Sample records for aids treatment lessons

  1. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann


    During the treatment decade of rolling out antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in African clinics, new social meanings have been created, and they link local people living with HIV/AIDS to Western communities in new ways. The health of African “others” has taken a central, new, and perhaps quasi-religiou......During the treatment decade of rolling out antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in African clinics, new social meanings have been created, and they link local people living with HIV/AIDS to Western communities in new ways. The health of African “others” has taken a central, new, and perhaps quasi......-religious role in Western societies. Working on behalf of humanitarian organizations to combat modern emergencies is the contemporary embodiment of an ideal, pure notion of “the good” that is not linked to “old religion” but mimics many of its dispositions and practices. This analysis is based on empirical data...... gathered during fieldwork as participants and observers in a Catholic AIDS treatment clinic and through interviews with service providers in Uganda. We use these data to think both creatively and systematically about the meanings and limitations of pastoral power and therapeutic citizenship....

  2. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  3. Animal Farm--A Lesson Aid (United States)

    Mendoza, Susan


    Offers several suggestions for teaching George Orwell's "Animal Farm" to high school students. Included are strategies for (1) teaching themes of the story, (2) interpreting the story on several levels, (3) seeing the connections between language and politics, (4) using group activities, and (5) using visual aids. (JC)

  4. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma) (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  5. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme (United States)

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira


    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  6. Addressing Ebola-related Stigma: Lessons Learned from HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Davtyan


    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. Objective: To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be applied to the current EVD epidemic. Methods: To identify relevant articles about HIV/AIDS and EVD-related stigma, we conducted an extensive literature review using multiple search engines. PubMed was used to search for relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and Google for online sources. We also consulted the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the National Institutes of Health to retrieve up-to-date information about EVD and HIV/AIDS. Results: Many stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors directed towards those with EVD are strikingly similar to those with HIV/AIDS but there are significant differences worthy of discussion. Both diseases are life-threatening and there is no medical cure. Additionally misinformation about affected groups and modes of transmission runs rampant. Unlike in persons with EVD, historically criminalized and marginalized populations carry a disproportionately higher risk for HIV infection. Moreover, mortality due to EVD occurs within a shorter time span as compared to HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: Stigma disrupts quality of life, whether it is associated with HIV infection or EVD. When addressing EVD, we must think beyond the immediate clinical therapeutic response, to possible HIV implications of serum treatment. There are emerging social concerns of stigma associated with EVD infection and double stigma associated with EVD and HIV infection. Drawing upon lessons learned from HIV, we must work to empower and mobilize prominent members of the community, those who recovered from the disease, and organizations

  7. Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned (United States)


    fully-delineated prior to the ERH design and application) are masking the treatment effect. Shallow DNAPL wells (plan view) 24 Example 2 NAS Alameda...m2 or one- quarter acre treatment areas) It i l t th t th ti l t t f s a so apparen a e spa a ex en s o many source zones are likely ill...emperature ra ents 112 Key Questions 1. Are reductively dechlorinating (i.e., organohalide- respiring ) bacteria active at elevated temperatures? 2. Do

  8. Lessons in Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS Vaccine Research: From Minefields to Milestones


    Jeffrey D Lifson; Nancy L Haigwood


    Nonhuman primate (NHP) disease models for AIDS have made important contributions to the search for effective vaccines for AIDS. Viral diversity, persistence, capacity for immune evasion, and safety considerations have limited development of conventional approaches using killed or attenuated vaccines, necessitating the development of novel approaches. Here we highlight the knowledge gained and lessons learned in testing vaccine concepts in different virus/NHP host combinations.

  9. Sharpening Our Plowshares: Applying the Lessons of Counterinsurgency to Development and Humanitarian Aid (United States)


    David Roodman , “Aid, Policies, and Growth: Comment,” American Economic Review, June 2004, 774–80. SHARPENING OUR PLOWSHARES 47 25. De Waal, Famine...have shown that higher gross quantities of aid have failed to improve the performance of recipient countries.22 As David Rieff notes, “bureaucratic...military/host-nation (HN) partnerships codified in FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5. Many of the lessons learned by Gen David Petraeus and the other authors of

  10. Integrating Social Marketing Into Fijian HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Lessons From Systematic Review. (United States)

    Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet


    Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.

  11. Nonbinding Legal Instruments in Governance for Global Health: Lessons from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism. (United States)

    Taylor, Allyn; Alfoén, Tobias; Hougendobler, Daniel; Buse, Kent


    Recent debate over World Health Organization reform has included unprecedented attention to international lawmaking as a future priority function of the Organization. However, the debate is largely focused on the codification of new binding legal instruments. Drawing upon lessons from the success of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, we argue that effective global health governance requires consideration of a broad range of instruments, both binding and nonbinding. A detailed examination of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism reveals that the choice of the nonbinding format makes an important contribution to its effectiveness. For instance, the flexibility and adaptability of the nonbinding format have allowed the global community to: (1) undertake commitments in a timely manner; (2) adapt and experiment in the face of a dynamic pandemic; and (3) grant civil society an unparalleled role in monitoring and reporting on state implementation of global commitments. UNAIDS' institutional support has also played a vital role in ensuring the continuing effectiveness of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism. Overall, the experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism evidences that, at times, nimbler nonbinding instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance, but depend critically, like all instruments, on the perceived legitimacy thereof.

  12. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  13. Injuries following a serious hydrofluoric acid leak: First aid and lessons. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhai; Wang, Xingang; Sharma, Komal; Mao, Xinxing; Qiu, Xuguang; Ni, Liangfang; Han, Chunmao


    Hydrofluoric acid is a dangerous inorganic acid that can cause local corrosion and systemic effects by ongoing absorption via the skin, mucosae, respiratory tract and digestive system. Recently, a serious toxic leak of low-concentration hydrofluoric acid solution occurred in the Pujiang area of Zhejiang Province, China. This accident resulted in 253 cases of chemical injury due to hydrofluoric acid exposure. Despite an immediate response by the local and provincial health-care system, as well as the local government, three people died due to acute poisoning and related complications. This article describes the events that took place leading to casualties as well as presenting the first-aid experience and the lessons learnt from this kind of mass injury.

  14. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Mathiesen, L R; Søeberg, B;


    In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1...... on 94 occasions and 19 (14%) patients required multiple transfusions. The mortality among the AIDS patients was significantly lower compared to historical controls. In our experience zidovudine treatment is reasonably well tolerated and the side effects are manageable....

  15. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers. (United States)

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  16. Lessons from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: from quick ramp-up to the role of strategic partnership. (United States)

    Simonds, R J; Carrino, Constance A; Moloney-Kitts, Michele


    In its first five years, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)--the largest commitment ever by any nation to combat a single disease--succeeded in getting 2.1 million people on antiretroviral treatment and 10.1 million people in care; prevented an estimated 237,600 HIV infections in infants; and saved an estimated 3.28 million adult years of life. Much of the global program's success can be attributed to early decisions to implement new structures and approaches designed to meet its ambitious targets quickly, overcome bureaucratic inertia, and ensure continued progress. A unified US government program was created with a single coordinator. There was a focus on quick ramp-up, strategic partnerships, and sustainable local ownership. Accountability and performance were emphasized. These new approaches played critical roles in translating the unprecedented resources and political support for PEPFAR into improved health for millions of people. Successful aspects of the way in which PEPFAR was organized and implemented, along with less successful or deficient ones, offer lessons for any large, complex international health initiative.

  17. Modelling AIDS epidemic and treatment with difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani A


    Full Text Available We propose two models for the description of the dynamics of an AIDS epidemic and of the effect of a combined-drugs AIDS treatment based on difference equations. We show that our interacting population model, despite its extreme simplicity, describes adequately the evolution of an AIDS epidemic. A cellular-automaton analogue of the discrete system of equations is presented as well. In the case of drug treatment, we identify two different regimes corresponding to efficient and inefficient medication. The effect of the discreteness of the equations is also studied.

  18. Modelling AIDS epidemic and treatment with difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Carstea


    Full Text Available We propose two models for the description of the dynamics of an AIDS epidemic and of the effect of a combined-drugs AIDS treatment based on difference equations. We show that our interacting population model, despite its extreme simplicity, describes adequately the evolution of an AIDS epidemic. A cellular-automaton analogue of the discrete system of equations is presented as well. In the case of drug treatment, we identify two different regimes corresponding to efficient and inefficient medication. The effect of the discreteness of the equations is also studied.

  19. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjaerg, L L; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt; Søeberg, B;


    ,200 mg to 600 mg, 9 others were temporarily off drug. HIV antigen was analyzed in serum samples from 93 patients. Of these, 28 (52%) of 54 initially HIV antigen-positive became antigen-negative, 7 (18%) of 39 initially HIV antigen-negative became antigen-positive within the first 8 weeks of zidovudine......In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1...

  20. Rethinking the conceptual terrain of AIDS scholarship: lessons from comparing 27 years of AIDS and climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brklacich Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there has recently been significant medical advance in understanding and treating HIV, limitations in understanding the complex social dimensions of HIV/AIDS epidemics continue to restrict a host of prevention and development efforts from community through to international levels. These gaps are rooted as much in limited conceptual development as they are in a lack of empirical research. Methods In this conceptual article, the authors compare and contrast the evolution of climate change and AIDS research. They demonstrate how scholarship and response in these two seemingly disparate areas share certain important similarities, such as the "globalization" of discourses and associated masking of uneven vulnerabilities, the tendency toward techno-fixes, and the polarization of debates within these fields. They also examine key divergences, noting in particular that climate change research has tended to be more forward-looking and longer-term in focus than AIDS scholarship. Conclusion Suggesting that AIDS scholars can learn from these key parallels and divergences, the paper offers four directions for advancing AIDS research: (1 focusing more on the differentiation of risk and responsibility within and among AIDS epidemics; (2 taking (back on board social justice approaches; (3 moving beyond polarized debates; and (4 shifting focus from reactive to forward-looking and proactive approaches.

  1. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710 (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith


    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  2. Vulnerable Children, Communities and Schools: Lessons from Three HIV/AIDS Affected Areas (United States)

    Kendall, Nancy; O'Gara, Chloe


    The growing number of children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS threatens the achievement of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development goals. Policy recommendations assign schools key roles in meeting the needs of vulnerable children, but there is a dearth of evidence about how vulnerable children and schools interact in AIDS affected…

  3. How to Make Junior English Lessons Lively and Interesting by Different Teaching Aids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper is mainly concerned with the usage of teaching aids in junior English from three aspects: the visual aids,the audio-visual means, the body language and tone. By this means, it can give the students a comparatively real circumstances, attract the students' attention, enhance the students' interest in English and improve their consciousness of competition.

  4. Determinants of Persistence and the Role of Financial Aid: Lessons from Chile (United States)

    Santelices, María Verónica; Catalán, Ximena; Kruger, Diana; Horn, Catherine


    This article explores the determinants of persistence in the Chilean higher education system, considering academic and socio-demographic factors as well as the role of financial aid. The financial aid policy for students in Chile has undergone major changes over the last decade, which has allowed individuals from usually underrepresented income…

  5. AIDS (United States)

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  6. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention. (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R


    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants.

  7. [Discussion on AIDS etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine]. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Yong


    In recent years, Chinese medicine have gotten certain experience and made progress on the treatment of AIDS. Focus on AIDS main pathogenic factors of epidemic toxin and key pathogenesis of "epidemic toxin invasion, vital-Qi deficiency", this paper discuss on Chinese medicine theory of AIDS etiology and pathogenesis, and put forward the theory of "preventive treatment of disease" and enhanced the importance of "strengthening body resistance and eliminating evil" in the treatment of AIDS.

  8. Lessons for Japanese foreign aid from research on aid’s impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    gains aid has provided in human security sustainable. Infrastructure investment can not only reduce spatial inequality, and provide the basis for growth through inter-connected regions and economic hubs, with enhanced national analytical capacity, and technical assistance to project preparation, it can...

  9. Responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic : lessons from the case of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, T.R.


    This paper discusses the political response to HIV/AIDS in Eritrea, a country where the epidemic appears to have stabilized at an average prevalence rate of around 3%. It shows that Eritrea has mobilized an effective multisectoral response to cope with the epidemic and its impact under conditions of

  10. The epistemology of AIDS in South Africa: lessons from three scenario projects. (United States)

    Swart, Charl; Fourie, Pieter


    This article reviews the methodology of future scenario-building in the context of HIV and AIDS in Africa. It considers three scenario studies conducted in the past decade: UNAIDS (2005), Metropolitan Holdings (2006) and the AIDS Governance scenarios (2015). The article is a critical reflection of Future Studies epistemology which claims to contribute a unique heuristic niche in the study of AIDS. The article offers several methodological insights: (1) despite claims to the contrary, scenario methodology remains profoundly influenced by existing political and research agenda; instead of denying these, scenarists should acknowledge this; (2) the utility of scenario studies is strongly influenced by their unit of analysis and their time frame, which determine their applicability and therefore their policy relevance; and (3) scenario planners should guard against perpetuating the myth that this methodology is a crystal ball into the future because they are powerful tools for strategic planning about the present, rather than the distant future. In addition to these methodological insights, the article finds that future scenario studies are useful in identifying significant discursive and policy shifts in the AIDS response.

  11. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake. (United States)

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad


    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake.

  12. Direct treatment costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Perelman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the direct medical costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal from the perspective of the National Health Service. METHODS A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted for 150 patients from five specialized centers in Portugal in 2008. Data on utilization of medical resources during 12 months and patients’ characteristics were collected. A unit cost was applied to each care component using official sources and accounting data from National Health Service hospitals. RESULTS The average cost of treatment was 14,277 €/patient/year. The main cost-driver was antiretroviral treatment (€ 9,598, followed by hospitalization costs (€ 1,323. Treatment costs increased with the severity of disease from € 11,901 (> 500 CD4 cells/µl to € 23,351 (CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/ µl. Cost progression was mainly due to the increase in hospitalization costs, while antiretroviral treatment costs remained stable over disease stages. CONCLUSIONS The high burden related to antiretroviral treatment is counterbalanced by relatively low hospitalization costs, which, however, increase with severity of disease. The relatively modest progression of total costs highlights that alternative public health strategies that do not affect transmission of disease may only have a limited impact on expenditure, since treatment costs are largely dominated by constant antiretroviral treatment costs.

  13. Three Aspects of PLATO Use at Chanute AFB: CBE Production Techniques, Computer-Aided Management, Formative Development of CBE Lessons. (United States)

    Klecka, Joseph A.

    This report describes various aspects of lesson production and use of the PLATO system at Chanute Air Force Base. The first chapter considers four major factors influencing lesson production: (1) implementation of the "lean approach," (2) the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) role in lesson production, (3) the transfer of…

  14. Research on AIDS patients’ survival time after highly active antiretroviral therapy, treatment effect and treatment modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riying Lv


    Full Text Available To fully define clinical efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy for AIDS, analyze patients’ survival time and treatment mode after receiving treatment, and provide scientific theory to guide improvement of antiviral therapy, this paper selected 3100 cases of patients diagnosed with AIDS during April 2006 and April 2014 as object of this study. All patients were treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. The main analysis contents of this study include CD4 + T lymphocyte count, viral load changes, incidence of opportunistic infections, specific cause of death and the like. The results show that patients’ CD4 + T lymphocyte levels are significantly increased 3, 18, and 24 months after treatment, difference between the situation after and before receiving treatment, P < 0.05, with statistically significant difference. Analyzed from effective inhibition of virus, effective inhibition rate is 72.58.0% (2250/3100. Main causes of death in patients is usually respiratory failure. It thus can be concluded that highly active antiretroviral therapy for AIDS is with good clinical effect, which can effectively improve survival time of patients. So it enjoys application value of being widely used in clinical treatment of AIDS.

  15. Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Teshome


    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, Western donors have been following a strategy of democracy promotion to Africa that involves giving assistance to both the state and the non-state actors including governments (as part of good governance program, parliaments, courts, political parties, civil society, electoral management bodies, election observation missions etc. The paper explores both the positive and the negative impacts of such assistance to African emerging democracies by using Ethiopia as a case study. The paper primarily deals with three sub-sectors of democracy promotion program: assistances to political parties, international election observation missions, and civil society. In this study, I argue that human rights and self interest (economic, political or both shape the foreign aid policy of Western donors including democracy assistance. Moreover, the paper attempts to prove that democratic reversals or backsliding and human rights abuses in the recipient states can trigger aid reduction or termination only when the recipient states are neither economically nor strategically valuable to the Western donors.

  16. 46 CFR 197.314 - First aid and treatment equipment. (United States)


    ... consists of— (i) Basic first aid supplies; and (ii) Any additional supplies necessary to treat minor trauma... Aid handbook; (3) A bag-type manual resuscitator with transparent mask and tubing; and (4)...

  17. Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arola, R.; Martikainen, H.; Virta, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.


    Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the basis of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results

  18. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  19. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030. (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias


    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  20. Enhancing the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS prevention programs targeted to unique population groups in Thailand: lessons learned from applying concepts of diffusion of innovation and social marketing. (United States)

    Svenkerud, P J; Singhal, A


    Diffusion of innovations theory and social marketing theory have been criticized for their limited applicability in influencing unique population groups (e.g., female commercial sex workers (CSWs) working in low-class brothels). This study investigated the applicability of these two theoretical frameworks in outreach efforts directed to unique populations at high risk for HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. Further, this study examined Thai cultural characteristics that influence communication about HIV/AIDS prevention. The results suggest that certain concepts and strategies drawn from the two frameworks were used more or less by effective outreach programs, providing several policy-relevant lessons. Cultural constraints, such as the lack of visibility of the disease and traditional sexual practices, influenced communication about HIV/AIDS prevention.

  1. A General Introduction of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper gives a general introduction of HIV/AIDS treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China during the past 20 years. Although the role of TCM in treatment of HIV/AIDS is promising, there is still a long way to go.

  2. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen


    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  3. Nanotechnology: a magic bullet for HIV AIDS treatment. (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Prasad, Deo Nandan; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Jain, Amit Kumar


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become devastating in last a few years. Nearly 7400 new infection cases are coming every day. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which involves combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, has been used to extend the life span of the HIV-infected patients. HAART has played an important role to reduce mortality rate in the developed countries but in the developing countries condition is still worst with millions of people being infected by this disease. For the improvement of the situation, nanotechnology-based drug system has been explored for the HIV therapeutics. Nanosystems used for HIV therapeutics offer some unique advantage like enhancement of bioavailability, water solubility, stability, and targeting ability of ARV drugs. Main nanotechnology-based systems explored for HIV therapeutics are liposomes, nanoparticles, niosomes, polymeric micelles, and dendrimers. Present manuscript reviews conventional method of HIV therapeutics and recent advances in the field of nanotechnology-based systems for treatment of HIV-AIDS.

  4. Taking a lesson from patients' recovery strategies to optimize training during robot-aided rehabilitation. (United States)

    Colombo, Roberto; Sterpi, Irma; Mazzone, Alessandra; Delconte, Carmen; Pisano, Fabrizio


    In robot-assisted neurorehabilitation, matching the task difficulty level to the patient's needs and abilities, both initially and as the relearning process progresses, can enhance the effectiveness of training and improve patients' motivation and outcome. This study presents a Progressive Task Regulation algorithm implemented in a robot for upper limb rehabilitation. It evaluates the patient's performance during training through the computation of robot-measured parameters, and automatically changes the features of the reaching movements, adapting the difficulty level of the motor task to the patient's abilities. In particular, it can select different types of assistance (time-triggered, activity-triggered, and negative assistance) and implement varied therapy practice to promote generalization processes. The algorithm was tuned by assessing the performance data obtained in 22 chronic stroke patients who underwent robotic rehabilitation, in which the difficulty level of the task was manually adjusted by the therapist. Thus, we could verify the patient's recovery strategies and implement task transition rules to match both the patient's and therapist's behavior. In addition, the algorithm was tested in a sample of five chronic stroke patients. The findings show good agreement with the therapist decisions so indicating that it could be useful for the implementation of training protocols allowing individualized and gradual treatment of upper limb disabilities in patients after stroke. The application of this algorithm during robot-assisted therapy should allow an easier management of the different motor tasks administered during training, thereby facilitating the therapist's activity in the treatment of different pathologic conditions of the neuromuscular system.

  5. Why culture matters in health interventions: lessons from HIV/AIDS stigma and NCDs. (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ford, Chandra L; Iwelunmor, Juliet I


    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.

  6. Substance Abuse Treatment in Persons with HIV/AIDS: Challenges in Managing Triple Diagnosis


    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R.


    This paper provides a review of the current literature addressing substance abuse treatment in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Clinical management of HIV must account for the “triple diagnosis” of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the...

  7. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R


    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  8. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  9. Improving the communication of benefits and harms of treatment strategies: decision AIDS for localized prostate cancer treatment decisions. (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard M


    Treatment decisions for localized prostate cancer are preference sensitive. The optimal treatment strategy is unknown, and active treatment is not always necessary. Choosing among the various options involves tradeoffs between cancer control and complications that affect quality of life. A shared decision-making process, particularly facilitated by a decision aid, can help a patient make an informed decision that is concordant with his values and preferences. Studies have shown that informed patients are more willing to forego aggressive treatment, but much work is needed to develop and evaluate high-quality decision aids that accurately portray active surveillance. The research agenda for decision aids includes evaluating content elements and format, timing and setting for delivery, the quality of the decision-making process, and the effects of decision support on treatment selection (which will occur repeatedly for men opting for active surveillance) and quality of life.

  10. Visual Aids for Multimodal Treatment Options to Support Decision Making of Patients with Colorectal Cancer

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    Hofmann Sabine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of multimodal treatment options are available for colorectal cancer and many patients want to be involved in decisions about their therapies. However, their desire for autonomy is limited by lack of disease-specific knowledge. Visual aids may be helpful tools to present complex data in an easy-to-understand, graphic form to lay persons. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment preferences of healthy persons and patients using visual aids depicting multimodal treatment options for colorectal cancer. Methods We designed visual aids for treatment scenarios based on four key studies concerning multimodal treatment of colorectal cancer. The visual aids were composed of diagrams depicting outcome parameters and side effects of two treatment options. They were presented to healthy persons (n = 265 and to patients with colorectal cancer (n = 102. Results Most patients and healthy persons could make immediate decisions after seeing the diagrams (range: 88% – 100%. Patients (79% chose the intensive-treatment option in the scenario with a clear survival benefit. In scenarios without survival benefit, all groups clearly preferred the milder treatment option (range: 78% - 90%. No preference was seen in the scenario depicting equally intense treatment options with different timing (neoadjuvant vs. adjuvant but without survival benefit. Conclusions Healthy persons’ and patients’ decisions using visual aids seem to be influenced by quality-of-life aspects rather than recurrence rates especially in situations without survival benefit. In the future visual aids may help to improve the management of patients with colorectal cancer.

  11. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS]. (United States)

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J


    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months.

  12. The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus


    Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

  13. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan


    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents.

  14. Lessons learned during down referral of antiretroviral treatment in Tete, Mozambique

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    Decroo Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract As sub-Saharan African countries continue to scale up antiretroviral treatment, there has been an increasing emphasis on moving provision of services from hospital level to the primary health care clinic level. Delivery of antiretroviral treatment at the clinic level increases the number of entry points to care, while the greater proximity of services encourages retention in care. In Tete City, Mozambique, patients on antiretrovirals were rapidly down referred from a provincial hospital to four urban clinics in large numbers without careful planning, resulting in a number of patients being lost to follow-up. We outline some key lessons learned to support down referral, including the need to improve process management, clinic infrastructure, monitoring systems, and patient preparation. Down referral can be avoided by initiating patients' antiretroviral treatment at clinic level from the outset.

  15. The Treatment of Snake Bites in a First Aid Setting: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Avau, Bert; Borra, Vere; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; De Buck, Emmy


    Background The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. Methods A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management. Data was extracted and the body of evidence was appraised according to the GRADE approach. Principal findings The pressure immobilization technique was identified as the only evidence-based first aid technique with effectiveness on venom spread. However, additional studies suggest that proper application of this technique is not feasible for laypeople. Evidence concerning other first aid measures, such as the application of a tourniquet, suggests avoiding the use of these techniques. Conclusions The practical recommendation for the treatment of snakebite in a first aid setting is to immobilize the victim, while awaiting the emergency services. However, given the low to very low quality of the data collected, high quality randomized controlled trials concerning the efficacy and feasibility of different variations of the pressure immobilization technique are warranted. PMID:27749906

  16. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  17. A pharmacological approach to first aid treatment for snakebite. (United States)

    Saul, Megan E; Thomas, Paul A; Dosen, Peter J; Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Leary, Margaret A; Whyte, Ian M; McFadden, Sally A; van Helden, Dirk F


    Snake venom toxins first transit the lymphatic system before entering the bloodstream. Ointment containing a nitric oxide donor, which impedes the intrinsic lymphatic pump, prolonged lymph transit time in rats and humans and also increased rat survival time after injection of venom. This pharmacological approach should give snakebite victims more time to obtain medical care and antivenom treatment.

  18. Improving the Productivity of Education Experiments: Lessons from a Randomized Study of Need-Based Financial Aid (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara


    Given scarce resources for evaluation, we recommend that education researchers more frequently conduct comprehensive randomized trials that generate evidence on how, why, and under what conditions interventions succeed or fail in producing effects. Recent experience evaluating a randomized need-based financial aid intervention highlights some of…

  19. Helping Community College Students Cope with Financial Emergencies: Lessons from the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs (United States)

    Geckeler, Christian


    Lumina Foundation for Education created the Dreamkeepers and Angel Fund Emergency Financial Aid Programs to assist community college students who are at risk of dropping out because of unexpected financial crises. Both programs are multiyear pilot projects that began in 2005 and are administered by Scholarship America and the American Indian…

  20. Psychosocial factors and treatment adherence in paediatric HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Arfken, C; Frey, M; Harris, M; Secord, E; Ellis, D


    A social ecological model provides a promising framework for understanding the individual, family, and societal factors contributing to non-adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV. This study explored which factors relevant to this model are associated with caregivers' adherence and child health outcomes. A cross-sectional design was utilized to assess relationships among current individual, familial, extra-familial factors, caregiver adherence, and viral load. Data were collected from 43 caregivers, and viral load data were obtained from the medical records of their HIV+ children. Caregiver drug and alcohol use and HIV+ status were associated with non-adherence and elevated viral load. Negative outcome expectancy was associated with lower adherence but was not significant in the multivariate analyses. Family factors were not significant, but these measures had low reliability in this sample. Extra-familial factors such as dissatisfaction with medical specialty care and more stressful life events were not directly associated with adherence but were related to increased caregiver substance use. Results of this first study to explore multiple predictors of adherence and health outcomes in paediatric HIV require replication with larger samples, but findings suggest caregiver characteristics that place children at risk for disease progression due to poor adherence to treatment.

  1. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

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    JE Rodríguez


    Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  2. Treatment of early AIDS dementia in intravenous drug users : High versus low dose peptide T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, TR; Rosen, MI; McMahon, TL; Bridge, TP; OMalley, SS; Pearsall, R; OConnor, PG


    This placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study tested the efficacy of two different doses of Peptide T in the treatment of nine intravenous drug users with early AIDS dementia who were also receiving methadone and AZT. Subjects received Peptide T doses of either 15 or 1.5 mg daily for four

  3. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.


    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  4. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi


    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  5. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication. (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad


    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change.

  6. HIV/AIDS and the construction of Sub-Saharan Africa: heuristic lessons from the social sciences for policy. (United States)

    Yeboah, Ian E A


    There is no doubt that Sub-Saharan African countries face major problems due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic that has ravaged the region. Yet the Eurocentric construction of the region as the source of the virus not only creates negative stereotypes in social science disciplines like geography, but also glosses over the potential of social science disciplines to provide knowledge and influence policy about HIV/AIDS. This oppositional construction of the region has unfortunately contributed to a glossing over of many aspects of Sub-Saharan Africa's people, their environment, culture, history, politics, economics, gender relations, and the region's global status that would provide important input for policy aimed at curbing the devastating spread of HIV in the region. This paper argues that once we recognize that HIV is a global virus with trans-cultural implications, social science disciplines, such as geography, can reveal certain attributes about the region and its HIV/AIDS pandemic that can be used in policy formulation to combat the spread of the virus.

  7. Antidepressant Treatment and Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications among Privately Insured Persons with HIV/AIDS


    Akincigil, Ayse; Wilson, Ira; Walkup, James T.; Michele J Siegel; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen


    In order to examine relationships between depression treatments (antidepressant and/or psychotherapy utilization) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we conducted a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy insurance claims for privately insured persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) diagnosed with depression (n=1,150). Participants were enrolled in 80 insurance plans from all 50 states. Adherence was suboptimal. Depression treatment initiators were significantly more likely to ...

  8. AIDS (image) (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  9. Integrated radwaste treatment system lessons learned from 2{1/2} years of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.N.; Fussner, R.J.


    The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a pretreatment scheme to reduce the amount of salts in the high-level radioactive waste (vitrification) stream. Following removal of cesium-137 (Cs-137) by ion-exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS), the radioactive waste liquid is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion-exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids by weight, is encapsulated in cement producing a stable, low-level waste form. The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) operated in this mode from May 1988 through November 1990, decontaminating 450,000 gallons of high-level waste liquid; evaporating and encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393 71-gallon square drums. A number of process changes and variations from the original operating plan were required to increase the system flow rate and minimize waste volumes. This report provides a summary of work performed to operate the IRTS, including system descriptions, process highlights, and lessons learned.

  10. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

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    Sarder N. Uddin


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ancient malady, which is one of the world’s most wide spread infectious bacterial agents. Fully one-third of the world’s population is already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the greatest burden of disease and infection borne by people in developing countries. Tuberculosis disease is still out of control. Alarming spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and emergence of drug resistance is now further complicating the major problem. HIV not only makes the diagnosis of TB more difficult; it contributes to an increase in TB incidence. The rate of breakdown to clinical TB in individuals infected both with HIV and tuberculosis is many times higher than in those without HIV. The present vaccine is not sufficient to reduce the death rate by eradicating TB with HIV/AIDS. The present review is based on the prevention and treatment of TB patient and co-infected with HIV/AIDS and effect of HIV/AIDS on the treatment and prevention of TB. It will help assuming idea about future steps in prevention and treatment of TB among HIV/AIDS patients.

  11. "All I eat is ARVs": the paradox of AIDS treatment interventions in central Mozambique. (United States)

    Kalofonos, Ippolytos Andreas


    The number of people on antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique has increased by over 1,500 percent since it first became free and publicly available in 2004. The rising count of "lives saved" seems to portray a success story of high-tech treatment being provided in one of the poorest contexts in the world, as people with AIDS experience dramatic recoveries and live longer. The "scale-up" has had significant social effects, however, as it unfolds in a region with a complicated history and persistent problems related to poverty. Hunger is the principal complaint of people on antiretroviral treatment. The inability of current interventions to adequately address this issue leads to intense competition among people living with HIV/AIDS for the scarce resources available, undermining social solidarity and the potential for further community action around HIV/AIDS issues. Discourses of hunger serve as a critique of these shortcomings, and of the wider political economy underlying the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  12. Economic returns to investment in AIDS treatment in low and middle income countries. (United States)

    Resch, Stephen; Korenromp, Eline; Stover, John; Blakley, Matthew; Krubiner, Carleigh; Thorien, Kira; Hecht, Robert; Atun, Rifat


    Since the early 2000s, aid organizations and developing country governments have invested heavily in AIDS treatment. By 2010, more than five million people began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART)--yet each year, 2.7 million people are becoming newly infected and another two million are dying without ever having received treatment. As the need for treatment grows without commensurate increase in the amount of available resources, it is critical to assess the health and economic gains being realized from increasingly large investments in ART. This study estimates total program costs and compares them with selected economic benefits of ART, for the current cohort of patients whose treatment is cofinanced by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. At end 2011, 3.5 million patients in low and middle income countries will be receiving ART through treatment programs cofinanced by the Global Fund. Using 2009 ART prices and program costs, we estimate that the discounted resource needs required for maintaining this cohort are $14.2 billion for the period 2011-2020. This investment is expected to save 18.5 million life-years and return $12 to $34 billion through increased labor productivity, averted orphan care, and deferred medical treatment for opportunistic infections and end-of-life care. Under alternative assumptions regarding the labor productivity effects of HIV infection, AIDS disease, and ART, the monetary benefits range from 81 percent to 287 percent of program costs over the same period. These results suggest that, in addition to the large health gains generated, the economic benefits of treatment will substantially offset, and likely exceed, program costs within 10 years of investment.

  13. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

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    Kwiringira Japheth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  14. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India


    Mukesh Shukla; Monika Agarwal,; Jai Vir Singh; Anand Kumar Srivastava


    Background: One of the major health challenges faced by India is the rapid growth of HIV/AIDS and its impact upon human life. Co-morbidities like anxiety are often overlooked while providing ART services to HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore the present study was conducted to assess the anxiety and associated factors among PLHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS) on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow. Methods: Hospital and #8209;based cross-sectional study was conduc...

  15. Is the Water Sector Lagging behind Education and Health on Aid Effectiveness? Lessons from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda

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    Katharina Welle


    Full Text Available A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE in three sectors – water, health and education – to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific mechanics such as Sector-Wide Approaches alone. National political leadership and governance are central drivers of sector AE, while national financial and procurement systems and the behaviour of actors who have not signed up to the Paris Principles – at both national and global levels – have implications for progress that cut across sectors. Sectors and sub-sectors do nonetheless have distinct features that must be considered in attempting to improve sector-level AE. In light of these findings, using political economy approaches to better understand and address governance and strengthening sector-level monitoring is recommended as part of efforts to improve AE and development results in the water sector.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wenyu; LI Yanhui; LIN Guohua


    121 cases of ischemic stroke were randomly divided into CT-aided surrounding needling group (CTASN, 61 cases) and scalp Acupuncture group (SA, 60 cases). After 30 sessions of treatment the therapeutic results of the two groups are significantly different (P < 0.05), the therapeutic effect of CTASN group is better than that of SA group. The plasma contents of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a of the two groups change considerably after acupuncture treatment, the change in CTASN group is more obvious.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文宇; 李艳慧; 等


    121 Cases of ischemic stroke were randomly divided into CT-aided surrounding needling group(CTASN,61 cases)and scalp Acupuncture group(SA,60 cases),After 30 sessions of treatment the therapeutic results of the two groups are significantly different (P<0.05),the therapeutic effect of CTANS group is better than than of SA group.The plasma contents of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a of the two groups change considerably after acupuncture treatment,the change in CTASN group is more obvious.

  18. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.


    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  19. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

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    T J Thejus


    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  20. Hepatotoxicity during Treatment for Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Maruza, Magda; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Lacerda, Heloísa Ramos; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima P. Militão


    Hepatotoxicity is frequently reported as an adverse reaction during the treatment of tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of hepatotoxicity and to identify predictive factors for developing hepatotoxicity after people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) start treatment for tuberculosis. This was a prospective cohort study with PLWHA who were monitored during the first 60 days of tuberculosis treatment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Hepatotoxicity was considered increased levels of aminotransferase, namely those that rose to three times higher than the level before initiating tuberculosis treatment, these levels being associated with symptoms of hepatitis. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed by the odds ratio with a confidence interval of 95%. Hepatotoxicity was observed in 53 (30.6%) of the 173 patients who started tuberculosis treatment. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated that the use of fluconazole, malnutrition and the subject being classified as a phenotypically slow acetylator increased the risk of hepatotoxicity significantly. The incidence of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis in PLWHA was high. Those classified as phenotypically slow acetylators and as malnourished should be targeted for specific care to reduce the risk of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis. The use of fluconazole should be avoided during tuberculosis treatment in PLWHA. PMID:27332812

  1. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst


    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.

  2. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L


    To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13......% of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long...

  3. Antidepressant treatment and adherence to antiretroviral medications among privately insured persons with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Akincigil, Ayse; Wilson, Ira B; Walkup, James T; Siegel, Michele J; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen


    In order to examine relationships between depression treatments (antidepressant and/or psychotherapy utilization) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we conducted a retrospective analysis of medical and pharmacy insurance claims for privately insured persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) diagnosed with depression (n = 1,150). Participants were enrolled in 80 insurance plans from all 50 states. Adherence was suboptimal. Depression treatment initiators were significantly more likely to be adherent to ART than the untreated. We did not observe an association between psychotherapy utilization and ART adherence, yet given the limitations of the data (e.g., there is no information on types of psychological treatment and its targets), the lack of association should not be interpreted as lack of efficacy.

  4. Epinephrine (adrenaline) in the first-aid, out-of-hospital treatment of anaphylaxis. (United States)

    Simons, F Estelle R


    Epinephrine (adrenaline), the initial treatment of choice for systemic anaphylaxis, is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist with bidirectional, cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated pharmacological effects on target organs, and a narrow therapeutic index. In a recent study, 0.95% of a geographically-defined population was found to have had epinephrine dispensed for out-of-hospital use; dispensing rates within this population varied from 1.44% for individuals under age 17 years to 0.32% for those older than 65 years. Although epinephrine is widely available in the community, it is not necessarily given in a timely manner when anaphylaxis occurs. Individuals with anaphylaxis may fail to respond to first-aid treatment with epinephrine for a variety of reasons. These include: (1) delay in treatment (in an animal model, epinephrine injection at the nadir of shock fails to provide sustained haemodynamic recovery); (2) administration of epinephrine by sub-optimal routes such as subcutaneous injection or inhalation from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler instead of intramuscular injection; (3) administration of an inappropriately low epinephrine dose due to the limitations currently imposed by the availability of only two fixed-dose auto-injectors: EpiPen Jr 0.15 mg or EpiPen 0.3 mg; and (4) injection of 'outdated' epinephrine, with inadvertent administration of an inadequate dose. Additional fixed-dose formulations of epinephrine are needed to facilitate optimal first-aid dosing in patients of all ages and sizes.

  5. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Funda Y?lmaz; K?van? Kamburoglu; Naz Yakar Yeta; Meltem Dartar ?ztan


    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, nondiagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto


    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  7. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned. (United States)

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S


    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) began when both data on HIV prevalence and the toolbox of interventions for prevention of sexual transmission were relatively limited. PEPFAR's early focus was on scaling-up information, education, and communication programs that included messaging on abstinence for youth and faithfulness primarily through nongovernmental organizations, including faith-based organizations. Additional activities included condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing. In epidemics concentrated within key populations, PEPFAR's prevention efforts focused on a minimum package of services including outreach, information, education, and communication programs, STI treatment (where appropriate), and condom promotion and distribution. As more epidemiological data became available and with experience gleaned in these early efforts, the need for tailored and flexible approaches became evident. The next iteration of prevention efforts still emphasized behavioral interventions, but incorporated a sharper focus on key epidemic drivers, especially multiple partners; a data-driven emphasis on high transmission areas and populations, including prevention with people living with HIV; and a more strategic and coordinated approach at the national level. Recently, the paradigm for prevention efforts has shifted yet again. Evidence that biomedical interventions such as male circumcision, treatment for prevention of vertical and horizontal transmission, and treatment itself could lead to declines in incidence has refocused PEPFAR's prevention portfolio. New guidance on sexually transmitted HIV focuses on combination prevention, emphasizing biomedical, behavioral and structural approaches. Landmark speeches by the President and the Secretary of State and new ambitious targets for PEPFAR point toward a new goal: an AIDS-free generation.

  8. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodríguez JE; López A; Instituto Sexológico Murciano


    Objective: To determine if they can produce increases in the IELT using a masturbator in subjects with premature ejaculation, producing improvements in the quality and satisfaction of the sexuality of the patient. Methods:To carry out the study it will arrange of the utilization of a masturbation device aid for six weeks that they will use at least during 5 minutes without overcoming the half daily hour in the manual masturbation. The measures of results will be the differentiation of the basal and final IELT by means of the average of both results, obtaining the differential percentage of the above mentioned measures. Results:There was obtained a sample of 9 heterosexual participants of ages included between 20 and 42 years. The time of latency increased from the first week of treatment producing up to 57 %of increase in the IELT in the masturbation and up to 79.9 %of improvement during the coitus. Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE) has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  9. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries. (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima


    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making.

  10. New drug treatments for HIV infection and AIDS. A review following the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence 16-21 June 1991.


    Venning, G R; Scott, G. M.


    1. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the status of clinical development of zidovudine and new drugs for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. 2. METHOD--A critical review of the clinical trial reports and assessment of the design and methodology of the therapeutic trials. Evaluation of the drugs being tested and of the specific difficulties in testing drugs in AIDS. 3. CONCLUSIONS--Drugs are being tested in a unique climate of public opinion characterised by (1) fast track crit...

  11. A systematic review of decision aids for patients making a decision about treatment for early breast cancer. (United States)

    Nicholas Zdenkowski; Butow, Phyllis; Tesson, Stephanie; Boyle, Frances


    Several complex treatment decisions may be offered to women with early stage breast cancer, about a range of treatments from different modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids can facilitate shared decision-making and improve decision-related outcomes. We aimed to systematically identify, describe and appraise the literature on treatment decision aids for women with early breast cancer, synthesise the data and identify breast cancer decisions that lack a decision aid. A prospectively developed search strategy was applied to MEDLINE, the Cochrane databases, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and abstract databases from major conferences. Data were extracted into a pre-piloted form. Quality and risk of bias were measured using Qualsyst criteria. Results were synthesised into narrative format. Thirty-three eligible articles were identified, evaluating 23 individual treatment decision aids, comprising 13 randomised controlled trial reports, seven non-randomised comparative studies, eight single-arm pre-post studies and five cross-sectional studies. The decisions addressed by these decision aids were: breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy (+/- reconstruction); use of chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy; radiotherapy; and fertility preservation. Outcome measures were heterogeneous, precluding meta-analysis. Decisional conflict decreased, and knowledge and satisfaction increased, without any change in anxiety or depression, in most studies. No studies were identified that evaluated decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy, or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Decision aids are available and improved decision-related outcomes for many breast cancer treatment decisions including surgery, radiotherapy, and endocrine and chemotherapy. Decision aids for neoadjuvant systemic therapy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy could not be found, and may be warranted.

  12. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen


    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  13. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis. (United States)

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R


    Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.

  14. Decision aid on radioactive iodine treatment for early stage papillary thyroid cancer - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Shereen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with early stage papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, are faced with the decision to either to accept or reject adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI treatment after thryroidectomy. This decision is often difficult because of conflicting reports of RAI treatment benefit and medical evidence uncertainty due to the lack of long-term randomized controlled trials. Methods We report the protocol for a parallel, 2-arm, randomized trial comparing an intervention group exposed to a computerized decision aid (DA relative to a control group receiving usual care. The DA explains the options of adjuvant radioactive iodine or no adjuvant radioactive iodine, as well as associated potential benefits, risks, and follow-up implications. Potentially eligible adult PTC patient participants will include: English-speaking individuals who have had recent thyroidectomy, and whose primary tumor was 1 to 4 cm in diameter, with no known metastases to lymph nodes or distant sites, with no other worrisome features, and who have not received RAI treatment for thyroid cancer. We will measure the effect of the DA on the following patient outcomes: a knowledge about PTC and RAI treatment, b decisional conflict, c decisional regret, d client satisfaction with information received about RAI treatment, and e the final decision to accept or reject adjuvant RAI treatment and rationale. Discussion This trial will provide evidence of feasibility and efficacy of the use of a computerized DA in explaining complex issues relating to decision making about adjuvant RAI treatment in early stage PTC. Trial registration Clinical Identifier: NCT01083550

  15. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying


    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Faculty Members Working in Dental Institutions towards the Dental Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marya, Charumohan; Rekhi, Amit; Oberoi, Avneet


    Background. Dentists have an ethical responsibility to provide treatment to HIV-infected patients, particularly because oral lesions are common among these patients. However, there are no official guidelines as to how to treat people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) or how to screen for potentially infectious people. Materials and Method. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based study which assessed the knowledge and attitude of the faculty members towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS was carried out in the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences, Faridabad, and Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. Results. The willingness to treat patients with HIV was found to be 86.0% among the faculty members in the present study. The majority (79%) of the faculty members thought that treating an HIV-positive patient is ethical responsibility of the dentist. There was a positive attitude (88.0%) among faculty members that routine dental care should be a part of the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. The level of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS was acceptable in the present study. However, continuing dental education (CDE) programmes should be conducted on a regular basis for updating the knowledge level of the faculty members towards the dental treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:27379262

  17. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality (United States)


    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  18. Governing at a distance: mainstreaming of Australian HIV/AIDS treatments and services 1989-1996 reconsidered. (United States)

    Bennett, Cary; Donovan, Raymond


    This article examines the controversy around the proposal in the late 1980s and early 1990s to mainstream HIV/AIDS treatment, services, and care in Australia. With the predicted increase in HIV infections, and with improved prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (such as AZT) extending the lives of people with HIV/AIDS, mainstreaming was proposed as a strategy that could meet the anticipated increased demand in HIV/AIDS services. Our analysis suggests that mainstreaming was strategically positioned as a necessary intermediary step between specialist and community control, one in which general practitioners and local health workers would serve as conduits through which specialist knowledge and information could be deployed. The strategy also reflected a general shift in thinking and acting on public health that emerged in the late 1980s, a shift that sought, inter alia, to reorientate health services towards fostering the self-managing capacities of HIV/AIDS affected communities.

  19. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A;


    there have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten...

  20. Anxiety among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment attending tertiary care hospitals in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla


    Conclusions: People living with HIV/AIDS need to be periodically educated and informed about various issues associated with the disease severity and antiretroviral treatment along with its side-effects so that they could better cope with disease and its treatment outcomes over time and be able to seek early treatment accordingly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2897-2901

  1. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states. (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin


    Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices.

  2. New drug treatments for HIV infection and AIDS. A review following the Seventh International Conference on AIDS, Florence 16-21 June 1991. (United States)

    Venning, G R; Scott, G M


    1. OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the status of clinical development of zidovudine and new drugs for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. 2. METHOD--A critical review of the clinical trial reports and assessment of the design and methodology of the therapeutic trials. Evaluation of the drugs being tested and of the specific difficulties in testing drugs in AIDS. 3. CONCLUSIONS--Drugs are being tested in a unique climate of public opinion characterised by (1) fast track criteria for regulatory approval (2) parallel track (compassionate release) of new drugs before adequate determination of safety and efficacy (3) resistance to the use of placebos in controlled trials.

  3. Traditional healing, biomedicine and the treatment of HIV/AIDS: contrasting south african and native American experiences. (United States)

    Flint, Adrian


    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people's engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing "culturally appropriate" forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  4. Local inactivation of funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) venom by first-aid measures: potentially lifesaving part of treatment. (United States)

    Sutherland, S K; Duncan, A W; Tibballs, J


    Venom of the male Sydney funnel-web spider was injected subcutaneously into the limbs of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), and the central movement of venom was delayed by first-aid treatment. This treatment consisted of the application of firm pressure over the site of injection and immobilization of the limb. It was found that quantities of venom as high as 2 mg were inactivated when the first-aid procedures were maintained for 24 hours. Over a six-hour period, 0.5 mg of venom could be inactivated. Since the amount of venom injected by the spider into a human victim is unlikely to exceed 0.2 mg, these findings have immediate application both to the first aid and to actual medical management of human victims.

  5. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems. (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H


    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified.

  6. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  7. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  8. Patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care and treatment in the decentralization of services delivery in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the patient satisfaction with HIV/AIDS care and treatment and its determinants across levels of health service administration in Vietnam. METHODS: We interviewed 1016 patients at 7 hospitals and health centers in three epicenters, including Hanoi, Hai Phong, and Ho Chi Minh City. The Satisfaction with HIV/AIDS Treatment Interview Scale (SATIS was developed, and 3 dimensions were constructed using factor analysis, namely "Quality and Convenience"; "Availability and Responsiveness"; and "Competence of health care workers". RESULTS: In a band score of (0; 10, the mean scores of all domains were large; it was the highest in "Competence of health workers" (9.34±0.84, and the lowest in "Quality and Convenience" (9.03±1.04. The percentages of respondents completely satisfied with overall service quality and treatment outcomes were 42.4% and 18.8%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors related to higher satisfaction included female sex, older age, and living with spouses or partners. Meanwhile, lower satisfaction was found among patients who were attending provincial and district clinics; in the richest group; had higher CD4 count; and drug users. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of improving the quality of HIV/AIDS services at the provincial and district clinics. Potential strategies include capacity building for health workers, integrative service delivery, engagements of family members in treatment supports, and additional attention and comprehensive care for drug users with HIV/AIDS.

  9. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng W


    decompression, 31 patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years. At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3% patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%. In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%. Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124 had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236 of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach-anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon′s experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated.

  10. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J


    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  11. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  12. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting. (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N


    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  13. Role of lycopene in preventing oral diseases as a nonsurgical aid of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta


    Full Text Available Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest′s ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases.

  14. Autonomy and objectivity as political operators in the medical world: twenty years of public controversy about AIDS treatments in France. (United States)

    Dodier, Nicolas; Barbot, Janine


    The article is based on the controversies relating to conducting experiments and licensing AIDS treatments in France in the 1980s and 1990s. We have identified two political operators, i.e. two issues around which tensions have grown between the different generations of actors involved in these controversies: 1) the way of thinking about patient autonomy, and 2) the way in which objectivity regarding medical decisions is built. The article shows that there are several regimes of objectivity and autonomy, and that it is at the meeting point of the two dimensions that very different political forms of medicine have developed. In the case of AIDS, the article identifies four of these forms (liberal and conservative clinical traditions and therapeutic modernity--enclosed, then participative) and analyzes the dynamics of their emergence and opposition. We discuss an "objectivity/autonomy" diagram as a conceptual framework which enables us (above and beyond AIDS) to think about changes in contemporary medicine.

  15. Good adherence to HAART and improved survival in a community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programme: the experience of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyango Joan N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART may result in treatment failure and death. Most reports of the effect of adherence to HAART on mortality come from studies where special efforts are made to provide HAART under ideal conditions. However, there are few reports of the impact of non-adherence to HAART on mortality from community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programmes in developing countries. We therefore conducted a study to assess the effect of adherence to HAART on survival in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO community HAART programme in Kampala, Uganda. Methods The study was a retrospective cohort of 897 patients who initiated HAART at TASO clinic, Kampala, between May 2004 and December 2006. A total of 7,856 adherence assessments were performed on the data. Adherence was assessed using a combination of self-report and pill count methods. Patients who took ≤ 95% of their regimens were classified as non-adherent. The data was stratified at a CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. Kaplan Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used in the analysis. Results A total of 701 (78.2% patients had a mean adherence to ART of > 95%. The crude death rate was 12.2 deaths per 100 patient-years, with a rate of 42.5 deaths per 100 patient-years for non-adherent patients and 6.1 deaths per 100 patient-years for adherent patients. Non-adherence to ART was significantly associated with mortality. Patients with a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3 had a higher mortality (HR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.22–5.56 compared to patients with a CD4 count equal to or greater than 50 cells/mm3 (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.79–2.38. Conclusion Our study showed that good adherence and improved survival are feasible in community HIV/AIDS programmes such as that of TASO, Uganda. However, there is need to support community HAART programmes to overcome the challenges of funding to provide sustainable supplies particularly of

  16. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;


    virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one......A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...

  17. Treatment Wetland Aeration without Electricity? Lessons Learned from the First Experiment Using a Wind-Driven Air Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Boog


    Full Text Available Aerated treatment wetlands have become an increasingly recognized technology for treating wastewaters from domestic and various industrial origins. To date, treatment wetland aeration is provided by air pumps which require access to the energy grid. The requirement for electricity increases the ecological footprint of an aerated wetland and limits the application of this technology to areas with centralized electrical infrastructure. Wind power offers another possibility as a driver for wetland aeration, but its use for this purpose has not yet been investigated. This paper reports the first experimental trial using a simple wind-driven air pump to replace the conventional electric air blowers of an aerated horizontal subsurface flow wetland. The wind-driven air pump was connected to a two-year old horizontal flow aerated wetland which had been in continuous (24 h aeration since startup. The wind-driven aeration system functioned, however it was not specifically adapted to wetland aeration. As a result, treatment performance decreased compared to prior continuous aeration. Inconsistent wind speed at the site may have resulted in insufficient pressure within the aeration manifold, resulting in insufficient air supply to the wetland. This paper discusses the lessons learned during the experiment.

  18. Aspidosperma subincanum II. Usefulness of uleine and ribonucleic fragments in the treatment of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Maes


    Full Text Available Aids patients were treated during a year with three different food supplements commercially available: para-pau-aspido (Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae; 2Leid (nucleic acids and cytokines; and Para Immuno (propolis, pollen and royal jelly. All foods, given either alone or in combination, proved useful to all AIDS patients who received the supplements, be these under tri-therapy (Triomine: stavudine, lamivudine, névirapine or left unattended.

  19. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment. (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J


    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  20. 血友病甲合并艾滋病的治疗%Treatment of hemophilia A patients with AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴振声; 卢洪洲


    血友病甲患者输注凝血因子时易感染人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV),上述患者除接受针对血友病的治疗外,还需接受正规的高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)等.本文综述血友病甲合并艾滋病的临床治疗.%People with hemophilia A may easily suffer from infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of the clotting factors infusion frequently. So hemophilia A patients with AIDS should receive additional treatments of HAART . This review summarizes the treatment of hemophilia A patients with AIDS.

  1. Screening and evaluation of polymers as flocculation aids for the treatment of aquacultural effluents (United States)

    Ebeling, J.M.; Rishel, K.L.; Sibrell, P.L.


    As environmental regulations become more stringent, environmentally sound waste management and disposal are becoming increasingly more important in all aquaculture operations. One of the primary water quality parameters of concern is the suspended solids concentration in the discharged effluent. For example, EPA initially considered the establishment of numerical limitations for only one single pollutant: total suspended solids (TSS). For recirculation systems, the proposed TSS limitations would have applied to solids polishing or secondary solids removal technology. The new rules and regulations from EPA (August 23, 2004) require only qualitative TSS limits, in the form of solids control best management practices (BMP), allowing individual regional and site specific conditions to be addressed by existing state or regional programs through NPDES permits. In recirculation systems, microscreen filters are commonly used to remove the suspended solids from the process water. Further concentration of suspended solids from the backwash water of the microscreen filter could significantly reduce quantity of discharge water. And in some cases, the backwash water from microscreen filters needs to be further concentrated to minimize storage volume during over wintering for land disposal or other final disposal options. In addition, this may be required to meet local, state, and regional discharge water quality. The objective of this research was an initial screening of several commercially available polymers routinely used as coagulation-flocculation aids in the drinking and wastewater treatment industry and determination of their effectiveness for the treatment of aquaculture wastewater. Based on the results of the initial screening, a further evaluation of six polymers was conducted to estimate the optimum polymer dosage for flocculation of aquaculture microscreen effluent and overall solids removal efficiency. Results of these evaluations show TSS removal was close to 99

  2. Western health practitioners’ view about African traditional health practitioners’ treatment and care of people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JV Summerton


    Full Text Available African traditional health practitioners are an important source of health care for many South Africans. Thus, they are a health resource in this society. However, the integration of traditional health practitioners into the mainstream of health care is a complex process. Various factors contribute to this complexity, including the skepticism and reservation with which some western health practitioners view traditional health practitioners. This paper highlights the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the traditional healing system for people living with HIV/AIDS, as perceived by western health practitioners. The use of traditional practitioners as a choice of health care is attributed to both the strengths and weaknesses of this system of health care. The strength of the traditional healing system is in its sharing of the worldview and belief system of its users, it being an alternative to an inefficient western health care system (official system, privacy and absence of time limitations per consultation, treating patients psychologically, and scientifically unexplained physiological relief of the symptoms of specific illnesses. The perceived weaknesses of the traditional healing system include harmful treatment regimens, especially for people living with HIV/AIDS; prolonging the seeking of appropriate health care when traditional remedies fail to produce the desired effect; destroying interpersonal relationships of people living with HIV/AIDS through witchcraft accusations; psychological torment caused by the belief that HIV/AIDS can be cured by traditional remedies/intervention; and increasing the workload of western practitioners who are requested by patients to conduct multiple HIV tests after undergoing various traditional treatment regimens to cure HIV/AIDS. It is recommended that traditional practitioners be encouraged to adapt harmful traditional healing practices to the benefit of their patients in a non-judgemental and non

  3. Developing a computer touch-screen interactive colorectal screening decision aid for a low-literacy African American population: lessons learned. (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ruggieri, Dominique; Mora, Gabriella; Rovito, Michael J; Britto, Johnson; Parameswaran, Lalitha; Abedin, Zainab; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Pitts, Khaliah


    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than White Americans and yet have lower rates of CRC screening. Increased screening aids in early detection and higher survival rates. Coupled with low literacy rates, the burden of CRC morbidity and mortality is exacerbated in this population, making it important to develop culturally and literacy appropriate aids to help low-literacy African Americans make informed decisions about CRC screening. This article outlines the development of a low-literacy computer touch-screen colonoscopy decision aid using an innovative marketing method called perceptual mapping and message vector modeling. This method was used to mathematically model key messages for the decision aid, which were then used to modify an existing CRC screening tutorial with different messages. The final tutorial was delivered through computer touch-screen technology to increase access and ease of use for participants. Testing showed users were not only more comfortable with the touch-screen technology but were also significantly more willing to have a colonoscopy compared with a "usual care group." Results confirm the importance of including participants in planning and that the use of these innovative mapping and message design methods can lead to significant CRC screening attitude change.

  4. Traditional knowledge in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention program in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Adyanga Akena


    Full Text Available Uganda’s health care sector is choking with various challenges, such as poor physical infrastructure, inadequate professionals to run the few existing health centers, poor culture of adherence to professional ethical standards by some health care practitioners, shortages of medicines in most government hospitals/health centers, and corruption. Most of the challenges are more endemic in rural areas. It is on the above premise that this article discusses some of the challenges that health centers face in provision of care to the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients in hard-to-reach rural communities in northern Uganda and the implications of such challenges on the economy. Uganda’s success in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the early 1990s was globally applauded because of its aggressive grassroots behavioral change crusades aimed at reducing the number of sexual partners. The success inspired a wave of financial aid programs from the US government to fight the disease across the developing world. However, the success was short-lived as the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Uganda is currently rising, with the health care system struggling to provide care for the ballooning number of patients. To contribute to the curtailing cases of new infections, this article discuses the integration of the traditional authority and knowledge system in the national HIV/AIDS care and prevention program along with the biomedical approach currently being used.

  5. "Conditional Scholarships" for HIV/AIDS Health Workers: Educating and Retaining the Workforce to Provide Antiretroviral Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa. NBER Working Paper No. 13396 (United States)

    Barnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.


    Without large increases in the number of health workers to treat HIV/AIDS (HAHW), most developing countries will be unable to achieve universal coverage with antiretroviral treatment (ART), leading to large numbers of potentially avoidable deaths among people living with HIV/AIDS. We use Markov Monte Carlo microsimulation to estimate the expected…

  6. Low-cost generic drugs under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief drove down treatment cost; more are needed. (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carpenter, Charles C J


    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was originally authorized in 2003 with the goal of supporting HIV prevention, treatment, and care within fifteen focus countries in the developing world. By September 2011 nearly 13 million people around the world were receiving HIV/AIDS-related care through PEPFAR, and 3.9 million were receiving antiretroviral treatment. However, in the early years of the program, access to antiretroviral drugs was hampered by the lack of a licensing process that the US government recognized for generic versions of these medications. Ultimately, the obstacle to approval of generic antiretroviral drugs was removed, which led to PEPFAR's considerable success at making these treatments widely available. This article outlines PEPFAR's evolving use of generic antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV in the developing world, highlights ongoing initiatives to increase access to generic antiretrovirals, and points to the need for mechanisms that will speed up the approval of new generic drugs. The striking decline in antiretroviral treatment costs, from $1,100 per person annually in 2004 to $335 per person annually in 2012, is due to the availability of effective generic antiretrovirals. Given growing resistance to existing drugs and the planned expansion of treatment to millions more people, access to newer generations of generic antiretrovirals will have to be expedited.

  7. Integrated residential treatment for persons with severe and persistent mental illness: lessons in recovery. (United States)

    Davis, Kristin E; Devitt, Timothy; Rollins, Angela; O'Neill, Sheila; Pavick, Debra; Harding, Brian


    This retrospective study examines 24-month outcomes for 38 participants with histories of chronic homelessness and hospitalizations in an urban, residential integrated treatment (IT) program and compares characteristics of those who stayed in the program 24 months with those who left within their first year of residence. Informed by an Assertive Community Treatment approach, characterized by outreach (or what might better be referred to as inreach), low staff to consumer ratio, and meeting of basic needs, the residential program emphasized harm reduction and motivational interventions. The longitudinal study design was supplemented with a comparative analysis of treatment completers and noncompleters. There were significant differences between the two groups at baseline in terms of engagement with treatment, alcohol use severity, and mental health diagnosis. Additionally, those who stayed with the program showed significant reductions in alcohol and drug use, significant reduction in hospitalizations, and advances in treatment engagement.

  8. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT


    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  9. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation of intensified antiretroviral treatment strategies in HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J M; Berg, L T; Postma, Maarten


    There have been great technological advances in the use of antiretroviral therapies to slow down disease progression in HIV/AIDS. Combinations of therapeutics and the use of several diagnostic methods have resulted in both declines in mortality and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The hig

  10. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS in China (2005)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Center for


    @@ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become a major public health issue in China. It not only posesses formidable challenges for the health of the Chinese people, but has also influenced China's economic development and social stability.

  11. Salvage trial of trimetrexate-leucovorin for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masur, H; Polis, M A; Tuazon, C U;


    The clinical efficacy of trimetrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro antitoxoplasma activity, was assessed in 9 sulfonamide-intolerant patients with AIDS and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 9 patients were treated for 28-149 days with trimetrexate (30-280 mg/m...

  12. Long-term residential substance abuse treatment for women: lessons learned from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schori M


    Full Text Available Maayan Schori1, Yaffa Sapir2, Eli Lawental31School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Central School for the Training of Social Welfare Workers, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Social Work, Tel-Hai College, Upper Galilee, IsraelBackground: Policymakers and treatment providers must consider the role of gender when designing effective treatment programs for female substance abusers. This study had two aims. First, to examine female substance abusers' perceptions regarding factors that contribute to their retention (and therefore positive treatment outcomes in a women-only therapeutic community in Northern Israel. Second, to explore pretreatment internal and external factors including demographic, personal and environmental factors, factors associated with substance use and with the treatment process, and networks of support that contribute to retention and abstinence.Methods: The study was a conducted using a mixed methods approach. Semi-structured qualitative interviews examining perceptions towards treatment were conducted in five focus groups (n = 5 per group; total n = 25. Intake assessments and a battery of questionnaires examining pretreatment internal and external factors related to treatment retention and abstinence were collected from 42 women who were treated in the program during the 2 year study period. Twenty-three women who completed the 12 month program were compared to the 19 women who did not, using chi-square for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Nineteen of the 23 women who completed the questionnaires also completed a post-treatment follow-up questionnaire.Results: A content analysis of the interviews revealed five central themes: factors associated with treatment entry; impact of treatment in a women-only setting; significant aspects of treatment; difficulties with the setting; prospects for the future

  13. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  14. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  15. Women’s Experiences of Sexual Problems after Cervical Cancer Treatment: Lessons from Indonesian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Afiyanti


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women. It is the second major cause of women’s deaths in Asia as well as in Indonesia. Cervical cancer treatment also raises issues of long-term physical, psychological, sexual, and social adaptation. The purpose of the study was to describe and to interpret the experiences of Indonesian women who have experienced sexual dysfunction after cervical cancer treatment. Thirteen Indonesian women who were participated in this study described their experiences on the first to two years after cervical cancer treatment. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Four themes were identified (1 physical and psychological sexual complaints after cancer treatment; (2 negative effects of cancer treatment towards intimate relationship with their spouse; (3 efforts to overcome sexual problems; and (4 women’s needs for help to improve their sexual health. These study findings offer providing new insights into the experiences of Indonesian women with sexual health problems following cervical cancer treatment. This study can provide nurses and other health care providers with better understanding of the experiences, concern and needs of the cancer survivors.

  16. The effect of treatment with zidovudine with or without acyclovir on HIV p24 antigenaemia in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Cooper, D A; Brun-Vézinet, F;


    with AIDS, AIDS-related complex (ARC) or Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of less than or equal to 6 months' therapy. SETTING: Samples were obtained from patients attending teaching hospital outpatient clinics in seven European countries and Australia...

  17. Prosthetic management of gingival recession around implants: lessons learned from staged-approach treatment planning. (United States)

    Marion, Louis R; Hirsh, Leslie Stone


    Complex implant rehabilitations can include procedures requiring multiple phases of treatment, commonly referred to as staged approaches. The reasons for staged approaches are varied but usually involve serial extraction of hopeless teeth. These treatment plans both enable the patient to avoid removable prostheses by keeping natural teeth during healing phases, and circumvent the immediate loading of some implants placed in grafted bone. One major disadvantage to serial extraction in a staged approach is the potential for gingival changes. These changes include gingival recession around abutments that can affect the gingival profile around the finished case. This article discusses varying approaches for dealing with these gingival changes and suggests protocol modifications during the implant treatment-planning phase.

  18. AIDS and its treatments: two doctors' narratives of healing, desire, and belonging. (United States)

    Diedrich, Lisa


    In this essay, I analyze two memoirs--Rafael Campo's The Poetry of Healing: A Doctor's Education in Empathy, Identity, and Desire and Abraham Verghese's My Own Country: A Doctor's Story of a Town and Its People in the Age of AIDS--which describe the effects of treating HIV/AIDS on each doctor's identity, on his desire for community and belonging, and on his identification and/or disidentification with the medical profession in the United States. My readings of Campo and Verghese revolve around three key terms provided by Campo's subtitle: identity, empathy, and desire. I shift the order of these terms in Campo's subtitle because I want to read identity, empathy, and desire in Campo and Verghese through and along with the theoretical "pragmatics" of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.

  19. Present status of prevalence of AIDS in Thailand and lessons learned%泰国艾滋病流行的现状及经验教训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The first patient with AIDS in Thailand,a homosexual,was deteched in September,1984.Thereafter,many HIV-infected cases were reported successively in that country.From 1988to 1989,HIV infection was discovered in prostitutes and intravenous drug users(IVDU).The infection spread from highrisk population to general population.As of 31 March,1995,a cumulative total of 17884 people with AIDS were reported officially to the Ministry of Health of Thailand.Of them 77.87% acquired the infection via sexual intercourse,7.21% through IvDU,and 6.59% from infected mother to foetus or infant;87.57% fell in the age group of 15-49;the sex ratio of males to females was 6.1:1.The occupations of the infected people were commercial sex,workers merchants,farmers,workers,students,housewives,etc.The rrevalence in North Thailand and Bangkok region was higher than in other regions,and the infection rate in prostitutes reached 30-40%,even 70% in a few places.Owing to particularly brisk sex trade in Thailand,the HIV infection rate in prostitutes increased steadily,and that in patients with sexually stransmitted diseases reached 77.8%.

  20. Treatment with a low pH processing aid to reduce campylobacter counts on broiler parts (United States)

    This study evaluated the low pH processing aid – CMS PoultrypHresh™ (LPPA) to reduce Campylobacter on carcasses (3 groups of 6) collected prior to the chiller that were individually placed into a 38 L container with either 20 L tap water (pH = 7.3) or 20 L of LPPA solution (pH = 1.4) with air agita...

  1. Crofelemer for the treatment of chronic diarrhea in patients living with HIV/AIDS


    Patel TS; Crutchley RD; Tucker AM; Cottreau J; Garey KW


    Twisha S Pate, Rustin D Crutchley, Anne M Tucker, Jessica Cottreau, Kevin W Garey Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Diarrhea is a common comorbidity present in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who are treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. With a multifactorial etiology, this diarrhea often becomes difficult to manage. In addition, some...

  2. Stroke: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  3. Building a multidisciplinary team for burn treatment - Lessons learned from the Montreal tendon transfer experience. (United States)

    Karam, E; Lévesque, M C; Jacquemin, G; Delure, A; Robidoux, I; Laramée, M T; Odobescu, A; Harris, P G; Danino, A M


    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) represent a recognized component of care in the treatment of complex conditions such as burns. However, most institutions do not provide adequate support for the formation of these teams. Furthermore, the majority of specialists lack the managerial skills required to create a team and have difficulties finding the proper tools. Our objective is to provide an insight for health care professionals, who wish to form a MDT for burn treatment, on the challenges that are likely to be faced, and to identify key elements that may facilitate the establishment of such a project. The setting for this was a plastic surgery department and rehabilitation center at a national reference center. A qualitative analysis was performed on all correspondences related to our tetraplegia project, from 2006 to 2008. To guide our thematic analysis, we used a form of systems theory known as the complexity theory. The qualitative analysis was performed using the NVivo software (Version 8.0 QSR International Melbourne, Australia). Lastly, the data was organized in chronologic order. Three main themes emerged from the results: knowledge acquisition, project organizational setup and project steps design. These themes represented respectively 24%, 50% and 26% of all correspondences. Project steps design and knowledge acquisition correspondences increased significantly after the introduction of the mentor team to our network. We conclude that an early association with a mentor team is beneficial for the establishment of a MDT.

  4. Building a multidisciplinary team for burn treatmentLessons learned from the Montreal tendon transfer experience (United States)

    Karam, E.; Lévesque, M.C.; Jacquemin, G.; Delure, A.; Robidoux, I.; Laramée, M.T.; Odobescu, A.; Harris, P.G..; Danino, A.M.


    Summary Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) represent a recognized component of care in the treatment of complex conditions such as burns. However, most institutions do not provide adequate support for the formation of these teams. Furthermore, the majority of specialists lack the managerial skills required to create a team and have difficulties finding the proper tools. Our objective is to provide an insight for health care professionals, who wish to form a MDT for burn treatment, on the challenges that are likely to be faced, and to identify key elements that may facilitate the establishment of such a project. The setting for this was a plastic surgery department and rehabilitation center at a national reference center. A qualitative analysis was performed on all correspondences related to our tetraplegia project, from 2006 to 2008. To guide our thematic analysis, we used a form of systems theory known as the complexity theory. The qualitative analysis was performed using the NVivo software (Version 8.0 QSR International Melbourne, Australia). Lastly, the data was organized in chronologic order. Three main themes emerged from the results: knowledge acquisition, project organizational setup and project steps design. These themes represented respectively 24%, 50% and 26% of all correspondences. Project steps design and knowledge acquisition correspondences increased significantly after the introduction of the mentor team to our network. We conclude that an early association with a mentor team is beneficial for the establishment of a MDT. PMID:25249840

  5. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul


    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  6. Adverse events of glucocorticoids during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: lessons from cohort and registry studies. (United States)

    W J Bijlsma, Johannes; Buttgereit, Frank


    Glucocorticoids have now been used for >65 years in the treatment of RA. There is good evidence for their disease-modifying effect, especially in early RA. When used in a dosage of 7.5-10 mg/day, most adverse effects can be handled quite well, although monitoring for and awareness of infections are important. Adverse events may have been overreported, due to bias by indication, but pose an important drawback in the use of these very effective anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory drugs. Daily dosages >7.5-10 mg and use for a prolonged period (years) of time are associated with a dose-dependent increased mortality. Still, the benefit:risk ratio for low-dosage glucocorticoid in patients with RA is acceptable and in many ways is comparable with other synthetic and biologic DMARDs.

  7. estimation and Projection of hIV/AIds epidemic and Treatment demand in Beijing and hunan Province with spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Guo-wu Liu; and Ning Wang; Min Liu; Min Zheng; Xi Chen; Hong-yan Lu; Hong-guang Chen; Jun Zheng; Gui-ying Li; Juan Wang


    Objective To estimate the HIV/AIDS epidemic and treatment demand and predict the situation in the next ifve years with Spectrum. Methods Using Spectrum (version:3.54) to estimate the number of new HIV infections, number of people living with HIV, need for ART in adults and children, need for PMTCT and cotrimoxazole in Beijing and Hunan Province. Data used in the model including high-risk populations monitoring data and demographic information, was collected from Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention and extracted from statistical yearbooks and published literatures. Results Few new HIV/AIDS were reported in Beijing prior to 1994, however, the number of HIV infections was increasing rapidly from 1995 to 2008, and decreased after that, increased rapidly again after 2012. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years with young patients aged 15-24 years peaked in 2010 and decreased rapidly after that. Few HIV-infected patients were reported before 1997 in Hunan Province, and the number of new infections was increasing rapidly since 1998. The number of patients who need antiretroviral treatment was increasing among the group aged between 15-49 years since 2000 with young patients aged 15-24 years in need of antiretroviral therapy increasing continuously. Conclusions After HIV infection was ifrst founded in Beijing and Hunan Province, there was a slow growth and then a rapid growth of HIV epidemic. According to prediction of Spectrum, the demand for antiretroviral therapy in Beijing would begin to decline since 2011, meanwhile, the HIV epidemic in Hunan Province would enter a rapid growth period with the demand for antiviral therapy continuing to increase. In this study, Spectrum was applied to estimate the HIV epidemic situation and need for treatment in the next ifve years in Beijing and Hunan Province. It provides the basis for health


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜军; 周友龙


    Objective: To probe the best therapy for peripheral facial paralysis.Methods: A total of 122 cases of facial paralysis patients were randomized into treatment group (n=62, treating the disease by stages) and control group (n=60).For patients at the acute stage in treatment group, main point Yifeng (TE 17) was pricked first, followed by performing cupping and moxibustion, for patients at the resting stage, main point Hegu (LI 4) was punctured with reducing needling method, combined with other acupoints in the light of the concrete situations.For patients at the restoration stage, main point Zusanli (ST 36) was punctured with reinforcing method in combination with seven-star-needle tapping at the local affected region.Patients of control group were treated with routine method by puncturing Fengchi (GB 20), Yifeng (TE 17), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), etc..The treatment was conducted once daily, with 10 days being a therapeutic course.Results: Following 3 courses of treatment, of the 62 cases in treatment group, 44 (70.9%) were cured, 12 (19.4%) had remarkable improvement in their symptoms and signs, 6 (9.7%) had amelioration, with the cure plus markedly effective rate being 90.3%; of the 60 cases in control group, 30 (50.0%) were cured, 12 (20.0%) had apparent improvement, 16 (26.7%) had amelioration, and the rest 2 (3.3%) failed in the treatment, with the cure plus markedly effective rate being 70.0%.Ridit analysis showed that the cure rate and cure plus markedly effective rate of treatment group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: Stage-aided acupuncture treatment is superior to routine treatment for facial palsy.

  9. Tuberculosis treatment managed by providers outside the Public Health Department: lessons for the Affordable Care Act.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ehman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB requires at least six months of multidrug treatment and necessitates monitoring for response to treatment. Historically, public health departments (HDs have cared for most TB patients in the United States. The Affordable Care Act (ACA provides coverage for uninsured persons and may increase the proportion of TB patients cared for by private medical providers and other providers outside HDs (PMPs. We sought to determine whether there were differences in care provided by HDs and PMPs to inform public health planning under the ACA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of California TB registry data. We included adult TB patients with culture-positive, pulmonary TB reported in California during 2007-2011. We examined trends, described case characteristics, and created multivariate models measuring two standards of TB care in PMP- and HD-managed patients: documented culture conversion within 60 days, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT. RESULTS: The proportion of PMP-managed TB patients increased during 2007-2011 (p = 0.002. On univariable analysis (N = 4,606, older age, white, black or Asian/Pacific Islander race, and birth in the United States were significantly associated with PMP care (p<0.05. Younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, homelessness, drug or alcohol use, and cavitary and/or smear-positive TB disease, were associated with HD care. Multivariable analysis showed PMP care was associated with lack of documented culture conversion (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.51 and lack of DOT (aRR = 8.56, CI 6.59-11.1. CONCLUSION: While HDs cared for TB cases with more social and clinical complexities, patients under PMP care were less likely to receive DOT and have documented culture conversion. This indicates a need for close collaboration between PMPs and HDs to ensure that optimal care is provided to all TB patients and TB transmission is

  10. Lessons learned in the conduct of a global, large simple trial of treatments indicated for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kolitsopoulos, Francesca M; Strom, Brian L; Faich, Gerald; Eng, Sybil M; Kane, John M; Reynolds, Robert F


    Large, "practical" or streamlined trials (LSTs) are used to study the effectiveness and/or safety of medicines in real world settings with minimal study imposed interventions. While LSTs have benefits over traditional randomized clinical trials and observational studies, there are inherent challenges to their conduct. Enrollment and follow-up of a large study sample of patients with mental illness pose a particular difficulty. To assist in overcoming operational barriers in future LSTs in psychiatry, this paper describes the recruitment and observational follow-up strategies used for the ZODIAC study, an international, open-label LST, which followed 18,239 persons randomly assigned to one of two treatments indicated for schizophrenia for 1 year. ZODIAC enrolled patients in 18 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia using broad study entry criteria and required minimal clinical care intervention. Recruitment of adequate numbers and continued engagement of both study centers and subjects were significant challenges. Strategies implemented to mitigate these in ZODIAC include global study expansion, study branding, field coordinator and site relations programs, monthly site newsletters, collection of alternate contact information, conduct of national death index (NDI) searches, and frequent sponsor, contract research organization (CRO) and site interaction to share best practices and address recruitment challenges quickly. We conclude that conduct of large LSTs in psychiatric patient populations is feasible, but importantly, realistic site recruitment goals and maintaining site engagement are key factors that need to be considered in early study planning and conduct.

  11. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Murine Gallbladder - Lessons for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthbert AW


    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the gallbladder of mammalian species has absorptive and secretory functions. An important function is the secretion of a bicarbonate rich fluid that helps neutralise stomach acid and provides an appropriate environment for intestinal enzymes. In cystic fibrosis (CF this secretory function is lost. This study concerns the bicarbonate secreting activity of murine gallbladders in vitro using wild type and CF mice and four main questions are considered as follows: a Does the murine gallbladder secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and is this prevented in CF? b Can the secretory activity in CF gallbladders be restored by gene therapy or pharmacologically? c How is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR involved in bicarbonate secretion? d Does the data offer prospects for the treatment of CF?. Work from both the author's laboratory and the literature will be reviewed. Consideration of the currently available data indicates that the wild type murine gallbladder does secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and that this is absent in CF mice. Further it has been demonstrated that bicarbonate secretory activity can be restored by both gene therapy and by the use of drugs. The role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion remains equivocal. Much evidence suggests that CFTR can act as a channel for HCO(3(- ions as well as Cl(- ions, while others propose a parallel arrangement of CFTR with a Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchanger is necessary. The matter is further complicated by the regulatory role of CFTR on other transporting activities. Opportunities for possible application to man are discussed.

  12. Transforming Australia's HIV prevention and treatment efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation: the United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS and the Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV'. (United States)

    Whittaker, Bill


    This paper discusses Australia's response to the 2011 United Nations Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS in the context of recent ground-breaking advances in HIV prevention and treatment. Australia's progress in responding to these developments is examined and compared with that of eight other countries in Asia and the Pacific. The implications of the 2012 Melbourne Declaration 'Action on HIV' is also discussed as a vehicle for generating advocacy to revolutionise Australia's HIV response and to urge Australia's leadership in achieving an 'AIDS-free generation'.

  13. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid. (United States)


    ... blood, surgical removal of dead or damaged skin (debridement), amputation or permanent loss of use of... treatment includes examination for removal of imbedded foreign material, multiple soakings, whirlpool... includes multiple soakings, draining of collected blood, or other treatment beyond observation. (3)...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana LENZI


    Full Text Available A problem of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in HIV patients is their adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the schemes adopted in the initial therapy of these treatments with their adherence, changes in HAART schemes and treatment costs. The study included patients over 16 years old, HIV positive, in treatment for more than 30 days. Adherence to HAART was calculated based on the withdrawal of the drug, which was related to the total treatment time. We evaluated how many patients changed HAART. The costs of each regimen were also estimated and related to the benefit of each treatment. 142 patients who were between 38 and 1,150 days of treatment were included (57.7% women. The schemes with lower costs, highest adherence and greater benefit were efavirenz with biovir and efavirenz with lamivudine and tenofovir. This study suggested the advantageous therapeutic regimens to start of treatment, both from the point of view of patients and the health system. This information can serve as a subsidy to clinicians in the decision of starting HAART.

  15. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Zawawi, Khalid H.


    This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors' roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved. PMID:22848854

  16. A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications (United States)

    Wei, Wentao; Huang, Qiu; Wan, Jieqing; Huang, Gang


    The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring. PMID:28251150

  17. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment. (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L


    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care.

  18. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim


    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his/her household

  19. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments...... be formulated as a process synthesis challenge in the sense that a new taskcan be added to the existing treatment line or one or several existing processes can be changed as a result of the emerging needs. Existing plants need retrofitting due to a number of reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow......Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...

  20. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti


    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  1. Human Resources for Treating HIV/AIDS: Are the Preventive Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment a Game Changer? (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Humair, Salal


    Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART's prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it. We develop a mathematical model to analytically study the net effects of these countervailing factors. Using South Africa as a case study, we find that contrary to previous results, universal ART coverage is achievable even with current HRHA numbers. However, larger health gains are possible through a surge-capacity policy that aggressively recruits HRHA to reach universal ART coverage quickly. Without such a policy, TasP roll-out can increase health losses by crowding out sicker patients from treatment, unless a surge capacity exclusively for TasP is also created.

  2. Polyneuropathy, anti-tuberculosis treatment and the role of pyridoxine in the HIV/AIDS era: a systematic review. (United States)

    van der Watt, J J; Harrison, T B; Benatar, M; Heckmann, J M


    Tuberculosis (TB) is increasing in incidence in certain parts of the world, particularly where there is a co-epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), and it is associated with a significant degree of morbidity and mortality. One of the most common complications of anti-tuberculosis treatment is the development of a painful isoniazid (INH) associated polyneuropathy (PN), which is preventable with adequate pyridoxine supplementation. As PN is also the most frequent neurological complication associated with HIV infection, subjects who are HIV and TB co-infected may be at increased risk of developing PN. In this review, we explore current knowledge of anti-tuberculosis drug associated PN focusing on INH and its relationship to pyridoxine, as well as the additional impact of antiretroviral treatment and TB-HIV co-infection. It is evident that guidelines established for the prevention and treatment of this problem differ between industrialised and developing countries, and that further research is needed to define the optimum dosing of pyridoxine supplementation in populations where there is a significant burden of TB and HIV.

  3. Human Resources for Treating HIV/AIDS: Are the Preventive Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment a Game Changer? (United States)


    Shortages of human resources for treating HIV/AIDS (HRHA) are a fundamental barrier to reaching universal antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in developing countries. Previous studies suggest that recruiting HRHA to attain universal ART coverage poses an insurmountable challenge as ART significantly increases survival among HIV-infected individuals. While new evidence about ART’s prevention benefits suggests fewer infections may mitigate the challenge, new policies such as treatment-as-prevention (TasP) will exacerbate it. We develop a mathematical model to analytically study the net effects of these countervailing factors. Using South Africa as a case study, we find that contrary to previous results, universal ART coverage is achievable even with current HRHA numbers. However, larger health gains are possible through a surge-capacity policy that aggressively recruits HRHA to reach universal ART coverage quickly. Without such a policy, TasP roll-out can increase health losses by crowding out sicker patients from treatment, unless a surge capacity exclusively for TasP is also created. PMID:27716813

  4. The feasibility of a holistic wellness program for HIV/AIDS patients residing in a voluntary inpatient treatment program. (United States)

    Morgan, Vanessa


    The purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of an ongoing holistic wellness program in a residential facility treating persons with HIV/AIDS. The goal was to create a voluntary, four week holistic wellness intensive within the established inpatient behavioral health treatment program. Participants were given practicable holistic self care tools to effectively manage HIV related symptoms, general medical issues, addiction, depression, stress and anxiety. The program incorporated evidence-based holistic activities including yoga, therapeutic dance, meditation, Reiki, and reflective journaling. Narrative survey results and post-program evaluation support that an ongoing holistic wellness program within the existing treatment model is feasible and could have numerous potential beneficial effects. This project clearly exemplified the ideal opportunity for holistic nurses to implement innovative holistic interventions within the current healthcare delivery system. It is the author's observation that future studies with a larger participant group to further examine measurable benefits can lend valuable information and insight into the future development of holistic wellness programs for residential treatment facilities.

  5. 艾滋病医学营养治疗%Medical nutrition treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Malnutrition, a major factor for poor prognosis, has been found to be prevalent in AIDS patients or people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by some domestic studies.For patients undergoing anti-retroviral treatment (ART),routinal screening of malnutrition should be performed so as to identify the condition at an early stage.Nutrition counseling lays fundamental to medical nutrition treatment (MNT) and appears effective in promoting calorie/protein intake to meet daily standards.For those whose calorie/protein intake can not reach the standards after nutrition counseling, enteral nutrition ( EA ) should be given as a first-line option.Blood lipids should be monitored for those who are receiving ART.Dyslipidemia can be addressed by adjustment of dietary structure.In conclusion,malnutrition has been a major challenge for PLWHA in China.Calorie and protein intake should be a focus in HIV/AIDS caring programs.Furthermore, MNT should be incorporated in national or community guidelines for treatment of HIV/AIDS.%营养不良是导致人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者和艾滋病患者出现不良预后的重要因紊,国内一些研究证据发现,营养不良在HIV感染者和艾滋病患者中普遍存在.对接受抗病毒治疗的患者,都应定期对其进行常规营养不良筛查,以早期发现营养不良.营养咨询是医学营养治疗的基础,可有效促进蛋白质和热量摄入达到标准.时于经咨询后经口摄入仍不能达标的患者,应首先给予肠内营养支持.血脂是接受艾滋病抗病毒治疗(ART)患者需要长期关注的问题,对于脂代谢异常者,应首先考虑调整膳食结构.总之,营养不良已经成为中国HIV感染者和艾滋病患者面临的主要挑战.现有各种艾滋病关怀项目应重视患者的热量和蛋白质摄入问题.应将医学营养治疗纳入国家和社区艾滋病治疗指南的一部分.

  6. Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil): an effective new treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS. (United States)

    James, N D; Coker, R J; Tomlinson, D; Harris, J R; Gompels, M; Pinching, A J; Stewart, J S


    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of a novel Stealth liposomal encapsulated formulation of doxorubicin (Doxil). A Phase I/II dose escalation study was carried out in a specialist HIV oncology unit in a teaching hospital (predominantly in an outpatient department). Fifteen patients with HIV related, biopsy confirmed, cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma, with or without visceral involvement of sufficient severity to require systemic chemotherapy, were treated. Most patients had poor prognosis disease as assessed by the Tumour/Immune status/Systemic symptoms (TIS) system and Karnofsky indices; six patients had previously received combination chemotherapy. Primary treatment consisted of a dose of Doxil 10 mg/m2, repeated after 2 weeks. If the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) responded and the treatment was tolerated, the patient began maintenance therapy at the same dose every 2 weeks. If there was no clinical response, the dose was increased to 20 mg/m2 for the further two cycles, before proceeding to maintenance therapy. Treatment continued until other intercurrent disease, lack of further response, patient preference, or toxicity precluded further treatment. Tumour response was assessed 2 weeks after completion of at least two cycles of chemotherapy. Toxicity was assessed for each cycle. Doxil was well tolerated, and toxicity was manageable, the principal toxicity being haematological. A partial response rate of 11/15 (73%) was achieved, with disease stabilization in the remaining patients. We conclude that Doxil is an effective palliative treatment for epidemic KS in a patient group with a poor predicted outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

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    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes


    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  8. CT-Based Brachytherapy Treatment Planning using Monte Carlo Simulation Aided by an Interface Software

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    Vahid Moslemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In brachytherapy, radioactive sources are placed close to the tumor, therefore, small changes in their positions can cause large changes in the dose distribution. This emphasizes the need for computerized treatment planning. The usual method for treatment planning of cervix brachytherapy uses conventional radiographs in the Manchester system. Nowadays, because of their advantages in locating the source positions and the surrounding tissues, CT and MRI images are replacing conventional radiographs. In this study, we used CT images in Monte Carlo based dose calculation for brachytherapy treatment planning, using an interface software to create the geometry file required in the MCNP code. The aim of using the interface software is to facilitate and speed up the geometry set-up for simulations based on the patient’s anatomy. This paper examines the feasibility of this method in cervix brachytherapy and assesses its accuracy and speed. Material and Methods: For dosimetric measurements regarding the treatment plan, a pelvic phantom was made from polyethylene in which the treatment applicators could be placed. For simulations using CT images, the phantom was scanned at 120 kVp. Using an interface software written in MATLAB, the CT images were converted into MCNP input file and the simulation was then performed. Results: Using the interface software, preparation time for the simulations of the applicator and surrounding structures was approximately 3 minutes; the corresponding time needed in the conventional MCNP geometry entry being approximately 1 hour. The discrepancy in the simulated and measured doses to point A was 1.7% of the prescribed dose.  The corresponding dose differences between the two methods in rectum and bladder were 3.0% and 3.7% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Comparing the results of simulation using the interface software with those of simulation using the standard MCNP geometry entry showed a less than 1

  9. Evaluation of clinical and immunological markers for predicting virological failure in a HIV/AIDS treatment cohort in Busia, Kenya.

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    Cecilia Ferreyra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings where viral load (VL monitoring is scarce or unavailable, clinicians must use immunological and clinical criteria to define HIV virological treatment failure. This study examined the performance of World Health Organization (WHO clinical and immunological failure criteria in predicting virological failure in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. METHODS: In a HIV/AIDS program in Busia District Hospital, Kenya, a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort analysis was performed in April 2008 for all adult patients (>18 years old on ART for ≥12 months, treatment-naive at ART start, attending the clinic at least once in last 6 months, and who had given informed consent. Treatment failure was assessed per WHO clinical (disease stage 3 or 4 and immunological (CD4 cell count criteria, and compared with virological failure (VL >5,000 copies/mL. RESULTS: Of 926 patients, 123 (13.3% had clinically defined treatment failure, 53 (5.7% immunologically defined failure, and 55 (6.0% virological failure. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of both clinical and immunological criteria (combined in predicting virological failure were 36.4%, 83.5%, 12.3%, and 95.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis, clinical and immunological criteria were found to perform relatively poorly in predicting virological failure of ART. VL monitoring and new algorithms for assessing clinical or immunological treatment failure, as well as improved adherence strategies, are required in ART programs in resource-limited settings.

  10. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)]. (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés


    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  11. Clinical effectiveness of dolutegravir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

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    Taha H


    Full Text Available Huda Taha,1 Archik Das,2 Satyajit Das1,3 1Integrated Sexual Health Service Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust, Coventry, 2School of Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham, 3Coventry University, Coventry, UK Abstract: Dolutegravir (DTG is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI, which has now been licensed to be used in different countries including the UK. Earlier studies have demonstrated that DTG when used with nucleoside backbone in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients has been well tolerated and demonstrated virological suppression comparable to other INSTIs and superiority against other first-line agents, including efavirenz and boosted protease inhibitors. Like other INSTIs, DTG uses separate metabolic pathways compared to other antiretrovirals and is a minor substrate for CYP-450. It does not appear to have a significant interaction with drugs, which uses the CYP-450 system. Nonetheless, it uses renal solute transporters that may potentially inhibit the transport of other drugs and can have an effect on the elimination of other drugs. However, the impact of this mechanism appears to be very minimal and insignificant clinically. The side effect profiles of DTG are similar to raltegravir and have been found to be well tolerated. DTG has a long plasma half-life and is suitable for once daily use without the need for a boosting agent. DTG has all the potential to be used as a first-line drug in combination with other nucleoside backbones, especially in the form of a single tablet in combination with abacavir and lamivudine. The purpose of this review article is to present the summary of the available key information about the clinical usefulness of DTG in the treatment of HIV infection. Keywords: dolutegravir, integrase inhibitors, HIV, antiretroviral, treatment

  12. Endodontic Treatment of an Anomalous Anterior Tooth with the Aid of a 3-dimensional Printed Physical Tooth Model. (United States)

    Byun, Chanhee; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Gyutae; Kim, Sahng G; Kim, Sun-Young


    Endodontic treatment of tooth formation anomalies is a challenge to clinicians and as such requires a complete understanding of the aberrant root canal anatomy followed by careful root canal disinfection and obturation. Here, we report the use of a 3-dimensional (3D) printed physical tooth model including internal root canal structures for the endodontic treatment of a challenging tooth anomaly. A 12-year-old boy was referred for endodontic treatment of tooth #8. The tooth showed class II mobility with swelling and a sinus tract in the buccal mucosa and periapical radiolucency. The tooth presented a very narrow structure between the crown and root by distal concavity and a severely dilacerated root. Moreover, a perforation site with bleeding and another ditching site were identified around the cervical area in the access cavity. A translucent physical tooth model carrying the information on internal root canal structures was built through a 3-step process: data acquisition by cone-beam computed tomographic scanning, virtual modeling by image processing, and manufacturing by 3D printing. A custom-made guide jig was then fabricated to achieve a safe and precise working path to the root canal. Endodontic procedures including access cavity preparation were performed using the physical tooth model and the guide jig. At the 7-month follow-up, the endodontically treated tooth showed complete periapical healing with no clinical signs and symptoms. This case report describes a novel method of endodontic treatment of an anomalous maxillary central incisor with the aid of a physical tooth model and a custom-made guide jig via 3D printing technique.

  13. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5. (United States)

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  14. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T


    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  15. Subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an aid in the treatment of drug abusers. (United States)

    Thornton, P I; Igleheart, H C; Silverman, L H


    Forty-seven heroin addicts being treated at the New York VA Methadone Clinic were divided into an experimental and a control group. In addition to the regular methadone treatment program, both groups received subliminal exposures to a verbal message for 24 sessions (4 times a week for 6 weeks). The messages were MOMMY AND I ARE ONE (experimental) and PEOPLE ARE WALKING (control), administered under double-blind conditions. In keeping with the main hypothesis, the experimental subjects, when compared with controls, showed a greater decrease in their use of heroin and other illicit drugs during the postintervention period. Additionally, on a follow-up questionnaire, the experimental subjects reported being more in control of their drug habits and more effective in their work than did those in the control group. Also, analysis of the patients' reported dreams revealed that the experimental group had more dreams containing positive interactions with a significant woman or son than did the control group.

  16. Development of a decision aid for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia : A four stage method using a Delphi consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, Romy E D; Cuypers, Maarten; Garvelink, Mirjam M.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Kil, Paul J M


    Objective: To develop a web-based decision aid (DA) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). Methods: From February-September 2014 we performed a four-stage development method: 1: Two-round Delphi consensus method among urologists, 2: Identify

  17. Catastrophic Health Expenditure amongst People Living with HIV/AIDS Availing Antiretroviral Treatment Services at Two Tertiary Care Health Facilities in District of Northern India

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    Mukesh Shukla, Monika Agarwal, Jai Vir Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Anand Kumar Srivastava, Vijay Kumar Singh


    Conclusions: Decentralisation of ART programme up to grass root level, integration of HIV/AIDS-related services into primary health care services and bridging of the loop holes like effective convening of various government benefit schemes to patients during their visit to ART centre and there by promoting utilisation could reduce their financial burden for care and treatment."

  18. First aid treatment of critically acute epidural hematoma complicated by cerebral hernia using cranial trepanation and drainage decompression: a report of 16 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@From October 1997 to February 2000, 16 cases of critically acute epidural hematoma (CAEH) complicated by cranial hernia were treated with cranial trepanation and drainage decompression (CTDD), which was used as the first aid treatment before craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  19. Thyroid cancer patient perceptions of radioactive iodine treatment choice: Follow‐up from a decision‐aid randomized trial (United States)

    Straus, Sharon; Rodin, Gary; Heus, Lineke; Brierley, James D.; Tsang, Richard W.; Rotstein, Lorne; Ezzat, Shereen; Segal, Phillip; Gafni, Amiram; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Goldstein, David P.


    BACKGROUND Patient decision aids (P‐DAs) inform medical decision making, but longer term effects are unknown. This article describes extended follow‐up from a thyroid cancer treatment P‐DA trial. METHODS In this single‐center, parallel‐design randomized controlled trial conducted at a Canadian tertiary/quaternary care center, early‐stage thyroid cancer patients from a P‐DA trial were contacted 15 to 23 months after randomization/radioactive iodine (RAI) decision making to evaluate longer term outcomes. It was previously reported that the use of the computerized P‐DA in thyroid cancer patients considering postsurgical RAI treatment significantly improved medical knowledge in comparison with usual care alone. The P‐DA and control groups were compared for the following outcomes: feeling informed about the RAI treatment choice, decision satisfaction, decision regret, cancer‐related worry, and physician trust. In a subgroup of 20 participants, in‐depth interviews were conducted for a qualitative analysis. RESULTS Ninety‐five percent (70 of 74) of the original population enrolled in follow‐up at a mean of 17.1 months after randomization. P‐DA users perceived themselves to be significantly more 1) informed about the treatment choice (P = .008), 2) aware of options (P = .009), 3) knowledgeable about treatment benefits (P = .020), and 4) knowledgeable about treatment risks/side effects (P = .001) in comparison with controls. There were no significant group differences in decision satisfaction (P = .142), decision regret (P = .199), cancer‐related worry (P = .645), mood (P = .211), or physician trust (P = .764). In the qualitative analysis, the P‐DA was perceived to have increased patient knowledge and confidence in decision making. CONCLUSIONS The P‐DA improved cancer survivors’ actual and long‐term perceived medical knowledge with no adverse effects. More research on the long‐term outcomes of P

  20. Modeling AIDS survival after initiation of antiretroviral treatment by Weibull models with changepoints

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    Yiannoutsos Constantin T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality of HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in the developing world is very high immediately after the start of ART therapy and drops sharply thereafter. It is necessary to use models of survival time that reflect this change. Methods In this endeavor, parametric models with changepoints such as Weibull models can be useful in order to explicitly model the underlying failure process, even in the case where abrupt changes in the mortality rate are present. Estimation of the temporal location of possible mortality changepoints has important implications on the effective management of these patients. We briefly describe these models and apply them to the case of estimating survival among HIV-infected patients who are initiating antiretroviral therapy in a care and treatment programme in sub-Saharan Africa. Results As a first reported data-driven estimate of the existence and location of early mortality changepoints after antiretroviral therapy initiation, we show that there is an early change in risk of death at three months, followed by an intermediate risk period lasting up to 10 months after therapy. Conclusion By explicitly modelling the underlying abrupt changes in mortality risk after initiation of antiretroviral therapy we are able to estimate their number and location in a rigorous, data-driven manner. The existence of a high early risk of death after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and the determination of its duration has direct implications for the optimal management of patients initiating therapy in this setting.

  1. "Aid Like a Paycheck: Engaging with Policymakers and Practitioners to Evaluate and Improve Financial Aid" (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse


    "Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…

  2. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian potbellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole. (United States)

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Paradis, Erika; Stephen, Craig; Turba, Maria Elena; Rossi, Giacomo


    A severe outbreak of scuticociliatosis occurred in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1872), kept at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, irregular respiration, and death. Cytology and histopathology revealed a high number of histophagous ciliated protozoa within the tissues. The parasite, identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi, was observed in several internal organs that appeared edematous and hemorrhagic upon postmortem examination. Severe histopathologic lesions were reported in particular in the ovary, the kidney, and the intestine. This infection was successfully treated with metronidazole via bath therapy. No further evidence of this parasite was found in the treated fish.

  3. What Is HIV/AIDS? (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  4. Three generic nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatments in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients: multicentric observation cohort.

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    Taisheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of three nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatments for adult antiretroviral-naïve Chinese patients with HIV-1 infection. METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective, multicenter study. 198 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 positive subjects with CD4 lymphocyte counts between 100/ul and 350/ul and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels more than 500 copies/ml were randomized to start three NVP-based antiretroviral treatments: group A, NVP+AZT+ddI; group B, NVP+3TC+d4T; group C, NVP+AZT+3TC. Viral responses, immunologic responses, adverse events and drug resistance were monitored at baseline and the end of week 4, 12, 24, 36, 52. Viralogical response and immunological response were also compared in different strata of baseline CD4 T lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations. At baseline, the plasma HIV-1 RNA was 4.44+/-0.68, 4.52+/-0.71 and 4.41+/-0.63 lg copies/ml in group A, B and C respectively (p = 0.628. At the end of the study, the plasma viral load reached 2.54+/-1.11, 1.89+/-0.46 and 1.92+/-0.58 lg copies/ml in group A, B and C respectively (p200/ul (subgroup H. But in subgroup L, viral response rate of three groups has no significant statistic difference. There were no statistically significant differences among three groups in immunological response within any of the CD4 or pVL strata. 3 out of 193 patients with available genotype at baseline showed primary drug resistant. Of 26 patients with virologic failure, 17 patients showed secondary drug resistant, 16 subjects in group A and 1 subject in group B. Logistic regression analysis indicated that presence of hepatotoxicity was associated with HCV-Ab positive (OR = 2.096, 95%CI: 1.106-3.973, P = 0.023 and higher CD4 baseline (CD4 count >250/ul (OR = 2.096, 95%CI: 1.07-4.107, P = 0.031. CONCLUSION: Our findings strongly support the use of 3TC+d4T and 3TC+AZT as the nucleoside analogue combination in NVP-based antiretroviral

  5. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta (United States)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo


    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  6. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda. (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia


    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning.

  7. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

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    Işıl Kaya-Büyükbayram


    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler’s type III and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened.

  8. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (United States)

    Kaya-Büyükbayram, Işıl; Özalp, Şerife; Aydemir, Seda


    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler's type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler's type III) and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened. PMID:25530890

  9. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullilove Robert E


    Full Text Available Abstract We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  10. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States. (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick M; Fullilove, Mindy T; Fullilove, Robert E; Wallace, Deborah N


    We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking--essentially an institutional collective consciousness--while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience--dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  11. DermaVir: a plasmid DNA-based nanomedicine therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Lori, Franco


    The HIV global pandemic continues to rage with over 33 million people living with the disease. Although multidrug therapy has improved the prognosis for those infected by the virus, it has not eradicated the infection. Immunological therapies, including therapeutic vaccines, are needed to supplement drug therapy in the search for a 'functional cure' for HIV. DermaVir (Genetic Immunity Kft, Budapest, Hungary and McLean, Virginia, USA), an experimental HIV/AIDS therapeutic vaccine, combines three key elements of rational therapeutic vaccine design: a single plasmid DNA (pDNA) immunogen expressing 15 HIV antigens, a synthetic pDNA nanomedicine formulation and a dendritic cell-targeting topical-vaccine administration. DermaVir's novel mechanism of action, natural transport by epidermal Langerhans cells to the lymph nodes to express the pDNA-encoded HIV antigens and induce precursor/memory T cells with high proliferation capacity, has been consistently demonstrated in mouse, rabbit, primate and human subjects. Safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of DermaVir have been clinically demonstrated in HIV-infected human subjects. The DermaVir technology platform for dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccination might offer a new treatment paradigm for cancer and infectious diseases.

  12. Stages of AIDS-Related Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About AIDS-Related Lymphoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  13. Reliability and validity of a treatment fidelity assessment for motivational interviewing targeting sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Lovejoy, Travis I


    This study psychometrically evaluates the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code (MITI) to assess fidelity to motivational interviewing to reduce sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS. 74 sessions from a pilot randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing to reduce sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV were coded with the MITI. Participants reported sexual behavior at baseline, 3-month, and 6-months. Regarding reliability, excellent inter-rater reliability was achieved for measures of behavior frequency across the 12 sessions coded by both coders; global scales demonstrated poor intraclass correlations, but adequate percent agreement. Regarding validity, principle components analyses indicated that a two-factor model accounted for an adequate amount of variance in the data. These factors were associated with decreases in sexual risk behaviors after treatment. The MITI is a reliable and valid measurement of treatment fidelity for motivational interviewing targeting sexual risk behaviors in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  14. HIV/AIDS Treatment (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  15. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir–cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharoen O


    Full Text Available Opass Putcharoen,1 Tanya Do,2 Anchalee Avihingsanon,2 Kiat Ruxrungtham1,2 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug–drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug–drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1 COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2 COBI’s solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1 COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR without affecting actual GFR; 2 potential drug–drug interaction data are insufficient

  16. Current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users in China. (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue


    The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.

  17. Efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Góngora Rubio


    Full Text Available Several formulae have been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB, but their high costs preclude widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion, i.e. Intralipid (AmB-IL, in 37 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM. We retrospectively reviewed data collected in a non-comparative open study between January 1999 and December 2001. The therapeutic cure was defined as complete resolution or improvement of the clinical symptoms or complete absence or improvement of the mycological alterations of the CSF. The outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, induction phase (IP, and at the end of treatment or consolidation phase (CP with the last available CSF. Prior to the diagnosis of CM, 72% of patients had had one or more OI and 67.57% had a concomitant OI. The median CD4-cell count was 32 cells/mm³, the median leukocyte count in the CSF was 29 cells/mm³ and the median cumulative dose of AmB-IL was 1,200 mg (300-2,500. The therapeutic cure was 57.14% in the IP and 64.86% in the CP. During IP, 9 patients died (24.32% and 4 (10.81% during the CP (p=0.2. Thus, the overall mortality rate was 35.14%. AmB-IL, an inexpensive preparation, might be an alternative to conventional AmB. Some questions remain such as its compatibility, stability and level of toxicity. The benefit is especially important in developing countries, where no drugs other than AmB are available to treat systemic fungal infections.

  18. Wording effects and the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Wouters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the immense burden of HIV/AIDS on health systems in sub-Saharan Africa and the intricate link between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems, health care providers need a valid and reliable instrument to assess mental health rapidly. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS may constitute such an instrument. The aims of this study were to: (1 examine the factor structure of the HADS in a population of South African HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART; and (2 identify and control the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects in vulnerable respondent groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The translated scale was administered to 716 HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in the public sector ART program in South Africa. A combined confirmatory factor analysis and correlated-traits-correlated-methods framework was used to determine the preferred factor structure of the HADS, while controlling for the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects. When assessing the structure without a negative wording factor, all three factor structures displayed an acceptable fit to the data. The three-factor solution best fitted the data. Addition of a method factor significantly improved the fit of all three factor solutions. Using χ(2 difference testing, Razavi's one-factor solution displayed a superior fit compared to the other two factor solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The study outcomes support the use of the HADS as a valid and reliable means to screen for mental health problems in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in a public-sector ART program in a resource-limited context. The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating and correcting for wording effects when examining the factor structure of the screening instrument in vulnerable patient groups. In light of the inter-relationships between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems and the scarcity of adequate screening tools, additional studies on this topic are required.

  19. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  20. Evaluation of waste activated sludge as a coagulant aid for the treatment of industrial wastewater containing mixed surfactants. (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, Tongchai; Jangkorn, Siriprapha


    Wastewater generated by the industry manufacturing detergents and various kinds of consumer products normally contains very high contents of mixed surfactants, organic matters expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD), and phosphates that must be treated prior to discharge to the aquatic environment. In this study, jar-test experiments were conducted to evaluate the waste activated sludge (WAS) as a coagulation aid in the coagulation-flocculation process with ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate as a coagulant for the treatment of wastewater collected from the aforementioned industry. The WAS was selected because of its adsorption capability of anionic surfactants and its availability from the wastage stream of biological wastewater treatment process. The effective dosages of both coagulants with and without the WAS additions were determined in this study. Without the WAS addition, the concentrations of 800 mg/L aluminum sulfate at the optimum pH value of 8 and 2208 mg/L ferric chloride at the optimum pH value of 12 were the optimum chemical dosages. It appears that aluminum sulfate was more effective than ferric chloride based on the chemical dosage and removal efficiency. The turbidity, suspended particles, anionic surfactants, COD, and phosphates removal efficiencies of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride under the optimum dosage were 95.6, 88.2, 78.4, 73.5, 47.3% and 98.8, 92.0, 72.7, 67.5, 53.1%, respectively. The addition of 200 mg/L WAS was sufficient to reduce the optimum dosages of both chemicals by 200 mg/L. The cationic surfactant existing in the wastewater worked as a flocculating agent leading to the flocculation of waste activated sludge resulting in the enmeshment of the suspended particles and colloids on which the COD, anionic surfactants, and phosphates were adsorbed. However, the substances removal efficiencies of ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate were slightly enhanced and reduced, respectively. It is possibly explained that the settling time

  1. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  2. Encounter Decision Aid vs. Clinical Decision Support or Usual Care to Support Patient-Centered Treatment Decisions in Osteoporosis: The Osteoporosis Choice Randomized Trial II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis Choice, an encounter decision aid, can engage patients and clinicians in shared decision making about osteoporosis treatment. Its effectiveness compared to the routine provision to clinicians of the patient's estimated risk of fracture using the FRAX calculator is unknown.Patient-level, randomized, three-arm trial enrolling women over 50 with osteopenia or osteoporosis eligible for treatment with bisphosphonates, where the use of Osteoporosis Choice was compared to FRAX only and to usual care to determine impact on patient knowledge, decisional conflict, involvement in the decision-making process, decision to start and adherence to bisphosphonates.We enrolled 79 women in the three arms. Because FRAX estimation alone and usual care produced similar results, we grouped them for analysis. Compared to these, use of Osteoporosis Choice increased patient knowledge (median score 6 vs. 4, p = .01, improved understanding of fracture risk and risk reduction with bisphosphonates (p = .01 and p<.0001, respectively, had no effect on decision conflict, and increased patient engagement in the decision making process (OPTION scores 57% vs. 43%, p = .001. Encounters with the decision aid were 0.8 minutes longer (range: 33 minutes shorter to 3.0 minutes longer. There were twice as many patients receiving and filling prescriptions in the decision aid arm (83% vs. 40%, p = .07; medication adherence at 6 months was no different across arms.Supporting both patients and clinicians during the clinical encounter with the Osteoporosis Choice decision aid efficiently improves treatment decision making when compared to usual care with or without clinical decision support with FRAX results.clinical NCT00949611.

  3. Lesson Learning at JPL (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David


    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  4. The Levels of Inquiry Matrix in developing written lesson plans for laboratory-centered science instruction (United States)

    Smith, William Robert

    This study examines the effectiveness of a full-semester inservice program in reforming the lesson planning practices of science teachers. The Levels of Inquiry Matrix was used as a model of inquiry focused, laboratory centered science instruction throughout the inservice program. Effective planning is crucial to the development and execution of good instruction and the Levels of Inquiry Matrix may serve as a tool toward reaching this goal. Thirty practicing science teachers completed courses designed to reform their teaching toward a greater emphasis on inquiry. The inservice teachers completed a background survey and wrote three lesson plans. The first was prepared prior to course treatment, the second was prepared at mid-course, and the third was prepared as a final project. A set of "Guidelines for Using the Levels of Inquiry Matrix" was prepared to aid in the objective classification of the level of inquiry planned for in each written lesson plan. Also, a list of permutations of the Levels of Inquiry Matrix was developed in order to classify the level of inquiry demonstrated by written lesson plans that did not match a sequence of student and teacher responsibility found on the Levels of Inquiry Matrix. The study demonstrated that inservice teachers in one of the two courses significantly improved in ability to write lesson plans that reflect greater levels of inquiry as defined by the Levels of Inquiry Matrix. The inservice teachers, in both courses, believed that they were planning for higher levels of inquiry than they actually demonstrated through the written lesson plans. They also believed they were improving in their ability to write lesson plans that reflected higher levels of inquiry whether they actually achieved this or not. No correlation was found between the inservice teachers' years of experience teaching science, educational background, certification status and the level of inquiry demonstrated by the lesson plans. Finally, the Inquiry Lesson

  5. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V


    BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines...

  6. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon


    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  7. Common Geometry Shapes/Formas Geometricas: An Introductory-English Lesson & Introductory Spanish Lesson. (United States)

    Jaramillo, James A.; Solano, Angele

    A lesson plan for first-grade children beginning to learn English describes an activity using manipulatives and visual aids to develop recognition of three geometric shapes (circle, square, rectangle), their names, and a few additional words in English (e.g., "bag,""table,""door"). Students are grouped at tables of four to six and provided with…

  8. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty. (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio


    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program.

  9. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis


    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  10. Training Manual for HIV/AIDS Prevention. (United States)

    Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison

    This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…

  11. Desafios da adesão ao tratamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids no Brasil Challenges of treatment adherence by people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Melchior


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as dificuldades referentes à adesão ao tratamento de pacientes vivendo com HIV/Aids em terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa baseada em 34 entrevistas com pacientes em tratamento de diversos serviços ambulatoriais do estado de São Paulo em 1998-1999. O grupo compreendeu pessoas de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos, sexo, tempo no tratamento e diferentes graus de adesão de acordo com a percepção da equipe de saúde. As entrevistas foram focalizadas na narrativa do paciente sobre sua doença. A análise de conteúdo classificou as dificuldades relacionadas a fatores sociais e do estilo de vida, incluindo o estigma; a crenças acerca do uso da medicação; e diretamente ao uso da medicação. RESULTADOS: Todos os entrevistados relataram dificuldades relacionadas ao estigma de viver com HIV/Aids. As dificuldades relacionadas ao uso da medicação predominaram entre pacientes com melhor adesão. Pacientes com aderência média apresentaram os três tipos de dificuldade. CONCLUSÕES: Os fatores sociais e culturais são mais difíceis de serem superados para adesão ao tratamento do que aqueles relacionados a tomar a medicação, o que torna importante o papel desempenhado pelo setor saúde, apoiado por políticas públicas sociais claras. Essas dimensões devem ser enfrentadas não somente no setor saúde, mas também nos âmbitos político e social.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the difficulties related to treatment adherence by patients living with HIV/AIDS in highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Qualitative research based on 34 interviews with patients under treatment in several outpatient services in the state of São Paulo, in 1998-1999. The group was comprised of people from different socioeconomic levels, gender, length of treatment and varied adherence levels, according to healthcare staff perception. The interviews focused on the patient's narrative about his/her disease. The

  12. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud. (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  13. Treatment for HIV (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  14. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  15. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  16. Is it time for a new paradigm for systemic cancer treatment? Lessons from a century of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCrawford


    Full Text Available U.S. SEER data for age-adjusted mortality rates for all cancers combined for all races show only a modest overall 13% decline over the past 35 years. Moreover, the greatest contributor to cancer mortality is treatment resistant metastatic disease. The accepted therapeutic paradigm for the past half century for the treatment of advanced cancers has involved the use of systemic chemotherapy drugs cytotoxic for cycling cells (both normal and malignant during DNA synthesis and/or mitosis. The failure of this therapeutic modality to achieve high level, consistent rates of disease free survival for some of the most common cancers, including tumors of the lung, colon breast, brain, melanoma and others is the focus of this paper. A retrospective assessment of critical milestones in cancer chemotherapy indicates that most successful therapeutic regimens use cytotoxic cell cycle inhibitors in combined, maximum tolerated, dose dense acute treatment regimens originally developed to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and some lymphomas. Early clinical successes in this area led to their wholesale application to the treatment of solid tumor malignancies that, unfortunately, has not produced consistent, long-term high cure rates for many common cancers. Important differences in therapeutic sensitivity of leukemias/lymphomas versus solid tumors can be explained by key biological differences that define the treatment resistant solid tumor phenotype. A review of these clinical outcome data in the context of recent developments in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms characteristic of solid tumors suggests the need for a new paradigm for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancers. In contrast to reductionist approaches, the systemic approach targets both micro-environmental and systemic factors that drive and sustain tumor progression. These systemic factors include dysregulated inflammatory and oxidation pathways shown to be directly implicated in

  17. CMV retinitis screening and treatment in a resource-poor setting: three-year experience from a primary care HIV/AIDS programme in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun NiNi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a neglected disease in resource-poor settings, in part because of the perceived complexity of care and because ophthalmologists are rarely accessible. In this paper, we describe a pilot programme of CMV retinitis management by non-ophthalmologists. The programme consists of systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 by AIDS clinicians using indirect ophthalmoscopy, and treatment of all patients with active retinitis by intravitreal injection of ganciclovir. Prior to this programme, CMV retinitis was not routinely examined for, or treated, in Myanmar. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Between November 2006 and July 2009, 17 primary care AIDS clinicians were trained in indirect ophthalmoscopy and diagnosis of CMV retinitis; eight were also trained in intravitreal injection. Evaluation of training by a variety of methods documented high clinical competence. Systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 was carried out at five separate AIDS clinics throughout Myanmar. Results A total of 891 new patients (1782 eyes were screened in the primary area (Yangon; the majority of patients were male (64.3%, median age was 32 years, and median CD4 cell count was 38 cells/mm3. CMV retinitis was diagnosed in 24% (211/891 of these patients. Bilateral disease was present in 36% of patients. Patients with active retinitis were treated with weekly intravitreal injection of ganciclovir, with patients typically receiving five to seven injections per eye. A total of 1296 injections were administered. Conclusions A strategy of management of CMV retinitis at the primary care level is feasible in resource-poor settings. With appropriate training and support, CMV retinitis can be diagnosed and treated by AIDS clinicians (non-ophthalmologists, just like other major opportunistic infections.

  18. A Treatment-Refractory Case of Social Anxiety Disorder: Lessons Learned from a Failed Course of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (United States)

    Brozovich, Faith A.; Heimberg, Richard G.


    Over the past 25 years researchers have made enormous strides in the implementation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), although considerable work remains to be done. The present paper discusses a treatment refractory case seen in our clinic. The young man presented numerous interrelated obstacles, such as low…

  19. Produced Water Treatment Methods and Regulations: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico and North Sea for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaobi Stephenie Nwosi-Anele


    Full Text Available Discharge specifications are allowable effluent limits of constituents in produced water before being discharged into the environment. Environmental regulatory agencies in the North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Niger Delta regions have specified effluent limits for the constituents of produced water. These PW discharge limits may be specified for metals, solids, bacteria, oil/grease content, PH, temperature, process chemicals and dispersed hydrocarbon constituents. Recent environmental impact assessments show that contrary to the trend in Niger Delta, North Sea and Gulf of Mexico have continued to modify their effluent limits pursuant to ZERO effluent discharge. This contrasts sharply with the Niger Delta which has maintained its effluent discharge limits for a long time without review. This has left the region with discharged effluents that may fall short of the needed environmental friendliness level. This paper investigates produced water treatment methods used in North Sea and Gulf of Mexico and how these could be useful for produced water treatment in Niger Delta. Critical comparative evaluations of treatment processes used in North Sea and Gulf of Mexico are carried out considering the terrain, PW constituents and regulatory specifications analogous to the Niger Delta. Results show that these treatment processes may be adopted based on terrain similarities. Effluent discharge limits may be met and exceeded with a view to achieving ZERO discharge effluent in Niger Delta.

  20. A decade of biologic treatment observation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Lessons learned from the Dutch ABC Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Otten (Marieke)


    textabstractSince 1999, the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has been extended with a new category of drugs: biologic agents (also known as biologicals or biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs). Biologic agents consist of natural proteins, like antibodies and cytokines, and

  1. Increasing self-efficacy and quality lesson planning using Lesson-Study with elementary preservice teachers (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth Ann

    This qualitative, quasi-experimental study examined if lesson-study could be a successful approach in improving lesson plan quality and increasing self-efficacy levels toward teaching science at the preservice elementary teacher level in North Mississippi. Lesson-Study can be defined as a cycle of instructional improvement in which small groups work together to design and teach a lesson, revising again as needed over the course of a semester. This study described the experiences of two sections of preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course as they engaged in lesson-study at a comprehensive university in Northeast Mississippi. One section of the class served as the control group while the other section, as the treatment group, received lesson-study over the course of the semester. Data was gathered in the form of interviews, observations, and a self-efficacy survey (STEBI-B). Lesson plans were also graded using a rubric to determine quality level. Findings indicated that, while not statistically significant, the treatment groups scores on the self-efficacy instrument increased more on average than the control groups' scores. There were also positive comments about the lesson study process from the teacher candidates in the treatment group as well as positive behaviors recorded by the researcher. Additionally, according to the external evaluators who graded the final drafts of the lessons, the treatment group had greater gains than the control class on average. These conclusions suggested the lesson study process implemented during the preservice teaching level can be beneficial.

  2. Treatment adherence: the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS Adhesión al tratamiento: vivencias de adolescentes con HIV/SIDA Adesão ao tratamento: vivências de adolescentes com HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cabral Kourrouski


    Full Text Available Living with a chronic condition is difficult at any stage of life, especially when considering HIV/AIDS, a stigmatized condition that elicits so much discrimination and which may become an aggravating factor when it occurs during adolescence. This study aimed to understand the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS concerning medication adherence. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years and six caregivers participated in the study. The organization of data focused on positive and negative aspects related to adherence. The results showed that adolescents have difficulties in medication adherence especially due to their side effects; they try to normalize their lives in such a way that stigma and discrimination do not compromise their quality of life and treatment adherence. Recommendations to encourage treatment adherence are presented.Vivir con una condición crónica es algo difícil en cualquier fase de la vida, sobre todo cuando se habla de HIV/SIDA, condición que trae estigma y discriminación, y cuando ocurre en la adolescencia se muestra como un agravante. El objetivo de este estudio es comprender la experiencia de adolescentes portadores de HIV/SIDA, en lo que se refiere a la adhesión medicamentosa. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo de los datos. Participaron nueve adolescentes con edad entre 12 y 18 años y seis cuidadores. Los datos fueron organizados alrededor de las facilidades y dificultades relacionadas a la adhesión. Los resultados evidenciaron que los adolescentes tienen dificultades en la adhesión al medicamento, colocando esas dificultades principalmente en los efectos colaterales de los mismos; buscan vivir el proceso de normalización, de tal forma que el estigma y discriminación no comprometan su calidad de vida y la adhesión a la terapéutica. Son presentadas recomendaciones para estimular la adhesión al tratamiento.Viver com uma

  3. Lessons From the KK-Ay Mouse, a Spontaneous Animal Model for the Treatment of Human Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy


    Tomino, Yasuhiko


    Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes throughout the world. In human glomeruli, expansion of diffuse mesangial matrices, exudative lesions and/or segmental nodular sclerosis are pathological features of diabetic nephropathy. There have been many reports on the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes using various animal models. It appears that KK-Ay mice, especially in terms of their immunohistologic...

  4. Lessons From the KK-Ay Mouse, a Spontaneous Animal Model for the Treatment of Human Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy. (United States)

    Tomino, Yasuhiko


    Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes throughout the world. In human glomeruli, expansion of diffuse mesangial matrices, exudative lesions and/or segmental nodular sclerosis are pathological features of diabetic nephropathy. There have been many reports on the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes using various animal models. It appears that KK-Ay mice, especially in terms of their immunohistological findings, are a suitable animal model for human type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Many compounds have been reported to be advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors such as aminoguanidine, angiotensin II receptor inhibitors and pyridoxamine, and these are useful in therapeutic interventions for reducing AGEs. Pyridoxamine ameliorates lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance in KK-Ay mice. Combination therapy with angiotensin converting inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB), including an ARB and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, i.e. anti-hypertensive and anti-reactive oxygen species effects, or with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), i.e. anti-microinflammation effect, have shown efficacy in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in KK-Ay mice. It appears that KK-Ay mice are a useful spontaneous animal model for the evaluation of pathogenesis and treatment in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Randomized Double-blinded and Controlled Clinical Trial on Treatment of HIV/AIDS by Zhongyan-4 (中研-4号)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of Zhongyan-4 (中研-4号, ZY-4, a Chinese herbal preparation worked out according to the therapeutic principle of supplementing qi, nourishing Yin,clearing heat and detoxication) in treating HIV/AIDS patients in the early or middle stage. Methods: Adopted was randomized double-blinded and placebo-parallel-controlled method, with 72 HIV/AIDS patients randomly divided into the ZY-4 group (36 patients) treated with ZY-4 and the control group (36 patients) treated with placebo. The treatment course was six months. The index of CD4+ , CD8+ counts, body weight, clinical symptom scoring were estimated at 4 time points (0, 1, 3 and 6 month in the course), and also the viral load before and after treatment. The whole course of observation was completed in 63 patients, 30 in the ZY-4group and 33 in the control group. Results: CD4 + count in the ZY-4 group got elevated by 7.70 ± 150.96/mm3on average, while that in the control group lowered by 27.33±85.28 /mm3. Fifteen out of the 30 patients in the ZY-4 group had their CD4+ count increased, which was evidently much higher than that in the control group (8/33, P<0.05), suggesting that the efficacy of ZY-4 is superior to that of placebo in elevating CD4 +count. Moreover, ZY-4 showed actions in elevating CD45RA+ and CD8+ count, reducing HIV virus load, improving clinical symptom/sign and increasing body weight of patients. No obvious adverse reaction was found in the clinical trial. Conclusion: ZY-4 has an immunity-protective and/or rebuilding function in HIV/AIDS patients in the early and middle stage, and also shows effects in lowering viral load, increasing body weight and improving symptoms and signs to a certain degree.

  6. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervoort Gerald


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study.

  7. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  8. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  9. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  10. Stress: How Does It Affect Your Life? Advance Guidance (Individual Quest), Lesson Plan No. 2. (United States)

    Kawamata, Pauline

    This lesson plan focuses on the definition, kinds, and causes of stress, and explores some ways of coping with stress. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the plan was developed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; requirements for student materials; course objectives; bibliographic references; and special remarks…

  11. Medical progress, psychological factors and global care of the patient: lessons from the treatment of childhood leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Digilio


    Full Text Available The history of treatment of childhood leukemia is a meaningful model of ethical, bioethical and organizational repercussions of medical progress. Specifically, it has provided precious indications and very useful tools to cope with several of the more important problems of modern medicine: the value of controlled randomized studies; the risks of intense medicalization impairing the quality of care; the importance of a valid doctor-patient relationship; the psycho-emotive involvement of the pediatric staff; and last but not least, the need of an unrelenting effort of humanization of the procedures and environments, hand in hand with the frequent adjustments of the protocols according to scientific and technological progress. Finally, the authors comment upon the first cures (1962-1966 observed in the Pediatrics Clinic of the Sapienza University of Rome.

  12. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  14. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  15. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience. (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V


    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  16. Lessons learned from the application of whole-genome analysis to the treatment of patients with advanced cancers. (United States)

    Laskin, Janessa; Jones, Steven; Aparicio, Samuel; Chia, Stephen; Ch'ng, Carolyn; Deyell, Rebecca; Eirew, Peter; Fok, Alexandra; Gelmon, Karen; Ho, Cheryl; Huntsman, David; Jones, Martin; Kasaian, Katayoon; Karsan, Aly; Leelakumari, Sreeja; Li, Yvonne; Lim, Howard; Ma, Yussanne; Mar, Colin; Martin, Monty; Moore, Richard; Mungall, Andrew; Mungall, Karen; Pleasance, Erin; Rassekh, S Rod; Renouf, Daniel; Shen, Yaoqing; Schein, Jacqueline; Schrader, Kasmintan; Sun, Sophie; Tinker, Anna; Zhao, Eric; Yip, Stephen; Marra, Marco A


    Given the success of targeted agents in specific populations it is expected that some degree of molecular biomarker testing will become standard of care for many, if not all, cancers. To facilitate this, cancer centers worldwide are experimenting with targeted "panel" sequencing of selected mutations. Recent advances in genomic technology enable the generation of genome-scale data sets for individual patients. Recognizing the risk, inherent in panel sequencing, of failing to detect meaningful somatic alterations, we sought to establish processes to integrate data from whole-genome analysis (WGA) into routine cancer care. Between June 2012 and August 2014, 100 adult patients with incurable cancers consented to participate in the Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) study. Fresh tumor and blood samples were obtained and used for whole-genome and RNA sequencing. Computational approaches were used to identify candidate driver mutations, genes, and pathways. Diagnostic and drug information were then sought based on these candidate "drivers." Reports were generated and discussed weekly in a multidisciplinary team setting. Other multidisciplinary working groups were assembled to establish guidelines on the interpretation, communication, and integration of individual genomic findings into patient care. Of 78 patients for whom WGA was possible, results were considered actionable in 55 cases. In 23 of these 55 cases, the patients received treatments motivated by WGA. Our experience indicates that a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and scientists can implement a paradigm in which WGA is integrated into the care of late stage cancer patients to inform systemic therapy decisions.

  17. Iron toxicity and its possible association with treatment of Cancer: lessons from hemoglobinopathies and rare, transfusion-dependent anemias. (United States)

    Puliyel, Mammen; Mainous, Arch G; Berdoukas, Vasilios; Coates, Thomas D


    Exposure to elevated levels of iron causes tissue damage and organ failure, and increases the risk of cancer. The toxicity of iron is mediated through generation of oxidants. There is also solid evidence indicating that oxidant stress plays a significant role in a variety of human disease states, including malignant transformation. Iron toxicity is the main focus when managing thalassemia. However, the short- and long-term toxicities of iron have not been extensively considered in children and adults treated for malignancy, and only recently have begun to draw oncologists' attention. The treatment of malignancy can markedly increase exposure of patients to elevated toxic iron species without the need for excess iron input from transfusion. This under-recognized exposure likely enhances organ toxicity and may contribute to long-term development of secondary malignancy and organ failure. This review discusses the current understanding of iron metabolism, the mechanisms of production of toxic free iron species in humans, and the relation of the clinical marker, transferrin saturation (TS), to the presence of toxic free iron. We will present epidemiological data showing that high TS is associated with poor outcomes and development of cancer, and that lowering free iron may improve outcomes. Finally, we will discuss the possible relation between some late complications seen in survivors of cancer and those due to iron toxicity.

  18. Lessons learned from peginesatide in the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease in patients on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik T


    Full Text Available Tarun Kaushik, Muhammad Magdi YaqoobBarts Health NHS Trust, William Harvey Research Unit, London, UKAbstract: Peginesatide is the newest erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA in the quest for the ideal treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Reduced frequency of administration along with a possibly lower cost as a result of simpler manufacturing techniques compared with other available agents makes peginesatide a highly desirable product in the competitive ESA market. Peginesatide is noninferior to the other ESAs, and has a good safety profile in patients on hemodialysis. The higher rates of adverse cardiovascular events reported in CKD patients not on dialysis in the recent Phase III studies require further, better planned, studies. Peginesatide had to be withdrawn from the market in the US after some reports of hypersensitivity reactions to the drug. This is a setback, but the scientific advances gained as a result of this product development can be used to develop other, newer products.Keywords: anemia, hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease, peginesatide

  19. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T.; Atzori, C.; Miller, R.F.;


    .2] and 2.7 [95% CI: 1.3 to 4.0], respectively) but were considerably lower for intravenous pentamidine (44%; OR = 0.8 [95% CI: 0.6 to 1.0]). CONCLUSIONS: Clindamycin-primaquine is an alternative to intravenous pentamidine as second-line treatment for PCP in patients who fail treatment with TMP-SMX. TMP...

  20. [Post-transfusional AIDS]. (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A


    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  1. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  2. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  3. Types of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  4. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process. (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong


    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process.

  5. "Conditional scholarships" for HIV/AIDS health workers: educating and retaining the workforce to provide antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E


    Without large increases in the number of health workers to treat HIV/AIDS (HAHW) many countries in sub-Saharan Africa will be unable to achieve universal coverage with antiretroviral treatment (ART), leading to large numbers of avoidable deaths among people living with HIV/AIDS. We conduct a cost-benefit analysis of a health care education scholarship that is conditional on the recipient committing to work for several years after graduation delivering ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Such a scholarship could address two of the main reasons for the low numbers of health workers in sub-Saharan Africa: low education rates and high emigration rates. We use Markov Monte Carlo microsimulation to estimate the expected net present value (eNPV) of "conditional scholarships" in sub-Saharan Africa. The scholarships are highly eNPV-positive under a wide range of assumptions. Conditional scholarships for a HAHW team sufficient to provide ART for 500 patients have an eNPV of 1.24 million year-2000 US dollars, assuming that the scholarship recipients are in addition to the health workers who would have been educated without scholarships and that the scholarships reduce annual HAHW emigration probabilities from 15% to 5% for five years. The eNPV of the education effect of the scholarships is larger than eNPV of the migration effect. Policy makers should consider implementing "conditional scholarships" for HAHW, especially in countries where health worker education capacity is currently underutilized or can be rapidly expanded.

  6. Severe personality disorder, treatment engagement and the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012: what you need to know. (United States)

    McRae, Leon


    Empirical research has demonstrated a link between legal coercion and treatment engagement following conviction among those with severe personality disorder. Legal coercive pressures were often applied by the Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection (IPP), until it was replaced by the Extended Determinate Sentence by the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012. In this paper, it is proposed that use of the new determinate sentence will lessen motivation for treatment engagement. One effect of treatment refusal may be greater reliance by the Secretary of State for Justice on his jurisdiction to transfer prisoners due for release to secure hospital transfers under the Mental Health Act 1983. Not only will this risk posturing undermine the principal aim of the Offender Personality Disorder Implementation Pathway to improve treatment engagement among the target group, it will also have negative implications for medical practitioners working in secure forensic hospitals. To demonstrate what is at stake, the paper briefly recapitulates empirical findings familiar to readers of the journal, before drawing on original unpublished data.

  7. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan


    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  8. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  9. TSG助听器用于耳鸣患者的临床结果%The Effect of TSG Hearing Aids on the Treatment of Tinnitus Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海红; 张峰; 张华; 冯定香


    目的 评估TSG助听器(GN Resound Live 9 TS)改善患者耳鸣的效果,从而检验该技术用于治疗单纯性耳鸣和耳鸣伴有听力障碍患者的可行性和疗效.方法 采用耳鸣残疾评估量表(TinnitusHandicap Inventory,THI)作为评估素材,分别对9名受试者在TSG助听器配戴前后的耳鸣残疾程度进行评估.结果 ①全部受试者配戴GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器前后THI总分和各条目得分均有显著性差异(P<0.0001) ; ②GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器配戴前后受试者THI的功能性、情感性及严重性得分均得到显著性改善(P<0.0001).结论 GN Resound Live 9 TS助听器对单纯耳鸣受试者或耳鸣伴有轻中度感音神经性听力损失者均显示出明显的改善作用.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of Tinnitus Sound Generator (TSG) hearing aid (GN Resound Live 9 TS) in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was used to assess the degree of tinnitus in 9 subjects before and after wearing TSG hearing aids. Results The THI scores after 8 weeks of trial were significantly lower than the baseline scores(P<0.0001). The significant improvements were found in the functional, emotional and catastrophic THI scores after wearing the TSG hearing aids(P<0.0001).Conclusion Based on the assessment results, the GN Resound Live 9 TS hearing aid is an effective instrument to treat tinnitus patients with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses or with normal hearing even after a short period of use.

  10. Current Situation and Prospect of HIV/AIDS Research on Prevention and Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医药防治HIV/AIDS研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 马建萍; 马秀兰; 艾合买提·阿不都热依木; 李静茹; 曾琳


    阐述国内对HIV/AIDS中医证候及中医药治疗方面的研究现状;简介新疆地区开展HIV/AIDS中医证候分布规律研究及中医药治疗研究的成果;总结目前我国中医药防治HIV/AIDS研究中存在的问题,并对此提出展望性意见。%This article was aimed to introduce the research status on HIV/AIDS TCM syndrome and Chinese medicine treatment in China . It also elaborates on the results of HIV/AIDS TCM syndrome and Chinese medicine treatment in X inj iang region . A summary of the existing problems in the research of HIV/AIDS with TCM preven-tion and treatment in China was given and suggestions were put forward .

  11. "Volunteers are not paid because they are priceless": community health worker capacities and values in an AIDS treatment intervention in urban Ethiopia. (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth


    This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities.

  12. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care. (United States)

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E


    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  13. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗政策和策略分析与思考%Analysis of antiretroviral treatment policy and strategy for AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 赵燕; 晋灿瑞; 陈清峰


    目的 把握艾滋病抗病毒治疗政策和策略现状,分析存在的问题,为调整完善艾滋病抗病毒治疗机制提供建议.方法 采用文献回顾、数据资料收集和现场调查的方法.结果 中国制定落实了艾滋病病人免费抗病毒治疗的政策和策略,建立了医疗机构和疾病预防控制机构服务相结合的治疗模式,探索建立了免费抗病毒治疗的药品供应、经费保障机制,将抗病毒治疗药品纳入城镇职工基本医疗保险支付范围,推动了抗病毒治疗工作的迅速开展,明显降低了病人的病死率.当前抗病毒治疗工作面临治疗服务规模和能力有限、治疗药品供应和管理机制不能适合治疗发展需要、治疗与现行基本医疗保障体系脱节、流动人口异地治疗办法尚不完善等问题.结论 需要进一步健全以定点医疗机构为依托的抗病毒治疗服务体系,结合医改重建满足治疗需求的免费抗病毒治疗药品供应保障机制,将抗病毒治疗纳入现行的医疗保障范围,加快探索异地抗病毒治疗的办法.%Objective To understand the current situation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) policies and strategies for AIDS response in China, analyze problems confronted, and recommend the adjustment and improvement of ART mechanism. Methods Literature review, data and documental materials collection and field study were conducted. Results China developed and implemented free ART policies and strategies for AIDS patients, established ART models combining services by medical institutions and disease control institutions, and explored model of free ART drug supply and funding. ART expenditure was included in the basic medical insurance system of urban and township employees. These measures promoted rapid progress of ART service provision and significantly decreased mortality rate of AIDS patients. The problems faced by the present ART mechanism include: limitation in terms of scale and capacity

  14. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia (2006-2012):Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Olusegun Ayorinde Babaniyi; Mary Katepa Bwalya; Sarai Malumo; Busiku Hamainza; Peter Songolo; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Martin Meremikwu; Lawrence Kazembe; Jacob Mufunda


    Objective: To assess potential determinants of uptake and highlight lessons learnt from the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), given to pregnant women as early as possible during the second trimester in Zambia. Methods: Data from four national malaria surveys (2006, 2008, 2010, 2012) were reviewed, and proportions of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) who received two or more doses of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp2) were compared by place of residence, education level, and wealth status. Malaria cases and deaths in pregnant women, from Health Information Management System 2011–2013, were analyzed to determine malaria burden in pregnancy in Zambia. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to identify potential determinants of IPTp uptake. Results: The proportion of pregnant women who took IPTp at ANCs increased from near zero at inception in 2001 to 61.9%in 2006;and to 72%by 2012 (P<0.001), and overall the uptake was 1.41 times higher in 2012 compared to 2006. From 2006 to 2012, IPTp2 uptake among women with no formal education increased from 51% to 68%(P < 0.1). Likewise, uptake among pregnant women with the lowest wealth index increased from 58.2%to 61.2%. By 2012, IPTp uptake among pregnant women within the lowest wealth index increased to a similar level as the women with high wealth index (P = 0.05). Incidence of malaria cases, hospital admissions and mortality during preg-nancy decreased between 2011 and 2013. Overall, increased IPTp uptake was associated with being in urban areas (OR=1.56, 95%CI:1.39–1.74), having college (OR=1.83, 95%CI:1.25–2.75) or secondary education (OR=1.68, 95%CI:1.44–1.96) or of being of higher wealth status (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.60–2.17). Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  15. Increased uptake of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnant women in Zambia(2006–2012):Potential determinants and highlight of lessons learnt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Freddie Masaninga; Mary Katepa Bwalya; Sarai Malumo; Busiku Hamainza; Peter Songolo; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Martin Meremikwu; Lawrence Kazembe; Jacob Mufunda; Olusegun Ayorinde Babaniyi


    Objective:To assess potential determinants of uptake and highlight lessons learnt from the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment(IPTp), given to pregnant women as early as possible during the second trimester in Zambia.Methods: Data from four national malaria surveys(2006, 2008, 2010, 2012) were reviewed, and proportions of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics(ANCs) who received two or more doses of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine(IPTp2) were compared by place of residence, education level, and wealth status. Malaria cases and deaths in pregnant women, from Health Information Management System 2011–2013, were analyzed to determine malaria burden in pregnancy in Zambia. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to identify potential determinants of IPTp uptake.Results: The proportion of pregnant women who took IPTp at ANCs increased from near zero at inception in 2001 to 61.9% in 2006; and to 72% by 2012(P < 0.001), and overall the uptake was 1.41 times higher in 2012 compared to 2006. From 2006 to 2012,IPTp2 uptake among women with no formal education increased from 51% to 68%(P < 0.1). Likewise, uptake among pregnant women with the lowest wealth index increased from 58.2% to 61.2%. By 2012, IPTp uptake among pregnant women within the lowest wealth index increased to a similar level as the women with high wealth index(P = 0.05). Incidence of malaria cases, hospital admissions and mortality during pregnancy decreased between 2011 and 2013. Overall, increased IPTp uptake was associated with being in urban areas(OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.39–1.74), having college(OR = 1.83,95% CI: 1.25–2.75) or secondary education(OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.44–1.96) or of being of higher wealth status(OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.60–2.17).Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.

  16. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  17. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma) (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma) (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  20. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  1. NASA Engineering Network Lessons Learned (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Lessons Learned system provides access to official, reviewed lessons learned from NASA programs and projects. These lessons have been made available to the...

  2. Profile of once-daily darunavir/cobicistat fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Navarro, Jordi; Curran, Adrian


    Efficacy is the main objective of antiretroviral treatment and adherence is one of the cornerstones to achieve it. For this reason, treatment simplification is of key importance with regard to antiretroviral regimens. Rezolsta® (darunavir/cobicistat) is the first fixed-dose combination containing a protease inhibitor approved for HIV treatment. This coformulation includes darunavir, a protease inhibitor that has shown its efficacy and safety in naïve and treatment-experienced patients, and cobicistat, the new pharmacokinetic enhancer that is expected to replace ritonavir. Bioequivalence between ritonavir and cobicistat as darunavir boosters has been shown in studies involving healthy volunteers. Furthermore, efficacy and safety of darunavir/cobicistat observed in phase III studies, including naïve and pretreated patients without darunavir-associated resistance mutations, are comparable to historical data of darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily formulation. Adverse events with darunavir/cobicistat are scarce and mild, and basically include skin reactions and gastrointestinal disturbances. Although small increases in plasma creatinine are expected in patients receiving cobicistat due to the inhibition of creatinine transporters in kidney tubules, actual glomerular filtrate rate remains unaltered. Cobicistat does not have an inducer effect on metabolic pathways and shows much more selective inhibition than ritonavir. Therefore, isoenzyms different from CYP3A4 are supposed to be less affected by cobicistat, and thus fewer drug–drug interactions are expected. PMID:27843352

  3. Profile of once-daily darunavir/cobicistat fixed-dose combination for the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro J


    Full Text Available Jordi Navarro, Adrian Curran Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Efficacy is the main objective of antiretroviral treatment and adherence is one of the cornerstones to achieve it. For this reason, treatment simplification is of key importance with regard to antiretroviral regimens. Rezolsta® (darunavir/cobicistat is the first fixed-dose combination containing a protease inhibitor approved for HIV treatment. This coformulation includes darunavir, a protease inhibitor that has shown its efficacy and safety in naïve and treatment-experienced patients, and cobicistat, the new pharmacokinetic enhancer that is expected to replace ritonavir. Bioequivalence between ritonavir and cobicistat as darunavir boosters has been shown in studies involving healthy volunteers. Furthermore, efficacy and safety of darunavir/cobicistat observed in phase III studies, including naïve and pretreated patients without darunavir-associated resistance mutations, are comparable to historical data of darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily formulation. Adverse events with darunavir/cobicistat are scarce and mild, and basically include skin reactions and gastrointestinal disturbances. Although small increases in plasma creatinine are expected in patients receiving cobicistat due to the inhibition of creatinine transporters in kidney tubules, actual glomerular filtrate rate remains unaltered. Cobicistat does not have an inducer effect on metabolic pathways and shows much more selective inhibition than ritonavir. Therefore, isoenzyms different from CYP3A4 are supposed to be less affected by cobicistat, and thus fewer drug–drug interactions are expected. Keywords: darunavir, cobicistat, fixed-dose combination, HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment

  4. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration on drug therapy for tuberculosis is a common cause of hospital admission in Africa. Potential causes for clinical deterioration in settings of high HIV-1 prevalence include drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, co-morbid illnesses, poor adherence to therapy, tuberculosis associated-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS and subtherapeutic antitubercular drug levels. It is important to derive a rapid diagnostic work-up to determine the cause of clinical deterioration as well as specific management to prevent further clinical deterioration and death. We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration. METHOD: A prospective observational study conducted during the first quarter of 2007. We defined clinical deterioration as clinical worsening or failure to stabilise after 14 or more days of antitubercular treatment, resulting in hospital referral. We collected data on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, HIV-1 status and antiretroviral treatment, and investigated reasons for clinical deterioration as well as outcome. RESULTS: During this period, 352 TB patients met inclusion criteria; 296 were admitted to hospital accounting for 17% of total medical admissions (n = 1755. Eighty three percent of TB patients (291/352 were known to be HIV-1 co-infected with a median CD4 count of 89cells/mm(3 (IQR 38-157. Mortality among TB patients admitted to hospital was 16% (n = 48. The median duration of hospital admission was 9.5 days (IQR 4-18, longer than routine in this setting (4 days. Among patients in whom HIV-1 status was known (n = 324, 72% of TB patients (n = 232 had an additional illness to tuberculosis; new AIDS defining illnesses (n = 80 were the most frequent additional illnesses (n = 208 in HIV-1 co-infected patients (n

  5. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni


    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  6. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair


    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  7. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochstadt Jenny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  8. HIV/AIDS合并普外科疾病临床诊治分析%Clinical diagnosis and treatment of general surgical diseases of HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东; 何清; 陶红光; 宗华; 钱福永; 李红春


    目的:探讨合并普外科疾病HIV/AIDS患者手术治疗的疗效及职业防护。方法本院自2011年1月至2014年1月共对91例HIV/AIDS合并普外科疾病患者实施了手术,对其临床资料和处理方法进行回顾性分析。结果91例普外科手术包括:左半肝切除术1例,胆囊切除+胆总管切开取石+T管引流术2例,腹腔镜下胆囊切除术1例;甲状腺癌根治术1例,甲状腺次全切除术2例,乳腺癌改良根治术1例;腹股沟疝修补术4例,直肠良性肿瘤切除术2例,阑尾切除术1例,乙状结肠穿孔修补+降结肠造瘘术1例,胃癌根治术1例,小肠部分切除术1例,肛瘘切除或挂线术23例,肛周脓肿切开引流术9例,混合痔切除术2例;颈部淋巴结结核病灶清除术12例,腋窝脓肿切开引流术5例,浅表淋巴结活检术16例,浅表肿物切除术6例。术后Ⅰ类切口患者未使用抗菌药物,Ⅱ、Ⅲ类切口患者使用抗菌药物预防感染或治疗。91例患者均安全度过围手术期,无1例死亡。术后伤口一期愈合45例,延期愈合46例。在所有手术中发生1例手术医生职业暴露,经过紧急局部处理和定时检测,未口服抗病毒药物,未发生HIV感染。结论 HIV/AIDS不是普外科手术的禁忌证,合理的手术治疗是挽救部分HIV/AIDS患者唯一有效的方法。医务人员应对HIV/AIDS患者实施手术应持积极态度;只要术中严格职业防护,严守操作规程,医务人员是可以避免医源性感染的。建议各大综合性医院开设感染手术室,积极收治此类患者;且能够建立完善的职业暴露处理预案和保障体系。%Objective To investigate the effects of surgical treatment for general surgical diseases of HIV/AIDS patients and to study the occupational protection. Methods From January 2011 to January 2014, a total of 91 HIV/AIDS patients with general surgical diseases were taken kinds of operations

  9. Plasma polymer coatings to aid retinal pigment epithelial growth for transplantation in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. (United States)

    Kearns, Victoria; Mistry, Anita; Mason, Sharon; Krishna, Yamini; Sheridan, Carl; Short, Robert; Williams, Rachel L


    Subretinal transplantation of functioning retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown on a synthetic substrate is a potential treatment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. Plasma polymers give the opportunity to tailor the surface chemistry of the artificial substrate whilst maintaining the bulk properties. In this study, plasma polymers with different functionalities were investigated in terms of their effect on RPE attachment and growth. Plasma polymers of acrylic acid (AC), allyl amine (AM) and allyl alcohol (AL) were fabricated and characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements. Octadiene (OD) hydrocarbon films and tissue culture polystyrene were used as controls. Wettability varied from hydrophobic OD to relatively hydrophilic AC. XPS demonstrated four very different surfaces with the expected functionalities. Attachment, proliferation and morphological examination of an RPE cell line and primary RPE cells were investigated. Both cell types grew on all surfaces, with the exception of OD, although the proliferation rate of primary cells was low. Good epithelial morphology was also demonstrated. Plasma polymerised films show potential as cell carrier surfaces for RPE cells in the treatment of AMD.

  10. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.


    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  11. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar


    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Attonito


    Full Text Available Neurocognitive (NC impairment remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH and may be exacerbated by alcohol and drug use. This cross-sectional study assesses the degree to which alcohol and other drug use, time from HIV diagnosis to treatment, and years living with HIV affect three areas of NC functioning among HIV-seropositive adults. NC functioning in 370 PLWH living in Miami, FL was assessed using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT, the Short Category Test, Booklet Format (SCT, and the Color Trails Test 2 (CTT2. Participants reported the number of days using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine over the previous three months, the number of known years living with HIV and length of time from HIV diagnosis to seeking care. Bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression were used to test associations between independent and dependent variables. Mean scores on NC measures were significantly lower than published norms; 39% of participants scored >1 standard deviation below normative sample means on >2 NC tests. No significant associations were found between alcohol or cocaine use and any NC measure. Years living with HIV was associated with CTT2 in the bivariate analysis (β=1.031; p=0.007. In multivariate analysis, each day of marijuana use and years living with HIV were associated with a .32 (p=0.05 point and 1.18 (p=0.03 point poorer performance score on the CTT2, respectively. Results suggest that both marijuana use and duration of HIV infection may affect cognitive functioning among PLWH in ways that may impair their ability to follow important treatment guidance.

  13. Mini Lessons from FDA. (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Eight self-contained lessons present information about topics of current interest in the Food and Drug Administration. Multidisciplinary in nature, the lessons can be integrated into ongoing activities in elementary or secondary level reading, math, language arts, social studies, science, art, health, consumer education, and home economics. The…

  14. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  15. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  16. Soybean Production Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  17. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  18. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  19. "Walden". [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Surber, Gretchen C.

    Based on Henry David Thoreau's book "Walden," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that acquisitiveness and simplicity can be opposing life philosophies; and that both philosophies have had notable adherents. The main activity of the lesson involves students researching historical characters (including Thoreau)…

  20. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral

  1. Teaching AIDS. (United States)

    Short, R V


    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  2. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  3. How Does a Lesson Plan? (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This manual for secondary school teachers offers sample lesson plans that may be used to guide and stimulate experimentation and development of creative instructional units. Lesson plan components are defined, and various types of lessons and their significant characteristics are identified. These characteristic types of lessons are illustrated,…

  4. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinapori R


    Full Text Available Roberta Prinapori,1 Antonio Di Biagio2 1Infectious Diseases, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy Abstract: The fixed-dose combination (FDC elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat associated with two nucleos(tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC’s efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients’ needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV

  5. After the Global Fund: who can sustain the HIV/AIDS response in Peru and how? (United States)

    Amaya, Ana B; Caceres, Carlos F; Spicer, Neil; Balabanova, Dina


    Peru has received around $70 million from Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. This study examines the transition from Global Fund support to increasing national HIV/AIDS funding in Peru (2004-2012) by analysing actor roles, motivations and effects on policies, identifying recommendations to inform decision-makers on priority areas. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted from October to December 2011 in Lima, Peru, among key stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS work. Findings show that Global Fund involvement led to important breakthroughs in the HIV/AIDS response, primarily concerning treatment access, focus on vulnerable populations and development of a coordination body. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty. Strengthening government and regional capacity and fostering accountability mechanisms will facilitate an effective transition to government-led financing. Only then can achievements gained from the Global Fund presence be maintained, providing lessons for countries seeking to sustain programmes following donor exit.

  6. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey


    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional…

  7. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Elionai C. de L.; Mussel, Wagner N.; Resende, Jarbas M.; Yoshida, Maria I., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Fialho, Silvia L.; Barbosa, Jamile; Fialho, Silvia L. [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)



    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  9. Effect of HIV/AIDS and malaria on the context for introduction of zinc treatment and low-osmolarity ORS for childhood diarrhoea. (United States)

    Winch, Peter J; Gilroy, Kate E; Fischer Walker, Christa L


    Diarrhoea was estimated to account for 18% of the estimated 10.6 million deaths of children aged less than five years annually in 2003. Two--Africa and South-East Asia--of the six regions of the World Health Organization accounted for approximately 40% and 31% of these deaths respectively, or almost three-quarters of the global annual deaths of children aged less than five years attributable to diarrhoea. Much of the effort to roll out low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) and supplementation of zinc for the management of diarrhoea accordingly is being devoted to sub-Saharan Africa and to South and South-East Asia. A number of significant differences exist in diarrhoea-treatment behaviours and challenges of the public-health systems between Africa and Asia. The differences in rates of ORS use are the most common indicator of treatment of diarrhoea and vary dramatically by and within region and may significantly influence the roll-out strategy for zinc and low-osmolarity ORS. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the endemicity of malaria also differ greatly between regions; both the diseases consume the attention and financial commitment of public-health programmes in regions where rates are high. This paper examined how these differences could affect the context for the introduction of zinc and low-osmolarity ORS at various levels, including the process of policy dialogue with local decision-makers, questions to be addressed in formative research, implementation approaches, and strategies for behaviour-change communication and training of health workers.

  10. Speakeasy: A Text for Speaking, Volume 2. English for Special Purposes Series: Nursing Aide. (United States)

    Clark, Marybeth

    This is the second of three volumes devoted to improving speech skills, in a series of materials for teachinq Enqlish as a second language to adult nursing aide students. Five units contain five lessons each. The following subjects are covered: (1) introductions on the job and orientation for the newly-hired nursing aide; (2) the present…

  11. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambert Elodie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  12. Variation in attrition at sub-national level: Review of the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment (Masa) program data (2002–2013) (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Price, Natalie; El-Halabi, Shenaaz; Mlaudzi, Naledi; Keapoletswe, Koona; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Fetogang, Ernest Benny; Chebani, Tony; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Masupe, Tiny; Gabaake, Keba; Auld, Andrew; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Marlink, Richard


    Objective To evaluate the variation in all-cause attrition (mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU)) among HIV-infected individuals in Botswana by health district during the rapid and massive scale-up of the National Treatment Program. Methods Analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 226,030 patients who received ART through the Botswana National HIV/AIDS Treatment Program across all 24 health districts from 2002 to 2013. A time-to-event analysis was used to measure crude mortality and loss to follow-up rates (LTFU). A marginal structural model was used to evaluate mortality and LTFU rates by district over time, adjusted for individual-level risk factors (e.g., age, gender, baseline CD4, year of treatment initiation, and antiretroviral regimen). Results Mortality rates in the districts ranged from the lowest 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.1) in Selibe-Phikwe, to the highest 5.0 (95% CI 4.0–6.1), in Mabutsane. There was a wide range of overall LTFU across districts, including rates as low as 4.6 (95% CI 4.4–4.9) losses per 100 person-years in Ngamiland, and 5.9 (95% CI 5.6–6.2) losses per 100 person-years in South East, to rates as high as 25.4 (95% CI 23.08–27.89) losses per 100 person-years in Mabutsane and 46.3 (95% CI 43.48–49.23) losses per 100 person-years in Okavango. Even when known risk factors for mortality and LTFU were adjusted for, district was a significant predictor of both mortality and LTFU rates Conclusion We found statistically significant variation in attrition (mortality and LTFU) and data quality among districts. These findings suggest that district-level contextual factors affect retention in treatment. Further research needs to investigate factors that can potentially cause this variation. PMID:26485172

  13. New law requires 'medically accurate' lesson plans. (United States)


    The California Legislature has passed a bill requiring all textbooks and materials used to teach about AIDS be medically accurate and objective. Statements made within the curriculum must be supported by research conducted in compliance with scientific methods, and published in peer-reviewed journals. Some of the current lesson plans were found to contain scientifically unsupported and biased information. In addition, the bill requires material to be "free of racial, ethnic, or gender biases." The legislation is supported by a wide range of interests, but opposed by the California Right to Life Education Fund, because they believe it discredits abstinence-only material.

  14. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.


    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  15. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.


    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  16. Lessons of Educational Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Repetto


    Full Text Available Reception of the book "Lessons of Educational Technology." The book contains materials work in certain aspects relevant to the formation of a teacher who is able to meet the challenges of society 'knowledge.

  17. (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from Read more tweets HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  18. Aids for Handicapped Readers. (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  19. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)


    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  20. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  1. HIV care visits and time to viral suppression, 19 U.S. jurisdictions, and implications for treatment, prevention and the national HIV/AIDS strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Irene Hall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early and regular care and treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are associated with viral suppression, reductions in transmission risk and improved health outcomes for persons with HIV. We determined, on a population level, the association of care visits with time from HIV diagnosis to viral suppression. METHODS: Using data from 19 areas reporting HIV-related tests to national HIV surveillance, we determined time from diagnosis to viral suppression among 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009, followed through December 2011, using data reported through December 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed factors associated with viral suppression, including linkage to care within 3 months of diagnosis, a goal set forth by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and number of HIV care visits as determined by CD4 and viral load test results, while controlling for demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics. RESULTS: Of 17,028 persons diagnosed with HIV during 2009 in the 19 areas, 76.6% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis and 57.0% had a suppressed viral load during the observation period. Median time from diagnosis to viral suppression was 19 months overall, and 8 months among persons with an initial CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/µL. During the first 12 months after diagnosis, persons linked to care within 3 months experienced shorter times to viral suppression (higher rate of viral suppression per unit time, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.84 versus not linked within 3 months; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.27, 5.48. Persons with a higher number of time-updated care visits also experienced a shorter time to viral suppression (HR = 1.51 per additional visit, 95% CI 1.49, 1.52. CONCLUSIONS: Timely linkage to care and greater frequency of care visits were associated with faster time to viral suppression with implications for individual health outcomes and for secondary prevention.

  2. 艾滋病诊疗中护总伦理关系的探讨%On Nurse- Patient Ethical Relationship during the Diagnosis and Treatment of AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 翁守能; 吴建瑜; 倪仁芳


    在艾滋病诊疗中,护患伦理关系的问题主要有知情同意权在护理过程中引发的护患伦理矛盾、患者病态时造成危害与护士职业道德的矛盾、护理带教与患者心理的伦理矛盾.针对上述矛盾,提出加强护理伦理学知识的学习、提高护士专业水平,在护理及带教过程中,采取尊重患者的人格和隐私权等伦理学措施改善护患关系,最终帮助患者减轻痛苦,提高生命质量.%The main problems of nurse - patient ethical relationship during the diagnosis and treatment of AIDS include the contradiction between nurses and patients caused by informed consent rights, the contradiction between the hazards caused by morbid patients and nursing professional ethics, and the ethical conflicts between nursing teaching and patients' psychological condition. This paper analyzed the above contradictions, and carried out countermeasures including strengthening nursing ethics learning, improving nurses'professional qualification, and showing enough respect for patients'dignity and privacy during nursing and teaching process, in order to improve the relationship between nurses and patients, alleviate patient's suffering, and eventually improve patient's life quality.

  3. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water. (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata


    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters.

  4. The role of the expedition doctor: lessons from 100 years ago. (United States)

    Guly, Henry R


    This paper explores the role of the doctor on the expeditions of the heroic age of Antarctic exploration. The medical role includes medical screening of prospective expedition members, choosing medical equipment so as to maintain a balance between being able to cope with any eventuality and the cost and weight of equipment and drugs, health screening during an expedition, first aid training for field parties without a doctor, and, obviously, treatment of any injury or disease that occurs. If injury or illness occurs, the presence of a doctor is of great psychological benefit to the expedition. Although medical experience is important, it is probably more important that the doctor is a "team member," playing a full part in the expedition's aims, whether these are scientific, exploration, or reaching some goal. Most of the lessons learned during these expeditions a hundred years ago are just as relevant today.

  5. Crawling Aid (United States)


    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  6. Related factor analysis of 48 dead patients with AIDS anti-viral treatment%艾滋病抗病毒治疗48例死亡患者相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦秋玲; 韦克召; 韦超; 潘利永; 韦幕葵


    Objective To analyze the related factors of the death in patients undergoing AIDS anti-viral treatment in our hospital. Methods The data were collected by the DataFax antiviral therapy information system which was used to analyze related conditions of dead patients with anti-viral treatment in our hospital. Results In the total of 315 AIDS patients accepted treatment from April of 2008 to June of 2010, in which 48 patients died. Of all the patients showed AIDS clinical Ⅲ stage or V stage symptoms before treatment. Among them the CD4 cell minimum value was 4 cell/μl, the maximum value was 263 cell/μl with the average of 36.4 cell/μl. The minimum treatment time was 1 d, the maximum time was 2 years and a half, of which 38 patients were treated for less than 3 months. 42 patients died due to AIDS-related diseases, including 9 patients who died of unsuccessful treatment. 11 cases died of opportunistic infections and gave up treatment during the treatment at home.22 patients died of AIDS-related diseases in 0.5 month to 8 months after stopping the treatment. Four eases died by suicide,and two cases with an unknown cause of death. Conclusion The main cause of death in our patients undergoing AIDS antiviral treatment was AIDS related disease, others include treatment discontinuation, economic hardship, discrimination and drug side effects.%目的 分析本院艾滋病抗病毒治疗死亡患者的相关因素.方法 利用国家统一使用的DataFax抗病毒治疗信息系统所收集的数据资料,对抗病毒治疗死亡患者的相关情况进行分析.结果 共有315例艾滋病患者接受治疗,有48例抗病毒治疗患者死亡.治疗前所有患者出现艾滋病临床Ⅲ期或Ⅳ期表现,CD4细胞最小值为4个/μl,最大值为263个/μl,平均为36.4个/μl.接受治疗时间最短1 d,最长2年半,其中39例的治疗时间小于3个月.死于艾滋病相关性疾病42例,其中9例系统治疗无效死亡,11例治疗过程中出现机会性感

  7. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  8. Heart attack first aid (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  9. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  10. Relação entre sintomatologia psicopatológica, adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida na infecção HIV e AIDS Relationship among psychopathological symptoms, treatment adherence and quality of life in HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Reis


    Full Text Available O presente estudo observou a existência de relações significativas entre sintomatologia psicopatológica (BSI, adesão ao tratamento (CEAT-VIH e qualidade de vida (WHOQOL-Bref em 125 pessoas HIV-positivo/AIDS em tratamento antirretroviral, atendidos em um hospital do Porto (Portugal. A sintomatologia psicopatológica correlacionou-se negativamente com adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida, e a adesão ao tratamento associou-se positivamente com a qualidade de vida. O modelo preditor de adesão ao tratamento, mediante análise de regressão múltipla, incluiu a ausência de sintomatologia psicopatológica, o comportamento de retirada dos medicamentos na farmácia hospitalar e a presença de efeitos colaterais do tratamento (R² =0,30. Ademais, observou-se um efeito mediador de sintomatologia psicopatológica entre a adesão ao tratamento e a qualidade de vida das pessoas com HIV/AIDS.The study shows evidence of statistical association among psychopathological symptoms (BSI, treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref in 125 HIV-positive/AIDS patients followed at Porto Hospital (Portugal. The psychopathological symptoms present a negative correlation with treatment adherence and quality of life. On the other hand, adherence was positively correlated with quality of life. The model of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment using multiple regression analysis includes absence of psychopathological symptoms, an adherence behavior (i.e. to get the medication at the hospital's pharmacy and the experience of side effects because of medication (R² = 0.30. Besides, psychopathological symptoms have a mediation effect between adherence and quality of life in people with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR


    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  12. Costing of scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment in Mexico Costos del tratamiento de VIH/SIDA en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the net effect of introducing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART in Mexico on total annual per-patient costs for HIV/AIDS care, taking into account potential savings from treatment of opportunistic infections and hospitalizations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective patient chart review and collection of unit cost data were performed to describe the utilization of services and estimate costs of care for 1003 adult HIV+ patients in the public sector. RESULTS: HAART is not cost-saving and the average annual cost per patient increases after initiation of HAART due to antiretrovirals, accounting for 90% of total costs. Hospitalizations do decrease post-HAART, but not enough to offset the increased cost. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up access to HAART is feasible in middle income settings. Since antiretrovirals are so costly, optimizing efficiency in procurement and prescribing is paramount. The observed adherence was low, suggesting that a proportion of these high drug costs translated into limited health benefits.OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto neto de la introducción de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TARAA en México sobre los costos anuales totales por paciente en el tratamiento de VIH/SIDA, tomando en cuenta el posible ahorro en el tratamiento de infecciones oportunistas y hospitalización. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio retrospectivo, multicéntrico, mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los pacientes y la recolección de datos de costos unitarios para describir la utilización de los servicios y calcular los costos de la atención de 1 003 pacientes adultos VIH positivos en el sector público. RESULTADOS: La TARAA no ahorra costos y el costo promedio anual por paciente aumenta después de su inicio debido a los antirretrovirales, que representan 90% del costo total. Las hospitalizaciones disminuyen después de iniciada la TARAA, pero no lo suficiente como para compensar el

  13. Expansion of HAART Coverage Is Associated with Sustained Decreases in HIV/AIDS Morbidity, Mortality and HIV Transmission: The “HIV Treatment as Prevention” Experience in a Canadian Setting


    Montaner, Julio S.G.; Viviane D Lima; P Richard Harrigan; Lillian Lourenço; Benita Yip; Bohdan Nosyk; Evan Wood; Thomas Kerr; Kate Shannon; David Moore; Hogg, Robert S.; Rolando Barrios; Mark Gilbert; Mel Krajden; Reka Gustafson


    BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP). However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regressio...

  14. Analysis and Research Direction of Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS%中医药治疗艾滋病的现状及研究方向初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To analyze the present situation research direction of Chinese Medicine in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Methods; Analyze the present situation of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of AIDS combined with the experience of traditional Chinese medicine with retrospective analysis and comparative analysis methods. Results: Chinese medicine can obviously improve the life quality of AIDS ( AIDS) and improve the clinical symptoms. As well as reduce the opportunistic infections of part of the infected people and the adverse reactions of antiviral treatment with stability CD4 + cells. But the strength is not enough for CD4 + cells and viral load and quality problems. Conclusion: TCM should sum up experience, wisdom and seize the opportunity to prolong the incubation period with low viral load, preparation quality standards as breakthrough alleviating adverse reactions of antiviral drug combined with multidis-ciplinary and multiple areas. Reference citation;Zhang Yi. Analysis and Research Direction of Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS[ J]. China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2013,28(5) :620 -621.%目的:分析中医药治疗艾滋病的现状,并探讨今后的研究方向.方法:结合中医药治疗艾滋病的临床经验,采用回顾性分析、比较分析等方法,分析中医药治疗艾滋病的现状.结果:中医药可明显提高艾滋病患者(AIDS)的生存质量和生活质量,改善AIDS的临床症状,稳定和升高其CD4+T淋巴细胞,减少部分感染者及患者的机会性感染,降低抗病毒治疗的不良反应.但存在药效强度不够、对CD4+T淋巴和病毒载量的疗效难以肯定、制剂质量不稳定等问题.结论:中医应总结经验,集中智慧,抓住机遇,以延长临床潜伏期为目标,以低水平病毒载量为攻击靶点,以治疗“两低”、制剂质量标准为突破,缓解抗病毒药物的不良反应,多学科、多地区联合攻关.

  15. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings. (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H Y; Cole, Donald


    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were 'HIV' or 'AIDS' and 'community-based care' or 'CBC'. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  16. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa


    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way......Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...

  17. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa


    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  18. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte


    The price of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Uganda has fallen dramatically in recent years and more people are under treatment. By mid-2003 it was estimated that 10 000 people were taking ARVs. Drawing on participant observation, qualitative interviews, work with key informants and document re...

  19. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  20. 艾滋病相关病毒性肺炎的诊治研究进展%Research progress in the diagnosis and treatment of AIDS related viral pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣猛; 张伟; 陈志海


    肺部机会性感染是导致艾滋病发病和死亡的重要原因,涉及细菌、真菌、病毒等多种病原体.近年来的报道显示,艾滋病病毒性肺炎的比例较高,临床表现复杂,诊断与治疗难度大.文章对巨细胞病毒、单纯疱疹病毒、水痘—带状疱疹病毒、腺病毒等常见的艾滋病相关病毒性肺炎的诊断、治疗研究进展,以及目前存在的问题进行综述.%For acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, opportunistic pneumonia is a vital cause leading to AIDS morbidity and mortality . The spectrum is broad including bacteria, fungus, virus and many other pathogens. The recent reports have indicated that there is a high rate of AIDS related viral pneumonia which is complicated in its clinical manifestation and difficult to be diagnosed and treated. The article was aimed to summarize the progress in diagnosis and treatment and existing problems of common AIDS related viral pneumonias such as cyto-megalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella -zoster virus, adenovirus, and others.

  1. Vulnerabilidades presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica Vulnerabilidades presentes en la ruta vivida por pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica Vulnerabilities present in the path experienced by patients with HIV / AIDS in treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kelly Rabelo de Sousa


    Full Text Available Um grande avanço no tratamento da AIDS deu-se com o surgimento da terapia antiretroviral. Entretanto, diversas vulnerabilidades podem estar presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes durante o tratamento. Objetivou-se analisar as vulnerabilidades dos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica. Estudo qualitativo realizado com sete usuários com AIDS considerados em falha terapêutica, em uma Unidade de Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado em HIV/AIDS, em Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretação dos dados, utilizou-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo. Nos discursos, percebeu-se que os depoentes enfrentavam conflitos na família e, no ambiente de trabalho, dificuldades de relacionamento com as pessoas e estigma. Observou-se que os pacientes haviam vivenciado diversas situações que os tornaram mais suscetíveis à infecção por HIV e ao adoecimento.Un gran avance en el tratamiento del SIDA se llevó a cabo con el advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral. Sin embargo, numerosas vulnerabilidades pueden estar presentes en la ruta vivida por los pacientes durante el tratamiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las vulnerabilidades de los pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica. Estudio cualitativo en que fueran incluidos siete usuarios con el SIDA y en falla terapéutica, atendidos en una Unidad de Servicios Ambulatorios en VIH / SIDA, en Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretar los datos, se utilizó una técnica de análisis de contenido. Por medio de los discursos, verificó-se que los pacientes enfrentaban conflictos en la familia y, en el trabajo, relaciones difíciles con la gente y el estigma. Fue observado que los pacientes han experimentado muchas situaciones que les hizo más susceptibles a la infección por el VIH y la enfermedad.A major breakthrough in AIDS treatment occurred with the advent of antiretroviral therapy. However, several vulnerabilities may be present in the path experienced by patients during treatment. This

  2. Pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS: variáveis associadas à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral Persons living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento de adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS e investigar preditores da adesão entre as variáveis escolaridade, presença de efeitos colaterais, interrupção anterior da terapia anti-retroviral (TARV por conta própria, auto-estima, expectativa de auto-eficácia, estratégias de enfrentamento, suporte social e satisfação com a relação profissional de saúde-usuário. Adesão foi medida pelo auto-relato da perda do número de comprimidos/cápsulas dos medicamentos anti-retrovirais na última semana e mês, sendo considerada satisfatória na ocorrência de omissão inferior a 5% do total prescrito. Participaram 101 pessoas, 60,4% homens, idades entre 20 a 71 anos (M = 37,9 anos, 73,3% sintomáticos. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista e instrumentos auto-aplicáveis. A maioria (n = 73; 72,3% relatou adesão igual ou superior a 95%. Nos resultados da regressão logística, interrupção anterior da TARV e expectativa de auto-eficácia foram preditores significativos da adesão. Faz-se necessária a qualificação da assistência pela constituição de equipes interdisciplinares, para o desenvolvimento de abordagens adequadas às dificuldades médicas e psicossociais de adesão das pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.This study aimed to describe the adherence of persons living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy (ART and to investigate adherence predictors among the following: level of schooling, presence of side effects, current or previous interruption of ART by the persons themselves, self-esteem, self-efficacy expectation, coping strategies, social support, and satisfaction with the health professional-patient relationship. Adherence was measured by self-reported number of ART pills/capsules missed during the previous week and previous month, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 5%. 101 HIV+ adults took part in this study, 60.4% males, ranging from 20 to 71 years

  3. A Lesson-Planning Model (United States)

    Linder, Sandra M.


    Many models of planning and lesson construction in the United States advocate an objective-driven approach whereby teachers create performance-based goals that their students should accomplish by the end of the lesson. Teachers then evaluate lessons by determining if students have accomplished these objectives. Often, this model of planning…

  4. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way. (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth


    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  5. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis


    Full Text Available Community-based care (CBC can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  6. Depo-provera treatment does not abrogate protection from intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with an attenuated AIDS virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Genescà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study, progesterone treatment of female monkeys immunized with live, attenuated SHIV89.6 abrogated the generally consistent protection from vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV challenge. The mechanisms responsible for the loss of protection remain to be defined. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Depo-Provera administration alters protection from intravenous SIV challenge in SHIV-immunized female macaques. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two groups of female macaques were immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 and then challenged intravenously with SIVmac239. Four weeks before challenge, one animal group was treated with Depo-Provera, a commonly used injectable contraceptive progestin. As expected, SHIV-immunized monkeys had significantly lower peak and set-point plasma viral RNA levels compared to naïve controls, but in contrast to previously published findings with vaginal SIV challenge, the Depo-Provera SHIV-immunized animals controlled SIV replication to a similar, or even slightly greater, degree than did the untreated SHIV-immunized animals. Control of viral replication from week 4 to week 20 after challenge was more consistent in the progesterone-treated, SHIV-immunized animals than in untreated, SHIV-immunized animals. Although levels of interferon-gamma production were similar, the SIV-specific CD8(+ T cells of progesterone-treated animals expressed more functions than the anti-viral CD8(+ T cells from untreated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Depo-Provera did not diminish the control of viral replication after intravenous SIV challenge in female macaques immunized with a live-attenuated lentivirus. This result contrasts with the previously reported effect of Depo-Provera(R on protection from vaginal SIV challenge and strongly implies that the decreased protection from vaginal challenge is due to effects of progesterone on the genital tract rather than to systemic effects. Further, these results

  7. Home Health Aides (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  8. Saving lives for a lifetime: supporting orphans and vulnerable children impacted by HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Nyberg, Beverly J; Yates, Dee Dee; Lovich, Ronnie; Coulibaly-Traore, Djeneba; Sherr, Lorraine; Thurman, Tonya Renee; Sampson, Anita; Howard, Brian


    President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR's) response to the millions of children impacted by HIV/AIDS was to designate 10% of its budget to securing their futures, making it the leading supporter of programs reaching orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) programs globally. This article describes the evolution of PEPFAR's OVC response based on programmatic lessons learned and an evergrowing understanding of the impacts of HIV/AIDS. In launching this international emergency effort and transitioning it toward sustainable local systems, PEPFAR helped establish both the technical content and the central importance of care and support for OVC as a necessary complement to biomedical efforts to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Critical services are reaching millions of HIV-affected children and families through vast networks of community-based responders and strengthened national systems of care. But rapid program scale-up has at times resulted in inconsistent responses, failure to match resources to properly assessed needs, and a dearth of rigorous program evaluations. Key investments should continue to be directed toward more sustainable and effective responses. These include greater attention to children's most significant developmental stages, a focus on building the resilience of families and communities, a proper balance of government and civil society investments, and more rigorous evaluation and research to ensure evidence-based programming. Even as HIV prevalence declines and medical treatment improves and expands, the impacts of HIV/AIDS on children, families, communities, economies, and societies will continue to accumulate for generations. Protecting the full potential of children-and thus of societies-requires sustained and strategic global investments aligned with experience and science.

  9. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  10. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  11. 中医药治疗HIV/AIDS随机对照试验的meta分析%Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on Chinese Medicine Treatment for HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁碧颜; 王健


    Objective:To compare and study the curative effect of TCM treatment of HIV/AIDS from literatures published ending on August 2012.Methods:TCM treatment of HIV/AIDS clinical randomized controlled trials were retrieved,and literatures were evaluated by Jadad measuring scale and literature results were applied with Meta analysis.Results:21 articles of randomized controlled trials(a total of 1774 cases),of which 8 articles were high quality and 13 articles were low quality according to Jadad scale criteria.Meta analysis showed that the value of the combined effect was OR =3.38,95% CI(2.64,4.34),and the value of the total combined effect was Z =9.61,P <0.01,and the difference was statistically significant,which suggested that clinical efficacy of TCM treatment for HIV/AIDS were superior than the control group.Conclusion:The curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of HIV/AIDS is distinct,However,it is still need large samples of high-quality clinical studies to be further verified.%目的:对截止于2012年8月以前已发表的中医药治疗艾滋病及病毒携带者(HIV/AIDS)的文献进行疗效比较研究.方法:检索中医药治疗HIV/AIDS临床随机对照试验,采用杰达德评定量表(亦称牛津评分系统,Jadad measuring scale,JMS)对文献进行评价,并对文献结果进行荟萃分析(Meta Analysis,MA).结果:共纳入21篇随机对照试验文献(共1774例).按照JMS评分标准,其中8篇文献为高质量文献,13篇文献为低质量文献.MA结果显示,合并效应值OR =3.38,95% CI(2.64,4.34),合并总效应Z=9.61,P<0.01,差异有统计学意义,提示中医药治疗HIV/AIDS临床疗效优于对照组.结论:中医药治疗HIV/AIDS疗效显著,但仍有待于大样本高质量临床研究进一步验证.

  12. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy. (United States)

    Richie, Cristina


    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics.

  13. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby


    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...

  14. Household impacts of AIDS: using a life course approach to identify effective, poverty-reducing interventions for prevention, treatment and care. (United States)

    Loewenson, Rene; Hadingham, Jacqui; Whiteside, Alan


    A life course approach was used to assess household level impacts and inform interventions around HIV risk and AIDS vulnerability across seven major age-related stages of life. Our focus was sub-Saharan Africa. We provided a qualitative review of evidence from published literature, particularly multicountry reviews on impacts of AIDS, on determinants of risk and vulnerability, and reports of large surveys. Areas of potential stress from birth to old age in households affected by AIDS, and interventions for dealing with these specific stresses were identified. While specific interventions for HIV are important at different stages, achieving survival and development outcomes demands a wider set of health, social security and development interventions. One way to determine the priorities amongst these actions is to give weighting to interventions that address factors that have latent impacts later in life, which interrupt accumulating risk, or that change pathways to reduce the risk of both immediate and later stress. This qualitative review suggested that interventions, important for life cycle transitions in generalised epidemics where HIV risk and AIDS vulnerability is high, lie within and outside the health sector, and suggested examples of such interventions.

  15. First Aid Procedures for Dental Emergencies. (United States)

    Barsky, Nancy Happel; Londeree, Kathy


    Guidelines for first aid procedures for temporary relief of dental emergencies include information on: (1) dental first aid supplies; (2) treatment of oral injuries; (3) orthodontic emergencies; (4) toothaches; and (5) prolonged bleeding due to an extraction. Consulting a dentist as soon as possible is strongly recommended. (JN)

  16. Clinical Research of Add Dingchuan Tang in the Treatment of Cough by AIDS Patients%定喘汤治疗艾滋病患者咳嗽的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超杰; 姜枫


    Objective; To observe the clinical research of add dingchuan tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients. Methods: 86 ca-ses were divided into treatment group and observation group according to random number table. The control group were given Jizhi syrup orally and the treatment group were given add Dingchuan Tang treatment. Both groups take 7 days as one course of treatment. Results; The effective rate was 92.9% in treatment group and 75. 0% in control group. The curative effect of treatment group was better than control by comparison. The difference has statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Add Dingchuan Tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients has curative effect.%目的:观察定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:按随机数字表法将86例患者分为治疗组和对照组.对照组口服急支糖浆治疗;治疗组服用中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗,两组均7d为1疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为92.9%,对照组有效率为75.0%,两组有效率比较,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效确切.

  17. Bridging the gap: Lessons we have learnt from the merging of psychology and psychiatry for the optimisation of treatments for emotional disorders. (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Callaghan, Bridget L; Richardson, Rick


    In recent years the gap between psychological and psychiatric research and practice has lessened. In turn, greater attention has been paid toward how psychological and pharmacological treatments interact. Unfortunately, the majority of research has indicated no additive effect of anxiolytics and antidepressants when combined with psychological treatments, and in many cases pharmacological treatments attenuate the effectiveness of psychological treatments. However, as psychology and psychiatry have come closer together, research has started to investigate the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying psychological treatments. Such research has utilised preclinical models of psychological treatments, such as fear extinction, in both rodents and humans to determine multiple neural and molecular changes that may be responsible for the long-term cognitive and behavioural changes that psychological treatments induce. Currently, researchers are attempting to identify pharmacological agents that directly augment these neural/molecular changes, and which may be more effective adjuncts to psychological treatments than traditional anxiolytics and antidepressants. In this review we describe the research that has led to this new wave of thinking about combined psychological/pharmacological treatments. We also argue that an increased emphasis on identifying individual difference factors that predict the effectiveness of pharmacological adjuncts is critical in facilitating the translation of this preclinical research into clinical practice.

  18. Dracula. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Bram Stoker's novel "Dracula," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that some fictional literary characters become so famous that they enter popular culture in other forms (movies, games, toys); and that working on a product such as a game often demands collaborative effort. The main activity of the…

  19. From a writing lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mafra Ney Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Beginning with Jacques Derrida's interpolation of the celebrated chapter A Writing Lesson by Claude Lévi-Strauss's, and James Clifford critique of the ethnographic text, the authors of this essay reflect on the written dimension of the ethnographic métier.

  20. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  1. A Lesson from Mangroves. (United States)

    Davis, Stephen


    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  2. A Makeup Lesson. (United States)

    Eagles, Cheryl


    Presents a hands-on lesson that can integrate the use of makeup with studies of the history of Halloween; the history and practices of the theater; Native American or African tribes and their use of paint, makeup, and masks; and the history, skills, and makeup of clowns. (MDH)

  3. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans. (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991


    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  4. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control. (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  5. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  6. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  7. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  8. 自愿咨询检测在艾滋病防治中的作用%The role of voluntary counseling and testing in AIDS prevention and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金燕; 徐丽芳; 胡艳霞; 张昌庆; 朱艳文; 杨慧; 杨元勋


    目前在世界各国,艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)已成为防治艾滋病的一个非常重要的环节.VCT可以帮助人们减少高危性行为,以及减少性病和艾滋病病毒(HIV)的传播,使更多的人接受有关艾滋病和HIV检测的基本知识,了解国家有关政策,帮助HIV感染者积极面对生活.如何更好的发挥VCT的作用,将是今后艾滋病疫情控制中的一个至关重要的问题.%Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) has become a very important part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and treatment in the world.VCT is helpful to reduce high-risk sexual behavior,the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).And it could also help more people accept the basic knowledge about AIDS and HIV testing,understand the relevant policies and to help HIV-infected people face life bravely.How to better play the role of the VCT will be a critical issue in AIDS epidemic control in the future.

  9. Acesso universal? Obstáculos ao acesso, continuidade do uso e gênero em um serviço especializado em HIV/AIDS em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Universal access? Obstacles to access, continuity of treatment, and gender issues at a specialized HIV/AIDS clinic in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Borges Nolasco Oliveira


    Full Text Available Desde 1996, o Brasil mantém políticas internacionalmente conhecidas como de acesso universal ao tratamento especializado em HIV/AIDS. Observa-se, que o impacto da iniciativa tem sido desigual entre diferentes populações e regiões brasileiras. Desde uma perspectiva de gênero, o estudo buscou avaliar o acesso a um serviço especializado em HIV/AIDS localizado em Salvador, Bahia, identificando fatores facilitadores e obstaculizadores ao acesso e continuidade do uso vivenciados por mulheres vivendo com HIV/AIDS. Foram realizadas observação participante e entrevistas semi e não estruturadas com 13 usuárias. Resultados indicaram que a organização das rotinas do serviço e as relações travadas entre usuários e entre eles e trabalhadores em saúde condicionavam-se por valores, concepções e práticas associados a gênero, classe e aparência. O acesso e continuidade do uso no Serviço de Atenção à AIDS de Salvador eram condicionados à disponibilidade de bens sociais e simbólicos; o serviço apresentava capacidade limitada de adequação às especificidades dos usuários. Os achados apontam para limitações da operacionalização das políticas de acesso universal; e reforçam a necessidade de estudos que considerem a noção de vulnerabilidade e regionalização da epidemia no Brasil.Since 1996, Brazil has implemented internationally acknowledged policies such as universal access to specialized treatment for HIV/AIDS. However, the initiative's impact has been unequal if one compares different population segments and regions of the country. Taking a gender perspective, the current study seeks to evaluate access to a specialized HIV/AIDS service in Salvador, Bahia, identifying facilitating factors and obstacles to access and continuity of care, as experienced by women living with HIV/AIDS. Participant observation and semi-structured and open-ended interviews with 13 women were used. The findings indicate that the organization of

  10. How to perform first aid. (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John


    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: .

  11. Jacques Ranciere's Lesson on the Lesson (United States)

    Chambers, Samuel A.


    This article examines the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work on pedagogy, and argues that to make sense of Ranciere's "lesson on the lesson" one must do more but also less than merely explicate Ranciere's texts. It steadfastly refuses to draw out the lessons of Ranciere's writings in the manner of a series of…

  12. 艾滋病中医药治疗及其相关问题研究进展%Research progress on the treatment of aids with traditional Chinese medicine and related issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许天齐; 刘洁玮; 耿凯文; 隋秉东


    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) severely does harm to human's health. However, highly active an-tiretroviral therapy (HAART), the most widely used way to treat AIDS by Western medicine, has limited curative effects. Traditional Chinese medicine to treat AIDS can be categorized into four strategies: single Chinese herbs and their active components, on which studies mainly focus on anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and immune regulation; traditional medical formulae; acupuncture therapy; combinations of Chinese and Western medicine treatments, in which Chinese medicine can reduce the toxicity and enhance the effect of Western medicine. During our applying traditional Chinese medicine to treat AIDS, related issues such as assessment of curative effects and compliance of patients should be paid attention to and discussed carefully. Traditional Chinese medicine to treat AIDS has revealed many advantages, mainly lying in individually treating, lower prices, and weaker toxic and side effects. Nevertheless its lacking of diagnostic standard system as well as testing and quality-controlling during the treatments are still major problems. By promoting extracting of the active components and researches in various fields of traditional Chinese medicine, thus discovering newly-emerging valuable drugs as well as broadening the sights and thoughts to design and synthesizing them, traditional Chinese medicine will play a more and more important role in the treatment of AIDS.%艾滋病(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)严重危及人类生命健康,而西药治疗AIDS采用的高效抗逆转录病毒治疗法(HAART)疗效有限.AIDS的中医药治疗方案可分为4类:单味中药及其有效成分,其研究重点主要为抗艾滋病毒和免疫调节两方面;中药复方;针灸疗法;中西药联合应用治疗,其中中药可起到减毒增效的效果.在中医药治疗AIDS的过程中,疗效评估和患者依从性的相关问题需要被着重考虑.

  13. HIV/AIDS Coinfection (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  14. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  15. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  16. Has donor prioritization of HIV/AIDS displaced aid for other health issues? (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy


    Advocates for many developing-world health and population issues have expressed concern that the high level of donor attention to HIV/AIDS is displacing funding for their own concerns. Even organizations dedicated to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment have raised this issue. However, the issue of donor displacement has not been evaluated empirically. This paper attempts to do so by considering donor funding for four historically prominent health agendas--HIV/AIDS, population, health sector development and infectious disease control--over the years 1992 to 2005. The paper employs funding data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee, supplemented by data from other sources. Several trends indicate possible displacement effects, including HIV/AIDS' rapidly growing share of total health aid, a concurrent global stagnation in population aid, the priority HIV/AIDS control receives in US funding, and HIV/AIDS aid levels in several sub-Saharan African states that approximate or exceed the entirety of their national health budgets. On the other hand, aggregate donor funding for health and population quadrupled between 1992 and 2005, allowing for funding growth for some health issues even as HIV/AIDS acquired an increasingly prominent place in donor health agendas. Overall, the evidence indicates that displacement is likely occurring, but that aggregate increases in global health aid may have mitigated some of the crowding-out effects.

  17. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.


    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  18. Designing State Aid Formulas (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine


    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  19. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.


    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  20. Fever: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  1. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  2. USAID steps up anti-AIDS program. (United States)


    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.

  3. AIDS: resource materials for school personnel. (United States)

    Fulton, G B; Metress, E; Price, J H


    The AIDS dilemma continues to escalate, leaving a legacy that probably will affect the nation for years to come. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Surgeon General have noted that in the absence of a vaccine or treatment for AIDS, education remains the only effective means to prevent the spread of the disease. Thus, schools have an important role in protecting the public health. To respond appropriately to the situation, school personnel must become familiar with relevant information and resources available concerning AIDS. This article first provides essential information about AIDS using a question-and-answer format. Second, policy statements addressing school attendance by students infected with the virus that causes AIDS are presented. Third, hotlines that can be used to obtain more detailed information about AIDS are described. Fourth, organizations that can provide information for school health education about AIDS are identified. Fifth, an annotated list of audiovisual materials that schools can use to provide education about AIDS is provided. Sixth, a bibliography of publications relevant to school health education about AIDS is offered.

  4. Lesson plans in surgical training. (United States)

    Lester, S E; Robson, A K R


    Lesson plans in surgery enable trainers and trainees to agree on goals that balance training needs with service commitments. Lesson plans are individualised to the trainee and encourage ownership of learning. They are based on SMART criteria and therefore have a sound educational footing. Most of the work in creating a lesson plan falls to the trainee. The total time for creation of each plan is approximately 20 min. Our use of lesson plans for surgical training has been met with favourable response from both trainer and trainees.

  5. Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned (United States)


    are the only other • .o" ’" "- THE OPERATIONAL COwnTEX FI(GUM1, EI Smoall Gulf of Aden DJIEBO U.S. and SomaMa Flelol Sin 12 SOMALIA OPERATIONS: LESSONS...demeanor that sawess q-d let diplomacy and reasuing wMii achiev- more than arogance. anger, disdain. coon. or sarcasm . PmmmeI mut be able to cope pq


    CERN Multimedia


    This autumn, Russian courses will be continued at CERN for beginners and advanced.The first lesson for advanced students will take place on 6th September at 12.00 noon as scheduled.A general briefing for beginners is planned for Thursday30th September at 17.00 in 54-1-002.For further details, please contact the teacher, Mrs Macha Mikhailova by e-mail at:

  7. Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage Structures and Thermal Design (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafiq


    The Ares 1 Upper Stage was part of the vehicle intended to succeed the Space Shuttle as the United States manned spaceflight vehicle. Although the Upper Stage project was cancelled, there were many lessons learned that are applicable to future vehicle design. Lessons learned that are briefly detailed in this Technical Memorandum are for specific technical areas such as tank design, common bulkhead design, thrust oscillation, control of flight and slosh loads, purge and hazardous gas system. In addition, lessons learned from a systems engineering and vehicle integration perspective are also included, such as computer aided design and engineering, scheduling, and data management. The need for detailed systems engineering in the early stages of a project is emphasized throughout this report. The intent is that future projects will be able to apply these lessons learned to keep costs down, schedules brief, and deliver products that perform to the expectations of their customers.

  8. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri K


    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  9. Treatment of pain and suffering in aids patients Tratamiento del dolor y el sufrimiento en los pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida -SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri


    Full Text Available This article discusses several aspects of painful syndromes that are frequent in AIDS patients. It describes the impact of pain in the quality of life and in the daily experiences of these persons as well. The medical and palliative cares are explained and some considerations on autonomous decisions at the end of life are analysed. Emphasis is made on the fact that AIDS patients suffer total pain; therefore they require total therapy so that pain and suffering are reduced to a minimum and the right not to suffer is respected. El presente artículo discute diversos aspectos de los síndromes dolorosos frecuentes en pacientes con sida. Describe, así mismo, el impacto que tiene el dolor en la calidad de vida y en las experiencias diarias de estas personas. Explica la asistencia médica y paliativa y analiza algunos aspectos de las decisiones autónomas al final de la vida. Se hace énfasis en que el paciente con sida sufre dolor total y requiere por lo tanto una terapia total para que el dolor y el sufrimiento se reduzcan al mínimo y se cumpla el derecho a no sufrir innecesariamente.

  10. 江西省艾滋病成年治疗患者分布及临床特征%Distribution and Clinical Features of AIDS in Adult Patients under Treatment in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    端翔; 邓爱花; 周小军; 李燕; 廖新利; 钟荣梅


    Objective To investigate the distribution and clinical features of AIDS in adult pa-tients under treatment in Jiangxi province,and to provide scientific basis for formulating appropri-ate scheme and policy for preventing and controlling AIDS.Methods The basic information and clinical data of 2 194 adult AIDS patients treated between 2004 and 2012 in Jiangxi province were collected,and the distribution regularities and clinical features of AIDS were analyzed using de-scriptive epidemiological method.Results Among the 2 194 adult AIDS patients,males accounted for 71.4%,patients aged 30-40 years accounted for 31.7%,and married and cohabiting patientsaccounted for 60.8%.The percentages of patients in WHO clinical stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ were 35.2%,23.0%,22.4% and 19.4%,respectively.The main route of transmission was sexual con-tact(79.6%).The opportunistic infection rate was 31.9%.However,the opportunistic infection rate was different in various clinical stages(P<0.001).The top five opportunistic infection diseases were persistent or intermittent fever(17.2%),skin lesion(5.7%),persistent diarrhea(5.6%),herpes zoster(5.2%)and thrush(3.6%).One or more symptoms and signs(fever,cough and expectora-tion,night sweats,diarrhea,nausea,hypopsia,rash,lymphadenectasis,etc.)were found in 37.5%of the patients.The tuberculosis occurred in 7.9% of the patients in the recent one year.The inci-dences of hepatitis B and C were 16.8% and 7.5%,respectively.Conclusion The majority of AIDS patients under treatment in Jiangxi province are young adult males and sexual contact is the main route of AIDS transmission.The opportunistic infection rate is high among adult AIDS pa-tients and is significantly correlated with clinical staging.Many characteristic clinical signs were accompanied by hepatitis B and C.Therefore,comprehensive prevention and treatment measures should be established aiming at the clinical features of AIDS in adult patients under treatment to control the spread of AIDS.%

  11. Evaluation of World Wide Web-based Lessons for a First Year Dental Biochemistry Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alan E. Levine


    Full Text Available First year dental students at The University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston (Dental Branch are required to take a basic biochemistry course. To facilitate learning and allow student self-assessment of their progress, WWW-based lessons covering intermediary metabolism were developed as a supplement to traditional lectures. Lesson design combined text, graphics, and animations and included learner control, links to other learning resources, and practice exercises and exams with immediate feedback. Results from an on-line questionnaire completed by students in two different classes showed that they completed 50% of the lessons and spent an average of 4 hrs. on-line. A majority of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that practice exercises were helpful, that the ability to control the pace of the lessons was important, that the lesson structure and presentation was easy to follow, that the illustrations, animations, and hyperlinks were helpful, and that the lessons were effective as a review. The very positive response to the WWW-based lessons indicates the usefulness of this approach as a study aid for dental students.

  12. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  13. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  14. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  15. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  16. 重组人促甲状腺素介导分化型甲状腺癌的131I治疗%Recombinant human thyrotropin-aided radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 龙亚红; 邢家骝; 田嘉禾; 徐白萱; 方毅


    Objective To observe the influence of recombinant human thyrotropin(rhTSH)on serum concentration of endogenous thyrotropin(TSH), free triiodothyronine(FT3), free thyroxine(FT4), thyroglobulin antibody(TGAb), and thyroglobulin(Tg). To evaluate the efficacy of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC). Methods The study recruitment took place between November 2007 and March 2009. 62 patients(including 45 females)with biopsy confirmed DTC had undergone total or nearly total thyroidectomy, and received 131I treatment. 31 patients(including 22 females), median age of 45 years(23-72), received radioiodine treatment 4 weeks after L-thyroxine(T4)withdrawal. The other 31 patients(including 23 females), median age of 44 years(14-70), underwent rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment. Before and after rhTSH injection, serum TSH, FT3, FT4, TGAb, and thyroglobulin were tested. Post-radiotherapy whole body scan was performed 5 to 7 days after radioiodine treatment and qualitatively and blindly evaluated by two nuclear medicine physicians. Follow-up took place 6 to 12 months after radioiodine treatment. The efficacy of rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment was evaluated by whole body scan with diagnostic dose radioiodine. SPSS 13.0 statistical software was applied. Results (1)Before and after rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment, the serum TSH was(1.08±4.01)vs(140.26±27.20)mIU/L(P<0.05), thyroglobulin(23.75±132.92)vs(169.58±178.49)μg/L(P<0.05), FT3(4.52±1.16)vs(4.42±1.11)pmol/L(P>0.05), and FT4(15.09±5.83)vs(13.66±5.85)pmol/L(P>0.05),respectively.(2)rhTSH-aided radioiodine ablation treatment had the same effect as L-T4withdrawal aided. The complete response ratio was 77.4% vs 71.0%(P>0.05)by radioiodine whole body scan of diagnostic dose. Conclusion rhTSH-aided radioiodine treatment of DTC was effective and safe, and did at least at equivalent degree as did L-T4withdrawal. Furthermore, Serum thyroglobulin level could be

  17. O uso da L-carnitina como adjuvante no tratamento da miocardiopatia dilatada em criança com Aids Usage of L-carnitine as adjuvant in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Zélia Zanoni


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a resposta cardiovascular à L-carnitina de um paciente com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva decorrente de miocardiopatia dilatada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva grave devido à miocardiopatia dilatada pela síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida. O tratamento para as manifestações clínicas foi instituído, com pouca resposta clínica. Com objetivo de melhorar o desempenho energético/metabólico dos cardiomiócitos, foi instituída terapia com L-carnitina. Observou-se significativa melhora clínica do paciente, em relação ao desempenho cardíaco, mesmo antes do início do tratamento com os fármacos antirretrovirais. COMENTÁRIOS: A L-carnitina é um composto que facilita o transporte dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa para dentro da mitocôndria. Nesse caso, o uso da L-carnitina parece ser clinica e bioquimicamente justificado.OBJECTIVE: To present the cardiovascular response to L-carnitine of a patient with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child with a clinical history of severe congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The treatment for the symptoms resulted in a poor clinical response. In order to improve the energetic performance/metabolism of cardiomyocytes, therapy with L-carnitine was established. There was significant clinical improvement of the cardiac performance of the patient, even before starting the treatment with antiretroviral drugs. COMMENTS: L-carnitine is a compound that facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. In this case the administration of L-carnitine appears to be clinically and biochemical justified.

  18. EMDR用于艾滋病患者心理康复研究——以某一艾滋病患者创伤心理治疗的成功个案为例%Research on Application of EMDR to Psychological Rehabilitation of AIDS Patients——A Case Study of a Successful Trauma Psychological Treatment of AIDS Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Being infected with HIV is a severe traumatic event in the body.The patient often suffers a great mental stress,accompanied by emotional problems to different degrees.This study applied EMDR to the treatment of an AIDS patient with depression and difficulties in interpersonal communication.The therapeutic outcomes showed that application of EMDR to AIDS patient is effective.Thus,a further study on the application is necessary.%感染艾滋病病毒对于生命和躯体安全都是一个严重的创伤性事件,患者往往会承受巨大的精神压力,并有不同程度的情感障碍问题。本文采用EMDR方法对一例具有抑郁情绪和人际交往障碍的艾滋病患者进行治疗,治疗结果显示对HIV/AIDS患者采用EMDR方法能获得良好的效果,因此有必要进行更深入的研究和应用。

  19. The essential role of IGF-I: lessons from the long-term study and treatment of children and adults with Laron syndrome. (United States)

    Laron, Z


    Fifty patients with primary GH resistance (Laron syndrome) due to molecular defects of the GH receptor or post-receptor pathways were followed from infancy through adulthood. This condition leading to long-term insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deprivation caused marked growth retardation (-4 to 8 height SD), acromicia, organomicria, retarded development of the skeletal and muscular systems, a small cranium, slow motor development, and impairment of intellectual development in some of the patients. In addition, there was progressive obesity, insulin resistance, a tendency for hypoglycemia, followed later in life by hypercholesterolemia and by glucose intolerance and even diabetes. IGF-I treatment of children with Laron syndrome, by our and other groups (150-240 microg/day sc), stimulated growth (8 cm in the first year and 4-5 cm in the following years) and normalized the biochemical abnormalities. Overdosage led to adverse effects such as hypoglycemia, edema, swelling of soft tissues, and hyperandrogenism. It is concluded that primary IGF-I deprivation induces severe auxological, biochemical, and hormonal changes, the only treatment being biosynthetic IGF-I administration.

  20. HIV感染者和艾滋病患者抗病毒疗效及耐药分析%Effect of anti-HIV treatment and drug-resistance HIV among infected persons and AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姝; 张佳峰; 高红; 焦素黎; 许国章


    目的 研究浙江省宁波市HIV感染者和艾滋病人(HIV/AIDS)抗病毒治疗(HAART)效果和发生耐药情况.方法 收集156例HIV-1型阳性病例血样,包括114例AIDS病人和42例未治疗感染者,检测CD4+T淋巴细胞数和HIV病毒载量,通过测序获得pol基因序列,经美国斯坦福大学HIV国际耐药数据库分析,获得毒株耐药情况.结果 成功获得42例病例的pol序列;在HIV感染者中,HIV毒株对蛋白酶抑制剂分别有8例潜在耐药和2例中度耐药;在艾滋病人中,病毒载量低于最低检测限(50 IU/mL)的有100例,占87.7%;HIV毒株对核苷类和非核苷类抑制剂分别有4例和5例高度耐药;该人群的CD4+T淋巴细胞绝对数为14~1 060个/μL,平均为(314±28)个/μL.结论 宁波市多数HIV感染者和艾滋病人对现有的抗病毒药物敏感,抗病毒治疗效果良好.%Objective To study the effect of anti-HTV treatment and status of drag-resistance among HTV /AIDS patients. Methods Whole blood samples were collected from HIV infected persons with or without anti-HIV treatment and AIDS patients. The absolute number of CD4 * T lymphocyte and virus load of the subjects were detected. The virus RNA was amplified with nested-PCR and then sequenced. The drug resistance of HIV-1 strains isolated were obtained by comparison with Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database. Results Forty-two sequences of pol gene were obtained. Drug resistance to Pis was detected,including 8 potential resistance and 2 intermediate resistance,in HIV infected persons without treatment. Drug resistance to NRTIs was detected,including 4 high-level resistance,and to NNRTIs was detected,including 5 high-level resistance,in AIDS patients. The mean value of absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocyte was 314 ±28 /Μl.with the lowest of 14/μxL and the highest of 1 060/Μl. Conclusion Most of HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to the anti-HIV drug at present and a good treatment effect is achieved.

  1. HIV reverse transcriptase gene mutations in anti-retroviral treatment naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Mohanakrishnan, K; Kasthuri, A; Amsavathani, S K; Sumathi, G


    This study is designed to find out the mutational variations of reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of HIV, after the traditional drug usage among anti-retroviral therapy naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV Reactive patients, who were exposed for indigenous medicines such as Siddha, Ayurveda etc., for a minimum period of 6 months were taken for this study. Among 40 patients, two samples (5.55%) demonstrated high-level mutational resistance variations for nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) and non-NRTI. The predominant polymorphisms detected were K122E (91.7%), V60I (91.7%), V35T (89%), Q207E (89%), D177E (89%), T200A (86.1%), S48T (83.33%), K173A (80.6%).

  2. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram


    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  3. Can You Haiku? [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students learn the rules and conventions of haiku, study examples by Japanese masters, and create haiku of their own. Its 4 lessons seek to help students be able to: (1) describe the traditional rules and conventions of haiku; (2) interpret examples of haiku; (3) characterize the image-evoking power of haiku; (4) develop a…

  4. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors. (United States)

    LiPira, Michael


    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  5. Heart of Darkness. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Joseph Conrad's novel "Heart of Darkness," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that critics have debated some of Conrad's choices in the novel; and that the novel reflects the world as Conrad saw it. The main activity of the lesson involves students rewriting the ending of the novel so that Marlow…

  6. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  7. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin (United States)

    Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark


    Background Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. Methods A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients’ understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question–answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Results Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their

  8. Current Challenges to the United States’ AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Possible Implications of the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. McManus


    Full Text Available AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the “payer of last resort” for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and limited funding, ADAPs are employing cost containment measures. Since 2010, emergency federal funds have bailed out ADAP, but these are not sustainable. In the coming years, providers and policy makers associated with HIV care will need to navigate the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Lessons learned from the challenges associated with providing sustainable access to ART for vulnerable populations through ADAP should inform upcoming decisions about how to ensure delivery of ART during and after the implementation of the ACA.

  9. Vertebrobasilar junction giant aneurysm: Lessons learned from a neurosurgical audit and anatomical investigation. (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Ganau, Mario; Russo, Vittorio Maria; Iacopino, Domenico G; Ulm, Arthur John


    The treatment of vascular lesions of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) remains a challenging task in the neurosurgical practice and the gold standard therapy is still under debate. In this article, the authors report a detailed postmortem study of a VBJ giant aneurysm (GA) previously endovascularly treated. Although the decision-making process for the vast majority of neurosurgical treatment can nowadays be accurately carried out during the preoperative planning (i.e., with the aid of neuroimaging fusion protocols, neuronavigation platforms, etc.) meant to maximize the anatomical understanding of the lesions and minimize possible intraprocedural challenges, this postmortem study represents the ultimate essence of neurosurgical audit as the laboratory investigations allowed to reevaluate the clinical history of VBJ GA, and reassess the multiple strategies available for its treatment with a straightforward anatomical perspective. Specifically, the lessons learned through this clinical and laboratory work uphold a great educational value regarding the complex management of those lesions, including the possible role of combined skull base surgical approaches.

  10. Antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection/AIDS and the risk of developing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia Tratamento antiretroviral para a infecção pelo HIV/AIDS e o risco de desenvolver hiperglicemia e dislipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo


    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with internal comparison groups was conducted to describe sociodemographic characteristics, as well as verify the association between the type of antiretroviral treatment used and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, with special attention to the use of HIV protease inhibitors. The data was obtained through an interview questionnaire, as well as blood and urine samples that were collected for the laboratory exams. A total of 418 patients were interviewed. 46 of these, however, met the exclusion criteria. The sample was therefore composed by 372 HIV positive patients, attended at the laboratory of the Correia Picanço State Hospital for the collection of blood, to estimate the HIV viral load and/or TCD4 cell counts from August to November 2000. The association between the variables was tested using the chi-square test and the p-value. A multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to adjust for potential confounding factors. A greater frequency of patients with high glucose levels was observed among those making use of antiretroviral therapy without protease inhibitors, but the number of patients limited the comparisons. An association was verified between the total serum cholesterol level and the use of HIV protease inhibitors (p = 0.047 even after controlling for age. An association was also observed between the triglyceride levels and the use of HIV protease inhibitors, which remained after adjustment for age, sex and creatinine levels (p Um estudo epidemiológico transversal, com caráter analítico, foi realizado para descrever características sócio-demográficas bem como verificar a associação entre o tipo de tratamento antiretroviral empregado e hiperglicemia e hiperlipidemia, com especial atenção aos pacientes em uso de inibidores da protease do HIV. As informações foram obtidas a partir de um questionário e da coleta de sangue e urina para a execução dos exames laboratoriais. Foram entrevistados

  11. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management. (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak


    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders.

  12. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  13. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lesson PlanningTask 1As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need tobe included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasonswhy we need to plan our lessons.

  14. Geographic Alliance of Iowa. Lesson Plans. (United States)

    Weller, Kay E.; Howe-Ford, Nancy

    This collection of five lesson plans in geography can be adapted for use with K-12 students. Each lesson plan explains the lesson and provides basic instructions. The lesson plans are titled: "Teaching Geography Using Literature in K-University Classrooms" (Kay Weller); "Geography and a Mystery Novel" (Kay Weller);…

  15. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn


    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  17. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.Ifone lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.If one lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow

  19. French Lessons A Memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alice


    Brilliantly uniting the personal and the critical, French Lessons is a powerful autobiographical experiment. It tells the story of an American woman escaping into the French language and of a scholar and teacher coming to grips with her history of learning. Kaplan begins with a distinctly American quest for an imaginary France of the intelligence. But soon her infatuation with all things French comes up against the dark, unimagined recesses of French political and cultural life.The daughter of a Jewish lawyer who prosecuted Nazi war criminals at Nuremburg, Kaplan grew up in the 1960s in the Mi

  20. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham


    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  1. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology (United States)

    James, John T.


    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  2. Lessons from a study in a rural community from southern Mexico: risk factors associated to transmission and reinfection of gastrointestinal parasites after albendazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Pérez MA


    Full Text Available Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez1, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega2, José Francisco Cen-Aguilar3, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul21Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, 2Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida Yucatán, 3Oficina de Investigación y validación, Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico y Agropecuario (CBTA 13, Xmatkuil, Mérida, Yucatán, MexicoPurpose: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and evaluate the effect of a single dose of treatment with albendazole in a sentinel group from a rural community in southern Mexico.Methods: Stool samples were collected from 1456 individuals aged ≥1 year during consecutive days, and examined for helminth infection using the modified Stoll dilution method. Additionally, 104 individuals were treated with a single dose of albendazole and evaluated over 21 weeks to assess reinfection. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography, and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for reinfection after albendazole administration were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.56%–76.14%. Albendazole was 100% effective, but eggs began to be detected by 9–12 weeks posttreatment, increasing to 100% after 21 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that all individuals from this study had a probability of reinfection of 1.65× each week after treatment. The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura was 57.2% (95% CI = 54.62%–59.77% and chemotherapy was 34.7% effective. The prevalence for other minor gastrointestinal parasites ranged from 0.2% to 29.7%.Conclusion: This was a comprehensive study on gastrointestinal parasites in a rural community from southern Mexico and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first time that the effect

  3. AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H


    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  4. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids (United States)


    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  5. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  6. Speakeasy: A Text for Speaking, Volume 1. English for Special Purposes Series: Nursing Aide. (United States)

    Clark, Marybeth

    This is the first of three volumes devoted to improving speech skills, in a series of materials for teaching English as a second language to adult nursing aide students. Three units contain five lessons each that emphasize survival skills. In the first unit, the student is taught how to make introductions and meet people, and the use of…

  7. Speakeasy: A Text for Speaking, Volume 3. English for Special Purposes Series: Nursing Aide. (United States)

    Clark, Marybeth

    This is the last of three volumes devoted to improving speech skills, in a series of materials for teaching English as a second language to adult nursing aide students. Three units contain five lessons each. The following subjects are covered: (1) talking about personal appearance, checking patients, and reporting to the nurse; (2) interviewing…

  8. HIV/AIDS Educators: The Challenges and Issues for Namibian Bachelor of Education Students (United States)

    McGinty, Sara; Mundy, Karen


    The Life Skills course is offered to Namibian students in grades eight through twelve. It includes lessons on HIV/AIDS, imparting information and equipping them with the necessary psycho-social skills to assist in reducing the risk of becoming infected. Teachers are the impetus for the success of the course. As such, research was undertaken to…

  9. Music and hearing aids. (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  10. Personality disorders in the DSM-5: current status, lessons learned, and future challenges. Introduction. (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Krueger, Robert F


    Provides an introduction to a special section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. The purpose of this special section is to provide a discussion of the current status, lessons learned, and future challenges for the classification of personality disorders.

  11. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran


    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  12. Spouse-aided therapy with depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EmanuelsZuurveen, L; Emmelkamp, PMG


    Twenty-three non-maritally distressed depressed patients who were married or cohabitating were randomly assigned to either individual behavioral-cognitive therapy or spouse-aided treatment. Both treatment conditions focused on depressed mood, behavioral activity, and dysfunctional cognitions, the di

  13. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia. (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra


    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program.

  14. The recommend of diagnosis and treatment for childhood HIV infection and AIDS%小儿HIV感染和艾滋病诊断及处理建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会儿科学分会感染学组; 中华医学会儿科学分会免疫学组


    @@ 艾滋病即获得性免疫缺陷综合症(AIDS),是由人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染所致的一种传播迅速、病死率极高的恶性病.我国目前HIV感染人群已超过100万(2002年),且大多数集中在生育期成人.如果控制不好,10年后HIV感染者可能超过1 000万.HIV感染的母婴传播率高达22%~65%.小儿HIV感染与成人比较,其发生率增长快、潜伏期短、疾病进展快、死亡率高.因此小儿HIV感染和AIDS防治已成为我国儿科所面临的严峻挑战和紧迫任务.本建议适用于各级儿科医疗机构对HIV感染和AIDS患儿的诊断、报告和处理.

  15. A report from the 7th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (June 30-July 3, 2013 - Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). (United States)

    Rabasseda, X


    Effective antiretroviral drugs have been developed that, if continuously administered (although with simplification strategies once a patient's viral titer is suppressed) allow for a functional cure resulting in an almost normal life despite the presence of viral reservoirs. In that sense, observations that combination antiretroviral therapy has an untoward suppressive effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against T cells permitting the establishment of such viral reservoirs were discussed for its implications in the use of vaccines and/or modulators of the immune function to clear latent infections and the risk for reactivation (Madhavi, V. et al., Abst MOLBPE05). In addition to latent viral reservoirs, individual patient characteristics may also influence response to antiretroviral therapy, as exemplified by the increased likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients carrying certain polymorphic variants (rs2229109, rs6961419) of the P-glycoprotein 1 gene (Dias, J. et al., Abst MOPE034). These, and many other important news derived from research into novel approaches to fight HIV infection were discussed during the International AIDS Society (IAS) meeting in Kuala Lumpur, as summarized in the following report.

  16. Radiology Aide. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Hronek, Dennis

    This module was designed to assist educators in facilitating learning in health careers outside nursing. It may be used for classroom, on-the-job, or independent study. The module is oranized in 13 units. Each unit includes one or more lessons that contain the following components: scope of unit, unit objectives; student's information assignment,…

  17. Multi-country analysis of treatment costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH: facility-level ART unit cost analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elya Tagar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. METHODS & FINDINGS: In 2010-2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2-8% annual loss to follow-up or death were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77-95% alive and on treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation.

  18. Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by Estrogen. (United States)

    Pauklin, Siim


    Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by the hormone estrogen has important implications for understanding adaptive immune responses as well as the involvement of AID in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis. This chapter describes the general laboratory techniques for analyzing AID expression and activity induced by estrogen, focusing on the isolation and preparation of cells for hormone treatment and the subsequent analysis of AID responsiveness to estrogen at the RNA level and for determining the regulation of AID activity via estrogen by analyzing Ig switch circle transcripts and mutations in switch region loci.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti


    Full Text Available In the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 1994 ever married women age 15-49 years were asked whether they have ever heard of AIDS and if so their sources of information concerning prevention and treatment of the disease, and their personal perception about the risk of getting the disease. Half of the women age 20-34 years have ever heard about AIDS and among the older women less than half of them have ever heard about it. This analysis describes information about the relationship between knowledge of ever married women 15-49 years about AIDS with various background characteristics - age, education, occupation, exposure to mass media, area, and regions. This information is required to improve the existing health education campaign about AIDS.   The results indicate that women with less than secondary education or married to husband with less than secondary education or women who do not work or working as farmers are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS. Women who are not exposed to any type of mass media or exposed to only one media are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS than those who are exposed to two or more media. The proportion of women who have ever heard about AIDS in outer Java Bali region is lower than in Java Bali region, likewise in the rural areas it is lower than in urban areas. There are significant associations between area, region, women' education, husbands' education, occupation, exposure to mass media and having ever heart about AIDS. The major source of information about AIDS are from TV and second are newspapers and radio. To control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS the role of mass media is very important and therefore it is necessary to improve the coverage and acceptability of the information considering mothers' education, region/area, and occupation. The information material should be simple and easily understood by the various social levels of community.

  20. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard


    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  1. A novel method to aid in the visualisation and treatment of uterine fibroids with MRgFUS in patients with abdominal scars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, Summia, E-mail: [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Gedroyc, Wladyslaw, E-mail: [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lyons, Deidre, E-mail: [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Regan, Lesley, E-mail: [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)


    The purpose of this research was to identify a method for performing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) of symptomatic uterine fibroids in patients with abdominal scars, by visualisation of these scars on MR images. 25 patients who presented with treatable symptomatic uterine fibroids and having transverse abdominal scars were treated with MRgFUS. A solution containing MRI contrast paramagnetic iron oxide particles was used to demark the skin surface scar tissue on the treatment planning MR images. During treatment, the focused ultrasound energy was steered around the scar based on its enhanced visual location. After the treatment, contrast enhanced MR images were acquired for immediate results evaluation. Adverse events and fibroid related symptoms were captured during the 6-months follow up period. All the women were treated with no complications. No episodes of skin burns, ulceration or skin redness were reported. The post-treatment contrast-enhanced MR images showed an average fibroid non-perfused volume ratio of 64%. At their 6-month follow-up, 92% of the patients reported a clinical improvement. Using paramagnetic iron oxide solution to highlight transverse abdominal scars helps in their identification on MR images, thereby enabling the operator to avoid scars and facilitating the treatment of women who were previously excluded.

  2. The placebo effect revisited: lessons learned to date. (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving


    This article summarizes six lessons that can be learned from over a half century of scientific research on the placebo effect. These lessons are that the placebo response is not the placebo effect, it is meaningless to ask what the magnitude of the placebo effect is, it is easy to be fooled by regression artifacts, expectancy and conditioning are not conflicting processes that can be pitted against each other, some of our questions can be answered by history, and the outcomes of active treatments can be enhanced by attention to placebo components.

  3. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.


    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  4. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  5. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  6. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  7. International Aid to Education (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron


    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  8. AIDS Epidemiological models (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar


    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  9. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn


    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  10. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  11. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  12. First Aid: Diaper Rash (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  13. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  14. Aid, Development, and Education (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.


    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  15. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  16. First Aid: Falls (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  17. AIDS as Metaphor. (United States)

    McMillen, Liz


    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  18. Application of different death evaluation indicators for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment%不同死亡评价指标在艾滋病防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾亮; 马烨


    AIDS has gradually changed from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic disease since the advent of antiretroviral drugs.In 2003,China initiated a national free antiretroviral treatment program for people living with HIV/AIDS,several death evaluation indicators have been used to evaluate public health effect of the program.Death evaluation indicators used frequently in domestic and overseas include mortality,case fatality rate,excess mortality,standard mortality ratio,years of potential life lost,disability-adjusted life year and life expectancy.This paper summarizes the different death indicators applied in effectiveness evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment,elaborates the application range and significance of these indicators and suggests the research in related life expectancy and burden of disease which have not been conducted in China.%自艾滋病抗病毒治疗药物出现以来,艾滋病已从致命性疾病转变为可控的慢性传染病.我国自2003年开始实行针对HIV感染者和AIDS患者的免费抗病毒治疗,为进一步评价抗病毒治疗的公共卫生效果,需要采用死亡评价指标.常用的死亡评价指标包括死亡率、病死率、超额死亡率、标化死亡比、潜在减寿年数、伤残调整寿命年和期望寿命.本文总结了国内外在艾滋病防治效果评价时所使用的各种死亡指标,并分别阐述这些指标的应用范围和意义,提出我国今后应在艾滋病防治效果评价中增加期望寿命和疾病负担等方面的研究.

  19. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report. (United States)

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai


    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  20. 艾滋病抗病毒治疗后机会感染的变化和分布状况%The change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萱; 孙燕; 何云; 赵清霞; 安永辉; 马永虹; 王双利; 张静; 刘春礼


    目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)抗病毒治疗后机会感染疾病谱的变化及分布状况.方法 采用回顾性分析的方法,对2006年9月-2008年12月期间,在郑州市第六人民医院接受门诊及住院治疗的128例HIV/AIDS病人,抗病毒治疗前后机会感染发生情况进行总结分析.结果 (1) 128例HIV/AIDS病人中,高效抗反转录病毒疗法(HAART)治疗3-12月期间共发生100例次机会感染,主要为呼吸系统(46.09%)和消化系统(11.72%)感染,其中前4位机会感染是细菌性肺炎(29.69%)、肺结核(9.38%)、口腔念珠菌感染(7.81%)、带状疱疹(3.91%);与HAART治疗前相比,治疗后机会感染中细菌性肺炎、肺结核占绝大多数(86.46%),存在一定比例的口腔念珠菌感染和带状疱疹,AIDS晚期常见的机会感染如肺孢子菌肺炎、感染性腹泻及消耗综合征、中枢神经系统病变发病明显减少.(2) 128例HIV/AIDS病人HAART治疗前机会感染发病率为80.47%,治疗后3-6月时下降至28.13%,治疗6-12月时为25.89%,3组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).HAART治疗后同时合并多种机会感染的病例减少.结论 HAART治疗后的机会感染发病率明显下降,机会感染疾病谱较治疗前有所不同,同时合并多种机会感染的几率减少.%Objective To explore the change and the spectra of opportunistic infections in AIDS patients after antiretroviral treatment. Methods One hundred and twenty eight ambulatory and hospitalized HIV/AIDS cases were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the characteristics of opportunistic infeccions occurring pre and post highly active anti-retroviral treatmem(HAART)in the department of infectious disease of our hospital, from September of 2006 to December of 2008. Results (1) The 128 HIV/AIDS patients experienced HIV-related opportunistic infections for 100 case-episodes after HAART for 3-12 months,involving respiratory system(46. 09%) and gastrointestinal system(11. 72%). The top 4

  1. Gemini Observatory base facility operations: systems engineering process and lessons learned (United States)

    Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, Andy; Close, Madeline; Coulson, Dolores; Nitta, Atsuko; Nunez, Arturo


    Gemini North Observatory successfully began nighttime remote operations from the Hilo Base Facility control room in November 2015. The implementation of the Gemini North Base Facility Operations (BFO) products was a great learning experience for many of our employees, including the author of this paper, the BFO Systems Engineer. In this paper we focus on the tailored Systems Engineering processes used for the project, the various software tools used in project support, and finally discuss the lessons learned from the Gemini North implementation. This experience and the lessons learned will be used both to aid our implementation of the Gemini South BFO in 2016, and in future technical projects at Gemini Observatory.

  2. Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Strose Villaça


    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é considerada, atualmente, uma doença sistêmica, cujas alterações estruturais e metabólicas podem levar à disfunção muscular esquelética. Esta afeta negativamente o desempenho muscular respiratório e periférico, a capacidade funcional, a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e mesmo a sobrevida. A indicação de suplementação de substâncias ergogênicas para pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica baseia-se no fato de que estas drogas podem evitar, ou minimizar, o catabolismo e/ou estimular a síntese protéica, diminuindo a depleção de massa muscular e aumentando a capacidade de exercício. A presente revisão sumariza o conhecimento disponível acerca da utilização de esteróides anabolizantes, creatina, L-carnitina, aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e hormônio de crescimento em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. A vantagem do uso dessas substâncias ergogênicas parece residir no aumento da massa magra e/ou na indução de modificações bioenergéticas. Nesse contexto, a maior experiência acumulada é com os esteróides anabolizantes. Entretanto, os benefícios clínicos em relação à melhora da capacidade de exercício e força muscular, bem como os efeitos na morbimortalidade, não foram, até a presente data, consistentemente demonstrados. A suplementação ergogênica pode vir a se constituir numa ferramenta adjuvante para o tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica avançada, especialmente naqueles com depleção muscular e/ou fraqueza periférica.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients

  3. The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Paul E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence evaluating the benefits of programmatic nutrition interventions to HIV-infected individuals in developing countries, where there is a large overlap between HIV prevalence and malnutrition, is limited. This study evaluates the impact of food assistance (FA on change in weight and disease progression as measured by WHO staging. Methods We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients. Results FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART. Conclusions Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed.

  4. 早期抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响%Survival effect regarding earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 安伟锋; 马彦民; 李宁; 朱谦; 孙定勇; 黄学勇; 许汴利


    Objective To compare the survival effect of initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients at different stages so as to explore the best time of initiation with the treatment.Methods Information regarding the dates of AIDS patient initially receiving the anti-retroviral therapy during 2007-2012 was collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Integrated Control System.According to the level of baseline immunology,all the participants were divided into earlier treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts between 350/ μl and 500/μl) and conventional treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts ≤350/ μl).Data was analyzed under Survival and Review methods.Results A total number of 16 282 cases were selected.The mortality of conventional treatment group was obviously higher than the earlier treatment group (5.78/100 person year vs.1.64/100 person year),and the median survival time was lower than the earlier treatment group (2.07 year vs.3.15 year).The cumulative survival rate of the 6-year conventional treatment group was lower than the earlier treatment group (77.39% vs.92.10%,x2=156.00,P < 0.01).By means of multi-variable analysis,we found that factors as age,gender,marital status,route of transmission,schedule on initial therapy,number of symptoms at the baseline the conventional treatment group were associated with survival time of patients after the ART initiation (P<0.05),while gender,schedule for initial therapy,number of symptoms at baseline the earlier treatment group,were associated with survival time of patients after the initiation of ART (P<0.05).Conclusion Earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time.%目的 比较不同时间开始抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响,并探讨抗病毒治疗最佳时机.方法 利用国家艾滋病抗病毒治疗信息系统,收集2007-2012年河南省加入抗病毒治疗的艾滋病患者基本

  5. Retreat from Alma Ata? The WHO's report on Task Shifting to community health workers for AIDS care in poor countries. (United States)

    Campbell, C; Scott, K


    This paper examines the potential of community health worker (CHW) programmes, as proposed by the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) document Task Shifting to tackle health worker shortages, to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment and various Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries. It examines the WHO proposal through a literature review of factors that have facilitated the success of previous CHW experiences. The WHO has taken account of five key lessons learnt from past CHW programmes (the need for strong management, appropriate selection, suitable training, adequate retention structures and good relationships with other healthcare workers). It has, however, neglected to emphasise the importance of a sixth lesson, the 'community embeddedness' of CHWs, found to be of critical importance to the success of past CHW programmes. We have no doubt that the WHO plans will increase the number of workers able to perform medically oriented tasks. However, we argue that without community embeddedness, CHWs will be unable to successfully perform the socially oriented tasks assigned to them by the WHO, such as health education and counselling. We locate the WHO's neglect of community embeddedness within the context of a broader global public health trend away from community-focused primary healthcare towards biomedically focused selective healthcare.

  6. Database-supported teleconferencing: An additional clinical mentoring tool to assist a multinational company HIV/AIDS treatment program in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Clevenbergh; S.F.M. van der Borght; K. van Cranenburgh; V. Janssens; C.K. Lubangi; L. Gahimbaza; J.M.A. Lange; T.F. Rinke de Wit; H. Rijckborst


    Background: The lack of human resources for health is presently recognized as a major factor limiting scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs in resource-limited settings. The mobilization of public and private partners, the decentralization of care, and the training of non-HIV specialis

  7. 急救绿色通道在严重创伤早期救治中的作用%Role of first-aid fast track in treatment of severe trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚元章; 张宇; 孙士锦; 张连阳


    Objective To explore the effects and significance of first-aid fast track in the treatment of severe trauma. Methods A retrospective study was done on 60 trauma patients (fast track group)treated by means of first-aid fast track from January 2006 to November 2007 to observe the effect of first-aid fast track. Another 46 trauma patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005 were used as control group. Results There was no statistical difference in aspects of sex, age, injury mechanism, ISS and blood loss in both groups (P >0.05). Two patients died in the first track group, with mortality rate of 3% ;while five patients died in the control group, with mortality rate of 11% ( P < 0.05 ). Compared with the control group, there was shorter time in emergency room care, special examination and interval from admission to operating room in fast track group ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion First-aid fast track can shorten the space and time in treatment of severe trauma, decrease the mortality rate, enhance success rate of treatment and hence guarantee chronergy and integrity of emergency trauma care.%目的 探讨绿色通道急救模式在严重创伤早期救治中的作用和意义. 方法 回顾性分析2006年1月-2007年11月以绿色通道急救模式救治60例创伤患者的效果,并与2004年1月-2005年12月收治的46例非绿色通道组患者的急救效果进行比较. 结果 两组患者性别、年龄、致伤机制、ISS及失血量等指标分布差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);绿色通道组60例患者死亡2例,死亡率为3%,对照组46例患者死亡5例,死亡率为11%(P<0.05).绿色通道组在急诊室处理时间、特殊检查时问、入院至手术室时间较对照组明显缩短(P<0.05). 结论 绿色通道急救模式缩短了严重创伤患者的救治空间和时间,显著降低了死亡率,提高了救治成功率,保证了创伤急救的"时效性和整体性".

  8. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson (United States)

    Moore, Alan C.


    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  9. Lessons Learned from FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering


    The US DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the long-term steward for 90 sites remediated under numerous regulatory regimes including the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In addition, LM holds considerable historical information, gathered in the 1970s, to determine site eligibility for remediation under FUSRAP. To date, 29 FUSRAP sites are in LM’s inventory of sites for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M), and 25 are with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for remediation or in the process of being transitioned to LM. It is forecasted that 13 FUSRAP sites will transfer from the USACE to LM over the next 10 years; however, the timing of the transfers is strongly dependent upon federal funding of the ongoing remedial actions. Historically, FUSRAP sites were generally cleaned up for “unrestricted” industrial use or remediated to the “cleanup standards” at that time, and their use remained unchanged. Today, these sites as well as the adjacent properties are now changing or envisioned to have changes in land use, typically from industrial to commercial or residential uses. The implication of land-use change affects DOE’s LTS&M responsibility for the sites under LM stewardship as well as the planning for the additional sites scheduled to transition in time. Coinciding with land-use changes at or near FUSRAP sites is an increased community awareness of these sites. As property development increases near FUSRAP sites, the general public and interested stakeholders regularly inquire about the sufficiency of cleanups that impact their neighborhoods and communities. LM has used this experience to address a series of lessons learned to improve our program management in light of the changing conditions of our sites. We describe these lessons learned as (1) improved stakeholder relations, (2) enhanced LTS&M requirements for the sites, and (3) greater involvement in the transition process.

  10. Lesson "Balance in Nature (United States)

    Chapanova, V.


    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  11. Affordability of adult HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries: modelling price determinants for a better insight of the market functioning (United States)

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Singh, Sauman; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Moatti, Jean-Paul


    Introduction This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. Design The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement. Methods ExWorks prices and procured quantities were standardized according to the guidelines in terms of yearly doses. Descriptive statistics on quantities and prices show the main trends of the ARV market. Ordinary least squares estimation was carried out for the whole sample, then stratified according to the type of supplier (originator and generic) and controlled for time and geographical fixed-effects. Given that analyses were carried out on a public dataset on ARV transactional prices from the GPRM, ethics are respected and consent was not necessary. Results Originator medicines are on average the least expensive in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where at the same time, generic medicines are on average the most expensive. By contrast, originator medicines are the most expensive in Europe and Central Asia, and generic medicines are the least expensive. In fact, the data suggest mixed strategies by ARV suppliers to exploit opportunities for profit maximization and to adapt to the specific conditions of market competition in each region. Our results also suggest that the expiration of patents is not sufficient to boost additional developments in generic competition (at least in the ARV market) and that formal or informal agreements between generic firms may de facto slow down or even reverse long-term trends towards price decreases. Conclusions Our findings provide an improved understanding of the ARV market that can help countries strengthen policy measures to increase their bargaining

  12. Use of intralesional interferon-alpha for the treatment of recalcitrant oral warts in patients with AIDS: a report of 4 cases. (United States)

    Lozada-Nur, F; Glick, M; Schubert, M; Silverberg, I


    Four human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men with 2- to 4.5-year histories of recurrent oral warts that had failed to respond to conventional surgical and other treatment modalities were offered treatment with interferon-alpha. All had multiple or large oral warts, 3 had skin warts, 2 had a history of anal warts, and 1 had penile lesions. All 4 patients were treated with a combination of intralesional and subcutaneous interferon-alpha. Adverse side effects were dose-related, mild, and transient; they included flulike symptoms (3 patients), hair loss and tachycardia (1 patient), and transient changes in the white blood cell count. All patients responded to therapy and remained free of disease up to 42 months. Intralesional injection with interferon-alpha appears to provide excellent clinical control for recurrent, multiple, and extensive oral warts in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive population, and is a useful adjunct to initial surgical removal of oral warts.

  13. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  14. HIV, AIDS, and the Future (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  15. Political dimensions of AIDS. (United States)

    Blewett, N


    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh


    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel


    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. [An organized sector mobilized against AIDS]. (United States)

    Mehra-Kerpelman, K


    A seminar of the International Labor Organization (ILO) was held to shed light on the role of AIDS in decimating qualified professionals in Anglophone Africa. The estimates of the World Health Organization indicate that the number of people infected with HIV in the whole world was 13-15 million persons at the end of 1994, of which 8 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda it is calculated that 1.5 million people are carriers of HIV, and by 1998 this figure could increase to 1.9 million. In both Zambia and Zimbabwe, in the 20-39 year age group, AIDS cases amount to 70% and 74%, respectively. Studies carried out in Rwanda, Zaire, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe revealed that AIDS is most frequent among members of the higher socioeconomic classes. The inability to find replacements for jobs requiring higher qualifications will result in dire consequences for these economies. During the 6-year period between 1988-89 and 1993-94 the Uganda Commercial Bank registered 229 deaths due to AIDS among its 1600 employees (14%). AIDS also requires the expenditure of scarce health resources on treatment: in 1992, hospital occupancy for diseases associated with AIDS reached 40-60% in Kinshasa, Zaire; 50% in Lusaka, Zambia; 60% in Kigali, Rwanda; and 70% in Bujumbura, Burundi. Various programs have been launched to fight HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Uganda, to sensitize and educate people about the epidemic. The protection of human rights, the avoidance of discrimination, and the adoption of safe sex techniques are promoted by these programs. Companies have programs to combat AIDS. Ubombo Ranches Ltd. in Swaziland started an information program in 1991 and distributed free condoms. BAT Uganda Ltd. also started an information and training-of-trainers program in 1989, which by 1994 had benefitted about 90% of the employees. This has resulted in the reduction of AIDS cases and associated medical costs.

  20. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.


    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  1. Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Magdalena Giovani


    Full Text Available Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.

  2. 根管显微镜辅助的牙内陷治疗2例%Dental microscope aided treatment of dens invaginatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    牙内陷是一种罕见的牙齿发育畸形,牙内陷除在常规的口腔检查中能早期发现外,患者出现症状就诊时即已发生牙髓或根尖周病变。显微镜及 CBCT 扫描技术的应用在牙内陷的诊断和治疗过程中发挥非常重要的作用。该文通过对2例牙内陷畸形临床诊断和治疗方法的探索和分析,回顾了牙内陷畸形的病理特点,总结了牙内陷畸形的诊断及治疗原则。%Dens invaginatus is an unusual malformation.The difficulty in recognizing a tooth with dens invaginatus frequently results in the delayed diagnosis followed by unpromising treatment outcome because the abnormality cannot be seen until the tooth is involved with pulp necrosis even apical periodontitis.The application of CBCT scanning and dental microscope is playing a significantly important role in both diagnosis and treatment of dens invaginatus.This paper presents 2 cases with dens invaginatus which were well diagnosed and properly trea-ted,reviews the pathology and intends to get the principle ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of dens invaginatus.

  3. 5th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: summary of key research and implications for policy and practice – Operations research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kort Rodney


    Full Text Available Abstract Operations research was added as a fourth scientific track to the pathogenesis conference series at the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2009 in recognition of the importance of this growing research field and the need for applied research to inform and evaluate the scale up of some key interventions in HIV treatment, care and prevention. Several studies demonstrated how task shifting and the decentralization of health services can leverage scarce health care resources to support scale-up efforts. For example, a Ugandan study comparing home-based and facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART delivery found that both delivered equivalent clinical outcomes, but home-based delivery resulted in substantial cost savings to patients; and a retrospective cohort analysis of an HIV care programme in Lesotho demonstrated that devolving routine patient management to nurses and trained counsellors resulted in impressive gains in annual enrolment, retention in care and other clinical indicators. Studies also demonstrated how the use of trained counsellors and public health advisors could effectively expand both clinical and public health capacity in low-income settings. Studies evaluating the impact of integrating HIV and TB care resulted in improved treatment outcomes in coinfected populations, the development of environmental interventions to reduce TB transmission, and uncovering of the extent of multi-drug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and XDR-TB in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Some mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness studies presented at this meeting addressed interventions to increase retention in care, and strengthened the evidentiary basis for universal voluntary testing and immediate ART on reducing HIV transmission; debate continued about the relative merits of clinical versus laboratory monitoring. Finally, a provocative plenary presentation outlined the

  4. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda


    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  5. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.


    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  6. Heart Failure in an Infant With Pierre Robin Sequence: Is There a Diagnostic Test to Aid in Treatment Planning and Monitoring? (United States)

    Biskup, Nataliya; Francis, Stacey H


    This case report describes an infant with Pierre Robin sequence who was managed conservatively until he presented at 4 months of age with right-sided heart failure. This rare clinical presentation displays the physiologic response to chronic respiratory obstruction and the acid-base disturbances, which become evident on metabolic panel and blood gas. We suggest that these tests can be added to the workup, especially in conservatively managed infants, to help predict which infants may fail conservative treatment and to avoid the rare complication of heart failure in infants with Pierre Robin sequence.

  7. The Safety of Hezhou Antiviral Treatment in Patients with HIV/AIDS Research%贺州市艾滋病患者抗病毒治疗的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓云; 莫耀素; 严汝庆; 陈强文; 李金卓; 李鑫; 陈柳林; 黄荣道; 刘燕飞; 李繁


    目的:了解贺州市HIV/AIDS患者接受抗病毒治疗后90 d内药物不良反应(ADR)发生的规律及其影响因素,评价HIV/AIDS患者抗病毒治疗的安全性。方法对160例HIV/AIDS患者接受抗病毒治疗进行为期90 d的ADR监测,记录抗病毒药物ADR的发生时间、发生类型、ADR主要表现、干预措施和转归等。结果160例接受抗病毒治疗的HIV/AIDS患者中,ADR的发生率为95.0%;累及系统器官主要有:代谢和营养障碍60.0%、全身性损害57.5%、血液系统45.6%、胃肠系统18.8%、肝胆系统26.9%、皮肤及其附件18.1%、神经系统18.8%等;累计出现ADR共517例次,结果痊愈或好转65.0%、未好转23.6%,不详11.4%;75.4%的ADR未采取干预措施;因ADR导致更换治疗方案的30例,停药3例。结论贺州市HIV/AIDS患者抗病毒治疗后90 d内ADR发生率高,多数ADR症状轻微,部分ADR经对症处理后可好转或痊愈,临床医生应对治疗患者进行定期回访,对治疗中出现的ADR及时给予相应的干预措施,以提高患者用药的依从性,保证治疗效果和用药的安全性。%Objective The purpose of this thesis is to detect the adverse drug reaction (ADR) and its influencing factors on HIV/AIDS patients after their receiving antiretroviral treatment in the city of Hezhou within 90 days, so as to evaluate the safety of antiviral therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods This study based on 160 cases of HIV/AIDS patients who have received antiretroviral therapy under a 90-day ADR monitoring, during which the time, types, ADR main perfor-mances, interventions, and also the outcome of antiviral drug ADR have been recorded. Results In 160 cases of HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, the ADR incidence rate is 95%; Organs involved in ADR and its clinical mani-festos are:60% among which are the metabolic and nutritional disorders, 57.5%overall systemic damage to the whole body;45.6%of blood system;26

  8. Desfecho do tratamento e confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico de tuberculose em pacientes com HIV/AIDS no Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil Treatment outcome and laboratory confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in patients with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Maruza


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a freqüência de desfecho desfavorável (óbito, abandono e falência de tratamento entre pacientes com co-infecção tuberculose (TB/HIV submetidos a tratamento para TB com confirmação etiológica do diagnóstico e pacientes co-infectados com TB/HIV e tratados sem confirmação diagnóstica. MÉTODOS: Coorte retrospectivo de pacientes co-infectados com TB/HIV que iniciaram tratamento para TB entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2004, em um serviço de referência para HIV/AIDS no Recife (PE Brasil. A exposição principal, confirmação laboratorial da TB, foi ajustada pelas variáveis de três blocos: variáveis sócio-demográficas; variáveis relacionadas ao HIV/AIDS; e variáveis relacionadas à TB. Para avaliar a significância estatística dos resultados, utilizaram-se o intervalo de confiança de 95% das odds ratios e o valor de p (teste de qui-quadrado e razão de verossimilhança. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 262 pacientes. Não se observou associação entre confirmação laboratorial do diagnóstico de TB e desfecho desfavorável, mesmo após o ajuste pelos fatores de confusão. Permaneceram no modelo final da regressão logística múltipla: coexistência de outras doenças oportunistas; contagem de linfócitos CD4 abaixo de 50 células/mm³; carga viral entre 10.000 e 100.000 cópias/mL; dispnéia; forma disseminada de TB; e mudança do tratamento da TB por reação adversa ou intolerância. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento para TB sem confirmação etiológica, em pacientes co-infectados, baseado na decisão de profissionais experientes em serviços de referência, não aumentou o risco de desfecho desfavorável do tratamento para TB. Além disso, identificaram-se grupos com maior risco de desfecho desfavorável, os quais devem ser cuidadosamente monitorados.OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of unfavorable outcome (death or default and treatment failure between tuberculosis (TB/HIV co

  9. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... equity (covering the populations in need of services). Financing for sustainability (covering the costs of services). Innovation for acceleration (looking towards the future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ...

  10. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  11. Buying a Hearing Aid (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  12. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  13. AidData (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  14. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  15. Automated Reasoning Across Tactical Stories to Derive Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wesley Regian


    Full Text Available The Military Analogical Reasoning System (MARS is a performance support system and decision aid for commanders in Tactical Operations Centers. MARS enhances and supports the innate human ability for using stories to reason about tactical goals, plans, situations, and outcomes. The system operates by comparing many instances of stored tactical stories, determining which have analogous situations and lessons learned, and then returning a description of the lessons learned. The description of the lessons learned is at a level of abstraction that can be generalized to an appropriate range of tactical situations. The machine-understandable story representation is based on a military operations data model and associated tactical situation ontology. Thus each story can be thought of, and reasoned about, as an instance of an unfolding tactical situation. The analogical reasoning algorithm is based on Gentner's Structure Mapping Theory. Consider the following two stories. In the first, a U.S. platoon in Viet Nam diverts around a minefield and subsequently comes under ambush from a large hill overlooking their new position. In the second, a U.S. task force in Iraq diverts around a biochemical hazard and subsequently comes under ambush from the roof of an abandoned building. MARS recognizes these stories as analogical, and derives the following abstraction: When enemy-placed obstacles force us into an unplanned route, beware of ambush from elevation or concealment. In this paper we describe the MARS interface, military operations data model, tactical situation ontology, and analogical reasoning algorithm.

  16. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS


    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L


    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  17. Plasma-aided manufacturing (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.


    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  19. Using Lesson Study and Four-Column Lesson Planning with Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Matthews, Michael E.; Hlas, Christopher S.; Finken, Teresa M.


    This article presents four-column lesson planning, an adaptation of lesson study, for preservice secondary school teachers. Four-column plans, an integral part of Japanese lesson study, have been less emphasized in the United States. This article presents study results indicating how these teachers were affected by this lesson study adaptation:…

  20. Designing and Adapting Tasks in Lesson Planning: A Critical Process of Lesson Study (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira


    There is no doubt that a lesson plan is a necessary product of Lesson Study. However, the collaborative work among teachers that goes into creating that lesson plan is largely under-appreciated by non-Japanese adopters of Lesson Study, possibly because the effort involved is invisible to outsiders, with our attention going to its most visible…

  1. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  2. Clinical study of traditional Chinese medicines based on the regimen of psychosomatic mutual aid treatment in treatment of menstrual disorders women with diminished ovarian reserve%中医心身同治方案对卵巢储备功能下降妇女月经失调的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 王小云


    目的:观察中医心身同治方案对卵巢储备功能下降妇女月经失调的临床疗效。方法采取随机平行对照临床研究,将50例患者随机分为中医心身同治治疗组25例(中药+情志治疗),对照组25例,采用上市中成药逍遥丸+六味地黄丸治疗。治疗前后观察月经周期、经期、经量状况并对其进行评分量化。同时治疗前后均采用抑郁自评量表( SDS)、焦虑自评量表( SAS)对患者情绪情况进行量化比较。结果治疗后2组SDS评分、SAS均有改善,与治疗前比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。治疗组在改善月经失调积分方面优于对照组,2组差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论中医心身同治方案可以有效改善卵巢储备功能下降妇女月经失调状况,值得推广应用。%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines based on the regimen of psychosomatic mutual aid treatment in treatment of menstrual disorders women with diminished ovarian reserve . Methods Fifty patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups,namely the experiment group ( using Chinese medicines plus Chinese psychosomatic mutual aid treatment) and the control group( using Xiao yao wan plus Liu wei di huang wan intervention ) . The menstrual cycle, menstrual period and the volume status were evaluated. The self-rating depression scale( SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale( SAS) were used to evaluate patients with emotional situation. Results SDS and SAS scores improved greatly in both groups compared with before treatment(P<0.01). The score of menstrual disorders in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group(P<0.01). Conclusion Chinese medicines based on the regimen of psychosomatic mutual aid treatment can effectively improve the menstrual disorders in women with diminished ovarian reserve,which may be widely applied.

  3. Lesson planning in English language teaching


    FAFÍLKOVÁ, Gabriela


    ABSTRACT The diploma thesis ``Lesson planning in English language teaching`` explores the aspects of lesson planning in English language teaching of three teachers with various length of the pedagogical teaching practice. The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out how detailed lesson planning the teachers prepare, what they focus on, if the methodology is more important than language and if they use their lesson planning in other parallel classes. The thesis is divided into a theoretical a...

  4. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.


    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  5. Femtosecond photography lessons (United States)

    Fanchenko, S. D.


    Antic scientists, sailors, warriors, physician, etc. were perceiving the space by means of their eye vision system. Nowadays the same people use eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, image converters. All these devices fit the necessary magnification, intensification gain and image spectrum to the eyes. The human brain is processing the image data offered to him in a format pertaining to eyes. Hence, the cognition of images can be regarded as a direct measurement. As to the time scale converters, they turned out to be harder done as compared with the spatial scale converters. Hence, the development of the high-speed photography (HSP) continues for more than a hundred and fifty years. The recent pico- femtosecond HSP branch sprang up in 1949 at the Kurchatov Institute -- its cradle. All about the HSP had been advertised. Instead of reprinting what is already well known, it makes sense to emphasize some instructive lessons drawn from past experience. Also it is tempting to look a bit into the high-speed photography future.

  6. Lessons from Rotor 37

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    NASA rotor 37 was used as a blind test case for turbomachinery CFD by the Turbomachinery Committee of the IGTI.The rotor is a transonic compressor with a tip speed of 454 m/s(1500ft/s)and a relatively high pressure ratio of 2.1.It was tested in isolation with a circumferentially uniform inlet flow so that the flow through it should be steady apart from and effects of passage to passage geometry variation and mechanical vibration.As such it represents the simplest possible type of test for three-dimensional turbomachinery flow solvers.Howerver,the rotor still presents a real challenge to 3D viscous flow solvers because the shock wave-boudary layer interaction is strong and the effects of viscosity are dominant in determining the flow deviation and hence the pressure ration.Eleven blind solutions were submittewd and in addition a non-blind solution was used to prepare for the exercies.This paper reviews the flow in the test case and the comparisons of the CFD solutions with the test data.Lessons for both the Flow physics in transonic fans and for the application of CFD to such machines are pointed out.

  7. More than Tolerance for Engineering Lessons (United States)

    Burrows, Andrea; Herfat, Safa; Truesdell, Pam; Miller, Richard


    Described herein is a science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM) secondary lesson created by graduate engineering student Safa Herfat, with modifications by her co-authors. The lessons learned from this case study are explored through an explanation of tolerance, a description of the lesson, the results obtained, and participant…

  8. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software (United States)

    McComas, David C.


    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  9. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, R.


    The purpose of lessons learned is to identify insight gained during a project – successes or failures – that can be applied on future projects. Lessons learned can contribute to the overall success of a project by building on approaches that have worked well and avoiding previous mistakes. Below are examples of lessons learned during ERDF’s ARRA-funded expansion project.

  10. Effectiveness of Lesson Planning: Factor Analysis (United States)

    Panasuk, Regina M.; Todd, Jeffrey


    The paper presents the conceptual framework that guided the development of the Lesson Plan Evaluation Rubric (LPER) instrument derived from the Four Stages of Lesson Planning (FSLP) strategy and the empirical results that provide the insight into the elements of lesson planning. Teachers from urban low-performing middle schools in one of the New…

  11. Lesson Plays: Planning Teaching versus Teaching Planning (United States)

    Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie


    We introduce Lesson Play as an imaginary interaction between teacher and students presented in a form of a dialogue or play. We suggest that lesson plays are a valuable professional development tool in preparing for teaching that can be juxtaposed with, or used as a replacement for, traditional lesson planning. The article begins with an…

  12. Improving Teaching through Lesson Study Debriefing (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.


    The lesson study model of professional development that originated in Japan is becoming increasingly popular in the United States. At its core, lesson study is a means of bringing teachers together to carry out the process of planning a lesson, implementing and observing it, and then examining it during a debriefing session. The debriefing…

  13. Lesson Plan Design for Facilitating Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Baker, Pamela Hudson; Fleming, Louise Conn


    This study examines the role of lesson plan design in helping teacher candidates to meet diverse learning needs. The authors studied student teachers who had been taught to use a differential lesson plan to see if they were differentiating in their planning, assessment, and instruction. They concluded that, indeed, lesson plan design does…

  14. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena


    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  15. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone


    This article describes the development of a system intended to aid the treatment of certain phobic conditions by the use of computer telephony integration (CTI).A phobia is an irrational fear to some situations or things and interferes with the functioning of the individual that suffers from it...

  16. Interview: Nanomedicine and the fight against HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Nel, André; Swindells, Susan; Bronich, Tatiana; Gendelman, Howard E


    Ahead of the 4th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Nanomedicine, this collection of interviews brings together experts from the fields of nanomedicine and HIV/AIDS treatment. Professor André Nel gives us a general introduction and update on the nanomedicine field and how he hopes it will progress. Professor Susan Swindells describes the current challenges faced in the clinic for HIV/AIDS treatment. Professor Tatiana Bronich explains the research efforts being undertaken by the nanomedicine community for the treatment of microbial infections and HIV/AIDS specifically. Finally, Professor Howard Gendelman looks to the future and assesses the potential and challenges of nanomedicine approaches for HIV eradication.

  17. AIDS -- why African successes are scoffed. (United States)

    Ankomah, B


    Pressures to create a profitable Third World market for Western drugs may have led to the suppression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatments developed in Africa. Six years before four Western pharmaceutical companies announced the discovery of a three-drug regimen that appears to produce remission in some patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ugandan physician Dr. Charles Ssali had developed a similar formulation. Beginning in 1989, Dr. Ssali gave HIV-infected patients at his Kampala clinic a preparation, Miriandina, containing 27 naturally occurring anti-oxidants and micronutrients that stimulate the immune system and prevent progression to AIDS. To date, he has treated over 12,000 patients, with an 80% success rate. His first patient, who presented in 1989 with full-blown AIDS, is alive and symptom-free. Miriandina is taken for 12-18 months, at a cost of only US $0.50 per tablet ($600 for six months of treatment). Another herbal formulation, Pearl Omega, developed by scientist Arthur Obel with funds provided by the Kenyan government, has produced a similar reversal of AIDS symptoms. However, international donor organizations and the AIDS establishment have refused to fund these African-based efforts or to publicize their success. It is suggested that this reflects a plan to force African countries to take out World Bank loans to finance the more expensive ($8300 a course) Western-based protease inhibitors.

  18. Introducing ecological sanitation: some lessons from a small town pilot project in Mozambique. (United States)

    Breslin, Edward D


    The paper explores the development of ecological sanitation (EcoSan) within the small-town context of Lichinga, Niassa Province, Mozambique. The paper looks at how ESTAMOS (a Mozambican NGO) and WaterAid introduced EcoSan in Lichinga, how families and communities have responded to EcoSan, and key lessons learned during the process to date that could be relevant to others within and beyond Mozambique.

  19. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  20. AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Mokhobo, D


    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.