

  11. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  12. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the difference...

  13. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program. PMID:26737310

  14. A report from the 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (June 30-July 3, 2013 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X

    2013-08-01

    Effective antiretroviral drugs have been developed that, if continuously administered (although with simplification strategies once a patient's viral titer is suppressed) allow for a functional cure resulting in an almost normal life despite the presence of viral reservoirs. In that sense, observations that combination antiretroviral therapy has an untoward suppressive effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against T cells permitting the establishment of such viral reservoirs were discussed for its implications in the use of vaccines and/or modulators of the immune function to clear latent infections and the risk for reactivation (Madhavi, V. et al., Abst MOLBPE05). In addition to latent viral reservoirs, individual patient characteristics may also influence response to antiretroviral therapy, as exemplified by the increased likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients carrying certain polymorphic variants (rs2229109, rs6961419) of the P-glycoprotein 1 gene (Dias, J. et al., Abst MOPE034). These, and many other important news derived from research into novel approaches to fight HIV infection were discussed during the International AIDS Society (IAS) meeting in Kuala Lumpur, as summarized in the following report.

  15. Why is There No AIDS Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rey Biel

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...

  16. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

  17. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  18. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  19. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  20. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  1. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  2. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  3. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  4. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  5. A novel method to aid in the visualisation and treatment of uterine fibroids with MRgFUS in patients with abdominal scars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, Summia, E-mail: summia.zaher@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Gedroyc, Wladyslaw, E-mail: w.gedroyc@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lyons, Deidre, E-mail: deidre.lyons@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Regan, Lesley, E-mail: l.regan@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this research was to identify a method for performing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) of symptomatic uterine fibroids in patients with abdominal scars, by visualisation of these scars on MR images. 25 patients who presented with treatable symptomatic uterine fibroids and having transverse abdominal scars were treated with MRgFUS. A solution containing MRI contrast paramagnetic iron oxide particles was used to demark the skin surface scar tissue on the treatment planning MR images. During treatment, the focused ultrasound energy was steered around the scar based on its enhanced visual location. After the treatment, contrast enhanced MR images were acquired for immediate results evaluation. Adverse events and fibroid related symptoms were captured during the 6-months follow up period. All the women were treated with no complications. No episodes of skin burns, ulceration or skin redness were reported. The post-treatment contrast-enhanced MR images showed an average fibroid non-perfused volume ratio of 64%. At their 6-month follow-up, 92% of the patients reported a clinical improvement. Using paramagnetic iron oxide solution to highlight transverse abdominal scars helps in their identification on MR images, thereby enabling the operator to avoid scars and facilitating the treatment of women who were previously excluded.

  6. Analysis of the efficacy of free antiviral treatment among HIV/AIDS patients in Taishan City%台山市艾滋病免费抗病毒治疗疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡月仙; 余大年; 王立华; 刘仲昌; 林晓; 方健玲; 陈雪冰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨台山市艾滋病抗病毒治疗的效果,为进一步开展有效的抗病毒治疗工作提供依据.方法 收集2005-2011年台山抗病毒治疗患者的相关资料,统计分析患者基本情况、治疗方案、治疗前后CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量、临床症状体征、终止治疗情况以及生存状况的变化.结果 139例病人,静脉吸毒感染占66.91%,男性71.94%,已婚或同居62.59%,年龄25~55岁的占92.80%.病人CD4+T淋巴细胞计数治疗1年后与治疗前基线相比,平均增长204.02/mm3;治疗后86.67%病人病毒载量<40拷贝/mL;各种机会感染症状体征发生率由治疗前的58.06%下降到治疗后1年的3.22%;55.39%的病人出现各种药物不良反应;停药病人占12.95%,死亡病例占7.19%,失访病例占11.51%;病人生存率提高,维持治疗3年生存率达到80.00%.结论 抗病毒治疗效果显著,服药依从性直接关系到治疗效果.%Objective To explore the efficacy of antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients and provide scientific basis for further effective therapy . Methods Relevant information on the antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients from 2005 to 2011 in Taishan was collected. The basic information of patients, their treatment regimes, CD4+ T cell counts before and after treatment, viral load, clinical symptoms and signs, termination of treatment and changes of living conditions were statistically analyzed. Results Of the 139 patients, 66.91% were infected via intravenous drug use,71. 94% were male, 62. 59% were married or cohabiting, 92. 80% were aged from 25 to 55 years. After antiviral treatment for one year, the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were increased by 204. 02/mm3 compared to the baseline before treatment; the viral load in 86. 67% patients after the treatment was <40 copy/mL; the incidence of various opportunistic infections with clinical symptoms and signs was decreased from 58. 06% to 3. 22% after one year treatment

  7. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2 (FGE.13 Rev2) Furfuryl and furan derivatives with and without additional side-chain substituents and heteroatoms from chemical group 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate 27 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group Evaluation 13, Revision 2, using the Procedure in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. Three of the su...... of commerce have also been considered. Adequate specifications including complete purity criteria and identity for the materials of commerce have been provided for all 24 flavouring substances evaluated through the Procedure....

  8. Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Strose Villaça

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é considerada, atualmente, uma doença sistêmica, cujas alterações estruturais e metabólicas podem levar à disfunção muscular esquelética. Esta afeta negativamente o desempenho muscular respiratório e periférico, a capacidade funcional, a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e mesmo a sobrevida. A indicação de suplementação de substâncias ergogênicas para pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica baseia-se no fato de que estas drogas podem evitar, ou minimizar, o catabolismo e/ou estimular a síntese protéica, diminuindo a depleção de massa muscular e aumentando a capacidade de exercício. A presente revisão sumariza o conhecimento disponível acerca da utilização de esteróides anabolizantes, creatina, L-carnitina, aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e hormônio de crescimento em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. A vantagem do uso dessas substâncias ergogênicas parece residir no aumento da massa magra e/ou na indução de modificações bioenergéticas. Nesse contexto, a maior experiência acumulada é com os esteróides anabolizantes. Entretanto, os benefícios clínicos em relação à melhora da capacidade de exercício e força muscular, bem como os efeitos na morbimortalidade, não foram, até a presente data, consistentemente demonstrados. A suplementação ergogênica pode vir a se constituir numa ferramenta adjuvante para o tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica avançada, especialmente naqueles com depleção muscular e/ou fraqueza periférica.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients

  9. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗后机会感染的变化和分布状况%The change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 安永辉; 马永虹; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)抗病毒治疗后机会感染疾病谱的变化及分布状况.方法 采用回顾性分析的方法,对2006年9月-2008年12月期间,在郑州市第六人民医院接受门诊及住院治疗的128例HIV/AIDS病人,抗病毒治疗前后机会感染发生情况进行总结分析.结果 (1) 128例HIV/AIDS病人中,高效抗反转录病毒疗法(HAART)治疗3-12月期间共发生100例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(46.09%)和消化系统(11.72%)感染,其中前4位机会感染是细菌性肺炎(29.69%)、肺结核(9.38%)、口腔念珠菌感染(7.81%)、带状疱疹(3.91%);与HAART治疗前相比,治疗后机会感染中细菌性肺炎、肺结核占绝大多数(86.46%),存在一定比例的口腔念珠菌感染和带状疱疹,AIDS晚期常见的机会感染如肺孢子菌肺炎、感染性腹泻及消耗综合征、中枢神经系统病变发病明显减少.(2) 128例HIV/AIDS病人HAART治疗前机会感染发病率为80.47%,治疗后3-6月时下降至28.13%,治疗6-12月时为25.89%,3组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).HAART治疗后同时合并多种机会感染的病例减少.结论 HAART治疗后的机会感染发病率明显下降,机会感染疾病谱较治疗前有所不同,同时合并多种机会感染的几率减少.%Objective To explore the change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment. Methods One hundred and twenty eight ambulatory and hospitalized HIV/AIDS cases were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the characteristics of opportunistic infeccions occurring pre and post highly active anti-retroviral treatmem(HAART)in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, from September of 2006 to December of 2008. Results (1) The 128 HIV/AIDS patients experienced HIV-related opportunistic infections for 100 case-episodes after HAART for 3-12 months,involving respiratory system(46. 09%) and gastrointestinal system(11. 72%). The top 4

  10. Drug treatment and familiar music aids an attention shift from vision to somatosensation in Parkinson's disease on the reach-to-eat task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2011-03-01

    Sensory control of the natural skilled movement of reaching for a food target to eat (reach-to-eat) is closely coupled to the successive phases of the movement. Control subjects visually fixate the target from hand movement onset to the point that the digits contact the food, at which point they look away. This relationship between sensory attention and limb movement suggests that whereas limb advance is under visual control, grasping, limb withdrawal, and releasing the food to the mouth is guided by somatosensation. The pattern of sensory control is altered in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD subjects may visually fixate the target for longer durations prior to movement initiation, during the grasp, and during the initial portion of hand withdrawal suggesting that vision compensates for a somatosensory impairment. Because both medication and listening to favorite musical pieces have been reported to normalize some movements in subjects with PD, the present study compared the effect of medication and listening to preferred musical pieces on sensory attention shifts from vision to somatosensation during the reach-to-eat movement. Biometric measures of eye movement and the movement of the reaching limb were collected from PD subjects and aged-matched control subjects in four conditions in their own homes: off medication, off medication with music, on medication, and on medication with music. Unmedicated PD subjects were slower to visually disengage the target after grasping it. Their disengage latency was shortened by both music and medication. Medication and music did not improve other aspects of reaching, including reaching duration and the ratings of the movement elements of limb advance, grasping, and limb withdrawal. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that one way in which medication and music may aid movement in PD by normalizing somatosensory control of forelimb movement thus reducing compensatory visual monitoring. PMID:21073905

  11. The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Paul E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence evaluating the benefits of programmatic nutrition interventions to HIV-infected individuals in developing countries, where there is a large overlap between HIV prevalence and malnutrition, is limited. This study evaluates the impact of food assistance (FA on change in weight and disease progression as measured by WHO staging. Methods We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients. Results FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART. Conclusions Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed.

  12. 早期抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响%Survival effect regarding earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 安伟锋; 马彦民; 李宁; 朱谦; 孙定勇; 黄学勇; 许汴利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect of initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients at different stages so as to explore the best time of initiation with the treatment.Methods Information regarding the dates of AIDS patient initially receiving the anti-retroviral therapy during 2007-2012 was collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Integrated Control System.According to the level of baseline immunology,all the participants were divided into earlier treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts between 350/ μl and 500/μl) and conventional treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts ≤350/ μl).Data was analyzed under Survival and Review methods.Results A total number of 16 282 cases were selected.The mortality of conventional treatment group was obviously higher than the earlier treatment group (5.78/100 person year vs.1.64/100 person year),and the median survival time was lower than the earlier treatment group (2.07 year vs.3.15 year).The cumulative survival rate of the 6-year conventional treatment group was lower than the earlier treatment group (77.39% vs.92.10%,x2=156.00,P < 0.01).By means of multi-variable analysis,we found that factors as age,gender,marital status,route of transmission,schedule on initial therapy,number of symptoms at the baseline etc.in the conventional treatment group were associated with survival time of patients after the ART initiation (P<0.05),while gender,schedule for initial therapy,number of symptoms at baseline etc.in the earlier treatment group,were associated with survival time of patients after the initiation of ART (P<0.05).Conclusion Earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time.%目的 比较不同时间开始抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响,并探讨抗病毒治疗最佳时机.方法 利用国家艾滋病抗病毒治疗信息系统,收集2007-2012年河南省加入抗病毒治疗的艾滋病患者基本

  13. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  14. Database-supported teleconferencing: An additional clinical mentoring tool to assist a multinational company HIV/AIDS treatment program in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Clevenbergh; S.F.M. van der Borght; K. van Cranenburgh; V. Janssens; C.K. Lubangi; L. Gahimbaza; J.M.A. Lange; T.F. Rinke de Wit; H. Rijckborst

    2006-01-01

    Background: The lack of human resources for health is presently recognized as a major factor limiting scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in resource-limited settings. The mobilization of public and private partners, the decentralization of care, and the training of non-HIV specialis

  15. Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauklin, Siim

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by the hormone estrogen has important implications for understanding adaptive immune responses as well as the involvement of AID in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis. This chapter describes the general laboratory techniques for analyzing AID expression and activity induced by estrogen, focusing on the isolation and preparation of cells for hormone treatment and the subsequent analysis of AID responsiveness to estrogen at the RNA level and for determining the regulation of AID activity via estrogen by analyzing Ig switch circle transcripts and mutations in switch region loci.

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  17. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  18. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  19. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  20. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  1. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  2. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  3. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  4. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  5. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  6. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  7. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... side effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...

  8. Affordability of adult HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries: modelling price determinants for a better insight of the market functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Singh, Sauman; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. Design The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement. Methods ExWorks prices and procured quantities were standardized according to the guidelines in terms of yearly doses. Descriptive statistics on quantities and prices show the main trends of the ARV market. Ordinary least squares estimation was carried out for the whole sample, then stratified according to the type of supplier (originator and generic) and controlled for time and geographical fixed-effects. Given that analyses were carried out on a public dataset on ARV transactional prices from the GPRM, ethics are respected and consent was not necessary. Results Originator medicines are on average the least expensive in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where at the same time, generic medicines are on average the most expensive. By contrast, originator medicines are the most expensive in Europe and Central Asia, and generic medicines are the least expensive. In fact, the data suggest mixed strategies by ARV suppliers to exploit opportunities for profit maximization and to adapt to the specific conditions of market competition in each region. Our results also suggest that the expiration of patents is not sufficient to boost additional developments in generic competition (at least in the ARV market) and that formal or informal agreements between generic firms may de facto slow down or even reverse long-term trends towards price decreases. Conclusions Our findings provide an improved understanding of the ARV market that can help countries strengthen policy measures to increase their bargaining

  9. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  10. Stress, Motivation and Professional Satisfaction among Health Care Workers in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Centers in Urban Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Siril, Hellen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Hawkins, Claudia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Michelle S.; Ismail, Shabbir; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Shortages of health care workers (HCWs) represents a serious challenge to ensuring effective HIV care in resource-limited settings (RLS). Stress, motivation, and job satisfaction have been linked with HCW retention and are important in addressing HCW shortages. In this cross-sectional study HCW stress, motivation and perceived ability to meet patient needs were assessed in PEPFAR-supported urban HIV care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in Tanzania. A self-administered questionnaire measuring mot...

  11. Cost effectiveness analysis of early zidovudine treatment of HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, E Z; Cowper, P; Hamilton, J D; Matchar, D B; Hartigan, P; Samsa, G; Simberkoff, M; Feussner, J R

    1993-11-20

    OBJECTIVE--To compare cost effectiveness of early and later treatment with zidovudine for patients infected with HIV. DESIGN--Markov chain analysis of cost effectiveness based on results of use of health care and efficacy from a trial of zidovudine treatment. SETTING--Seven Veterans Affairs medical centres in the United States. SUBJECTS--338 patients with symptomatic HIV infection and a lymphocyte count of 200 x 10(6) to 500 x 10(6) CD4 cells/l. INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine 1500 mg/day started either at recruitment to the trial or when CD4 cell count fell below 200 x 10(6)/l. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Health care costs and rates of disease progression between six clinical states of HIV infection. RESULTS--Patients given early treatment with zidovudine remained without AIDS for an extra two months at a cost of $10,750 for each extra month without AIDS (at 1991 costs). Cost effectiveness ratio was most sensitive to the cost of zidovudine and to the quality of life of patients receiving early treatment. At treatment of 500 mg/day the cost effectiveness ratio for early treatment was $5432 for each extra month without AIDS. Patients given early treatment experienced more side effects, and if their quality of life was devalued by 8% compared with patients treated later the two treatments were equivalent in terms of quality adjusted months of life without AIDS. CONCLUSIONS--Early treatment with zidovudine is expensive and is very sensitive to the cost of zidovudine and to potential reductions in quality of life of patients who experience side effects. Doctors should reconsider early treatment with zidovudine for patients who experience side effects that substantially compromise their quality of life. PMID:8257887

  12. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  13. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  14. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  15. Side Effects in Steering Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wortel, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I will give a formal definition of side effects. I will do so by modifying a system for modelling program instructions and program states, Quantified Dynamic Logic, to a system called DLAf (for Dynamic Logic with Assignments as Formulas), which in contrast to QDL allows assignments in formulas and makes use of short-circuit evaluation. I will show the underlying logic in those formulas to be a variant of short-circuit logic called repetition-proof short-circuit logic. Using DLAf I will define the actual and the expected evaluation of a single instruction. The side effects are then defined to be the difference between the two. I will give rules for composing those side effects in single instructions, thus scaling up our definition of side effects to a definition of side effects in deterministic \\dlaf-programs. Using this definition I will give a classification of side effects, introducing as most important class that of marginal side effects. Finally, I will show how to use our system for calcul...

  16. Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Magdalena Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.

  17. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.

    2012-06-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  18. 符合治疗条件的HIV感染者/AIDS病人未接受HAART的影响因素%Influencing factors of HIV/AIDS patients eligible for HARRT but not receive antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    It is confirmed that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)is the most effective treatment for HIV infection now,but the proportion of treatment for eligible infected people is not high.The influence factors are various,mainly includes low cognitive level of patients,limited service,insufficient funding,social discrimination,drug toxicity and lifelong treatment.For expanding the treatment and increasing the coverage,four proposals are made:firstly,to improve the enthusiasm of patients; secondly,to reduce the burden of patients; thirdly,to strengthen the construction of grass-roots; and fourthly,to build a good social environment to reduce or eliminate discrimination.%高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)目前已被证实是针对艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染的最有效的治疗方法.但目前符合治疗标准的HIV感染者和艾滋病(AIDS)病人接受治疗的比例并不高,其影响因素是多方面的,主要包括:病人认知程度低、服务提供有限、资金投入不足、社会歧视、服药本身不良反应和需终身服药等.为扩大治疗和提高覆盖率,建议:一要提高病人治疗积极性;二要减轻病人治疗负担;三要加强基层建设;四要营造良好的社会环境,减少和消除歧视.

  19. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face recognition techniques to be used in house safety applications. Our aim is to recognize people as they pass through a door, and estimate their location in the house. Here, we compare available databas...

  20. Clinical research of retroperitoneal laparoscopic intervention ultrasound aided positioning in the treatment of adult renal cyst%后腹腔镜下超声辅助定位治疗肾囊肿的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬冰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨后腹腔镜下超声辅助定位治疗多囊肾的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析327例多囊肾患者手术情况,其中行后腹腔镜下超声辅助定位治疗肾囊肿239例为超声介入组,行后腹腔镜下介入但术中未使用超声辅助定位手术患者88例为非超声介入组.结果 超声介入组的手术时间为(3.61 ±0.49)h,长于非超声介入组的(3.27 ±0.71)h(t =4.89,P<0.05);术后留置引流管时间、术后肾脏长度分别为(2.24±0.58)d、(12.01±4.25)cm,均短于非超声介入组的(3.59±2.27)d、(13.39 ±5.21)cm(t=8.49、2.45,均P<0.05);超声介入组术后>l cm囊肿残留的数量明显少于非超声介入组(x2=10.36,P<0.05).结论 后腹腔镜下超声辅助定位手术治疗治疗多囊肾,超声定位更能确定深部囊肿位置,可以明显减少术后患者囊肿残留发生概率,还可避免发生较大的血管及肾脏集合系统的损伤,使手术安全性得到提高.%Objective To explore the clinical value of retropentoneal laparoscopic interventon ultrasound aided positioning in the treatment of adult renal cyst.Methods The operating information of 327 patients with adult renal cyst was analyzed retrospectively,in which 239 cases applied the retroperitoneal laparoscopic intervention ultrasound aided positioning treatment( interventional ultrasound group),88 cases applied retroperitoneal laparoscopic intervention without ultrasound assisted positioning operation treatment ( non interventional ultrasound group).Results The operation time of the interventional ultrasound group was (3.61 ± 0.49) h,and was longer than that of the non interventionul ultrasound group[ ( 3.27 ± 0.71 ) h ] ( t =4.89,P < 0.05 ).The postoperative indwelling drainage tube time,postoperative renal length of the interventional ultrasound group was (2.24 ± 0.58 ) d,( 12.01 ± 4.25 ) cm respectively,and was shorter than that of the non interventional ultrasound group[ (3.59 ±2.27 ) d、( 13.39 ±5