WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids treatment lessons

  1. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    gathered during fieldwork as participants and observers in a Catholic AIDS treatment clinic and through interviews with service providers in Uganda. We use these data to think both creatively and systematically about the meanings and limitations of pastoral power and therapeutic citizenship.......-religious role in Western societies. Working on behalf of humanitarian organizations to combat modern emergencies is the contemporary embodiment of an ideal, pure notion of “the good” that is not linked to “old religion” but mimics many of its dispositions and practices. This analysis is based on empirical data...

  2. Lessons Learned while Implementing an HIV/AIDs Care and Treatment Program in Rural Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Moon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mozambique has severe resource constraints, yet with international partnerships, the nation has placed over 145,000 HIV- infected persons on antiretroviral therapies (ART through May 2009. HIV clinical services are provided at .215 clinical venues in all 11 of Mozambique’s provinces. Friends in Global Health (FGH, affiliated with Vanderbilt University in the United States (US, is a locally licensed non-governmental organization (NGO working exclusively in small city and rural venues in Zambézia Province whose population reaches approximately 4 million persons. Our approach to clinical capacity building is based on: 1 technical assistance to national health system facilities to implement ART clinical services at the district level, 2 human capacity development, and 3 health system strengthening. Challenges in this setting are daunting, including: 1 human resource constraints, 2 infrastructure limitations, 3 centralized care for large populations spread out over large distances, 4 continued high social stigma related to HIV, 5 limited livelihood options in rural areas and 6 limited educational opportunities in rural areas. Sustainability in rural Mozambique will depend on transitioning services from emergency foreign partners to local authorities and continued funding. It will also require “wrap-around” programs that help build economic capacity with agricultural, educational, and commercial initiatives. Sustainability is undermined by serious health manpower and infrastructure limitations. Recent U.S. government pronouncements suggest that the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief will support concurrent community and business development. FGH, with its Mozambican government counterparts, see the evolution of an emergency response to a sustainable chronic disease management program as an essential and logical step. We have presented six key challenges that are essential to address in rural Mozambique

  3. Managing Your Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Related information How ... any reason. Return to top More information on Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Explore other publications ...

  4. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... and have resulted in a dramatic decrease in AIDS deaths in the U.S. NIH Research to Results ...

  5. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  6. Seed Aid for Food Security? Some Lessons from Zimbabwe's Agricultural Recovery Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Richard; Muringai, Violet; Mavunganidze, Zira

    2007-01-01

    Does agricultural input aid always lead to favourable food security outcomes? This paper describes Zimbabwe's agricultural recovery program for the 2003/2004 farming season and draws some lessons that can be used in the designing and implementation of future programs. Input aid was found to be most beneficial if it is packaged together with other…

  7. The Cost of Complexity in Federal Student Aid: Lessons from Optimal Tax Theory and Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Susan M. Dynarski; Judith E. Scott-Clayton

    2006-01-01

    The federal system for distributing student financial aid rivals the tax code in its complexity. Both have been a source of frustration and a focus of reform efforts for decades, yet the complexity of the student aid system has received comparatively little attention from economists. We describe the complexity of the aid system, and apply lessons from optimal tax theory and behavioral economics to show that complexity is a serious obstacle to both efficiency and equity in the distribution of ...

  8. Addressing Ebola-related Stigma: Lessons Learned from HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Davtyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD are contemporary epidemics associated with significant social stigma in which communities affected suffer from social rejection, violence, and diminished quality of life. Objective: To compare and contrast stigma related to HIV/AIDS and EVD, and strategically think how lessons learned from HIV stigma can be applied to the current EVD epidemic. Methods: To identify relevant articles about HIV/AIDS and EVD-related stigma, we conducted an extensive literature review using multiple search engines. PubMed was used to search for relevant peer-reviewed journal articles and Google for online sources. We also consulted the websites of the World Health Organization (WHO, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the National Institutes of Health to retrieve up-to-date information about EVD and HIV/AIDS. Results: Many stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors directed towards those with EVD are strikingly similar to those with HIV/AIDS but there are significant differences worthy of discussion. Both diseases are life-threatening and there is no medical cure. Additionally misinformation about affected groups and modes of transmission runs rampant. Unlike in persons with EVD, historically criminalized and marginalized populations carry a disproportionately higher risk for HIV infection. Moreover, mortality due to EVD occurs within a shorter time span as compared to HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: Stigma disrupts quality of life, whether it is associated with HIV infection or EVD. When addressing EVD, we must think beyond the immediate clinical therapeutic response, to possible HIV implications of serum treatment. There are emerging social concerns of stigma associated with EVD infection and double stigma associated with EVD and HIV infection. Drawing upon lessons learned from HIV, we must work to empower and mobilize prominent members of the community, those who recovered from the disease, and organizations

  9. Sprint Planning with a Digital Aid Tool: Lessons Learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engum, Erlend Agoy; Racheva, Zornitza; Daneva, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Managing the product’s backlog is a major task in agile projects. This case study reports on one organization’s experiences from the transition to a backlog management tool and its contribution to improving sprint planning.. Our key lessons learnt are that a tool is particularly appropriate to organ

  10. Lessons on Stigma: Teaching about HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the sociology of HIV/AIDS involves teaching about the causes and effects of stigma. We describe a Sociology of HIV/AIDS course at the University of Alabama in which stigma reduction was assessed as a primary objective. The syllabus involved theory-based instruction, class visits, service learning, and student research on community…

  11. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  12. 46 CFR 197.314 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.314 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.314 First aid and... consists of— (i) Basic first aid supplies; and (ii) Any additional supplies necessary to treat minor...

  13. HIV/AIDS Adherence: Teaching about Treatment and Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jena Nicols

    2008-01-01

    Advances in HIV/AIDS treatment have dramatically changed the nature of HIV/AIDS education and prevention, creating new opportunities and challenges. This activity is designed to help participants reflect on the impact that HIV treatment can have on a person's life. It also enables trainers to engage participants in a dialogue about the impact of…

  14. 46 CFR 197.454 - First aid and treatment equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid and treatment equipment. 197.454 Section 197.454 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Equipment § 197.454 First aid and treatment equipment. The diving supervisor shall ensure that medical...

  15. The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance Program: lessons learned and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiboski, C H; Webster-Cyriaque, J Y; Ghannoum, M; Dittmer, D P; Greenspan, J S

    2016-04-01

    The Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance (OHARA) was established in 2006 to provide the capacity to investigate the oral complications associated with HIV/AIDS within the ACTG infrastructure. Its goals were to explore the effects of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the development of opportunistic infections, and variation and resistance of opportunistic pathogens in the context of immune suppression and long-term ART. The objectives of this talk, presented as part of a plenary session at the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health and Disease in AIDS, were to (i) provide an overview of OHARA's most recent research agenda, and how it evolved since OHARA's inception; (ii) describe OHARA's main accomplishments, including examples of research protocols completed and their key findings; and (iii) describe spin-off projects derived from OHARA, lessons learned, and future directions. OHARA has met its central goal and made key contributions to the field in several ways: (i) by developing/updating diagnostic criteria for oral disease endpoints commonly measured in OHARA protocols and in HIV/AIDS research in general and has creating standardized training modules, both for measuring these oral disease endpoints across clinical specialties, and for collecting oral fluid specimens; (ii) by implementing a total of nine protocols, six of which are completed. Three protocols involved domestic research sites, while three involved international research sites (in Africa, India, and South America); (iii) and by developing and validating a number of laboratory assays used in its protocols and in the field of oral HIV/AIDS research. PMID:27109281

  16. Injuries following a serious hydrofluoric acid leak: First aid and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhai; Wang, Xingang; Sharma, Komal; Mao, Xinxing; Qiu, Xuguang; Ni, Liangfang; Han, Chunmao

    2015-11-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a dangerous inorganic acid that can cause local corrosion and systemic effects by ongoing absorption via the skin, mucosae, respiratory tract and digestive system. Recently, a serious toxic leak of low-concentration hydrofluoric acid solution occurred in the Pujiang area of Zhejiang Province, China. This accident resulted in 253 cases of chemical injury due to hydrofluoric acid exposure. Despite an immediate response by the local and provincial health-care system, as well as the local government, three people died due to acute poisoning and related complications. This article describes the events that took place leading to casualties as well as presenting the first-aid experience and the lessons learnt from this kind of mass injury. PMID:26188892

  17. Development of Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning Software for First Aid Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TEKEDERE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Today various facilities depending on the technological progresses have been continuing in use in education. The requirements for new applications in education come to the fore due to the factors such as the unavailability of students in the same place at the same time. In this study, web-assisted software was developed for conducting the first aid lessons in Vocational High School of Health Services over the web by the strategy of problem-based learning. This web-assisted software was designed by taking into consideration the teaching processes of problem-based learning strategy. At the same time, this software possesses a property of a frame model that gives students the opportunity of collaboration with different disciplines by its flexible structure.

  18. Zidovudine treatment of AIDS and ARC in Denmark 1987

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjaerg, L L; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt; Søeberg, B;

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a total of 138 Danish patients (94 AIDS and 44 ARC) received treatment with zidovudine, a total observation period of 572 treatment months. 15 AIDS and 1 ARC patient died after a median of 70 days (range 2-295). In the ARC group 4 patients developed AIDS (3 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia......, 1 Kaposi's sarcoma). Among the AIDS patients 38 new opportunistic infections were reported. 24 of these opportunistic infections occurred within 6 weeks after treatment initiation. 79 patients were observed for more than 3 months, 25 of these had their daily dose zidovudine reduced, usually from 1......,200 mg to 600 mg, 9 others were temporarily off drug. HIV antigen was analyzed in serum samples from 93 patients. Of these, 28 (52%) of 54 initially HIV antigen-positive became antigen-negative, 7 (18%) of 39 initially HIV antigen-negative became antigen-positive within the first 8 weeks of zidovudine...

  19. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank. PMID:12321757

  20. The politics of despair: AIDS and the failure of treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I D

    1995-01-01

    The recent AIDS-related death of a friend forced Dr. Iain Mackie to think about the disease and the lack of positive news about it. Despite a flood of recent studies that brought pessimistic news about the treatments now in use, Mackie tries to remain optimistic. "I may be treating only myself as I feed off the politics of optimism," he says, "but at least I will not be feeding off the politics of despair." The article appears as Canada marks another National AIDS Week Oct. 2-8.

  1. Rethinking the conceptual terrain of AIDS scholarship: lessons from comparing 27 years of AIDS and climate change research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brklacich Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there has recently been significant medical advance in understanding and treating HIV, limitations in understanding the complex social dimensions of HIV/AIDS epidemics continue to restrict a host of prevention and development efforts from community through to international levels. These gaps are rooted as much in limited conceptual development as they are in a lack of empirical research. Methods In this conceptual article, the authors compare and contrast the evolution of climate change and AIDS research. They demonstrate how scholarship and response in these two seemingly disparate areas share certain important similarities, such as the "globalization" of discourses and associated masking of uneven vulnerabilities, the tendency toward techno-fixes, and the polarization of debates within these fields. They also examine key divergences, noting in particular that climate change research has tended to be more forward-looking and longer-term in focus than AIDS scholarship. Conclusion Suggesting that AIDS scholars can learn from these key parallels and divergences, the paper offers four directions for advancing AIDS research: (1 focusing more on the differentiation of risk and responsibility within and among AIDS epidemics; (2 taking (back on board social justice approaches; (3 moving beyond polarized debates; and (4 shifting focus from reactive to forward-looking and proactive approaches.

  2. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and first aid. 50.20-3 Section 50.20-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... first aid. (a) Medical treatment includes, but is not limited to, the suturing of any wound, treatment... treatment. Tetanus and flu shots are considered preventative in nature. First aid includes any...

  3. Strategies of media marketing for "America Responds to AIDS" and applying lessons learned.

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, N H

    1991-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) public service announcement (PSA) campaign on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), entitled "America Responds to AIDS," has provided an opportunity to examine various media marketing techniques and their effectiveness in setting and sustaining a national media agenda for public health. The overall objective was to enlist the media as a partner in the effort to establish a clear national public health agenda on AIDS by reaching as many Americans as...

  4. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  5. How to Make Junior English Lessons Lively and Interesting by Different Teaching Aids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玮

    2002-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the usage of teaching aids in junior English from three aspects: the visual aids,the audio-visual means, the body language and tone. By this means, it can give the students a comparatively real circumstances, attract the students' attention, enhance the students' interest in English and improve their consciousness of competition.

  6. Direct treatment costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Perelman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the direct medical costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal from the perspective of the National Health Service. METHODS A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted for 150 patients from five specialized centers in Portugal in 2008. Data on utilization of medical resources during 12 months and patients’ characteristics were collected. A unit cost was applied to each care component using official sources and accounting data from National Health Service hospitals. RESULTS The average cost of treatment was 14,277 €/patient/year. The main cost-driver was antiretroviral treatment (€ 9,598, followed by hospitalization costs (€ 1,323. Treatment costs increased with the severity of disease from € 11,901 (> 500 CD4 cells/µl to € 23,351 (CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/ µl. Cost progression was mainly due to the increase in hospitalization costs, while antiretroviral treatment costs remained stable over disease stages. CONCLUSIONS The high burden related to antiretroviral treatment is counterbalanced by relatively low hospitalization costs, which, however, increase with severity of disease. The relatively modest progression of total costs highlights that alternative public health strategies that do not affect transmission of disease may only have a limited impact on expenditure, since treatment costs are largely dominated by constant antiretroviral treatment costs.

  7. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  8. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants. PMID:20965911

  9. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  10. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  11. Movement patterns in free water play after swimming lessons with flotation aids

    OpenAIRE

    Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Mendritzki, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the movement patterns of children during free play in a swimming school setting. It was hypothesized that children being taught using flotation vests would be less likely to surface dive, jump, and dive during free play. In this study, 24 participants were observed using a video camera during a 10-minute free play period at the end of a learn-to-swim session. Each subject had undergone 10 lessons either using a flotation vest (n = 11) or without (n = 1...

  12. Gambia, The - Community-based Response to HIV/AIDS - Lessons Learned from BAFROW

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Mohan

    2005-01-01

    Foundation for Research on Women's Health, Productivity and the Environment (BAFROW) is a local women's Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) in The Gambia that is considered an example of best practice for its holistic and community-based approach to the promotion of healthy behavior, women's activities and the fight against HIV/AIDS. A knowledge and learning team from the Africa region's q...

  13. Lessons for Japanese foreign aid from research on aid’s impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    infrastructure must be made resilient towards climate change, and the value of aid is questioned, few actors can offer more useful experience. Restoring structural transformation as a donor priority, and recognizing the critical role it played in the development of Japan, is a vital step towards making the real......Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which...... help to provide the public goods that resonate most with Japan’s vision of human security....

  14. Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Teshome

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, Western donors have been following a strategy of democracy promotion to Africa that involves giving assistance to both the state and the non-state actors including governments (as part of good governance program, parliaments, courts, political parties, civil society, electoral management bodies, election observation missions etc. The paper explores both the positive and the negative impacts of such assistance to African emerging democracies by using Ethiopia as a case study. The paper primarily deals with three sub-sectors of democracy promotion program: assistances to political parties, international election observation missions, and civil society. In this study, I argue that human rights and self interest (economic, political or both shape the foreign aid policy of Western donors including democracy assistance. Moreover, the paper attempts to prove that democratic reversals or backsliding and human rights abuses in the recipient states can trigger aid reduction or termination only when the recipient states are neither economically nor strategically valuable to the Western donors.

  15. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  16. A General Introduction of HIV/AIDS Treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a general introduction of HIV/AIDS treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China during the past 20 years. Although the role of TCM in treatment of HIV/AIDS is promising, there is still a long way to go.

  17. Atomic bomb suffering and Chernobyl accident lessons learnt from international medical aid programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperative medical projects between Nagasaki University and countries of the former USSR have had being performed in mainly two regions: Chernobyl and Semipalatinsk since 1990 and 1995, respectively. The 21st Center of Excellence (COE) program of ''International Consortium for Medical Care of Hibakusha and Radiation Life Science'' recently established in Nagasaki University can now serve our knowledge and experience much more directly. Its activity can be further extended to the radiocontaminated areas around the world, and based on the lessons of the past, it can indeed contribute to the future planning of the Network of Excellence (NOE) for Radiation Education Program as well as Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance under the auspices of the WHO-REMPAN. Within the frame of International Consortium of Radiation Research, a molecular epidemiology of thyroid diseases are now conducted in our departments in addition to international medical assistance. The clue of radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis may give us a new concept on experimental and epidemiological approaches to low dose radiation effects on human health, including those of internal radiation exposure. Concerning the role and responsibility of our work to the public, to avoid unnecessary radiophobia and to correctly understand radiation hazard and safety, we must build a bridge between basic research and widely open public education. Therefore, it is of high necessity to continuously work on clarification of the effects of ionizing radiation on human beings worldwide and to contribute the development of general guideline of radiation safety and radiation hazard, and to strive for the creation of substantiated radiation protection programs. (author)

  18. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  19. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  20. Why Culture Matters in Health Interventions: Lessons from HIV/AIDS Stigma and NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ford, Chandra L.; Iwelunmor, Juliet I.

    2014-01-01

    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for…

  1. The Evolution of Official Lessons: The Japanese Experience of the “Big Four” Pollution Diseases through the Lens of International Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Gómez Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Experience is an overtly accepted source of lessons but, as asocial phenomenon, it is not static. This essay is an examination of the use of the ‘four’ big pollution diseases experience inside Japanese initiatives on international aid, looking for the changes in understanding such tragic events. Attention is placed on the elements introduced and the nuances of meaning among them. The period reviewed, from the late 80’s to 2005, indicates a positive movement of the official view towards a comprehensive recognition of the history, not without voids and pending challenges.

  2. A TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection model and optimal control treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. J.; Torres, D. F. M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a population model for TB-HIV/AIDS coinfection transmission dynamics, which considers antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection and treatments for latent and active tuberculosis. The HIV-only and TB-only sub-models are analyzed separately, as well as the TB-HIV/AIDS full model. The respective basic reproduction numbers are computed, equilibria and stability are studied. Optimal control theory is applied to the TB-HIV/AIDS model and optimal treatment strategies for co-infected indivi...

  3. The efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH-aided radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    62 patients of differentiated thyroid cancer were performed total or near total thyroidectomy. 31 cases received rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment of 3.7 GBq (Group euthyroid). Another 31 were given radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 weeks thyroxine withdrawal (Group hypothyroidism). After about 5 to 6 months, the effect of radioiodine treatment was evaluated by whole body scan with diagnostic radioiodine. The complete ablation rate was 77.4% in group euthyroid, and 71.0% in group hypothyroidism (P>0.05). In a word, rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment can acquire satisfactory radioiodine ablation efficacy. (authors)

  4. Preliminary Study on the Pathogenesis and Treatment in Simian AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AIDSis a severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity disease caused by HIVin human beings.It ruins some areaintheworld.About200macaques were usedtoinvestigatethe pathogenesis of simian AIDS(SAIDS)by means of pathological andim-munological processes.There are some data of SAIDS pathogenesis as bellows:1.Primary SIVinfection in monkeys.When SIVentered into CD4+Tlymphocytes,it replicated and delivered intobloodto be high viremia.Some SIV-CD4+Tlymphocyte went tothe lymphoidtissue.The level of SIVantibody ele-vated...

  5. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J

    1990-06-01

    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months. PMID:2385457

  6. The Economic Impact of AIDS Treatment: Labor Supply in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Goldstein, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal survey data collected in collaboration with a treatment program, this paper estimates the economic impacts of antiretroviral treatment. The responses in two outcomes are studied: (1) labor supply of treated adult AIDS patients; and (2) labor supply of individuals in patients' households. Within six months after treatment…

  7. New lessons: Classic treatments in convulsive status epilepticus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renganathan, R

    2012-02-03

    Convulsive status epilepticus is a relatively common life-threatening illness requiring prompt intervention. There has been much debate about the appropriate protocol for management of convulsive status epilepticus. Published data on the management of this condition in Ireland is limited. Our aim was to establish if there was a structured, evidence-based or consensus-based protocol being implemented in the management of status epilepticus in our centre. We retrospectively audited all charts with a diagnosis of \\'Status Epilepticus\\' admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 95 episodes of convulsive status epilepticus were recorded. 34 charts were reviewed. Benzodiazepines were the drug class of first choice in 96% of patients. However, the doses of benzodiazepines used varied widely. The most frequent dose of phenytoin used was 1 gram. No one received continuous EEG monitoring during treatment of refractory status epilepticus. Overall mortality was 18%. The results of this study show that there is no consistent protocol was being followed for the management of convulsive status epilepticus in our centre. The drugs of first choice varied between diazepam and lorazepam in most cases. Although phenytoin was used as second line drug, the dose used was frequently suboptimal. We have developed a protocol for the management for convulsive status in our centre.

  8. The treatment of larynxpapillomas with the aid of photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HPV associated papillomas are the most common benign laryngeal tumors in children and show similar distribution to both sexes. Papilloma and condyloma are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) belonging to the family of papovaviruses. Numerous studies have shown that there are at least 16 HPV subspecies apparent in man causing different diseases. In children larynx papillomas are histologically benign whereas in adults papillomatosis turns into cancer in 20% of the cases. Conventional therapy is based on a surgical removal of the papillomas by means of carbondiogsite laser systems. Because of the recurrent character of this disorder the increasing number of surgical interventions leave scars in the mucous membranes of the vocal cords of the larynx. This results in increasing malfunctioning of the larynx. All other treatment agents that have been added to surgery like steroids, aureomycine, Idoxoridine, Podophyllin, Vaccine and Interferon showed no significant effect to prolonge the treatment interval for the recurrent larynx papillomatosis. As a new treatment modality PDT confirmed to be a functional therapeutic agent for recurrent laryngeal papillomas. (author). 12 refs

  9. Lessons learned during down referral of antiretroviral treatment in Tete, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decroo Tom

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As sub-Saharan African countries continue to scale up antiretroviral treatment, there has been an increasing emphasis on moving provision of services from hospital level to the primary health care clinic level. Delivery of antiretroviral treatment at the clinic level increases the number of entry points to care, while the greater proximity of services encourages retention in care. In Tete City, Mozambique, patients on antiretrovirals were rapidly down referred from a provincial hospital to four urban clinics in large numbers without careful planning, resulting in a number of patients being lost to follow-up. We outline some key lessons learned to support down referral, including the need to improve process management, clinic infrastructure, monitoring systems, and patient preparation. Down referral can be avoided by initiating patients' antiretroviral treatment at clinic level from the outset.

  10. [Application of different death evaluation indicators for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Ma, Y

    2016-05-10

    AIDS has gradually changed from a fatal disease to a manageable chronic disease since the advent of antiretroviral drugs. In 2003, China initiated a national free antiretroviral treatment program for people living with HIV/AIDS, several death evaluation indicators have been used to evaluate public health effect of the program. Death evaluation indicators used frequently in domestic and overseas include mortality, case fatality rate, excess mortality, standard mortality ratio, years of potential life lost, disability-adjusted life year and life expectancy. This paper summarizes the different death indicators applied in effectiveness evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, elaborates the application range and significance of these indicators and suggests the research in related life expectancy and burden of disease which have not been conducted in China. PMID:27188376

  11. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  12. onlineDeCISion.org: a web-based decision aid for DCIS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Schneider, Katharine H; Soeteman, Djøra; Stout, Natasha; Schrag, Deborah; Fordis, Michael; Punglia, Rinaa S

    2015-11-01

    Women diagnosed with DCIS face complex treatment decisions and often do so with inaccurate and incomplete understanding of the risks and benefits involved. Our objective was to create a tool to guide these decisions for both providers and patients. We developed a web-based decision aid designed to provide clinicians with tailored information about a patient’s recurrence risks and survival outcomes following different treatment strategies for DCIS. A theoretical framework, microsimulation model (Soeteman et al., J Natl Cancer 105:774–781, 2013) and best practices for web-based decision tools guided the development of the decision aid. The development process used semi-structured interviews and usability testing with key stakeholders, including a diverse group of multidisciplinary clinicians and a patient advocate. We developed onlineDeCISion.​org to include the following features that were rated as important by the stakeholders: (1) descriptions of each of the standard treatment options available; (2) visual projections of the likelihood of time-specific (10-year and lifetime) breast-preservation, recurrence, and survival outcomes; and (3) side-by-side comparisons of down-stream effects of each treatment choice. All clinicians reviewing the decision aid in usability testing were interested in using it in their clinical practice. The decision aid is available in a web-based format and is planned to be publicly available. To improve treatment decision making in patients with DCIS, we have developed a web-based decision aid onlineDeCISion.​org that conforms to best practices and that clinicians are interested in using in their clinics with patients to better inform treatment decisions. PMID:26475704

  13. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  14. Virtual Reality versus Computer-Aided Exposure Treatments for Fear of Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Botella, Cristina; Llabres, Jordi; Breton-Lopez, Juana Maria; del Amo, Antonio Riera; Banos, Rosa M.; Gelabert, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is growing that two modalities of computer-based exposure therapies--virtual reality and computer-aided psychotherapy--are effective in treating anxiety disorders, including fear of flying. However, they have not yet been directly compared. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of three computer-based exposure treatments for…

  15. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  16. Lessons Learned In Technology Development for Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford needs supplemental technology treatment of low-activity waste (LAW) in addition to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The Washington State Department of Ecology requires that supplemental technology provide the same protection to human health and the environment as WTP LAW glass. In 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) evaluated supplemental treatment technologies for LAW treatment and looked more closely at three: bulk vitrification (BV), steam reforming, and tailored cementitious stabilization. US DOE with Ecology's support chose to design and test BV because it believed BV would offer rapid deployment, low cost, and waste stream versatility. This paper will describe the path taken in choosing and developing technologies for additional LAW treatment capacity and, more importantly, the lessons learned along the way. In conclusion: Contractors' off-the-shelf vitrification technology that worked elsewhere may not apply easily to Hanford's waste challenges. The BV development process could have been improved by first identifying and then focusing on primary areas of concern. Continuing integrated tests at the Horn Rapids facility offers a convenient option to test both the dryer and the SMF. But the plan for development of the SMF must be short term with well defined success criteria. US DOE has the responsibility to carefully evaluate each proposal and make critical decisions that will make optimum use of limited funds. The ERP provided valuable technical guidance on improving BV's design. This must be complemented by a similar study of cost effectiveness of a process. We must have a better understanding of life cycle costs before a path for supplemental treatment is chosen. US DOE has now gained five years of experience in developing BV. It is time for US DOE to make defensible economic evaluations before further funding towards developing supplemental treatment. It must reevaluate if the projected advantages of rapid deployment, low cost, and waste

  17. Factors associated with treatment for latent tuberculosis in persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva de Aquino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to identify factors associated with non-initiation of prophylactic treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBi in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA, based on a prospective cohort study of PLWA ≥ 18 years of age in two referral services for HIV/AIDS. Of the 232 patients eligible for treatment of LTBi, 69.8% initiated treatment. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, only treatment in one of the two referral services was associated with non-initiation of treatment for LTBi (p < 0.001. TB incidence in the cohort was 0.6/100 person-years. TB incidence in patients that initiated treatment of LTBi was 0.4/100 person-years, compared to 1.2/100 person-years in those that did not initiate treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. The study’s most interesting finding was that the main factor associated with the likelihood of treatment for LTBi was the health service where the patient was treated.

  18. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  19. Prevention, control and treatment of HIV-AIDS among injecting drug use in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, Bachti; Susanto, Herman; Roesli, Rully; Yusuf, Hadi; Hinduan, Zahrotur; Mase, Johannes C; Surahman, Eri; van der Ven, Andre

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing a growing HIV-epidemic that in many areas is driven by injecting drug use (IDU). IDUs underutilize health services, partly because of legal aspects which also cause that many are held in prison, where further HIV- transmission may take place. Most HIV-infected patients present with advanced HIV-AIDS and many deaths before starting antiretroviral treatment. The growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia has socio-economical implications for individual patients as well as for the health system and for society. IMPACT, a multidisciplinary university-based program in Bandung, West-Java, integrates HIV-prevention and treatment, combining research and implementation. Biomedical, public health and sociobehavioral expertise is used for educational programs for adolescents; scaling-up HIV-testing, harm reduction strategies and care for HIV/AIDS in hospital, community and prison; and institutional as well as individual capacity building related to IDU and HIV/AIDS. It is expected that these activities can make a significant contribution to control of HIV-AIDS in the context of injecting drug use in West-Java and Indonesia as a whole. PMID:19920301

  20. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A.; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A.; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O.

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  1. Antiretroviral Drugs-Loaded Nanoparticles Fabricated by Dispersion Polymerization with Potential for HIV/AIDS Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwuyi, Oluwaseun; Kumari, Namita; Smith, Kahli A; Bolshakov, Oleg; Adesina, Simeon; Gugssa, Ayele; Anderson, Winston A; Nekhai, Sergei; Akala, Emmanuel O

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) for chronic suppression of HIV replication has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. HAART is no panacea; treatments must be maintained for life. Although great progress has been made in ARV therapy, HIV continues to replicate in anatomical and intracellular sites where ARV drugs have restricted access. Nanotechnology has been considered a platform to circumvent some of the challenges in HIV/AIDS treatment. Dispersion polymerization was used to fabricate two types (PMM and ECA) of polymeric nanoparticles, and each was successfully loaded with four ARV drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and raltegravir), followed by physicochemical characterization: scanning electron microscope, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading, and in vitro availability. These nanoparticles efficiently inhibited HIV-1 infection in CEM T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells; they hold promise for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The ARV-loaded nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol on the corona may facilitate tethering ligands for targeting specific receptors expressed on the cells of HIV reservoirs. PMID:27013886

  2. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiringira Japheth; Rujumba Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008...

  3. Manufacturing consent?: Media messages in the mobilization against HIV/AIDS in India and lessons for health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamshad

    2014-01-01

    Despite repeated calls for a more critical and "culture-centered" approach to health communication, textual analysis of televised public service advertising (PSA) campaigns has been largely neglected, even by critical communication scholars. In the case of "developing" countries in particular, there is an acute shortage of such literature. On the other hand, following the outbreak of major public health diseases such as AIDS, most countries have adopted PSA campaigns as the most preferred means of communicating messages. Drawing on insights from cultural studies (especially Antonio Gramsci and Stuart Hall), this article engages in textual analysis of the televised PSA campaigns launched by the Indian state to prevent HIV/AIDS between 2002 and 2005. Through such analysis, it argues that although few diseases in Indian history have spurred such massive and creative efforts for mass mobilization as AIDS, these efforts, in terms of their ethical implications, have been far from emancipatory. In fact, they have constructed and perpetuated the logic of domination and control along class, gender, sexuality, and knowledge systems, often contradicting and potentially harming the very goal of HIV prevention and of health promotion and empowerment. This article also holds that assessing public health campaigns through textual analysis, a highly neglected tool in health communication, can shed important light on a far more complex and changing nature of the state and public policy, especially in the developing world, thereby opening up space for alternative theorizing for health communication and social change. PMID:23631645

  4. Immediate zidovudine treatment protects simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn macaques against rapid onset of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rompay, K K; Otsyula, M G; Marthas, M L; Miller, C. J.; McChesney, M.B.; Pedersen, N C

    1995-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn rhesus macaques is a practical animal model of pediatric AIDS. Intravenous inoculation of rhesus newborns with uncloned SIVmac resulted in a high virus load, no antiviral immune responses, severe immunodeficiency, and a high mortality rate within 3 months. In contrast, immediate oral zidovudine (AZT) treatment of SIV-inoculated rhesus newborns either prevented infection or resulted in reduced virus load, enhanced antiviral immune respon...

  5. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems

    OpenAIRE

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ...

  6. Computer Aided Design of Heat Treatment for AISI P20+Ni Mold Steel with Good Machinability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin-bin; GAO Wen; HE Yan-lin; LI Lin

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design of heat treatment for AISI P20 mold steel with good machinability is attempted to proceed by the commercial software package Thermo-Calc (TCP+DICTRA). Through experimental and theoretical analysis of phase transformation during heat treatment, further knowledge of designing proper heat treatment is obtained. Then the machinability of AISI P20+Ni steel under given heat treatment condition is studied and the influencing factors to their machinability are analyzed. It is shown that heat treatment designed by computer simulation of carbide transformation is applicable to AISI P20+Ni steel with good machinability; AISI P20+Ni steel with tempered sorbite treated by quenching &tempering has optimal machinability; normalizing at the temperature of 910℃ & tempering can avoid cracking and result in acceptable machinability in small thickness module.

  7. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  8. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CT-AIDED SURROUNDING NEEDLING TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wenyu; LI Yanhui; LIN Guohua

    2002-01-01

    121 cases of ischemic stroke were randomly divided into CT-aided surrounding needling group (CTASN, 61 cases) and scalp Acupuncture group (SA, 60 cases). After 30 sessions of treatment the therapeutic results of the two groups are significantly different (P < 0.05), the therapeutic effect of CTASN group is better than that of SA group. The plasma contents of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a of the two groups change considerably after acupuncture treatment, the change in CTASN group is more obvious.

  9. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  10. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  11. Poor response to tuberculosis treatment with regimens without rifampicin in immunosuppressed AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnel M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted on 79 advanced immunosuppressed AIDS patients from 1997 to 1999, during which nine cases of tuberculosis (TB were diagnosed. The main clinical and laboratory characteristics and the response to TB treatment were reviewed. The clinical manifestations of TB were: pulmonary (six cases, extrapulmonary (two cases and disseminated (one case. These patients were being treated with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART and were not responding. In three cases an optional regimen without rifampicin (RMP was indicated to maintain HAART during TB treatment. A clinical response to TB treatment (disappearance of fever was observed in 6/9 patients during a mean of 73 days (SD = 96. The three unresponsive patients were those treated without RMP. A switch to TB regimens containing RMP was proposed and successful. In our study, though it was limited by a small sample size, the response to TB regimens without rifampin was poor in immunossupressed patients failing HAART.

  12. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  13. The value of recombinant human TSH-aided 131I treatment in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH(rhTSH)-aided 131I treatment for DTC. Methods: A total of 144 patients with DTC who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The rhTSH-aided 131I treatment of 3.7 GBq was performed in 72 cases (Group Ⅰ: euthyroid). Another 72 cases received radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 to 6 weeks of thyroxine withdrawal (Group Ⅱ: hypothyroidism). Serum endogenous TSH, FT3, FT4 and Tg were measured. The life qualities of both groups were observed, such as intolerance to cold, weight gain, constipation, motor retardation, skin dryness, periorbital edema and bone pain. Absence of visible uptake or uptake rate less than 1% was taken as complete ablation. The efficacy of 131I treatment was evaluated. The life quality of both groups was evaluated by χ2 test, and the effect of 131I treatment was analyzed by t test. Results: Serum TSH was effectively improved in both groups before 131I treatment. In group Ⅰ, TSH was higher than that of group Ⅱ ((141.26 ± 27.30) mU/L vs (70.57 ± 51.13) mU/L; t=2.435, P<0.05), and FT3, FT4 were not significantly different before or after the injection of rhTSH. Tg was well stimulated in both groups with no statistical difference. Group Ⅱ exhibited more side effects, which included intolerance to cold 80.56% (58/72), weight gain 86.11% (62/72), constipation 15.28% (11/72), motor retardation 22.22% (16/72), skin dryness 56.94% (41/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and no periorbital edema was found. Group Ⅰ had a higher quality of life than group Ⅱ, only few side effects were observed including dizziness and nausea 2.78% (2/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and transient tachycardia 1.39% (1/72). The effect of 131I treatment was evaluated by whole body scans with a diagnostic dose of 131I. The complete ablation rate was 70.83% (51/72) in group Ⅰ and 66.67% (48/72) in group Ⅱ (χ2=0.58, P>0.05). Conclusion: The rhTSH-aided 131

  14. Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covering techniques for severe burn treatment: lessons for radiological burn accidents. After a severe burn, the injured person is weakened by a risk of infection and a general inflammation. The necrotic tissues have to be removed because they are toxic for the organism. The injured person also needs to be covered by a cutaneous envelope, which has to be done by a treatment centre for burned people. The different techniques are the following: - auto grafts on limited burned areas; - cutaneous substitutes to cover temporary extended burned areas. Among them: natural substitutes like xenografts (pork skin, sheep skin,..) or allografts (human skin), - treated natural substitutes which only maintain the extracellular matrix. Artificial skins belong to this category and allow the development of high quality scars, - cell cultures in the laboratory: multiplying the individual cells and grafting them onto the patient. This technique is not common but allows one to heal severely injured patients. X-ray burns are still a problem. Their characteristics are analysed: intensive, permanent, antalgic resistant pain. They are difficult to compare with heat burns. In spite of a small number of known cases, we can give some comments and guidance on radio necrosis cures: the importance of the patients comfort, of ending the pain, of preventing infection, and nutritional balance. At the level of epidermic inflammation and phlyctena (skin blisters), the treatment may be completed by the use of growth factors. At the level of necrosis, after a temporary cover, an auto graft can be considered only if a healthy basis is guaranteed. The use of cellular cultures in order to obtain harmonious growth factors can be argued. (author)

  15. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  16. Is the Water Sector Lagging behind Education and Health on Aid Effectiveness? Lessons from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Welle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study in three countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Uganda assessed progress against the Paris Principles for Aid Effectiveness (AE in three sectors – water, health and education – to test the assumption that the water sector is lagging behind. The findings show that it is too simplistic to say that the water sector is lagging, although this may well be the case in some countries. The study found that wider governance issues are more important for AE than having in place sector-specific mechanics such as Sector-Wide Approaches alone. National political leadership and governance are central drivers of sector AE, while national financial and procurement systems and the behaviour of actors who have not signed up to the Paris Principles – at both national and global levels – have implications for progress that cut across sectors. Sectors and sub-sectors do nonetheless have distinct features that must be considered in attempting to improve sector-level AE. In light of these findings, using political economy approaches to better understand and address governance and strengthening sector-level monitoring is recommended as part of efforts to improve AE and development results in the water sector.

  17. Cone beam computed tomography aided diagnosis and treatment of endodontic cases: Critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Funda; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç; Yeta, Naz Yakar; Öztan, Meltem Dartar

    2016-07-28

    Although intraoral radiographs still remain the imaging method of choice for the evaluation of endodontic patients, in recent years, the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in endodontics showed a significant jump. This case series presentation shows the importance of CBCT aided diagnosis and treatment of complex endodontic cases such as; root resorption, missed extra canal, fusion, oblique root fracture, non-diagnosed periapical pathology and horizontal root fracture. CBCT may be a useful diagnostic method in several endodontic cases where intraoral radiography and clinical examination alone are unable to provide sufficient information. PMID:27551342

  18. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  19. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  20. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowski, Melissa E; Perez, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol), anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone), or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide). The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (–2.0 to 3.2 kg), dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes. PMID:26929669

  1. A new treatment for premature ejaculation? Case series for a desensitizing masturbation aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodríguez JE; López A; Instituto Sexológico Murciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if they can produce increases in the IELT using a masturbator in subjects with premature ejaculation, producing improvements in the quality and satisfaction of the sexuality of the patient. Methods:To carry out the study it will arrange of the utilization of a masturbation device aid for six weeks that they will use at least during 5 minutes without overcoming the half daily hour in the manual masturbation. The measures of results will be the differentiation of the basal and final IELT by means of the average of both results, obtaining the differential percentage of the above mentioned measures. Results:There was obtained a sample of 9 heterosexual participants of ages included between 20 and 42 years. The time of latency increased from the first week of treatment producing up to 57 %of increase in the IELT in the masturbation and up to 79.9 %of improvement during the coitus. Conclusions: The use of a masturbation aid (FLIP HOLE) has shown to be a useful tool in increase of the ejaculatory latency in the masturbation and intravaginal, that accompanies of an improvement in the communication of couple, frequency of coitus and sexual satisfaction, and could be an effective option for the treatment of E.P.

  2. Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS, Treatment Options, and Major Challenges with Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Usman, Muhammad; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the inability of modern medicine to find a cure for it has placed HIV as one of the most dreaded pathogens of the 21(st) century. With millions of people infected with HIV, it was once thought to result in "medical apocalypse". However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is now possible to control HIV. Adherence to ART helps to keep the viral load under control and prolong the time of progression to AIDS, resulting in near normal life expectancy. Even with the introduction of ART, a substantial number of patients fail to adhere due to a variety of reasons, including adverse side effects, drug abuse, mental disorders, socioeconomic status, literacy, and social stigma. With the availability of so many options for HIV treatment at each stage of the disease progression, physicians can switch between the treatment regimens to avoid and/or minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Close monitoring, major social reforms, and adequate counselling should also be implemented to circumvent other challenges. PMID:27054050

  3. Efforts to secure universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment: a comparison of BRICS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boing, Alexandra Crispim; Silveira, Marysabel P T; Bertoldi, Andréa D; Ziganshina, Liliya E; Khaziakhmetova, Veronica N; Khamidulina, Rashida M; Chokshi, Maulik R; McGee, Shelley; Suleman, Fatima

    2014-02-01

    This article illustrates how the BRICS countries have been building their focused leadership, making important high level commitment and national policy changes, and improving their health systems, in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemics in respective settings. Specific aspects are focused on efforts of creating public provisions to secure universal access to ARVs from the aspects of active responsive system and national program, health system strengthening, fostering local production of ARVs, supply chain management, and information system strengthening. Challenges in each BRICS country are analyzed respectively. The most important contributors to the success of response to HIV/AIDS include: creating legal basis for healthcare as a fundamental human right; political commitment to necessary funding for universal access and concrete actions to secure equal quality care; comprehensive system to secure demands that all people in need are capable of accessing prevention, treatment and care; active community involvement; decentralization of the management system considering the local settings; integration of treatment and prevention; taking horizontal approach to strengthen health systems; fully use of the TRIPS flexibility; and regular monitoring and evaluation to serve evidence based decision making. PMID:25155561

  4. Computer aided diagnosis and treatment planning for developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong

    2005-04-01

    The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.

  5. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Merry, Concepta

    2010-01-01

    IN_PRESS Introduction and objectives: In Uganda, there are over 1 million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing kno...

  6. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T.; Atzori, C.; Miller, R.F.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007 and inc...

  7. Staying on the Roller Coaster with Clients: Implications of the New HIV/AIDS Medical Treatments for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    There have been dramatic improvements in the medical treatment of persons with HIV/AIDS. This article provides an overview of the new medical treatments, highlights some of the salient psychosocial issues that impact both clients and counselors, discusses common counselor responses, and suggests some helpful interventions. (Author/MKA)

  8. Second-line salvage treatment of AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a case series and systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Atzori, Chiara; Miller, Robert F;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited clinical data exist to guide the choice of second-line salvage treatment for AIDS-associated Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: We did a systematic search of MEDLINE for all randomized and observational studies of PCP treatment published up to August 2007 and...... included individual treatment data of AIDS-associated PCP from a tricenter study. We calculated pooled estimates of reported outcome of second-line treatment using averaged odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies with sufficient detail of second-line treatment and outcome, including data from 82......-SMX should be used as a second-line treatment for those failing first-line treatments with regimens other than TMP-SMX....

  9. Serodeconversion of HIV Antibody-Positive AIDS Patients Following Treatment with V-1 Immunitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldar S. Bourinbaiar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely rare when HIV seropositive adult patients experience spontaneous loss of antibodies, that is, seroreversion. The disappearance of HIV antibodies was occasionally attributed to iatrogenic intervention—serodeconversion. Such interventions include: HAART; oral interferon; Chinese herbal remedies; and therapeutic AIDS vaccines derived from pooled blood. Oral therapeutic, alloimmune AIDS vaccine, V-1 Immunitor (V1, was administered to 60000 HIV-positive Thai patients. The administration of V1 resulted in serodeconversion among 23 individuals. The patient group consisted of 9 females (39% and 14 males (61% including two 2-year-old boys. The age range was 2–58 years with mean/median 29/29.3 years. Patients were tested seropositive for HIV at least once before being enrolled on V1. The duration of treatment until discovery of seronegative status ranged between 2 weeks and 15 months with average/median 7.2/8 months. Time to seronegativity was correlated with baseline disease stage (R=0.62; P=.002. The seronegative status was positively associated with V1-induced undetectable or low viral load (R=0.65; P=.0008. The odds ratio analysis comparing the outcome of our study with published surveys of diagnostic accuracy of laboratory tests suggested that the probability of HIV antibody testing error was remote (P<.000001. The possible causes responsible for this unusual phenomenon are discussed.

  10. Responding to medical crises: AIDS treatment, responsibilisation and the logic of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The framing of HIV/AIDS as a crisis has facilitated the rollout of large-scale intervention programmes that represent an enormous effort at mainstreaming biomedical rationalities and neoliberal notions of responsibilisation and self-care. Based on a 'logic of choice' (Mol 2008) and 'responsibilised citizenship' (Robins 2005a), although veiled in a language of rights and partnership, the heavy focus on individual behaviour and a pharmaceutical 'solution' to AIDS shifts the burden of responsibility for the success of the heavily funded programmes onto the shoulders of the patients and conceals alternative forms of responsibility. Analysing how HIV-positive people in Tanzania navigate life with HIV and the complex treatment regimens, this paper looks beyond biomedical rationality, which places the preservation of individual biological life at the centre of its logic, and analyses people's constant struggle to negotiate the meaning of 'responsible behaviour' in the context of their lived realities. This repositions the notion of responsibility in the realm of the social and reveals the rationality behind apparently irrational practices. PMID:23898836

  11. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  12. Successful testing and treating of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia depends on the addiction treatment modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shelly Iskandar,1–3 Cor AJ de Jong,3 Teddy Hidayat,1 Ike MP Siregar,1 Tri H Achmad,4 Reinout van Crevel,5 Andre Van der Ven51Department of Psychiatry, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 2Health Research Unit, Medical Faculty, Padjadjaran Univervisity, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 4Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia; 5Department of General Internal Medicine and Nijmegen Institute for Inflammation, Infection and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: In many settings, people who inject drugs (PWID have limited access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care which is provided in several hospitals and primary health centers in big cities. Substance abuse treatment (SAT can be used as the entry-point to HIV programs. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the PWID who had accessed SAT and determine which SAT modality associates significantly with HIV programs.Methods: PWID were recruited by respondent-driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, Indonesia and interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Risk Assessment Questionnaires, and Knowledge Questionnaire on HIV/AIDS. The information regarding the use of substance abuse treatment and HIV program were based on questions in ASI.Results: Seventy-seven percent of 210 PWID had accessed SAT at least once. PWID who had accessed a SAT modality reported more severe drug problems. The most widely used SAT were opioid substitution (57% and traditional/faith-based treatment (56%. Accessing substitution treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–13.9 or residential drug-free treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4–9.7 was significantly associated with HIV testing, whereas

  13. Analysis of an HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An HIV/AIDS treatment model with a nonlinear incidence is formulated. The infectious period is partitioned into the asymptotic and the symptomatic phases according to clinical stages. The constant recruitment rate, disease-induced death, drug therapies, as well as a nonlinear incidence, are incorporated into the model. The basic reproduction number R0 of the model is determined by the method of next generation matrix. Mathematical analysis establishes that the global dynamics of the spread of the HIV infectious disease are completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. If R0≤1, the disease always dies out and the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable. If R0>1, the disease persists and the unique endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region.

  14. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  15. Short and long period optimization of drug doses in the treatment of AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO A. L. CAETANO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical optimization techniques are useful in solving problems of computing the best inputs for systems described by mathematical models and when the objectives can be stated in a quantitative form. This work concerns the problem of optimizing the drug doses in the treatment of AIDS in terms of achieving a balance between the therapeutic response and the side effects. A mathematical model describing the dynamics of HIV viruses and CD4 cells is used to compute the short term optimal drug doses in the treatments of patients with AIDS by a direct method of optimization using a cost function of Bolza type. The model parameters were fitted to actual published clinical data. In order to simplify the numerical procedures, the control law is expressed as a series and the sub-optimal control is obtained by truncating the higher terms. When the patient reaches a clinically satisfactory state, the LQR - Linear Quadratic Regulator technique is used to determine the long period maintenance doses for the drugs. The doses computed using the LQR technique tend to be smaller than equivalent constant-dose therapy in terms of increase in the counts of CD4+T cells and reduction of the density of free viruses.Técnicas de otimização numérica são úteis na solução de problemas de determinação da melhor entrada para sistemas descritos por modelos matemáticos e cujos objetivos podem ser expressos de uma maneira quantitativa. Este trabalho aborda o problema de otimizar as dosagens dos medicamentos no tratamento da AIDS em termos de um balanço entre a resposta terapêutica e os efeitos colaterais. Um modelo matemático para descrever a dinâmica do vírus HIV e células CD4 é utilizado para calcular a dosagem ótima do medicamento no tratamento a curto prazo de pacientes com AIDS por um método de otimização direta utilizando uma função custo do tipo Bolza. Os parâmetros do modelo foram ajustados com dados reais obtidos da literatura. Com o objetivo de

  16. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  17. Randomized controlled trials of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Africa: results from the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalwa Zani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To effectively address HIV/AIDS in Africa, evidence on preventing new infections and providing effective treatment is needed. Ideally, decisions on which interventions are effective should be based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our previous research described African RCTs of HIV/AIDS reported between 1987 and 2003. This study updates that analysis with RCTs published between 2004 and 2008. OBJECTIVES: To describe RCTs of HIV/AIDS conducted in Africa and reported between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane HIV/AIDS Specialized Register in September 2009. Two researchers independently evaluated studies for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Details included location of trials, interventions, methodological quality, location of principal investigators and funders. RESULTS: Our search identified 834 RCTs, with 68 conducted in Africa. Forty-three assessed prevention-interventions and 25 treatment-interventions. Fifteen of the 43 prevention RCTs focused on preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Thirteen of the 25 treatment trials focused on opportunistic infections. Trials were conducted in 16 countries with most in South Africa (20, Zambia (12 and Zimbabwe (9. The median sample size was 628 (range 33-9645. Methods used for the generation of the allocation sequence and allocation concealment were adequate in 38 and 32 trials, respectively, and 58 reports included a CONSORT recommended flow diagram. Twenty-nine principal investigators resided in the United States of America (USA and 18 were from African countries. Trials were co-funded by different agencies with most of the funding obtained from USA governmental and non-governmental agencies. Nineteen pharmaceutical companies provided partial funding to 15 RCTs and African agencies co-funded 17 RCTs. Ethical approval was reported in 65 trials and informed consent in 61 trials. CONCLUSION: Prevention trials dominate the trial

  18. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  19. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisheng, W; Fuying, Z; Limin, W; Junwei, Li; Guofu, P; Weidong, W

    2007-01-01

    patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years). At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3%) patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%). In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%). Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124) had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B) had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236) of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach—anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon's experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated. PMID:21139782

  20. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisheng W

    2007-01-01

    decompression, 31 patients were treated by posterior approach surgery and combined anterior and posterior approach surgery was performed in a single sitting on 28 patients. Results: All patients were followed for 0.5-18 years (mean 11.8 years. At least one Frankel grade improvement was observed in 178 (60.3% patients. In the anterior surgery group, the best results were observed in the cases with slight compressive fracture with disc herniation (44/50 patients, 88.0%. In the posterior surgery group, one Frankel grade improvement was observed in the cases with developmental spinal canal stenosis with trauma, lamina fractures, ligament injuries and hematoma (27/31, 87.1%. Most of the patients in the Frankel D group recovered normal neurological function after surgery. The majority of the patients with Frankel C neurological deficit (102/124 had the ability to walk postoperatively, while most of the seriously injured patients (Frankel A and B had no improvement in their neurological function. Radiolographic fusion of the operated segments occurred in most patients within three months. Loss of intervertebral height and cervical physiological curvature was observed to varying degrees in 30.1% (71/236 of the cases in the anterior surgery group. Conclusion: First aid measures of early closed reduction or realignment and immobilization of the cervical spine, breathing support and high-dose methylprednisolone were most important in the treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury. Surgery should be performed as soon as the indications of spinal injury appear. The choice of the approach-anterior, posterior or both, should be based on the type of the injury and the surgeon′s experience. Any complications should be actively prevented and treated.

  1. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  2. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti; Grazielly Rita Marques Giovelli; Gabriel José Chittó Gauer; João Feliz Duarte Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show...

  3. Corneal foreign bodies--first aid, treatment, and outcomes. Skills review for an occupational health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J K; Scibilia, J; Hezoucky, N

    2001-05-01

    Eye injuries from foreign body incidents remain prevalent in the workplace setting. Often the professional nurse provides the first line of treatment. The informal class presented at the authors' facility offered a comprehensive, organized presentation of a common injury encountered in the practice of occupational health nursing. Strenghts of the presentation included handouts demonstrating eye eversion technique and a flip chart summarizing the content to be placed in each medical station as quick reference. One challenge involved presenting the information to all nurses. The site encompasses four locations and some nurses function as the only staff in the plant for a given shift. With the support of administration and some creative scheduling, 10 of 17 nurses attended one of three classes offered in one morning, and the remaining 7 were able to view the class on videotape. Videotaping the presentation also provided material for future orientation, as well as an opportunity for review. Overall analysis found this a worthwhile offering relevant to practice. A brief formal written evaluation indicated the objectives for the class were achieved and elicited subjects for future topics. Informal chart reviews to check for documentation of visual acuity testing and eversion of the upper lid for foreign body injuries is another outcome measure currently in progress. In addition, a performance improvement project could be accomplished easily by retrospective chart review of assessment and treatment documentation, and tracking of revisits and referrals. Knowledge of current standards in the assessment, first aid, and treatment of eye injuries is every occupational health nurse's responsibility. However, prevention of foreign body injuries is far superior to any treatment modality available. As highly visible leaders within the occupational setting, nurses can be advocates and role models for safe work practices. Occupational health nurses may promote safe eye practices by

  4. Treatment Outcomes of AIDS-Associated Kaposi's Sarcoma under a Routine Antiretroviral Therapy Program in Lilongwe, Malawi: Bleomycin/Vincristine Compared to Vincristine Monotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mwafongo, Albert A.; ROSENBERG, Nora E.; Wingston Ng'ambi; Werner, Alexandra B.; Garneau, William M.; Joe Gumulira; Sam Phiri; Mina C Hosseinipour

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) being the most prevalent AIDS-associated cancer in resource limited settings, optimal treatment options remain unknown. We assessed whether bleomycin/vincristine compared to vincristine monotherapy was associated with improved treatment outcomes for AIDS-associated KS among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Malawi. Methods All patients initiating cART and chemotherapy for AIDS-related KS were identified from an electronic da...

  5. Role of lycopene in preventing oral diseases as a nonsurgical aid of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Without pigments, we are nothing. Life presents us with a kaleidoscope of colors. From the green grass of home to a forest′s ruddy autumn hues, we are surrounded by living colors. Living things obtain their colors, with few exceptions, from natural pigments. In addition to their role in coloration, natural pigments carry out a variety of important biological functions. Of the various classes of pigments in nature, the carotenoids are among the most widespread and important ones, especially due to their varied functions. Lycopene is a red plant pigment found in tomatoes, apricots, guavas, watermelons, papayas, and pink grapefruits, with tomatoes being the largest contributor to the dietary intake of humans. Lycopene exhibits higher singlet oxygen quenching ability. Due to its strong color and nontoxicity, it is a useful food coloring agent. Moreover, it plays a multifunctional role as a nonsurgical aid in the treatment of oral diseases like leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and also prevents the destruction of periodontal tissues. This review article focuses mainly on the role of lycopene in the prevention of various oral diseases.

  6. Rational medication use review: a quality assurance/improvement process for HIV/AIDS treatment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Fomundam

    2015-02-01

    Methods: A comprehensive data collection tool was developed to systematically and retrospectively capture relevant data from randomly selected ART patient files in the four ART facilities. Results: ART data from 157 patients receiving ART services from four facilities was extracted and analysed. WHO stage 4 AIDS defining diseases were recorded in 125 (79.6% of the patients at the time of ART initiation. The most frequent opportunistic infections and/or co-morbidities were cryptosporidiosis (14.4%, HIV wasting (14.4%, tuberculosis (13% and candidiasis (17.4%. 97.8% of the patients were taking concomitant medicines. A large percentage of patients (72.4% had done a baseline CD4 test before initiation of therapy with a majority of the patients (85.8% getting their lab results within one week of the collection of the specimens. For some patients (9%, it took up to 8 weeks to get test results. About 21.8% of the patients were hospitalized at least once while on ART and 11.2% of the hospitalized patients died. Conclusion: RMUR is a simple and accurate strategy that can be appropriately modified to suite local settings. It offers a cost-effective and participatory method of identifying any factors that may negatively affect the quality and desired outcomes of ART enabling prompt correction and continuous improvement of treatment related outcomes. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 383-390

  7. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  8. Heat treatment and mechanical stability behaviour of medium-carbon TRIP-aided bainitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available bainitic transformation on the mechanical stability of retained austenite for medium-carbon TRIP-aided steel.Design/methodology/approach: The examinations were carried out on medium-carbon steel containing 0.55%C and 1.35%Si. The conditions of heat treatment consisted of isothermal quenching of the specimens to a temperature range of 250 to 550°C, where they were held for 600 and 1800 s. Tensile deformation of steel to the given strain equal 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 of total elongation of samples was conducted in order to determine the kinetics of retained austenite transformation into martensite. The retained fraction of the γ phase was determined by the use of the quantitative X-ray phase analysis.Findings: Increasing the carbon concentration to 0.55% in TRIP-type steels makes possible to obtain very high strength properties without a deterioration of the ductility. The retained austenite of the 19% volume fraction can be obtained after the isothermal quenching of the steel to a temperature of 250°C. In these conditions, the matrix of the steel is the ferritic bainite. The size of regular grains of retained austenite is equal up to 3μm, while the rest of γ phase is present in a form of thin films between individual laths of bainite. Diversification of retained austenite form has a reflection in its mechanical stability, connected with two-stage kinetics of martensitic transformation of γ phase.Research limitations/implications: To determine with more detail the stability of retained austenite the knowledge of lattice parameter changes with an isothermal holding temperature is needed.Practical implications: The proposed heat treatment can be useful for manufacturing reinforced structural elements characterized by high strength and ductile properties in the automobile industry.Originality/value: The developed conditions of the heat treatment concern the medium-carbon TRIP-type bainitic steel, offering higher product of UTS UEl compared with

  9. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  10. First aid and treatment for cervical spinal cord injury with fracture and dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Yisheng W; Fuying Z; Limin W; Junwei Li; Guofu P; Weidong W

    2007-01-01

    Background: Traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with subaxial fracture and dislocation not only indicates a highly unstable spine but can also induce life-threatening complications. This makes first aid critically important before any definitive operative procedure is undertaken. The present study analyzes the various first aid measures and operative procedures for such injury. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-five patients suffered from cervical spinal cord injury with frac...

  11. Strategies for the long-term treatment of schizophrenia: real-world lessons from the CATIE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan M

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a chronic illness necessitating a biopsychosocial model of care that addresses the multiple dimensions of the disease, including coordinated primary care. Current research, including the lessons learned from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, shows that in addition to education, adherence, and minimizing adverse effects of psychopharmacologic agents, multimodal long-term treatment strategies are needed to address medical comorbidities, substance abuse, and both cognitive and social deficits. Health care professionals have the responsibility to monitor and help prevent adverse medical outcomes related to treatment with antipsychotics, in light of evidence that patients with schizophrenia are at risk for metabolic disorders and are undertreated for highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. These medical problems are particularly challenging in this population due to the chronicity of symptoms, cognitive limitations, social and financial challenges, and compliance issues with recommended medication treatment and therapeutic lifestyle changes. Mental health providers in the United States are now studying models that support the integration of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medical treatment to address the complexity of multimodal schizophrenia care. PMID:17286525

  12. Multilevel Predictors of Concurrent Opioid Use during Methadone Maintenance Treatment among Drug Users with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bach Xuan Tran; Arto Ohinmaa; Steve Mills; Anh Thuy Duong; Long Thanh Nguyen; Philip Jacobs; Stan Houston

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male) taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was a...

  13. Difficulties facing healthcare workers in the era of AIDS treatment in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koto, Masebeo Veronica; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2016-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by the AIDS pandemic and Lesotho is no exception. In many countries, healthcare workers are at the forefront of the fight against AIDS. This study explores the difficulties facing healthcare workers in Lesotho using a combination of qualitative methods - focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that healthcare workers are afraid of contracting HIV from their patients and this affects their delivery of services. In addition, the results revealed that poor infrastructure and shortage of supplies at the facilities hinder healthcare workers from performing their duties effectively. The other concern was the heavy workload and severe time constraints which puts enormous stress on healthcare workers. Stigma and discrimination emerged as major problems for healthcare workers. Addressing the challenges facing healthcare workers is essential in effectively managing the AIDS pandemic facing the continent. PMID:27128878

  14. Salvage trial of trimetrexate-leucovorin for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masur, H; Polis, M A; Tuazon, C U;

    1993-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of trimetrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro antitoxoplasma activity, was assessed in 9 sulfonamide-intolerant patients with AIDS and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 9 patients were treated for 28-149 days with trimetrexate (30-280 mg/m2...... doses for extended periods was not associated with serious toxicity. Trimetrexate alone had dramatic but transient activity in sulfonamide-intolerant patients and thus is not adequate as single-agent therapy for AIDS-associated toxoplasmosis....

  15. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  16. Brain computed tomography of patients with HIV/AIDS before the advent of subsidized treatment program in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective is to study intracranial complications of HIV/AIDS using brain-computed tomography in patients who presented with neurological features before the advent of subsidized HIV/AIDS treatment program with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients′ records retrieved from radiology and medical records departments of the hospital. The studied patients had HIV/AIDS and presented with neurological features and underwent CT scan. Results: A total of 36 patients who tested positive for HIV and who presented with neurological features suspected to be complications of AIDS were examined with CT scan. They consisted of 24 male and 12 females. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The age of the patients ranged from 27 to 45 years. Seventeen patients (47.2% were aged 30-34 years. Twenty-four patients (60% were single while 12 (40% were married. Twenty-seven patients (75% were infected with HIV 1 and 2, five patients (13.9% were infected only with HIV-1 while four were infected with only HIV-2. Presenting neurological complaints include left hemiplegia 13 (36.1%, right hemiplegia 6 (16.7%, coma 7 (19.4%, memory loss/dementia complex 5 (13.9%, convulsion with coma 2 (5.6%, left hemi-pariesis with memory loss 2 (5.6%, and staggering gait 1 (2.8%. The findings in CT scan include infarcts-like lesions 14 (38.9%, multiple ring-enhancing lesions 7 (19.4%, cerebral atrophy 5 (13.9%, multiple nodular lesions 4 (11.1%, acute intracerebral hemorrhage 3 (8.3%, cerebral hemiatrophy 2 (5.6%, and solitary ring-enhancing lesions 1 (2.8%. Eight patients with single or multiple ring enhancing lesions were treated with empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis but only three (37.5% made full recovery. Conclusion: Brain CT scan showed extensive structural damages in patients with HIV/AIDS who were not treated with HAART. Out-of-pocket payment for investigations and treatment and absence of

  17. Socioepidemiologic Profile and Treatment-seeking Behaviour of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary-care Hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram, Abyramy; Sarkar, Sonali; Hamide, Abdoul; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT India has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) for eligible persons living with HIV (PLHA) has been scaled up significantly both in terms of facilities for treatment and number of beneficiaries. This study aimed at describing the profile of HIV/AIDS patients on ART from a tertiary-care hospital and to explore the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour, family support, and perceptions regarding HIV and ART...

  18. HIV Stigma Among Substance Abusing People Living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for HIV Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Hilary L Surratt

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54....

  19. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, M.; Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  20. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Badowski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite ...

  1. Biliary duct obstruction treatment with aid of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Knap; Natalia Orlecka; Renata Judka; Aleksandra Juza; Michał Drabek; Maciej Honkowicz; Tomasz Kirmes; Bartosz Kadłubicki; Dominik Sieroń; Jan Baron

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage (PTBD) is a procedure indicated in patients with non-operative lesions, when endoscopic application of prosthesis is impossible due to anatomic reasons, complications or severe general condition of patient. Most often it is a palliative procedure, aiming for live-quality improvement, although not altering prognosis of basic disease. Aim: This study presents own experience in biliary drainage with the aid of percutaneous transhepatic ...

  2. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;

    2008-01-01

    A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...... visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-naïve patients, how to manage...... virological failure and the treatment of HIV during pregnancy. In Europe, there is a wide range of clinical practices in antiretroviral therapy depending on various factors such as drug registration, national policies, local availability, reimbursement and access to treatment. These can vary greatly from one...

  3. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-Telles Flávio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and followed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%, but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84% by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%, and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%. Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

  4. [Direct hearing aid provision by ENT specialists: Recommendations for prevention and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Ph P; Sedlmaier, B; Hölzl, M

    2009-07-01

    In times of budgeting, rising costs and monetary losses, an increasing number of ENT specialists considers the hearing system sector due to the distinct undersupply and the expected demographic development to be a market of the future and appropriate to enlarge their field of competence. Exact prevalence of direct hearing aid provision by German otorhinolaryngologists as well as its complication rate are not well-known. Retrospectively, all patients were evaluated who presented at our department with complications in the context of outpatient direct hearing aid supply within the last 3 years. Inappropriate fitting contains the danger of malformed or displaced ear impressions with various injury patterns comprising the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Practical advices for prevention of complications include the accurate modeling and placement of sufficient impression pads behind the second bend of the auditory canal, using an adequate type of impression material as well as performing the correct application procedures. Recommendations for diagnostic patterns and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions are presented, the differences between German "traditional" and "direct" hearing aid provision are critically discussed. PMID:19579285

  5. Long-term residential substance abuse treatment for women: lessons learned from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schori M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maayan Schori1, Yaffa Sapir2, Eli Lawental31School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Central School for the Training of Social Welfare Workers, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Social Work, Tel-Hai College, Upper Galilee, IsraelBackground: Policymakers and treatment providers must consider the role of gender when designing effective treatment programs for female substance abusers. This study had two aims. First, to examine female substance abusers' perceptions regarding factors that contribute to their retention (and therefore positive treatment outcomes in a women-only therapeutic community in Northern Israel. Second, to explore pretreatment internal and external factors including demographic, personal and environmental factors, factors associated with substance use and with the treatment process, and networks of support that contribute to retention and abstinence.Methods: The study was a conducted using a mixed methods approach. Semi-structured qualitative interviews examining perceptions towards treatment were conducted in five focus groups (n = 5 per group; total n = 25. Intake assessments and a battery of questionnaires examining pretreatment internal and external factors related to treatment retention and abstinence were collected from 42 women who were treated in the program during the 2 year study period. Twenty-three women who completed the 12 month program were compared to the 19 women who did not, using chi-square for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Nineteen of the 23 women who completed the questionnaires also completed a post-treatment follow-up questionnaire.Results: A content analysis of the interviews revealed five central themes: factors associated with treatment entry; impact of treatment in a women-only setting; significant aspects of treatment; difficulties with the setting; prospects for the future

  6. Rates and Predictors of Consistent Condom-use by People Living with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Treatment in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ayiga, Natal

    2012-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been recognized as one of the methods for reducing the risk of HIV transmission, and access to this is being rapidly expanded. However, in a generalized HIV epidemic, ART could increase unprotected sex by people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs). This paper assessed the rates and predictors of consistent condom-use by sexually-active PHAs after initiating ART. The study used cross-sectional data on sexual behaviour of 269 sexually-active ART-experienced individual...

  7. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  8. Building a multidisciplinary team for burn treatmentLessons learned from the Montreal tendon transfer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, E.; Lévesque, M.C.; Jacquemin, G.; Delure, A.; Robidoux, I.; Laramée, M.T.; Odobescu, A.; Harris, P. G.; Danino, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) represent a recognized component of care in the treatment of complex conditions such as burns. However, most institutions do not provide adequate support for the formation of these teams. Furthermore, the majority of specialists lack the managerial skills required to create a team and have difficulties finding the proper tools. Our objective is to provide an insight for health care professionals, who wish to form a MDT for burn treatment, on the challenges that ...

  9. Telemedicine and Pediatric Obesity Treatment: Review of the literature and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gail M.; Irby, Megan B.; Boles, Katie; Jordan, Christine; Skelton, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is more prevalent in rural areas, yet rural families may not have access to pediatric obesity treatment programs. Use of new technologies, particularly telemedicine, has proven effective in other behavioral fields, such as psychiatry. This paper reviews the literature on the use of telemedicine in pediatric obesity treatment, and describes one tertiary-care pediatric obesity telemedicine program. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1990–2011 using the fol...

  10. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase

  11. Health Services for HIV/AIDS, HCV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lawrence S.; Kritz, Steven; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Rotrosen, John

    2007-01-01

    The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network conducted this study to determine the availability of and factors associated with infection-related health services in substance abuse treatment settings. In a cross--sectional descriptive design, state policies, reimbursement for providers, state level of priority, and treatment program characteristics were studied via written surveys of administrators of substance abuse treatment programs and of state health and substance abuse depar...

  12. Retaining Low-Income Minority Cancer Patients in a Depression Treatment Intervention Trial: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Anjanette A; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Williams, Sha-Lai L; Ell, Kathleen

    2015-08-01

    Previously published work finds significant benefit from medical and behavioral health team care among safety-net patients with major depression. This qualitative study assessed clinical social worker, psychiatrist and patient navigator strategies to increase depression treatment among low-income minority cancer patients participating in the ADAPt-C clinical depression trial. Patient care retention strategies were elicited through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nine behavioral health providers. Using grounded theory, concepts from the literature and dropout barriers identified by patients, guided interview prompts. Retention strategies clustered around five dropout barriers: (1) informational, (2) instrumental, (3) provider-patient therapeutic alliance, (4) clinic setting, and (5) depression treatment. All strategies emphasized the importance of communication between providers and patients. Findings suggest that strong therapeutic alliance and telephone facilitates collaborative team provider communication and depression treatment retention among patients in safety-net oncology care systems. PMID:25544505

  13. Composition containing transuranic elements for use in the homeopathic treatment of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homeopathic remedy consisting of a composition containing one or more transuranic elements, particularly plutonium, for preventing and treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, as well as seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Said composition is characterized in that it uses any chemical or isotopic form of one or more transuranic elements (neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium or einsteinium), particularly plutonium, said form being diluted and dynamized according to conventional homeopathic methods, particularly the so-called Hahnemann and Korsakov methods, and provided preferably but not exclusively in the form of lactose and/or saccharose globules or granules impregnated with the active principle of said composition. (author)

  14. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions. The search strategy included gray and peer-reviewed literature. Results. Of 430 potential guidelines, 86 met inclusion criteria, and only 2 were written specifically to address HIV-related skin diseases as a whole. Treatment information for HIV-related skin conditions was embedded within guidelines written for other purposes, primarily HIV/AIDs treatment guidelines (49%. Development of guidelines relied either partially or completely on expert opinion (62%. Only 16% of guidelines used gradation of evidence quality and these were primarily from high-income countries (p=0.001. Limitations. Due to the nature of gray literature, not all guidelines may have been identified. Conclusion. This review highlights the need for evidence-based summary guidelines that address treatment for HIV-related skin conditions in an accessible format.

  15. ON MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE IMPACT OF CONDOM USE AND THERAPEUTIC TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey B. E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the absence of a definite treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS since their appearance, many scientific studies with the help of mathematical models have been formulated to the extent possible to prevent and eradicate the disease. In this article we have formulated a mathematical model that explores the dynamics of the impact of the use of condom and therapeutic treatment simultaneously, as a means (tools against the spread of HIV/AIDS in the heterosexual population. The proposed model uses a nonlinear differential equation system consisting of seven (7 differential equations in seven (7 groups of the population. The model takes into account natural birth rate of the studied population, and the proportion of infected males, which simultaneously uses condom and antiretroviral therapy. The model explores the behavioral change of proportion of infected individuals in the population following the application of control measures (condom use and antiretroviral therapy. It is proved that the effectiveness of preventive measures greatly depends on a number of parameters described. In addition, the results of numerical experiments showed that in the absence of both preventive measures, the entire population is contaminated with the infection. The interaction of the model parameters show that the population with high levels of condom use in the presence of significant adherence to antiretroviral therapy as prophylaxis significantly reduces the level of HIV/AIDS. Thus, prevention of infection is significantly improved with the increasing number of the infected population using condoms and antiretroviral therapy simultaneously

  16. Family Focused Therapy for Bipolar Adolescents: Lessons from a Difficult Treatment Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elizabeth L.; Taylor, Dawn O.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines obstacles and challenges encountered in the manualized Family Focused Therapy-A of an adolescent with bipolar disorder. We begin by describing adolescent bipolar disorder and some of the many complications that frequently accompany it. We summarize Family Focused Therapy (FFT-A), an empirically validated treatment approach for…

  17. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  18. Treatment of partial thickness burns with Zn-hyaluronan: lessons of a clinical pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Juhász, I.; Zoltán, P.; Erdei, I.

    2012-01-01

    A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of Zn-hyaluronan gel for the treatment of partial thickness burns was carried out. 60 patients were enrolled in the study with an average of 3% TBSA burn. Exudation lasted 3 days, no infectious complications were observed. By day 14 the wounds of 52 patients have healed, average complete healing time was 10,5 days. An overall 93,3% healing rate was achieved within the planned observation period. Reduction of spontaneous and movementrelat...

  19. Epidemiological composition, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patient cohort of the german competence network for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective As its central basis for research, the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet established a nationwide cohort study on HIV-positive patients being in medical care in Germany. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological composition, and clinical as well as treatment characteristics of the KompNet cohort over time. Methods The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multi-center, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semiannually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering a wide range of clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up. Results As of 20.10.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to ten outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprised 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years, 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean: 6.7 years. Due to the short period of recruitment till now, rates of death (0.3%-0.8% and losses to follow up (1.1%-5.5% were low. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risk of transmission was sex between men (MSM: 62.9%. Mean age was 45 years. About two third of patients were classified as CDC-stage B or C. Therapy regimens of currently treated patients complied with recent guidelines. Trends of mean CD4 cell count/μl regarding the initial therapy and concerning the population under treatment reflected the developments and the changing standards of antiretroviral therapy over time. Conclusion The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients estimated as being under treatment in Germany. Its composition can be accounted approximately

  20. Present status of prevalence of AIDS in Thailand and lessons learned%泰国艾滋病流行的现状及经验教训

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许新东

    1997-01-01

    The first patient with AIDS in Thailand,a homosexual,was deteched in September,1984.Thereafter,many HIV-infected cases were reported successively in that country.From 1988to 1989,HIV infection was discovered in prostitutes and intravenous drug users(IVDU).The infection spread from highrisk population to general population.As of 31 March,1995,a cumulative total of 17884 people with AIDS were reported officially to the Ministry of Health of Thailand.Of them 77.87% acquired the infection via sexual intercourse,7.21% through IvDU,and 6.59% from infected mother to foetus or infant;87.57% fell in the age group of 15-49;the sex ratio of males to females was 6.1:1.The occupations of the infected people were commercial sex,workers merchants,farmers,workers,students,housewives,etc.The rrevalence in North Thailand and Bangkok region was higher than in other regions,and the infection rate in prostitutes reached 30-40%,even 70% in a few places.Owing to particularly brisk sex trade in Thailand,the HIV infection rate in prostitutes increased steadily,and that in patients with sexually stransmitted diseases reached 77.8%.

  1. COMPARISON OF ANTIRETROVIRAL SCHEMES USED IN INITIAL THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana LENZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in HIV patients is their adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the schemes adopted in the initial therapy of these treatments with their adherence, changes in HAART schemes and treatment costs. The study included patients over 16 years old, HIV positive, in treatment for more than 30 days. Adherence to HAART was calculated based on the withdrawal of the drug, which was related to the total treatment time. We evaluated how many patients changed HAART. The costs of each regimen were also estimated and related to the benefit of each treatment. 142 patients who were between 38 and 1,150 days of treatment were included (57.7% women. The schemes with lower costs, highest adherence and greater benefit were efavirenz with biovir and efavirenz with lamivudine and tenofovir. This study suggested the advantageous therapeutic regimens to start of treatment, both from the point of view of patients and the health system. This information can serve as a subsidy to clinicians in the decision of starting HAART.

  2. Nonextraction treatment of severe crowding with the aid of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    THIS PAPER ILLUSTRATES THE COMBINED NONEXTRACTION ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT WITH THE CORTICOTOMY TECHNIQUE IN AN ADULT PATIENT (AGE: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors' roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved. PMID:22848854

  3. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Aljhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and mandible was performed. Orthodontic activation to level and align and unravel the crowding was performed every two weeks. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful alignment of both arches with ideal overbite and overjet as well as adequate occlusion was achieved.

  4. Skin delivery of selected hydrophilic drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases associated with HIV/AIDS by using elastic liposomes / Kevin Bassey Ita

    OpenAIRE

    Ita, Kevin Bassey

    2003-01-01

    Due to the immuncompromised status of AIDS patients, secondary infections and malignancies are common. Conditions secondary to AIDS for which patients require treatment include Karposi's sarcoma (treated with methotrexate), varicella-zoster (treated with antivirals such as acyclovir) and herpes simplex (also treated with antivirals like acyclovir or idoxuridme). However the clinical efficacy of these drugs is limited by poor skin permeability. Few reports, however, have deal...

  5. Pharmacological interventions for binge eating: lessons from animal models, current treatments, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating behavior has been noted in some eating disorders as well as in obesity. The goal of this paper is to review current, non-serotonergic pharmaceutical approaches to treat binge eating. Further, using information derived from preclinical models, we discuss candidate neurotransmitter systems for study as targets for the treatment of binge eating. Dopaminergic circuits have been implicated in both laboratory animal models and human studies of binge eating, though existing medications specifically targeting the dopaminergic system have been found to have adverse side effects. Opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems also appear to be highly involved in aspects of binge eating; further, opioid antagonists, such as naloxone and naltrexone, and GABA agonists, such as baclofen, have all been shown to be effective in treating alcohol dependence and may be equally efficacious in attenuating binge eating. Preclinical evidence, and some clinical evidence, suggests that cannabinoid antagonism may also be useful in the treatment of binge eating, although the specific effect of antagonists, on binge consumption remains unclear. Overall, each of these neurotransmitter systems provides a promising avenue for new pharmacotherapy development for binge eating, and preclinical and human studies provide a strong rationale for the development of highly-selective drugs that target this neurocircuitry. PMID:21492094

  6. Feeling Jumpy: Teaching about HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Nancy; Brotman, Jennie S.; Agarwal, Ruchi; Quackenbush, Jaime Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education and HIV/AIDS education are arenas of strong feelings. Emotions make sexuality and health lessons peculiar, "thrown together" lessons, and emotions stick to "childhood innocence", "growing up too fast" and even "jump" in response to visuals, say a used condom on an elementary school playground or a pregnant sophomore in a…

  7. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Aldrees, Abdullah M.

    2010-01-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar...

  8. Nonextraction Treatment of Severe Crowding with the Aid of Corticotomy-Assisted Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Aljhani, Ali S.; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the combined nonextraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient (age: 25 years and 3 months) with severely crowded arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Both her upper lateral incisors were congenitally absent and both upper central incisors’ roots were short. Initial fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional) were bonded and one week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation proce...

  9. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    K. SUNDARA KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    There are two fundamental reasons for treatment of wastewater viz., prevention of pollution and thereby protecting the environment, and protecting the public health by safe guarding water supplies andpreventing the spread of water borne diseases. Proper design, construction together with good operation and maintenance are essential for waste water treatment plants (WWTP), in order to produce effluents which are satisfying the safe disposal standards prescribed by the regulatory authorities. I...

  10. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care. PMID:24983302

  11. Implementation science for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R

    2010-12-01

    Implementation science is the scientific study of methods to promote the integration of research findings and evidence-based interventions into health care policy and practice and hence to improve the quality and effectiveness of health services and care. Implementation science is distinguished from monitoring and evaluation by its emphasis on the use of the scientific method. The origins of implementation science include operations research, industrial engineering, and management science. Today, implementation science encompasses a broader range of methods and skills including decision science and operations research, health systems research, health outcomes research, health and behavioral economics, epidemiology, statistics, organization and management science, finance, policy analysis, anthropology, sociology, and ethics. Examples of implementation science research are presented for HIV prevention (prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, male circumcision) and HIV and drug use (syringe distribution, treating drug users with antiretroviral therapy and opioid substitution therapy). For implementation science to become an established field in HIV/AIDS research, there needs to be better coordination between funders of research and funders of program delivery and greater consensus on scientific research approaches and standards of evidence. PMID:21045596

  12. Treatment considerations for early glottic carcinoma: lessons learned and a primer for the general otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Nausheen; Sofer, Elazar; Chhetri, Dinesh K

    2014-02-01

    In this commentary, we review our experience with early glottic carcinomas in an attempt to identify points to consider when developing a treatment protocol and technical considerations in oncologic resection to maintain laryngeal function. We highlight several consistent themes: (1) difficult exposure is not always a contraindication to endoscopic resection; (2) depth of invasion may be apparent only intraoperatively; (3) radiation therapy should be offered for deeply invasive cancers requiring extensive cordectomy or for patients who cannot afford lengthy vocal downtime; however, (4) radiation therapy leads to acute dysphagia and collateral damage to the contralateral vocal fold that is avoided with surgery; (5) good voice can be obtained after healing if resection is limited to intramuscular cordectomy; (6) the key to optimal vocal results is adequate glottal closure; and (7) second look operations are occasionally necessary, and therefore preoperative counseling should include this possibility. Since both surgery and radiation therapy achieve excellent oncologic control, a patient-centered approach is preferred in management. PMID:24201059

  13. Lessons learned in the conduct of a global, large simple trial of treatments indicated for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitsopoulos, Francesca M; Strom, Brian L; Faich, Gerald; Eng, Sybil M; Kane, John M; Reynolds, Robert F

    2013-03-01

    Large, "practical" or streamlined trials (LSTs) are used to study the effectiveness and/or safety of medicines in real world settings with minimal study imposed interventions. While LSTs have benefits over traditional randomized clinical trials and observational studies, there are inherent challenges to their conduct. Enrollment and follow-up of a large study sample of patients with mental illness pose a particular difficulty. To assist in overcoming operational barriers in future LSTs in psychiatry, this paper describes the recruitment and observational follow-up strategies used for the ZODIAC study, an international, open-label LST, which followed 18,239 persons randomly assigned to one of two treatments indicated for schizophrenia for 1 year. ZODIAC enrolled patients in 18 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia using broad study entry criteria and required minimal clinical care intervention. Recruitment of adequate numbers and continued engagement of both study centers and subjects were significant challenges. Strategies implemented to mitigate these in ZODIAC include global study expansion, study branding, field coordinator and site relations programs, monthly site newsletters, collection of alternate contact information, conduct of national death index (NDI) searches, and frequent sponsor, contract research organization (CRO) and site interaction to share best practices and address recruitment challenges quickly. We conclude that conduct of large LSTs in psychiatric patient populations is feasible, but importantly, realistic site recruitment goals and maintaining site engagement are key factors that need to be considered in early study planning and conduct. PMID:23246610

  14. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Murine Gallbladder - Lessons for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthbert AW

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium lining the gallbladder of mammalian species has absorptive and secretory functions. An important function is the secretion of a bicarbonate rich fluid that helps neutralise stomach acid and provides an appropriate environment for intestinal enzymes. In cystic fibrosis (CF this secretory function is lost. This study concerns the bicarbonate secreting activity of murine gallbladders in vitro using wild type and CF mice and four main questions are considered as follows: a Does the murine gallbladder secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and is this prevented in CF? b Can the secretory activity in CF gallbladders be restored by gene therapy or pharmacologically? c How is the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR involved in bicarbonate secretion? d Does the data offer prospects for the treatment of CF?. Work from both the author's laboratory and the literature will be reviewed. Consideration of the currently available data indicates that the wild type murine gallbladder does secrete bicarbonate electrogenically and that this is absent in CF mice. Further it has been demonstrated that bicarbonate secretory activity can be restored by both gene therapy and by the use of drugs. The role of CFTR in bicarbonate secretion remains equivocal. Much evidence suggests that CFTR can act as a channel for HCO(3(- ions as well as Cl(- ions, while others propose a parallel arrangement of CFTR with a Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchanger is necessary. The matter is further complicated by the regulatory role of CFTR on other transporting activities. Opportunities for possible application to man are discussed.

  15. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljhani, Ali S; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2011-04-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar to the contralateral first molar, and from canine to canine in the mandibular arch was performed. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every 2 weeks. The total treatment time was 5 months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication procedure to the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Successful closure of the anterior open bite with adequate overbite and interdigitation of the teeth were achieved. PMID:24151417

  16. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    formulated as a process synthesis challenge in the sense that a new taskcan be added to the existing treatment line or one or several existing processes can be changed as a result of the emerging needs. Existing plants need retrofitting due to a number of reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow and......Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...... plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments and...

  17. Understanding Sustained Retention in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: a Synthetic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Czaicki, Nancy; Holmes, Charles; Chavan, Saurabh; Tsitsi, Apollo; Odeny, Thomas; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Padian, Nancy; Geng, Elvin

    2016-06-01

    Sustained retention represents an enduring and evolving challenge to HIV treatment programs in Africa. We present a theoretical framework for sustained retention borrowing from ecologic principles of sustainability and dynamic adaptation. We posit that sustained retention from the patient perspective is dependent on three foundational principles: (1) patient activation: the acceptance, prioritization, literacy, and skills to manage a chronic disease condition, (2) social normalization: the engagement of a social network and harnessing social capital to support care and treatment, and (3) livelihood routinization: the integration of care and treatment activities into livelihood priorities that may change over time. Using this framework, we highlight barriers specific to sustained retention and review interventions addressing long-term, sustained retention in HIV care with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27188300

  18. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  19. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  20. The feasibility of a holistic wellness program for HIV/AIDS patients residing in a voluntary inpatient treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Vanessa

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the feasibility of an ongoing holistic wellness program in a residential facility treating persons with HIV/AIDS. The goal was to create a voluntary, four week holistic wellness intensive within the established inpatient behavioral health treatment program. Participants were given practicable holistic self care tools to effectively manage HIV related symptoms, general medical issues, addiction, depression, stress and anxiety. The program incorporated evidence-based holistic activities including yoga, therapeutic dance, meditation, Reiki, and reflective journaling. Narrative survey results and post-program evaluation support that an ongoing holistic wellness program within the existing treatment model is feasible and could have numerous potential beneficial effects. This project clearly exemplified the ideal opportunity for holistic nurses to implement innovative holistic interventions within the current healthcare delivery system. It is the author's observation that future studies with a larger participant group to further examine measurable benefits can lend valuable information and insight into the future development of holistic wellness programs for residential treatment facilities. PMID:23686463

  1. Evolution of Antiretroviral Drug Costs in Brazil in the Context of Free and Universal Access to AIDS Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia M.; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed 29 million people since the first case occurred in 1981 and an estimated 40 million people live with HIV/AIDS today. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the immune system. Infected individuals are consequently very susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-positive individuals died within a few years of becoming infected. Then, in 1996, highly acti...

  2. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  3. Multilevel predictors of concurrent opioid use during methadone maintenance treatment among drug users with HIV/AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing drug use during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT negatively affects outcomes of HIV/AIDS care and treatment for drug users. This study assessed changes in opioid use, and longitudinal predictors of continued opioid use during MMT among HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam, with the aim of identifying changes that might enhance program efficacy. METHODS: We analyze data of 370 HIV-positive drug users (mean age 29.5; 95.7% male taking MMT at multi-sites. Opioid use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months using interviews and heroin confirmatory urine tests. A social ecological model was applied to explore multilevel predictors of continued opioid use, including individual, interpersonal, community and service influences. Generalized estimating equations (GEE statistical models were constructed to adjust for intra-individual correlations. RESULTS: Over 9 month follow-up, self-reported opioid use and positive heroin urine test substantially decreased to 14.6% and 14.4%. MMT helped improve referrals and access to health care and social services. However, utilization of social integration services was small. GEE models determined that participants who were older (Adjusted Odd Ratio - AOR = 0.97 for 1 year increase, had economic dependents (AOR = 0.33, or were referred to TB treatment (AOR = 0.53 were less likely to continue opioid use. Significant positive predictors of ongoing opioid use included frequency of opioid use prior to MMT, peer pressure, living with sexual partners, taking antiretroviral treatment, other health concerns and TB treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings show that MMT in the Vietnamese context can dramatically reduce opioid use, which is known to be associated with reduced antiretroviral (ART adherence. Disease stage and drug interactions between antiretrovirals or TB drugs and MMT could explain some of the observed predictors of ongoing drug use; these findings could inform changes in MMT

  4. Humanitarian Aid or Private Diplomacy? Norman Cousins and the Treatment of Atomic Bomb Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrobon Allen

    2014-01-01

    Individual citizens can often wield considerable influence in international affairs. In 1955, prominent American journalist Norman Cousins launched an initiative to bring 25 Japanese victims of the atomic bomb to the United States to receive treatment. The U.S. State Department made concerted efforts to stop the project, fearing that it would generate negative publicity and conflict with government policy to de-emphasize the dangers of nuclear weapons. Refusing to accept official policies tha...

  5. Masterplan: multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuilen, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized study addresses the question if intensified treatment (multiple targets, nurse practitioner assistance) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) decreases the number of cardiovascular events. The study started in February 2004.The projected time of follow-up was 5 years. The study was closed in July 2010. Enrollment In total 793 patients were included in 9 participating centers (range 64 to 104 per center). Five patients had to be excluded from the analysis. Patients were...

  6. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in...

  7. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879

  8. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  9. Before You Open the Doors: Ten Lessons from Florida's Faith and Community-Based Delinquency Treatment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jodi; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) provided Florida's Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) with a $3.5 million grant to design and implement a faith- and community-based program for incarcerated juveniles. Florida's experience developing a completely new program has provided valuable lessons regarding…

  10. Clinical effectiveness of dolutegravir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huda Taha,1 Archik Das,2 Satyajit Das1,3 1Integrated Sexual Health Service Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust, Coventry, 2School of Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham, 3Coventry University, Coventry, UK Abstract: Dolutegravir (DTG is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI, which has now been licensed to be used in different countries including the UK. Earlier studies have demonstrated that DTG when used with nucleoside backbone in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients has been well tolerated and demonstrated virological suppression comparable to other INSTIs and superiority against other first-line agents, including efavirenz and boosted protease inhibitors. Like other INSTIs, DTG uses separate metabolic pathways compared to other antiretrovirals and is a minor substrate for CYP-450. It does not appear to have a significant interaction with drugs, which uses the CYP-450 system. Nonetheless, it uses renal solute transporters that may potentially inhibit the transport of other drugs and can have an effect on the elimination of other drugs. However, the impact of this mechanism appears to be very minimal and insignificant clinically. The side effect profiles of DTG are similar to raltegravir and have been found to be well tolerated. DTG has a long plasma half-life and is suitable for once daily use without the need for a boosting agent. DTG has all the potential to be used as a first-line drug in combination with other nucleoside backbones, especially in the form of a single tablet in combination with abacavir and lamivudine. The purpose of this review article is to present the summary of the available key information about the clinical usefulness of DTG in the treatment of HIV infection. Keywords: dolutegravir, integrase inhibitors, HIV, antiretroviral, treatment

  11. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  12. 34 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations Under Section 8009 of the Act-Methods of Calculations for Treatment of Impact Aid Payments Under State Equalization Programs Appendix to Subpart K of... Act Pt. 222, Subpt. K, App. Appendix to Subpart K of Part 222—Determinations Under Section 8009 of...

  13. First aid treatment of critically acute epidural hematoma complicated by cerebral hernia using cranial trepanation and drainage decompression: a report of 16 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁

    2002-01-01

    @@From October 1997 to February 2000, 16 cases of critically acute epidural hematoma (CAEH) complicated by cranial hernia were treated with cranial trepanation and drainage decompression (CTDD), which was used as the first aid treatment before craniotomy and evacuation of hematoma. Satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in a laboratory scale settling column unit. Parameters such as color, COD, TSS, turbidity and settled sludge volume have been evaluated. The optimum coagulant dose and pH value were determined by comparing the effectiveness of these coagulants. Results showed other coagulants except lime could eliminate color and COD successfully. In this case, FeSO4 was chosen as an optimum coagulant for color removal because of the lowest required coagulant dose, minimum settled sludge volume and maximum decolorization.

  15. OBSERVATION ON CLINICAL THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF MRI-AIDED ENCLOSURE NEEDLING IN THE TREATMENT OF STROKE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BLOOD RHEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江钢辉; 李艳慧; 庄子齐; 潘文宇; 黄勇; 李健萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRl)-aided enclosure needling in the treatment of stroke patients and changes of the related blood rheology. Methods: A total of 61stroke patients were randomized into MR I-aided enclosure needling group (MRI-aided acupuncture group) (n = 31 ) and conventional acupuncture group (n= 30). For patients of MRl-aided acupuncture group, acupuncture needles were inserted into the subcutaneous tissues around the focus-projection scalp area displayed by MRI, with the needle tips toward the center of the projection region and with two needles being about 2 crn apart, combined with other acupoints according to the concrete syndromes or symptoms. For patients of conventional acupuncture group, Motor Area (MS 6)and Sensory Area (MS 7) on the contralateral side of the focus were punctured. The treatment was conducted once daily, continuously for 30 days. Results: After treatment, of the 31 cases in MRl-aided acupuncture group, 20 werecured basically, 10 responded with significant improvement of symptoms and signs, one case had some improvement.While in conventional acupuncture group, of the 30 cases, 11 were cured basically, 15 responded with striking amelioration of symptoms and signs and 4 had some amelioration. Ridit analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of MRI-aided acupuncture group was significantly superior to that of conventional acupuncture group (P < 0.05). After treatment,the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, whole blood reduction viscosity, hemagglutination index, and the total score of the two groups all decreased significantly in comparison with those of pre-treatment of each group,while whole blood viscosity, hematocrit, vascular sclerosis index and the total score of MRl-aided acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of conventional acupuncture group ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ), suggesting that the effect of theformer group in bettering blood rheology was

  16. Collective consciousness and its pathologies: Understanding the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullilove Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We address themes of distributed cognition by extending recent formal developments in the theory of individual consciousness. While single minds appear biologically limited to one dynamic structure of linked cognitive submodules instantiating consciousness, organizations, by contrast, can support several, sometimes many, such constructs simultaneously, although these usually operate relatively slowly. System behavior remains, however, constrained not only by culture, but by a developmental path dependence generated by organizational history, in the context of market selection pressures. Such highly parallel multitasking – essentially an institutional collective consciousness – while capable of reducing inattentional blindness and the consequences of failures within individual workspaces, does not eliminate them, and introduces new characteristic malfunctions involving the distortion of information sent between workspaces and the possibility of pathological resilience – dysfunctional institutional lock-in. Consequently, organizations remain subject to canonical and idiosyncratic failures analogous to, but more complicated than, those afflicting individuals. Remediation is made difficult by the manner in which pathological externalities can write images of themselves onto both institutional function and corrective intervention. The perspective is applied to the failure of AIDS control and treatment in the United States.

  17. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Kaya-Büyükbayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler’s type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler’s type III and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened.

  18. [Enteric parasites and AIDS in Haiti: utility of detection and treatment of intestinal parasites in family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W

    2006-10-01

    Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290

  19. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A;

    2008-01-01

    have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten......When the HIV epidemic officially hit western Europe in the early 1980s, central and eastern Europe were almost completely spared due to the isolation of the Soviet Union. However, in the mid-1990s, reported new cases of HIV in eastern European countries began to increase exponentially. While there...... priorities listed below are immediate and sometimes innovative research needs in the context of preventing HIV among the most-at-risk populations. While by no means exhaustive, they are intended to point out gaps in existing knowledge and thus serve as inspiration for future research efforts....

  20. Discussion on treatment of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen%艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠芳; 李峰; 王玉光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的理论依据.方法:通过研究古代文献中泄泻与脾的关系的论述,结合现代免疫学及分子生物学对脾的功能研究以及艾滋病相关性腹泻临床治疗方面的报道,分析脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻发生过程中所起的作用以及艾滋病相关性腹泻从脾论治的可行性.结果:脾在艾滋病相关性腹泻的发生、发展过程中起举足轻重的作用.结论:对艾滋病相关性腹泻进行临床治疗,必须重视脾的作用.%Objective: To explore the treatment theoretical basis of AIDS related diarrhea from spleen. Methods: According to the research of ancient literature on relationship between spleen and diarrhea, combination with immunology, molecular biology and clinical treatment of AIDS related diarrhea, to explore the important role of spleen in AIDS related diarrhea and the feasibility of AIDS related diarrhea treated from spleen. Results: Spleen has a important role in the processes, development of AIDS related diarrhea. Conclusion: To treat AIDS related diarrhea, and the role of spleen must be emphasized.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ying; Pan, Xingfang; Zhang, Sai; Jin, Jun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongqiang; Han, Dexin; Wang, Guirong; Hu, Qunliang; Kang, Jingqing; Ding, Shasha; Yang, Yi; Bu, Huaien; Guo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients' basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26339271

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir–cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharoen O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Opass Putcharoen,1 Tanya Do,2 Anchalee Avihingsanon,2 Kiat Ruxrungtham1,2 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug–drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug–drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1 COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2 COBI’s solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1 COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR without affecting actual GFR; 2 potential drug–drug interaction data are insufficient

  4. Applying a Family-Level Economic Strengthening Intervention to Improve Education and Health-Related Outcomes of School-Going AIDS-Orphaned Children: Lessons from a Randomized Experiment in Southern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Karimli, Leyla; Torsten, Neilands; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Han, Chang-Keun; Ilic, Vilma; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Children comprise the largest proportion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, millions are orphaned. Orphanhood increases the likelihood of growing up in poverty, dropping out of school, and becoming infected with HIV. Therefore, programs aimed at securing a healthy developmental trajectory for these orphaned children are desperately needed. We conducted a two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-level economic strengthening intervention with regard to school attendance, school grades, and self-esteem in AIDS-orphaned adolescents aged 12-16 years from 10 public rural primary schools in southern Uganda. Children were randomly assigned to receive usual care (counseling, school uniforms, school lunch, notebooks, and textbooks), "bolstered" with mentorship from a near-peer (control condition, n = 167), or to receive bolstered usual care plus a family-level economic strengthening intervention in the form of a matched Child Savings Account (Suubi-Maka treatment arm, n = 179). The two groups did not differ at baseline, but 24 months later, children in the Suubi-Maka treatment arm reported significantly better educational outcomes, lower levels of hopelessness, and higher levels of self-concept compared to participants in the control condition. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate on how to address the developmental impacts of the increasing numbers of orphaned and vulnerable children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those affected by HIV/AIDS. Our findings indicate that innovative family-level economic strengthening programs, over and above bolstered usual care that includes psychosocial interventions for young people, may have positive developmental impacts related to education, health, and psychosocial functioning. PMID:26228480

  5. "Aid Like a Paycheck: Engaging with Policymakers and Practitioners to Evaluate and Improve Financial Aid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    "Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…

  6. Efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Góngora Rubio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulae have been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB, but their high costs preclude widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion, i.e. Intralipid (AmB-IL, in 37 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM. We retrospectively reviewed data collected in a non-comparative open study between January 1999 and December 2001. The therapeutic cure was defined as complete resolution or improvement of the clinical symptoms or complete absence or improvement of the mycological alterations of the CSF. The outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, induction phase (IP, and at the end of treatment or consolidation phase (CP with the last available CSF. Prior to the diagnosis of CM, 72% of patients had had one or more OI and 67.57% had a concomitant OI. The median CD4-cell count was 32 cells/mm³, the median leukocyte count in the CSF was 29 cells/mm³ and the median cumulative dose of AmB-IL was 1,200 mg (300-2,500. The therapeutic cure was 57.14% in the IP and 64.86% in the CP. During IP, 9 patients died (24.32% and 4 (10.81% during the CP (p=0.2. Thus, the overall mortality rate was 35.14%. AmB-IL, an inexpensive preparation, might be an alternative to conventional AmB. Some questions remain such as its compatibility, stability and level of toxicity. The benefit is especially important in developing countries, where no drugs other than AmB are available to treat systemic fungal infections.

  7. The effect of a patient-oriented treatment decision aid for risk factor management in patients with diabetes (PORTDA-diab: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denig Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve risk factor management in diabetes, we need to support effective interactions between patients and healthcare providers. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a treatment decision aid that offers personalised information on treatment options and outcomes, and is intended to empower patients in taking a proactive role in their disease management. Important features are: (1 involving patients in setting goals together with their provider; (2 encourage them to prioritise on treatments that maximise relevant outcomes; and (3 integration of the decision aid in the practice setting and workflow. As secondary aim, we want to evaluate the impact of different presentation formats, and learn more from the experiences of the healthcare providers and patients with the decision aid. Methods and design We will conduct a randomised trial comparing four formats of the decision aid in a 2×2 factorial design with a control group. Patients with type 2 diabetes managed in 18 to 20 primary care practices in The Netherlands will be recruited. Excluded are patients with a recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina pectoris, terminal illness, cognitive deficits, >65 years at diagnosis, or not able to read Dutch. The decision aid is offered to the patients immediately before their quarterly practice consultation. The same decision information will be available to the healthcare provider for use during consultation. In addition, the providers receive a set of treatment cards, which they can use to discuss the benefits and risks of different options. Patients in the control group will receive care as usual. We will measure the effect of the intervention on patient empowerment, satisfaction with care, beliefs about medication, negative emotions, health status, prescribed medication, and predicted cardiovascular risk. Data will be collected with questionnaires and automated extraction from medical records in 6 months before and

  8. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  9. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    John KR; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Madhuri Nirmala

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states) and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria...

  10. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intravenous Ganciclovir Versus Oral Ganciclovir in the Maintenance Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Rachlis; Fiona Smaill; Valery Walker; Lorraine Hotchkies; Amy Jones

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a new product, oral ganciclovir, in comparison to a current therapy, intravenous (IV) ganciclovir, in the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. Design: This was a retrospective economic study of a prospective non-blinded randomised clinical trial. The model included IV ganciclovir induction, IV or oral ganciclovir maintenance and IV ganciclovir reinduction for patients whose CMV retiniti...

  11. Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The examples of lessons learned comprise an outline of the problems encountered at the nuclear facilities involved. The situations are typical of the difficulties that can arise when planning or implementing a decommissioning project for a small facility. Although the information is not intended to be exhaustive, the reader is encouraged to evaluate the applicability of the lessons learned to a specific decommissioning project. The general categories of problem and the relevant section in which they are discussed are shown. One should also note that in almost all cases the lack/inadequacy of construction or operational records contributed to the seriousness of the reported occurrences.

  12. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  13. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  16. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  17. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  18. Entre tramas e dramas: os significados do tratamento para mulheres de camadas populares vivendo com HIV/Aids Between storylines and dramas: the meanings of HIV/Aids treatment for lower class women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Carneiro da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda os significados do tratamento para o HIV/Aids. O referencial metodológico é a pesquisa qualitativa, e o campo de estudo, o serviço de um hospital de referência da Baixada Fluminense. O grupo estudado era composto por dez mulheres vivendo com HIV/ Aids, em terapia antirretroviral (ARV. Os significados do tratamento estão relacionados: 1 ao impacto do diagnóstico; 2 ao momento do tratamento considerando as diferentes fases de convívio com a doença; 3 ao espaço (público e privado onde se vivem preferencialmente a doença e o tratamento; 4 ao fato de se compartilhar ou não a doença e o tratamento com o parceiro; 5 à busca de outras racionalidades (religião e remédios alternativos como contraponto às prescrições médicas; 6 ao estabelecimento ou não de um vínculo afetivo com o médico. Há uma inter-relação estreita entre cuidar-se e cuidar dos filhos, tributária do tratamento ARV. O autocuidado é, antes de tudo, afirmação da vida, o que dá a medida da saúde. Não "ceder ao lugar de doente" significa não se entregar à depressão. A doença materializa-se no corpo com o uso da medicação, mas é possível, apesar das dificuldades, conciliar a rotina com o tratamento ARV. Destaca-se a importância fundamental da variável tempo para a criação de estratégias que possibilitem a inserção da doença e do tratamento no cotidiano.This paper discusses the psychosocial meanings of HIV/Aids treatment, using qualitative methods to assess daily operations of a reference hospital, located in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro's outskirts. In-depth interviews were carried out with 10 women living with HIV/Aids, under antiretroviral (ARV therapy. The meaning of treatment is related to: the impact of the diagnosis; the treatment moment, concerning different phases of living with the disease; the public and private spaces where a woman preferable lives with the disease and does her treatment; sharing or not

  19. Essentials from the 2015 European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the treatment of adult HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Boesecke, C; Gisler, V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines are intended for all clinicians involved in the care of HIV-positive persons, and are available in print, online, and as a free App for download for iPhone and Android. GUIDELINE HIGHLIGHTS: The 2015 version of the EACS guidelines...

  20. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program. PMID:25299805

  1. The Internet: Logon to Lesson Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbacher, Staci

    1996-01-01

    Encourages teachers to follow their students' example of learning to use and exploit the capabilities of the Internet by logging on, exploring the possibilities for researching a topic, documenting sources, and utilizing new types of information. Gives list of valuable Internet sites by subject area to aid in lesson planning and assignments. (ET)

  2. Comparison of the health-related quality of life, CD4 count and viral load of AIDS patients and people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Igumbor, Jude; Stewart, Aimee; Holzemer, William

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the level of CD4 count, viral load and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between treatment-naïve AIDS patients and a cohort of people living with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. This study is based on a secondary data analysis of the records of 642 people with HIV consisting of 311 treatment-naïve AIDS patients and 331 people with HIV who have been on treatment for 12 months. The study findings are mostly presented in tables and analysed using the t-test...

  3. In search of the building blocks of a human rights culture: lessons from the treatment of irregular immigrants in Malta

    OpenAIRE

    DEBONO, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of irregular migrants in Malta is problematic from a human rights perspective, for it contravenes the principle of universalism that is intrinsic to human rights philosophy. This study investigates this treatment. Crucially, it identifies four elements of political practice in the absence of which it is contended a human rights culture cannot flourish, as well as underlying patterns in Maltese political culture which contravene these four elements. Its ultimate aim is to propose...

  4. Treatment adherence: the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS Adhesión al tratamiento: vivencias de adolescentes con HIV/SIDA Adesão ao tratamento: vivências de adolescentes com HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cabral Kourrouski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Living with a chronic condition is difficult at any stage of life, especially when considering HIV/AIDS, a stigmatized condition that elicits so much discrimination and which may become an aggravating factor when it occurs during adolescence. This study aimed to understand the experience of adolescents with HIV/AIDS concerning medication adherence. This is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Nine adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years and six caregivers participated in the study. The organization of data focused on positive and negative aspects related to adherence. The results showed that adolescents have difficulties in medication adherence especially due to their side effects; they try to normalize their lives in such a way that stigma and discrimination do not compromise their quality of life and treatment adherence. Recommendations to encourage treatment adherence are presented.Vivir con una condición crónica es algo difícil en cualquier fase de la vida, sobre todo cuando se habla de HIV/SIDA, condición que trae estigma y discriminación, y cuando ocurre en la adolescencia se muestra como un agravante. El objetivo de este estudio es comprender la experiencia de adolescentes portadores de HIV/SIDA, en lo que se refiere a la adhesión medicamentosa. Se trata de estudio descriptivo, con abordaje cualitativo de los datos. Participaron nueve adolescentes con edad entre 12 y 18 años y seis cuidadores. Los datos fueron organizados alrededor de las facilidades y dificultades relacionadas a la adhesión. Los resultados evidenciaron que los adolescentes tienen dificultades en la adhesión al medicamento, colocando esas dificultades principalmente en los efectos colaterales de los mismos; buscan vivir el proceso de normalización, de tal forma que el estigma y discriminación no comprometan su calidad de vida y la adhesión a la terapéutica. Son presentadas recomendaciones para estimular la adhesión al tratamiento.Viver com uma

  5. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  6. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  7. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  8. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  9. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  10. Training Manual for HIV/AIDS Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison

    This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…

  11. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  12. Is it time for a new paradigm for systemic cancer treatment? Lessons from a century of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCrawford

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available U.S. SEER data for age-adjusted mortality rates for all cancers combined for all races show only a modest overall 13% decline over the past 35 years. Moreover, the greatest contributor to cancer mortality is treatment resistant metastatic disease. The accepted therapeutic paradigm for the past half century for the treatment of advanced cancers has involved the use of systemic chemotherapy drugs cytotoxic for cycling cells (both normal and malignant during DNA synthesis and/or mitosis. The failure of this therapeutic modality to achieve high level, consistent rates of disease free survival for some of the most common cancers, including tumors of the lung, colon breast, brain, melanoma and others is the focus of this paper. A retrospective assessment of critical milestones in cancer chemotherapy indicates that most successful therapeutic regimens use cytotoxic cell cycle inhibitors in combined, maximum tolerated, dose dense acute treatment regimens originally developed to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and some lymphomas. Early clinical successes in this area led to their wholesale application to the treatment of solid tumor malignancies that, unfortunately, has not produced consistent, long-term high cure rates for many common cancers. Important differences in therapeutic sensitivity of leukemias/lymphomas versus solid tumors can be explained by key biological differences that define the treatment resistant solid tumor phenotype. A review of these clinical outcome data in the context of recent developments in our understanding of drug resistance mechanisms characteristic of solid tumors suggests the need for a new paradigm for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancers. In contrast to reductionist approaches, the systemic approach targets both micro-environmental and systemic factors that drive and sustain tumor progression. These systemic factors include dysregulated inflammatory and oxidation pathways shown to be directly implicated in

  13. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervoort Gerald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study.

  14. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  15. A Treatment-Refractory Case of Social Anxiety Disorder: Lessons Learned from a Failed Course of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovich, Faith A.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 25 years researchers have made enormous strides in the implementation of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), although considerable work remains to be done. The present paper discusses a treatment refractory case seen in our clinic. The young man presented numerous interrelated obstacles, such as low…

  16. The lesson of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cesium-137 source used for radiological treatment was left unattended in a private clinic in the city of Goiania in Brazil. On 13 September 1987, the capsule containing the radioactive material was brought to a junk yard and violated, and its content was unintentionally handled by many people. In 1987 the intensity of the source was 50 · 1012 Bq. Four people died and several hundred injured people were treated clinically or monitored. The lessons learned from this accident are evaluated. (R.P.)

  17. Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS%AIDS合并症的经皮介入治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文科; 陆普选; 黄湘荣; 张莉萍; 李苑; 刘锦清; 曹义; 张辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical application value of percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS.Methods Twenty-one AIDS patients with complications were enrolled.CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy and drainage were conducted,and the correct rate of diagnosis,clinical curative effect and complications post-interventional therapy were observed.Results The operations of all patients executed successfully.Fourteen patients underwent 16 times biopsy,11 were correctly diagnosed,the diagnostic accordance rate was 81.25%.Drainage was performed in 6 patients with abscess or cystis,then the lesions completely disappeared in 3,deflated in 2,while the rest one needed continously draining.Partial splenic embolization (50%) was performed in 1 patient,and after operation platelet content increased,while hepatic function decreased temporality.No complicated infection and other severe complications occurred.Conclusion Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS are safe and feasible.Medical staffs should be careful to exposition of HIV infection.%目的 探讨经皮介入技术在艾滋病(AIDS)伴发合并症患者中的临床应用价值.方法 对21例AIDS伴发合并症患者,采用CT引导下经皮穿刺活检或置管引流术,观察介入诊断的正确率、临床疗效及术后并发症.结果 所有患者均获得操作成功.14例患者接受16次穿刺活检,11例(13例次)获得诊断,诊断率81.25%.6例脓肿及囊肿引流,病灶完全消失3例,病灶缩小2例,1例无明显变化,仍持续保留导管引流.1例脾栓塞面积约50%,术后血小板升高,出现暂时性肝功能降低.所有患者均无并发感染及其他严重并发症.未发生医护人员暴露感染.结论 介入技术在AIDS患者合并症的临床应用是安全可行的,但应注意严格预防暴露感染.

  18. Implementation of blinded outcome assessment in the Effective Verruca Treatments trial (EverT) – lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cockayne, Sarah; Hewitt, Catherine; Hashmi, Farina; Hicks, Kate; Concannon, Michael; McIntosh, Caroline; Thomas, Kim; Hall, Jill; Watson, Judith; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Trials using inadequate levels of blinding may report larger effect sizes than blinded studies. It has been suggested that blinded outcome assessment in open trials may in some cases be undertaken by assessments of photographs. The aim of this paper is to explore the effect of using different methods to assess the primary outcome in the EVerT (Effective Verruca Treatments) trial. It also aims to give an overview of the experiences of using digital photographs within the trial. Meth...

  19. Progress in the treatment of ovarian cancer-lessons from homologous recombination deficiency-the first 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, S B

    2016-04-01

    For several years, a major obstacle in the systemic treatment of ovarian cancer has been the lack of a therapeutic strategy tailored to specific biomarkers present in the individual patient's tumour. However, considerable progress has been made recently through the development of drugs targeting cells deficient in the key mechanism of double-strand DNA repair, known as homologous recombination (HRD). These drugs, inhibitors of the enzyme poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP), selectively kill HRD cells through a process known as tumour-selective synthetic lethality. Olaparib is the first such agent, now approved for the treatment of ovarian cancer associated with mutations in the BRCA 1/2 genes, since these are characterised by cells with HRD. Importantly, another group of patients with tumours bearing a similar repair deficiency but without BRCA mutations may also be susceptible to PARP inhibition and efforts to develop an HRD assay are therefore a priority so that these patients can be identified as PARPi candidates. In addition, combination strategies are an area of intense research; these include combinations with antiangiogenic agents and with inhibitors of the P13K/AKT pathway and others are likely to merit assessment since resistance to PARP inhibitors will certainly emerge as the next challenge. While olaparib is the first PARP inhibitor to receive approval for ovarian cancer treatment, others including rucaparib and niraparib are clearly effective in this disease and, within the next year or two, the results of ongoing randomised trials will clarify their respective roles. PARP inhibitors are generally well tolerated; regulatory approval at present supports their use as a maintenance therapy (in Europe) and as treatment for advanced recurrent disease (in the United States), but it is likely that these indications will extend as the results of ongoing trials become available. Ten years have elapsed between the first pre-clinical publications and the

  20. Pilot Randomized Trial of Collaborative Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Pain and Depression in Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weisberg, Risa B; Herman, Debra S; Bailey, Genie L; Pinkston-Camp, Megan M; Garnaat, Sarah L; Stein, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    In this pilot study, we assessed feasibility and acceptability of a behavior therapy intervention for pain and depressive symptoms in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). We randomly assigned 23 participants to HIV-PASS (HIV-Pain and Sadness Study) or a health education control arm for 3 months. On average, participants attended more than 5 sessions (of 7 possible) in both arms. Qualitative data suggest HIV-PASS participants understood key messages and made concrete behavioral changes. HIV-PASS was associated with effects in the expected direction for three of four outcomes, including the primary outcome (pain-related interference with functioning). Findings suggest that HIV-PASS is promising. PMID:27115400

  1. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  2. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Treatment of Dermatological Conditions Associated with HIV/AIDS: The Scarcity of Guidance on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Suchismita Paul; Rachel Evans; Toby Maurer; Muhe, Lulu M.; Freeman, Esther E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was underta...

  4. The impact of mental health and traumatic life experiences on antiretroviral treatment outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Pence, Brian Wells

    2009-01-01

    Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Accordingly, the goal of HIV care has shifted from delaying death to achieving optimal health outcomes through ART treatment. ART treatment success hinges on medication adherence. Extensive research has demonstrated that the primary barriers to ART adherence include mental illness, especially depression and substance abuse, as well as histories of traumatic experiences such as childhood sexual ...

  5. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  6. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  7. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The present study is focused on the application of recovered coagulant (RC) by acidification from drinking water treatment residuals for both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in electrocoagulation. To do this, real cotton textile wastewater was used as a target pollutant, and decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were monitored. A preliminary test indicated that a stainless steel electrode combined with RC significantly accelerated decolorization and COD removal efficiencies, by about 52% and 56%, respectively, even at an operating time of 5 min. A single electrocoagulation system meanwhile requires at least 40 min to attain the similar removal performances. Subsequently, the interactive effect of three independent variables (applied voltage, initial pH, and reaction time) on the response variables (decolorization and COD removal) was evaluated, and these parameters were statistically optimized using the response surface methodology. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination values (decolorization, R(2) = 0.9925 and COD removal, R(2) = 0.9973) and satisfactory prediction second-order polynomial quadratic regression models. Average decolorization and COD removal of 89.52% and 94.14%, respectively, were achieved, corresponding to 97.8% and 98.1% of the predicted values under statistically optimized conditions. The results suggest that the RC effectively played a dual role of both adjusting the initial pH and aiding coagulant in the electrocoagulation process. PMID:26593378

  8. Anti-HIV drug development: structural features and limitations of present day drugs and future challenges in the successful HIV/AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Garima; Singh, Ramendra K

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), an immuno-compromized condition, a sequel to untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inviting several life-threatening diseases, has become one of the most fatal disorders in the recent past because of HIV strain variance due to mutations, passive latency and reservoirs helping in replenishing and reviving the HIV-1 proviral DNA. Scientific efforts have led to the discovery of several effective drugs against HIV and lowered the morbidity and mortality all over the world. However, despite availability of a good number of anti-HIV drugs, the problem, for the foreseeable reasons, stands out as the most chronic disease due to the less tolerability and low accessibility of drugs, life-long expensive treatment, and above all, the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. This review dwells upon HIV infection and its proliferation inside the host system, drug targets, different types of drugs, their structural features and mode of interaction with viral targets and drug regimens. It further focuses on topics of latest interest regarding drug development, fixed dose combinations (FDCs), the limitations of present day drugs with their structural features along with their pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics and the challenges in finding a permanent cure for HIV/AIDS. PMID:23092282

  9. Medical progress, psychological factors and global care of the patient: lessons from the treatment of childhood leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Digilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of treatment of childhood leukemia is a meaningful model of ethical, bioethical and organizational repercussions of medical progress. Specifically, it has provided precious indications and very useful tools to cope with several of the more important problems of modern medicine: the value of controlled randomized studies; the risks of intense medicalization impairing the quality of care; the importance of a valid doctor-patient relationship; the psycho-emotive involvement of the pediatric staff; and last but not least, the need of an unrelenting effort of humanization of the procedures and environments, hand in hand with the frequent adjustments of the protocols according to scientific and technological progress. Finally, the authors comment upon the first cures (1962-1966 observed in the Pediatrics Clinic of the Sapienza University of Rome.

  10. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  11. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  12. Translating research into policy: lessons learned from eclampsia treatment and malaria control in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matinhure Sheillah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the process of knowledge translation in low- and middle-income countries. We studied policymaking processes in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe to understand the factors affecting the use of research evidence in national policy development, with a particular focus on the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs. We examined two cases: the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 in the treatment of eclampsia in pregnancy (a clinical case; and the use of insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual household spraying for malaria vector control (a public health case. Methods We used a qualitative case-study methodology to explore the policy making process. We carried out key informants interviews with a range of research and policy stakeholders in each country, reviewed documents and developed timelines of key events. Using an iterative approach, we undertook a thematic analysis of the data. Findings Prior experience of particular interventions, local champions, stakeholders and international networks, and the involvement of researchers in policy development were important in knowledge translation for both case studies. Key differences across the two case studies included the nature of the evidence, with clear evidence of efficacy for MgSO4 and ongoing debate regarding the efficacy of bed nets compared with spraying; local researcher involvement in international evidence production, which was stronger for MgSO4 than for malaria vector control; and a long-standing culture of evidence-based health care within obstetrics. Other differences were the importance of bureaucratic processes for clinical regulatory approval of MgSO4, and regional networks and political interests for malaria control. In contrast to treatment policies for eclampsia, a diverse group of stakeholders with varied interests, differing in their use and interpretation of evidence, was involved in malaria policy decisions in the three

  13. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    OpenAIRE

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate.

  14. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  15. "Volunteers are not paid because they are priceless": community health worker capacities and values in an AIDS treatment intervention in urban Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    This article analyzes community health workers' (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs' capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs' families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become "priceless" and therefore only remunerable with immaterial satisfaction. Positive change within CHW programs requires ethnographic analysis of how CHWs exercise capacities for empathic care as well as consideration of how global health institutions value these capacities. PMID:25257547

  16. An assessment of felt needs and expectations of people living with HIV/AIDS seeking treatment at NGOs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megharita M; Garg, Suneela; Nath, Anita; Gupta, Vimal K

    2015-03-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) continue to face stigma and discrimination in society. The felt needs of PLHAs can be met by means of a comprehensive, holistic, and integrated approach by the concerned sectors. This study included 100 PLHAs admitted at 3 care homes run by nongovernmental organizations in New Delhi. As many as 22% of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary Koch's. Unemployment rates were found to increase after disease onset. Majority were satisfied with the medical treatment and overall care provided at these centers. About 25% expressed that they would like the government to provide them with suitable jobs. Less than one third (30%) of the PLHAs expressed satisfaction with their family life whereas the rest yearned for love and acceptance from society. Study findings highlight the important role of nongovernmental organizations and stresses on the need for a holistic approach toward the care of these people. PMID:19443873

  17. [AIDS: faith healers versus medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottingar, V

    1989-09-01

    The majority of AIDS patients in Africa rely on traditional healers to treat their disease rather than on Western medicine. Most western medical treatments currently available are beyond the financial resources of all but the wealthiest Africans, and most African countries lack the means to provide serious medical treatment for AIDS patients. AZT is almost the only drug used on a wide scale against AIDS, but its cost is estimated by the World Health Organization at $7-8000/year for each individual, not counting other treatments and hospital care. AIDS therapies offered by African health services exhaust their already meager health budgets. The money is lacking even to buy condoms to prevent the epidemic from spreading. Hospital hygiene may be poor and diagnostic and therapeutic tools lacking even for those AIDS patients able to be treated by modern medical specialists. Africa lacks the financial, scientific, social, and economic means of combatting AIDS. Some AIDS experts suggest that African governments underestimate the number of seropositive individuals in order to avoid frightening the population and discouraging tourists and investors. In the absence of an effective treatment or vaccine, the only tools to fight AIDS will be raising the awareness of the population to the gravity of the threat, systematic screening of blood donors, sterilization of syringes, and distribution of condoms. PMID:12282686

  18. Lessons learned from the application of whole-genome analysis to the treatment of patients with advanced cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Janessa; Jones, Steven; Aparicio, Samuel; Chia, Stephen; Ch'ng, Carolyn; Deyell, Rebecca; Eirew, Peter; Fok, Alexandra; Gelmon, Karen; Ho, Cheryl; Huntsman, David; Jones, Martin; Kasaian, Katayoon; Karsan, Aly; Leelakumari, Sreeja; Li, Yvonne; Lim, Howard; Ma, Yussanne; Mar, Colin; Martin, Monty; Moore, Richard; Mungall, Andrew; Mungall, Karen; Pleasance, Erin; Rassekh, S. Rod; Renouf, Daniel; Shen, Yaoqing; Schein, Jacqueline; Schrader, Kasmintan; Sun, Sophie; Tinker, Anna; Zhao, Eric; Yip, Stephen; Marra, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the success of targeted agents in specific populations it is expected that some degree of molecular biomarker testing will become standard of care for many, if not all, cancers. To facilitate this, cancer centers worldwide are experimenting with targeted “panel” sequencing of selected mutations. Recent advances in genomic technology enable the generation of genome-scale data sets for individual patients. Recognizing the risk, inherent in panel sequencing, of failing to detect meaningful somatic alterations, we sought to establish processes to integrate data from whole-genome analysis (WGA) into routine cancer care. Between June 2012 and August 2014, 100 adult patients with incurable cancers consented to participate in the Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) study. Fresh tumor and blood samples were obtained and used for whole-genome and RNA sequencing. Computational approaches were used to identify candidate driver mutations, genes, and pathways. Diagnostic and drug information were then sought based on these candidate “drivers.” Reports were generated and discussed weekly in a multidisciplinary team setting. Other multidisciplinary working groups were assembled to establish guidelines on the interpretation, communication, and integration of individual genomic findings into patient care. Of 78 patients for whom WGA was possible, results were considered actionable in 55 cases. In 23 of these 55 cases, the patients received treatments motivated by WGA. Our experience indicates that a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and scientists can implement a paradigm in which WGA is integrated into the care of late stage cancer patients to inform systemic therapy decisions. PMID:27148575

  19. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  20. [Consensus document of Gesida and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) regarding combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel consisting of members of the AIDS Study Group (Gesida) and the Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) after reviewing the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals, or presented in medical scientific meetings. Gesida has prepared an objective and structured method to prioritise combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in naïve patients. Recommendations strength (A, B, C) and the evidence which supports them (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria. The current antiretroviral treatment (ART) of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, in pregnancy, in serodiscordant couples with high transmission risk, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, and HIV nephropathy. Guidelines on ART treatment in patients with concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection and an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; 2) when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, therapy will be recommended and only delayed if patient is reluctant to take it, the CD4 are stabilised, and the plasma viral load is low; 3) therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >10(5) copies/mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years. ART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and a third drug (non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected and given priority to using

  1. Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Pepper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical deterioration on drug therapy for tuberculosis is a common cause of hospital admission in Africa. Potential causes for clinical deterioration in settings of high HIV-1 prevalence include drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, co-morbid illnesses, poor adherence to therapy, tuberculosis associated-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS and subtherapeutic antitubercular drug levels. It is important to derive a rapid diagnostic work-up to determine the cause of clinical deterioration as well as specific management to prevent further clinical deterioration and death. We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration. METHOD: A prospective observational study conducted during the first quarter of 2007. We defined clinical deterioration as clinical worsening or failure to stabilise after 14 or more days of antitubercular treatment, resulting in hospital referral. We collected data on tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, HIV-1 status and antiretroviral treatment, and investigated reasons for clinical deterioration as well as outcome. RESULTS: During this period, 352 TB patients met inclusion criteria; 296 were admitted to hospital accounting for 17% of total medical admissions (n = 1755. Eighty three percent of TB patients (291/352 were known to be HIV-1 co-infected with a median CD4 count of 89cells/mm(3 (IQR 38-157. Mortality among TB patients admitted to hospital was 16% (n = 48. The median duration of hospital admission was 9.5 days (IQR 4-18, longer than routine in this setting (4 days. Among patients in whom HIV-1 status was known (n = 324, 72% of TB patients (n = 232 had an additional illness to tuberculosis; new AIDS defining illnesses (n = 80 were the most frequent additional illnesses (n = 208 in HIV-1 co-infected patients (n

  2. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir-cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcharoen, Opass; Do, Tanya; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI)-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV) as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug-drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug-drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1) COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2) COBI's solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1) COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) without affecting actual GFR; 2) potential drug-drug interaction data are insufficient, warranting caution when initiating COBI in conjunction with concomitant medication or in individuals with multiple comorbidities; 3) food plays a pivotal role in boosting darunavir exposure, warranting caution and patient education on the importance of taking COBI-containing regimens with appropriate amounts

  3. Alternative treatment approach to cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS: experience from a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Rama Prosad; Goswami, Rudra Prosad; Rahman, Mehebubar; Ray, Yogiraj; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The current standard treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis (pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine) often encounters problems of poor tolerability, adverse effects, frequent dropouts and non-availability of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine in some parts of India. We have had to use the combination of two effective alternative agents for toxoplasmosis, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, on compassionate grounds. This retrospective observational study reports superior efficacy and better tolerability of cotrimoxazole/clindamycin compared to the recommended regimen. Primary end-point (complete response) was defined as more than 50% improvement of clinical status or more than 50% decrease in the size of brain lesions after two weeks of treatment initiation. Complete response occurred more commonly with cotrimoxazole/clindamycin than with pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group (80% vs. 31.25%, respectively, relative risk 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-5.43). There was a trend towards higher on-treatment mortality in the pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine group in comparison to the cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (mortality rate 37.5% in pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine vs 12% in cotrimoxazole/clindamycin, p = 0.07, relative risk = 3.125, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.75). Overall, 62.5% (10/16) of patients on pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine suffered drug-related adverse reactions compared to 24% (6/25) on cotrimoxazole/clindamycin (p = 0.02, relative risk = 2.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-5.76). The commonest complication of pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine was severe thrombocytopenia with major bleeding (4/16, 25%). We propose that the new combination chemotherapy, which is widely available, effective and safe, can be used in developing countries. PMID:25411350

  4. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  5. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences of...

  6. 快捷护理程序在重型颅脑外伤急救中的应用%Application of shortcut nursing procedure in first-aid treatment of patients with severe head trau-ma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳英; 刘燕兰

    2008-01-01

    目的 提高重型颅脑外伤的急救水平,降低死亡率.方法 运用临床护理程序对患者实施护理,将105例急救患者随机分为对照组50例和实验组55例,对照组采用以前的抢救流程,实验组运用自行制订的重型颅脑外伤临床快捷护理程序对患者进行急救护理,对2组患者的死亡率及抢救所用的时间进行比较,观察临床快捷护理程序运用于急救过程中的效果.结果 实验组的死亡率及抢救所用的时间均比对照组低,且差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论 在急救过程中运用临床快捷护理程序不仅可以提高急救水平,降低患者的死亡率,而且可以有效的指导护士进行抢救,提高了护士自身的专业及业务水平.%Objective To improve level of first-aid treatment of severe head trauma and reduce fa-tality. Methods Clinical nursing procedures were applied to patients.Patients need first-aid treatment (105 cases) were divided into the control group(50 cases) and the experimental group(55 cases).The con-trol group adopted routine first-aid procedure,the experimental group was given first-aid nursing with self-designed shortcut nursing procedure for severe head trauma.The effect of application of shortcut nursing procedure was observed by comparing the fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment between the two groups. Results The fatality and time consumption of first-aid treatment in the experimental groupwas lower than that of the control group, P<0.05. Conclusions Application of shortcut nursing proce-dure in first-aid treatment can not only improve level of first-aid treatment and reduce fatality, but also can instruct nurses how to rescue patients and improve their professional and vocational level.

  7. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  8. Platelet-rich fibrin, "a faster healing aid" in the treatment of combined lesions: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parupalli Karunakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically the pulp and periodontium are connected through apical foramen, and the lateral, accessory, and furcal canals. Diseases of one tissue may affect the other. In the present case report with two cases, a primary periodontal lesion with secondary endodontic involvement is described. In both cases, root canal treatment was done followed by periodontal therapy with the use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF as the regenerative material of choice. PRF has been a breakthrough in the stimulation and acceleration of tissue healing. It is used to achieve faster healing of the intrabony defects. Absence of an intraradicular lesion, pain, and swelling, along with tooth stability and adequate radiographic bone fill at 9 months of follow-up indicated a successful outcome.

  9. NSAID-associated adverse effects and acid control aids to prevent them: a review of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesdal, Jørgen; Brown, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    NSAIDs are central to the clinical management of a wide range of conditions. However, NSAIDs in combination with gastric acid, which has been shown to play a central role in upper gastrointestinal (GI) events, can damage the gastroduodenal mucosa and result in dyspeptic symptoms and peptic lesions such as ulceration.NSAID-associated GI mucosal injury is an important clinical problem. Gastroduodenal ulcers or ulcer complications occur in up to 25% of patients receiving NSAIDs. However, these toxicities are often not preceded by indicative symptoms. Data obtained from the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System have shown that 50-60% of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer cases can remain clinically silent and do not present until complications occur. Therefore, prophylactic treatment to prevent GI complications may be necessary in a substantial proportion of NSAID users, especially those in groups associated with a high risk of developing these complications. Use of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective NSAIDs, also known as 'coxibs', substantially reduces the incidence of upper GI toxicities seen with non-selective NSAIDs. However, there are concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of coxibs. For this reason, the US FDA recommends minimal use of coxibs and only when strictly necessary. Additionally, rofecoxib has been removed from the US market and sales of valdecoxib have been suspended. Furthermore, upper GI toxicities still occur in patients receiving coxibs. Therefore, cotherapies are required to prevent and/or heal upper GI effects associated with NSAID use. Effective prophylactic and treatment strategies include misoprostol, histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The key role that gastric acid plays in upper GI adverse events among NSAID users suggests that it is important to choose the most effective agent for acid control to alleviate symptoms, heal mucosal erosions and improve the reduced quality of life in

  10. The role of South African traditional health practitioners in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; A study of their practices and use of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Walwyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this study, we investigated the dominant practices of THPs towards HIV positive patients and whether these practices have changed following widespread public awareness campaigns covering HIV and its treatment. Method The study used a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire in the home language of the interviewee. A total of 52 THPs from four provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu Natal and Eastern Cape were interviewed. 38% of the respondents were based in the rural areas, and 69% classified themselves as inyangas, with the remainder being sangomas. Findings All of the THPs in the survey offered treatment for HIV, although only 20% claimed to be able to cure the disease. 88% prepared their own medication, mostly from plant material, and sold their products as aqueous extracts in labelled bottles. None of these products had been systematically evaluated, and there was mostly no record keeping, either of the patient, or of the medicine itself. Quality control practices such as expiry dates, controlled storage conditions and batch records were totally unknown in our sample. Only 38% of the THPs had received training on HIV/AIDS although 75% believed that they were well informed about the disease. Our own assessment was that only 50% had a working knowledge of HIV; more disturbingly 37% believe that only traditional medicines should be used for the treatment of HIV and a further 50% believe that both traditional medicines and ARVs can be taken simultaneously. Interpretation Despite ongoing public educational campaigns on HIV, some of which have specifically targeted THPs, the care of HIV positive

  11. Lessons learned bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  12. AIDS, a development challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447

  13. Expansion of HAART coverage is associated with sustained decreases in HIV/AIDS morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission: the "HIV Treatment as Prevention" experience in a Canadian setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S G Montaner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been renewed call for the global expansion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART under the framework of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP. However, population-level sustainability of this strategy has not been characterized. METHODS: We used population-level longitudinal data from province-wide registries including plasma viral load, CD4 count, drug resistance, HAART use, HIV diagnoses, AIDS incidence, and HIV-related mortality. We fitted two Poisson regression models over the study period, to relate estimated HIV incidence and the number of individuals on HAART and the percentage of virologically suppressed individuals. RESULTS: HAART coverage, median pre-HAART CD4 count, and HAART adherence increased over time and were associated with increasing virological suppression and decreasing drug resistance. AIDS incidence decreased from 6.9 to 1.4 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0330 and HIV-related mortality decreased from 6.5 to 1.3 per 100,000 population (80% decrease, p = 0.0115. New HIV diagnoses declined from 702 to 238 cases (66% decrease; p = 0.0004 with a consequent estimated decline in HIV incident cases from 632 to 368 cases per year (42% decrease; p = 0.0003. Finally, our models suggested that for each increase of 100 individuals on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence decreased 1.2% and for every 1% increase in the number of individuals suppressed on HAART, the estimated HIV incidence also decreased by 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAART expansion between 1996 and 2012 in BC was associated with a sustained and profound population-level decrease in morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Our findings support the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of HIV treatment as prevention within an adequately resourced environment with no financial barriers to diagnosis, medical care or antiretroviral drugs. The 2013 Consolidated World Health Organization Antiretroviral

  14. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  15. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinapori, Roberta; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The fixed-dose combination (FDC) elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF) is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat) associated with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC's efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients' needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV-infected patients. PMID:26345643

  16. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; b) Therapy should be recommended when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, except when CD4 are stabilized, there is low plasma viral load, or the patient not willing; c) Therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/ μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a ritonavir boosted protease

  17. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinapori R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Prinapori,1 Antonio Di Biagio2 1Infectious Diseases, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Unit of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy Abstract: The fixed-dose combination (FDC elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat associated with two nucleos(tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC’s efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients’ needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV

  18. Lessons Learned in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. C.; Ryan, R. S.; Schutzenhofer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations.

  19. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)

  20. Chemical interactions study of antiretroviral drugs efavirenz and lamivudine concerning the development of stable fixed-dose combination formulations for AIDS treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Elionai C. de L.; Mussel, Wagner N.; Resende, Jarbas M.; Yoshida, Maria I., E-mail: mirene@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Fialho, Silvia L.; Barbosa, Jamile; Fialho, Silvia L. [Fundacao Ezequiel Dias, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    Lamivudine and efavirenz are among the most worldwide used drugs for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-optical analysis (TOA) were used to study possible interactions between these drugs, aiming the development of a fixed-dose drug combination. DSC and TOA have evidenced significant shifts on the melting points of both drugs in the mixture, which may be due to interaction between them. Although DSC and TOA results indicated incompatibility between the drugs, FTIR spectra were mostly unmodified due to overlapping peaks. The ssNMR analyses showed significant changes in chemical shifts values of the mixture when compared with spectra of pure drugs, especially in the signals relating to the deficient electron carbon atoms of both drugs. These results confirm the interactions suggested by DSC and TOA, which is probably due to acid-base interactions between electronegative and deficient electron atoms of both lamivudine and efavirenz. (author)

  1. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  2. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambert Elodie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been conducted but is needed to inform next steps towards improving child health. Methods We used information from the World Health Organization Prequalification Programme and the United States Food and Drug Administration to describe trends in quality-certification of pediatric formulations and used 7,989 donor-funded, pediatric ARV purchase transactions from 2002-2009 to measure uptake and dispersion of new pediatric ARV formulations across countries and programs. Prices for new pediatric ARV formulations were compared to alternative dosage forms. Results Fewer ARV options exist for HIV/AIDS treatment in children than adults. Before 2005, most pediatric ARVs were produced by innovator companies in single-component solid and liquid forms. Five 2-in1 and four 3-in-1 generic pediatric fixed-dose combinations (FDCs in solid and dispersible forms have been quality-certified since 2005. Most (67% of these were produced by one quality-certified manufacturer. Uptake of new pediatric FDCs outside of UNITAID is low. UNITAID accounted for 97-100% of 2008-2009 market volume. In total, 33 and 34 countries reported solid or dispersible FDC purchases in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but most purchases were made through UNITAID. Only three Global Fund country recipients reported purchase of these FDCs in 2008. Prices for pediatric FDCs were considerably lower than liquids but typically higher than half of an adult FDC. Conclusion Pediatric ARV markets are more fragile than

  3. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  4. NASA Engineering Network Lessons Learned

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Lessons Learned system provides access to official, reviewed lessons learned from NASA programs and projects. These lessons have been made available to the...

  5. The Lessons of Teaching Tiananmen: The Dream Deferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Suggests teaching about the Chinese government's 1989 suppression of student protesters at Tiananmen Square. Argues that the lesson can aid students understanding of the role of student protest in shaping China's history and interactions with the rest of the world. Offers strategies and questions for student research including reasons for the…

  6. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  7. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information. PMID:17784652

  8. After the Global Fund: who can sustain the HIV/AIDS response in Peru and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ana B; Caceres, Carlos F; Spicer, Neil; Balabanova, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Peru has received around $70 million from Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. This study examines the transition from Global Fund support to increasing national HIV/AIDS funding in Peru (2004-2012) by analysing actor roles, motivations and effects on policies, identifying recommendations to inform decision-makers on priority areas. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Thirty-five in-depth interviews were conducted from October to December 2011 in Lima, Peru, among key stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS work. Findings show that Global Fund involvement led to important breakthroughs in the HIV/AIDS response, primarily concerning treatment access, focus on vulnerable populations and development of a coordination body. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty. Strengthening government and regional capacity and fostering accountability mechanisms will facilitate an effective transition to government-led financing. Only then can achievements gained from the Global Fund presence be maintained, providing lessons for countries seeking to sustain programmes following donor exit. PMID:24499125

  9. CHARTS项目对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境的影响分析%Analysis of the Impact of CHARTS on the AIDS Prevention and Treatment Policy Environment in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文凤梅; 明平勇; 李娜; 左海燕; 苏维; 张建新

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解中英艾滋病策略支持项目(CHARTS)对四川省艾滋病防治政策环境变化的作用和影响,为改进艾滋病防治工作提供参考.方法 采用问卷调查与关键人物访谈相结合的方法.结果 省级多部门艾滋病战略规划数量显著增加,规划针对的目标人群明显扩大;政府部门的关注度和社会力量参与度不断提高,并呈现出合作的趋势;艾滋病预防政策和策略更加完善,受益人群面不断扩大;对艾滋病受害者的治疗、关怀和支持的政策和策略进一步完善,尤其是对艾滋病孤儿和脆弱儿童的关怀支持力度进一步加大;项目督导评估系列工作基本实现了从无到有.结论 在CHARTS项目支持下,四川省艾滋病防治政策环境得到显著改善,但仍然面临诸多挑战.%OBJECTIVE To know the effect and impact of CHARTS on the changes of AIDS prevention and treatment policy environment in Sichuan province, so as to provide reference for improving the job of AIDS prevention and treatment. METHODS Questionnaire Survey and Key—informant interview were used in our study. RESULTS The number of provincial multisec-toral Strategic Planning for AIDS prevention and treatment significantly increased, and the target population included in the strategic planning also significantly expanded; The degree of attention paid to AIDS prevention and treatment by government departments and the degree of participation in AIDS prevention and treatment for social forces continuously improved, and there was a trend of cooperation. The policies and strategies for AIDS prevention were perfected, and the range of benefited population continuously expanded. Policies and strategies of AIDS treatment, care and support focused on the victims further improved, especially the caring and supporting efforts for AIDS orphans and vulnerable children. The series of jobs in project supervision and evaluation basically realized from scratch. CONCLUSION Under the

  10. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  11. 艾滋病相关性肺动脉高压诊治近况%AIDS Related Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosis and Treatment Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 赵贺红(综述); 冯萍(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) has become the most serious disaster diseases for humanity.With widely application of antiretroviral therapy,the survival time of patients with HIV and opportunistic infections largely under control non-infectious complications, including pulmonary aterial hypertension (PAH) by more and more at ention in the international.In fact,has become an independent disorder for death of HIV-infected patients.The pathogenesis of HIV infection leads to pulmonary hypertension has not been ful y elucidated.Lack of specific clinical manifestations;treatment have a lot of restrictions compared with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and poor prognosis.SO early detection and intervention can improve the quality of life and survival of HIV-PAH patients. In the process of the treatment of people living with HIV can not explain the symptoms associated with cardiac and pulmonary in Clinical, consideration should be given to HIV-related PAH (HRPH)[1].%获得性人类免疫缺陷病已经成为人类疾病史上的灾难性疾病,随着抗逆转录病毒治疗的广泛应用,HIV(Human Immunodeficiency Virus)患者的生存时间及机会性感染在很大程度上得到控制,而非感染性并发症包括肺动脉高压在国际上受到越来越多的重视,实际上肺动脉高压已成为HIV感染患者死亡的独立危险因素。 HIV感染导致肺动脉高压的发病机制尚未完全阐明,其临床表现缺乏特异性,治疗上较特发性性肺动脉高压又有很多限制,预后较差,早期发现和干预可提高患者的生活质量和生存率。在HIV感染者的治疗过程中,出现不能解释的与心肺相关症状时,应考虑到HIV相关的肺动脉高压,并及时给予干预以期提高HIV患者的生存率。

  12. Lessons in Everyday Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Kit

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the lessons she has learned in everyday leadership. It's the kind of leadership one learns when he or she doesn't expect it--and the kind of lessons one teaches when he or she doesn't even know he or she is doing it.

  13. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  14. Don Quixote. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Kristen

    Based on Miguel de Cervantes' novel "Don Quixote," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Quixote's misperceptions are understandable; writers often describe one object to sound as if it were something else; and metaphors help readers see with new eyes. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  15. Desafios da adesão ao tratamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids no Brasil Challenges of treatment adherence by people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Melchior; Maria Ines Battistella Nemes; Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar; Cássia Maria Buchalla

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar as dificuldades referentes à adesão ao tratamento de pacientes vivendo com HIV/Aids em terapia anti-retroviral altamente ativa. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa baseada em 34 entrevistas com pacientes em tratamento de diversos serviços ambulatoriais do estado de São Paulo em 1998-1999. O grupo compreendeu pessoas de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos, sexo, tempo no tratamento e diferentes graus de adesão de acordo com a percepção da equipe de saúde. As entrevistas foram focali...

  16. Relação entre sintomatologia psicopatológica, adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida na infecção HIV e AIDS Relationship among psychopathological symptoms, treatment adherence and quality of life in HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo observou a existência de relações significativas entre sintomatologia psicopatológica (BSI, adesão ao tratamento (CEAT-VIH e qualidade de vida (WHOQOL-Bref em 125 pessoas HIV-positivo/AIDS em tratamento antirretroviral, atendidos em um hospital do Porto (Portugal. A sintomatologia psicopatológica correlacionou-se negativamente com adesão ao tratamento e qualidade de vida, e a adesão ao tratamento associou-se positivamente com a qualidade de vida. O modelo preditor de adesão ao tratamento, mediante análise de regressão múltipla, incluiu a ausência de sintomatologia psicopatológica, o comportamento de retirada dos medicamentos na farmácia hospitalar e a presença de efeitos colaterais do tratamento (R² =0,30. Ademais, observou-se um efeito mediador de sintomatologia psicopatológica entre a adesão ao tratamento e a qualidade de vida das pessoas com HIV/AIDS.The study shows evidence of statistical association among psychopathological symptoms (BSI, treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH and quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref in 125 HIV-positive/AIDS patients followed at Porto Hospital (Portugal. The psychopathological symptoms present a negative correlation with treatment adherence and quality of life. On the other hand, adherence was positively correlated with quality of life. The model of adherence to the antiretroviral treatment using multiple regression analysis includes absence of psychopathological symptoms, an adherence behavior (i.e. to get the medication at the hospital's pharmacy and the experience of side effects because of medication (R² = 0.30. Besides, psychopathological symptoms have a mediation effect between adherence and quality of life in people with HIV/AIDS.

  17. 78 FR 63990 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also...

  18. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  19. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  20. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  1. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...

  2. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  3. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  4. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  5. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  6. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  7. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  8. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  9. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  10. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  11. Vulnerabilidades presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica Vulnerabilidades presentes en la ruta vivida por pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica Vulnerabilities present in the path experienced by patients with HIV / AIDS in treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kelly Rabelo de Sousa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grande avanço no tratamento da AIDS deu-se com o surgimento da terapia antiretroviral. Entretanto, diversas vulnerabilidades podem estar presentes no percurso vivenciado pelos pacientes durante o tratamento. Objetivou-se analisar as vulnerabilidades dos pacientes com HIV/AIDS em falha terapêutica. Estudo qualitativo realizado com sete usuários com AIDS considerados em falha terapêutica, em uma Unidade de Serviço Ambulatorial Especializado em HIV/AIDS, em Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretação dos dados, utilizou-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo. Nos discursos, percebeu-se que os depoentes enfrentavam conflitos na família e, no ambiente de trabalho, dificuldades de relacionamento com as pessoas e estigma. Observou-se que os pacientes haviam vivenciado diversas situações que os tornaram mais suscetíveis à infecção por HIV e ao adoecimento.Un gran avance en el tratamiento del SIDA se llevó a cabo con el advenimiento de la terapia antirretroviral. Sin embargo, numerosas vulnerabilidades pueden estar presentes en la ruta vivida por los pacientes durante el tratamiento. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las vulnerabilidades de los pacientes con VIH / SIDA en falla terapéutica. Estudio cualitativo en que fueran incluidos siete usuarios con el SIDA y en falla terapéutica, atendidos en una Unidad de Servicios Ambulatorios en VIH / SIDA, en Fortaleza-CE. Para interpretar los datos, se utilizó una técnica de análisis de contenido. Por medio de los discursos, verificó-se que los pacientes enfrentaban conflictos en la familia y, en el trabajo, relaciones difíciles con la gente y el estigma. Fue observado que los pacientes han experimentado muchas situaciones que les hizo más susceptibles a la infección por el VIH y la enfermedad.A major breakthrough in AIDS treatment occurred with the advent of antiretroviral therapy. However, several vulnerabilities may be present in the path experienced by patients during treatment. This

  12. Pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS: variáveis associadas à adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral Persons living with HIV/AIDS: factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Fleury Seidl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou descrever o comportamento de adesão ao tratamento anti-retroviral em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS e investigar preditores da adesão entre as variáveis escolaridade, presença de efeitos colaterais, interrupção anterior da terapia anti-retroviral (TARV por conta própria, auto-estima, expectativa de auto-eficácia, estratégias de enfrentamento, suporte social e satisfação com a relação profissional de saúde-usuário. Adesão foi medida pelo auto-relato da perda do número de comprimidos/cápsulas dos medicamentos anti-retrovirais na última semana e mês, sendo considerada satisfatória na ocorrência de omissão inferior a 5% do total prescrito. Participaram 101 pessoas, 60,4% homens, idades entre 20 a 71 anos (M = 37,9 anos, 73,3% sintomáticos. A coleta de dados incluiu entrevista e instrumentos auto-aplicáveis. A maioria (n = 73; 72,3% relatou adesão igual ou superior a 95%. Nos resultados da regressão logística, interrupção anterior da TARV e expectativa de auto-eficácia foram preditores significativos da adesão. Faz-se necessária a qualificação da assistência pela constituição de equipes interdisciplinares, para o desenvolvimento de abordagens adequadas às dificuldades médicas e psicossociais de adesão das pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.This study aimed to describe the adherence of persons living with HIV/AIDS to antiretroviral therapy (ART and to investigate adherence predictors among the following: level of schooling, presence of side effects, current or previous interruption of ART by the persons themselves, self-esteem, self-efficacy expectation, coping strategies, social support, and satisfaction with the health professional-patient relationship. Adherence was measured by self-reported number of ART pills/capsules missed during the previous week and previous month, evaluated as satisfactory when less than 5%. 101 HIV+ adults took part in this study, 60.4% males, ranging from 20 to 71 years

  13. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jambert Elodie; Bärnighausen Till; Diedrichsen Ellen; Waning Brenda; Li Yun; Pouw Mieke; Moon Suerie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been...

  14. Clinical Research of Add Dingchuan Tang in the Treatment of Cough by AIDS Patients%定喘汤治疗艾滋病患者咳嗽的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超杰; 姜枫

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To observe the clinical research of add dingchuan tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients. Methods: 86 ca-ses were divided into treatment group and observation group according to random number table. The control group were given Jizhi syrup orally and the treatment group were given add Dingchuan Tang treatment. Both groups take 7 days as one course of treatment. Results; The effective rate was 92.9% in treatment group and 75. 0% in control group. The curative effect of treatment group was better than control by comparison. The difference has statistically significant ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; Add Dingchuan Tang in the treatment of cough by AIDS patients has curative effect.%目的:观察定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:按随机数字表法将86例患者分为治疗组和对照组.对照组口服急支糖浆治疗;治疗组服用中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗,两组均7d为1疗程.结果:治疗组有效率为92.9%,对照组有效率为75.0%,两组有效率比较,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:中药汤剂定喘汤加味治疗艾滋患者咳嗽的临床疗效确切.

  15. Music lessons enhance IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2004-08-01

    The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons. Compared with children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ. The effect was relatively small, but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Unexpectedly, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to post-test improvements in adaptive social behavior that were not evident in the music groups. PMID:15270994

  16. First Aid Procedures for Dental Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Nancy Happel; Londeree, Kathy

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for first aid procedures for temporary relief of dental emergencies include information on: (1) dental first aid supplies; (2) treatment of oral injuries; (3) orthodontic emergencies; (4) toothaches; and (5) prolonged bleeding due to an extraction. Consulting a dentist as soon as possible is strongly recommended. (JN)

  17. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction; a...... residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  18. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte;

    2004-01-01

    reviews, we seek to map out the channels through which ARVs are being made available to people and to describe and assess the social implications of the present system of distribution. Four channels of access to ARV medicines were common in mid-2003: (i) Medicines were provided free in structured research...... follow the regimen regularly. Health workers must consider whether patients will be able to purchase the drugs or not. In a kind of popular social pharmacy, people assess who can and should and does get access to ARVs. Further research should examine the whole range of ARV access channels in different...... practitioners, mainly based in Kampala, provided discrete treatment for those who could afford it. (iv) Finally, medicines were ‘facilitated' along informal networks, supplying friends and relatives on a less regular basis, sometimes for free, sometimes for cash. However, access to ARVs remains highly uneven...

  19. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  20. Recent Advances of Treatment in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Lymphoma%艾滋病相关淋巴瘤的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2010-01-01

    艾滋病相关淋巴瘤是常见的艾滋病(AIDS)相关肿瘤之一,高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)被广泛采用后,艾滋病相关淋巴瘤患者的免疫功能增强,对化疗的耐受性提高,预后明显改善.临床研究表明,以HAART与CHOP方案或R-CHOP方案联合治疗弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤安全有效.HAART治疗后,传统的化疗方案治疗AIDS相关Burkitt淋巴瘤(AIDS-BL)患者存活率仍然很低,而采用Burkitt淋巴瘤特定的短期强烈多药联合方案及LMB-86方案可使AIDS-BL的完全有效率和总生存率明显改善.

  1. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  2. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    accounts of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment to consist of explanations of sexual practices or of biomedical details that would not be readily accessible to the general reader. But despite its somewhat misleading, overly ambitious, and functionalist title, Dickinson's book should interest all students of...... social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage" and...

  3. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  4. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田枫

    2005-01-01

    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  5. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978

  6. Developing Managers and Leaders: Experiences and Lessons from International NGOs

    OpenAIRE

    Jayawickrama, Sherine S

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the context, practice and lessons related to management and leadership development in a handful of large international NGOs (INGOs) focused on humanitarian and development efforts. The paper is based on eighteen semi-structured interviews with senior managers of human resources or organizational development at INGOs including ActionAid, CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Habitat for Humanity, Médecins Sans Frontières, Mercy Corps, Oxfam, Save the Children and World Vision. I...

  7. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  8. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-01-01

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...

  9. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  10. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  11. The lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What happened at TMI-2 and to the United States Nuclear Industry since the accident to that plant is recounted. Four main points are made: commercial use of nuclear power evolved so rapidly that neither industry nor society generally, was able to assimilate this dramatically new technology fast enough; accidents like TMI-2, and now, the much more damaging Chernobyl, are a part of the price paid; we must take every possible step so that the risks from nuclear power are reduced by learning from accidents and putting that knowledge into practice; the lessons learned and applied after TMI-2 have tended to be the readily achievable, shorter term ones. The most drastic changes will take more time. The organizational and institutional lessons are considered first, then the technical ones. The sequence and status of the TMI-2 cleanup is discussed. The design lessons are summarized. (author)

  12. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  13. Treatment of pain and suffering in aids patients Tratamiento del dolor y el sufrimiento en los pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida -SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Alvarez Echeverri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses several aspects of painful syndromes that are frequent in AIDS patients. It describes the impact of pain in the quality of life and in the daily experiences of these persons as well. The medical and palliative cares are explained and some considerations on autonomous decisions at the end of life are analysed. Emphasis is made on the fact that AIDS patients suffer total pain; therefore they require total therapy so that pain and suffering are reduced to a minimum and the right not to suffer is respected. El presente artículo discute diversos aspectos de los síndromes dolorosos frecuentes en pacientes con sida. Describe, así mismo, el impacto que tiene el dolor en la calidad de vida y en las experiencias diarias de estas personas. Explica la asistencia médica y paliativa y analiza algunos aspectos de las decisiones autónomas al final de la vida. Se hace énfasis en que el paciente con sida sufre dolor total y requiere por lo tanto una terapia total para que el dolor y el sufrimiento se reduzcan al mínimo y se cumpla el derecho a no sufrir innecesariamente.

  14. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492

  15. Challenges and Successes in Dissemination of Evidence-Based Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress: Lessons Learned From Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; Gillihan, Seth J; Bryant, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) poses monumental public health challenges because of its contribution to mental health, physical health, and both interpersonal and social problems. Recent military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan and the multitude of resulting cases of PTSD have highlighted the public health significance of these conditions. There are now psychological treatments that can effectively treat most individuals with PTSD, including active duty military personnel, veterans, and civilians. We begin by reviewing the effectiveness of these treatments, with a focus on prolonged exposure (PE), a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD. Many studies conducted in independent research labs have demonstrated that PE is highly efficacious in treating PTSD across a wide range of trauma types, survivor characteristics, and cultures. Furthermore, therapists without prior CBT experience can readily learn and implement the treatment successfully. Despite the existence of highly effective treatments like PE, the majority of individuals with PTSD receive treatments of unknown efficacy. Thus, it is crucial to identify the barriers and challenges that must be addressed in order to promote the widespread dissemination of effective treatments for PTSD. In this review, we first discuss some of the major challenges, such as a professional culture that often is antagonistic to evidence-based treatments (EBTs), a lack of clinician training in EBTs, limited effectiveness of commonly used dissemination techniques, and the significant cost associated with effective dissemination models. Next, we review local, national, and international efforts to disseminate PE and similar treatments and illustrate the challenges and successes involved in promoting the adoption of EBTs in mental health systems. We then consider ways in which the barriers discussed earlier can be overcome, as well as the difficulties involved in effecting sustained organizational change in mental health

  16. The Impact of Institutional Grant Aid on College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I exploit exogenous differences in institutional policies regarding the treatment of home equity in grant aid allocation to estimate a causal impact of institutional grant aid on college choice. Because institutional grant aid is typically not awarded randomly, the college-estimated home equity value serves as an instrumental…

  17. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  18. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  19. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  20. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  1. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  2. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  3. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  4. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  6. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  7. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  8. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  9. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  10. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  11. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  12. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  13. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  14. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  15. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  16. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  17. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  18. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson...... is thus one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western...

  19. O uso da L-carnitina como adjuvante no tratamento da miocardiopatia dilatada em criança com Aids Usage of L-carnitine as adjuvant in the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Zélia Zanoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a resposta cardiovascular à L-carnitina de um paciente com insuficiência cardíaca congestiva decorrente de miocardiopatia dilatada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com quadro clínico de insuficiência cardíaca congestiva grave devido à miocardiopatia dilatada pela síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida. O tratamento para as manifestações clínicas foi instituído, com pouca resposta clínica. Com objetivo de melhorar o desempenho energético/metabólico dos cardiomiócitos, foi instituída terapia com L-carnitina. Observou-se significativa melhora clínica do paciente, em relação ao desempenho cardíaco, mesmo antes do início do tratamento com os fármacos antirretrovirais. COMENTÁRIOS: A L-carnitina é um composto que facilita o transporte dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa para dentro da mitocôndria. Nesse caso, o uso da L-carnitina parece ser clinica e bioquimicamente justificado.OBJECTIVE: To present the cardiovascular response to L-carnitine of a patient with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child with a clinical history of severe congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The treatment for the symptoms resulted in a poor clinical response. In order to improve the energetic performance/metabolism of cardiomyocytes, therapy with L-carnitine was established. There was significant clinical improvement of the cardiac performance of the patient, even before starting the treatment with antiretroviral drugs. COMMENTS: L-carnitine is a compound that facilitates the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria. In this case the administration of L-carnitine appears to be clinically and biochemical justified.

  20. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  1. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  2. Aid and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categoriz...

  3. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  4. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  5. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  6. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  7. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  8. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  9. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  10. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri K

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  11. EMDR用于艾滋病患者心理康复研究——以某一艾滋病患者创伤心理治疗的成功个案为例%Research on Application of EMDR to Psychological Rehabilitation of AIDS Patients——A Case Study of a Successful Trauma Psychological Treatment of AIDS Patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆玲

    2012-01-01

    Being infected with HIV is a severe traumatic event in the body.The patient often suffers a great mental stress,accompanied by emotional problems to different degrees.This study applied EMDR to the treatment of an AIDS patient with depression and difficulties in interpersonal communication.The therapeutic outcomes showed that application of EMDR to AIDS patient is effective.Thus,a further study on the application is necessary.%感染艾滋病病毒对于生命和躯体安全都是一个严重的创伤性事件,患者往往会承受巨大的精神压力,并有不同程度的情感障碍问题。本文采用EMDR方法对一例具有抑郁情绪和人际交往障碍的艾滋病患者进行治疗,治疗结果显示对HIV/AIDS患者采用EMDR方法能获得良好的效果,因此有必要进行更深入的研究和应用。

  12. HIV reverse transcriptase gene mutations in anti-retroviral treatment naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mohanakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to find out the mutational variations of reverse transcriptase (RT gene of HIV, after the traditional drug usage among anti-retroviral therapy naïve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV Reactive patients, who were exposed for indigenous medicines such as Siddha, Ayurveda etc., for a minimum period of 6 months were taken for this study. Among 40 patients, two samples (5.55% demonstrated high-level mutational resistance variations for nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI and non-NRTI. The predominant polymorphisms detected were K122E (91.7%, V60I (91.7%, V35T (89%, Q207E (89%, D177E (89%, T200A (86.1%, S48T (83.33%, K173A (80.6%.

  13. Lessons From The Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide economic recession is not the first of its kind and will not likely be the last. But what should we learn from it? Vinod Thomas, Director General of Independent Evaluation Group at the World Bank Group, discussed the lessons from the crisis during a speech at Peking University in Beijing on February 18. Edited excerpts follow.

  14. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing k

  15. School Violence. Web Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    In answer to the concerns about school violence in the United States (especially since the tragedy in 1999 at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado), this Internet curriculum offers lessons and resources that address the topic of school violence and its causes, as well as the search for solutions. The curriculum presents four world wide web…

  16. A Lesson from Mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  17. The First Lesson

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A lesson plan using visual arts and reading skills to introduce the concept of delodomatic creativity (thinking “in the box” and “out of the box”) to children. Designed for 1st or 2nd graders it can be adapted to all grade levels.

  18. Aid with Multiple Personalities

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Jose G. Montalvo; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The existing research on foreign aid offers inconclusive evidence on the factors that make aid effective. In this paper, we study the supply of aid money in 112 developing countries over the period 1960-1999 and find that the presence of multiple donors in a given country renders aid less effective. In particular, an aid-receiving country at the median of the donor fractionalization distribution will grow one percentage point faster than a country at the 75th percentile. This is in part becau...

  19. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    OpenAIRE

    Baijal, Parijat; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological...

  20. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  1. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  2. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  3. Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251 to raltegravir: a basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an animal model for studying lentiviral persistence during antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhouse Jack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we successfully created a new approach to ART in SIVmac251 infected nonhuman primates. This drug regimen is entirely based on drugs affecting the pre-integration stages of replication and consists of only two nucleotidic/nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (Nt/NRTIs and raltegravir, a promising new drug belonging to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI class. Results In acutely infected human lymphoid CD4+ T-cell lines MT-4 and CEMx174, SIVmac251 replication was efficiently inhibited by raltegravir, which showed an EC90 in the low nanomolar range. This result was confirmed in primary macaque PBMCs and enriched CD4+ T cell fractions. In vivo monotherapy with raltegravir for only ten days resulted in reproducible decreases in viral load in two different groups of animals. When emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir (PMPA were added to treatment, undetectable viral load was reached in two weeks, and a parallel increase in CD4 counts was observed. In contrast, the levels of proviral DNA did not change significantly during the treatment period, thus showing persistence of this lentiviral reservoir during therapy. Conclusions In line with the high conservation of the three main amino acids Y143, Q148 and N155 (responsible for raltegravir binding and molecular docking simulations showing similar binding modes of raltegravir at the SIVmac251 and HIV-1 IN active sites, raltegravir is capable of inhibiting SIVmac251 replication both in tissue culture and in vivo. This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. This ART-treated AIDS nonhuman primate model could be employed to find possible strategies for virus eradication from the body.

  4. 生物多糖助凝剂应用于再生水处理的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Bio-polysaccharide Flocculant-aid in Reclaimed Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 李育宏; 李秀昆; 姜威; 姜润林; 周丽媛

    2011-01-01

    再生水回用是解决水资源短缺的主要方法之一,而提高再生水水质和处理能力,降低成本至关重要.通过混凝烧杯试验,初步研究了一种新型生物多糖助凝剂配合聚合氯化铝应用于再生水处理的助凝效果.结果表明,与单独使用聚合氯化铝相比,添加少量生物多糖助凝剂不仅可改善出水水质,而且至少可提高20%的水处理能力,同时降低17.8%的药剂成本,具有巨大的经济效益和社会效益.%Reclaimed water reuse is a main method to solve the lack of water resources, whereas to improve the water quality of reclaimed water and water treatment capacity and to reduce the cost treating reclaimed water are essential. The enhanced coagulation effect of a new bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid coupled with polymeric aluminum chloride ( PAC ) in the reclaimed water treatment was preliminarily studied by coagulation jar test. The results show that compared to PAC alone, adding a small amount of bio-polysaccharide flocculant-aid can not only improve the effluent quality, but also increase the water treatment capacity at least by 20%, while reducing the cost of reagents by 17.8%. The enormous economic and social benefits can be obtained.

  5. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  6. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  7. Is scoring system of computed tomography based metric parameters can accurately predicts shock wave lithotripsy stone-free rates and aid in the development of treatment strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser ALI Badran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Stone size, stone density (HU, and SSD is simple to calculate and can be reported by radiologists to applying combined score help to augment predictive power of SWL, reduce cost, and improving of treatment strategies.

  8. Effect of 482 AIDS patients with highly active antiretroviral treatment%482例艾滋病患者高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽赛娜木·艾合买提; 阿里木·帕塔尔; 买买提艾力·吾布力; 潘珂君; 张跃新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment effect of AIDS cases with highly active anti-retroviral therapy, provide scientiifc evidence for effective antiviral therapy treatment. Method CD4 +T lymphocyte count, changes of the viral load, incidence of opportunistic infections and cause of death in 482 AIDS patients who received highly active anti-retroviral therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Result The average age of 482 AIDS patients were (35.7±11.0) years old, most were men [318 cases (66.0%)], 337 cases (69.9%) were Uyghur ethnic, HIV infection occurred mainly via sexual contact (60.7%). CD4+T lymphocyte counts increased signiifcantly after treatment for 3, 18, 24 months. There were statistically signiifcant differences in the detection results of CD4+T lymphocyte count between the pre-treatment and the post-treatment for 3, 18 and 24 months (P<0.05). 75.8%patients with the therapy efifciency. Opportunistic infections rate was 57.1%(275/482), most was thrush [31.3%(86/275)]. Fractures mortality was 13.5%, respiratory failure was the primary cause of death. Conclusion It is effective to carry out highly active anti-retroviral therapy on AIDS patients.%目的综合评价高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果,为改善抗病毒治疗工作提供科学依据。方法回顾性分析接受高效抗逆转录病毒治疗的482例艾滋病患者CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量的变化、机会性感染发生情况以及死亡原因等。结果482例艾滋病患者的平均年龄为(35.7±11.0)岁,多为男性[318例(66.0%)];337例(69.9%)为维吾尔族,感染途径以性接触(60.7%)为主。CD4+T淋巴细胞水平在治疗3、18、24个月后均明显上升,与治疗前相比差异具有显著性(P<0.05);至2014年6月,继续接受随访的240例患者中,病毒完全抑制例数达182例(75.8%)。机会性感染发生率为57.1%(275/482),主要以鹅口疮[31.3%(86/275)]为主。482例患者死亡65例(13.5%

  9. Quality assurance of specialised treatment of eating disorders using large-scale Internet-based collection systems: methods, results and lessons learned from designing the Stepwise database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgegård, Andreas; Björck, Caroline; Clinton, David

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based quality assurance of specialist eating disorder (ED) care is a possible way of meeting demands for evaluating the real-life effectiveness of treatment, in a large-scale, cost-effective and highly structured way. The Internet-based Stepwise system combines clinical utility for patients and practitioners, and provides research-quality naturalistic data. Stepwise was designed to capture relevant variables concerning EDs and general psychiatric status, and the database can be used for both clinical and research purposes. The system comprises semi-structured diagnostic interviews, clinical ratings and self-ratings, automated follow-up schedules, as well as administrative functions to facilitate registration compliance. As of June 2009, the system is in use at 20 treatment units and comprises 2776 patients. Diagnostic distribution (including subcategories of eating disorder not otherwise specified) and clinical characteristics are presented, as well as data on registration compliance. Obstacles and keys to successful implementation of the Stepwise system are discussed, including possible gains and on-going challenges inherent in large-scale, Internet-based quality assurance. PMID:20589767

  10. Combined robotic-aided gait training and 3D gait analysis provide objective treatment and assessment of gait in children and adolescents with Acquired Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Beretta, Elena; Altomonte, Daniele; Formica, Francesca; Strazzer, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a fully objective rehabilitative and assessment process of the gait abilities in children suffering from Acquired Hemiplegia (AH), we studied the combined employment of robotic-aided gait training (RAGT) and 3D-Gait Analysis (GA). A group of 12 patients with AH underwent 20 sessions of RAGT in addition to traditional manual physical therapy (PT). All the patients were evaluated before and after the training by using the Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM), the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), and the 6 Minutes Walk Test. They also received GA before and after RAGT+PT. Finally, results were compared with those obtained from a control group of 3 AH children who underwent PT only. After the training, the GMFM and FAQ showed significant improvement in patients receiving RAGT+PT. GA highlighted significant improvement in stance symmetry and step length of the affected limb. Moreover, pelvic tilt increased, and hip kinematics on the sagittal plane revealed statistically significant increase in the range of motion during the hip flex-extension. Our data suggest that the combined program RAGT+PT induces improvements in functional activities and gait pattern in children with AH, and it demonstrates that the combined employment of RAGT and 3D-GA ensures a fully objective rehabilitative program. PMID:26737310

  11. A novel method to aid in the visualisation and treatment of uterine fibroids with MRgFUS in patients with abdominal scars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaher, Summia, E-mail: summia.zaher@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Gedroyc, Wladyslaw, E-mail: w.gedroyc@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Lyons, Deidre, E-mail: deidre.lyons@imperial.nhs.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom); Regan, Lesley, E-mail: l.regan@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College/St Mary' s Hospital, Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this research was to identify a method for performing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) of symptomatic uterine fibroids in patients with abdominal scars, by visualisation of these scars on MR images. 25 patients who presented with treatable symptomatic uterine fibroids and having transverse abdominal scars were treated with MRgFUS. A solution containing MRI contrast paramagnetic iron oxide particles was used to demark the skin surface scar tissue on the treatment planning MR images. During treatment, the focused ultrasound energy was steered around the scar based on its enhanced visual location. After the treatment, contrast enhanced MR images were acquired for immediate results evaluation. Adverse events and fibroid related symptoms were captured during the 6-months follow up period. All the women were treated with no complications. No episodes of skin burns, ulceration or skin redness were reported. The post-treatment contrast-enhanced MR images showed an average fibroid non-perfused volume ratio of 64%. At their 6-month follow-up, 92% of the patients reported a clinical improvement. Using paramagnetic iron oxide solution to highlight transverse abdominal scars helps in their identification on MR images, thereby enabling the operator to avoid scars and facilitating the treatment of women who were previously excluded.

  12. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  13. Fatores associados à interrupção de tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, 1999 - 2002 Cofactors of antiretroviral treatment interruption in cases of adults with AIDS: Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Brito

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de analisar os fatores associados à interrupção do tratamento anti-retroviral em adultos com AIDS, no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, realizou-se estudo nas unidades locais de referência no atendimento à AIDS. MÉTODOS: Tomou-se como critério de não interrupção o comparecimento a pelo menos 80% das visitas programadas à farmácia para o recebimento das drogas prescritas, por um período de seis meses consecutivos, após a data da prescrição. RESULTADOS: O estudo compreendeu 498 casos, dos quais 52,4% já chegaram a um serviço especializado com alguma condição indicativa de imunodeficiência. O percentual total de não interrupção foi de 64,1%. Não foi encontrada associação com as variáveis sexo, categoria de exposição e contagem de CD4+, nem com o tipo de esquema anti-retroviral. Os resultados da análise multivariada revelaram associações significativas entre interrupção e início do tratamento após internamento hospitalar, uso de drogas, tratamento psiquiátrico, baixo grau de escolaridade e idade de 25 a 34 anos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a interrupção do tratamento é um problema crítico nos seis primeiros meses seguintes ao início da terapia anti-retroviral em indivíduos virgens de tratamento, e, especialmente, entre os adultos jovens, com história prévia de tratamento psiquiátrico, que usam ou fizeram uso de drogas lícitas ou ilícitas até um ano antes de iniciar o tratamento com anti-retrovirais, que iniciam a terapia após internamento hospitalar e têm baixo nível de escolaridade.BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine factors associated to the interruption of antiretroviral treatment in adults with AIDS in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. METHODS: This was a population-based study, using data from the State's sources of vital statistics. Interruption was calculated using data on the number of programmed visits to the pharmacies, taking into

  14. Analysis of the efficacy of free antiviral treatment among HIV/AIDS patients in Taishan City%台山市艾滋病免费抗病毒治疗疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡月仙; 余大年; 王立华; 刘仲昌; 林晓; 方健玲; 陈雪冰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨台山市艾滋病抗病毒治疗的效果,为进一步开展有效的抗病毒治疗工作提供依据.方法 收集2005-2011年台山抗病毒治疗患者的相关资料,统计分析患者基本情况、治疗方案、治疗前后CD4+T淋巴细胞计数、病毒载量、临床症状体征、终止治疗情况以及生存状况的变化.结果 139例病人,静脉吸毒感染占66.91%,男性71.94%,已婚或同居62.59%,年龄25~55岁的占92.80%.病人CD4+T淋巴细胞计数治疗1年后与治疗前基线相比,平均增长204.02/mm3;治疗后86.67%病人病毒载量<40拷贝/mL;各种机会感染症状体征发生率由治疗前的58.06%下降到治疗后1年的3.22%;55.39%的病人出现各种药物不良反应;停药病人占12.95%,死亡病例占7.19%,失访病例占11.51%;病人生存率提高,维持治疗3年生存率达到80.00%.结论 抗病毒治疗效果显著,服药依从性直接关系到治疗效果.%Objective To explore the efficacy of antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients and provide scientific basis for further effective therapy . Methods Relevant information on the antiviral treatment in HIV/AIDS patients from 2005 to 2011 in Taishan was collected. The basic information of patients, their treatment regimes, CD4+ T cell counts before and after treatment, viral load, clinical symptoms and signs, termination of treatment and changes of living conditions were statistically analyzed. Results Of the 139 patients, 66.91% were infected via intravenous drug use,71. 94% were male, 62. 59% were married or cohabiting, 92. 80% were aged from 25 to 55 years. After antiviral treatment for one year, the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were increased by 204. 02/mm3 compared to the baseline before treatment; the viral load in 86. 67% patients after the treatment was <40 copy/mL; the incidence of various opportunistic infections with clinical symptoms and signs was decreased from 58. 06% to 3. 22% after one year treatment

  15. Lessons from Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  16. Multi-stakeholders with Multiple Perspectives: HIV/AIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Fourie

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, UNAIDS launched a scenario-building exercise to explore the impact that HIV/AIDS might have in Africa over the next 20 years. Creating a unique public–private partnership, UNAIDS combined their experience regarding the global AIDS epidemic with Royal Dutch/Shell's history of and expertise in developing scenarios and futures methodologies. Pieter Fourie as a former member of the UNAIDS scenario team outlines a number of key impressions, insights and lessons learnt from this unique sce...

  17. Watch Out for Potholes on the Exit Ramp! Experiences from the IFC Against AIDS Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mhuriyengwe, Lovemore

    2010-01-01

    No program or product can be expected to go on forever, but the timing and manner in which International Finance Corporation (IFC) executes an exit can make a tremendous difference to clients, staff, and the Corporation's reputation. This smart lesson draws on the experience of the IFC against AIDS team after IFC advisory services decided to exit from the HIV/AIDS space in February 2009. I...

  18. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid, but the...... AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the...

  19. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  20. Why is There No AIDS Vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Rey Biel

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an economic explanation for the non-existence of a vaccine against AIDS. It comments on previously claimed economic reasons why private laboratories do not have incentives to invest in an AIDS vaccine and provides a new one: private companies already operate in the market for treatment of already infected patients, which market is threatened by the eventual emergence of a vaccine that cuts the cycle of infection. Finally, the paper discusses some mechanisms to provide ince...

  1. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

  2. Lesson study, deel 1

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Nellie

    2011-01-01

    Nellie Verhoef schreef in het Nieuw Archief voor Wiskunde al over de Lesson Study. Een handreiking om denkactiviteiten te ontwerpen in een samenwerkingsverband. Het onderwerp is echter zo veelzijdig dat ze er in Euclides ook aandacht aan besteedt, we publiceren haar artikel in twee delen. Dit eerste deel geeft een overzicht van de methode en een voorbeeld van denkactiviteiten. Het tweede deel gaat concreet in op het samenwerkingsverband en de resultaten daarvan

  3. Lessons from a study in a rural community from southern Mexico: risk factors associated to transmission and reinfection of gastrointestinal parasites after albendazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Pérez MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez1, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega2, José Francisco Cen-Aguilar3, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul21Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, 2Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida Yucatán, 3Oficina de Investigación y validación, Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico y Agropecuario (CBTA 13, Xmatkuil, Mérida, Yucatán, MexicoPurpose: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and evaluate the effect of a single dose of treatment with albendazole in a sentinel group from a rural community in southern Mexico.Methods: Stool samples were collected from 1456 individuals aged ≥1 year during consecutive days, and examined for helminth infection using the modified Stoll dilution method. Additionally, 104 individuals were treated with a single dose of albendazole and evaluated over 21 weeks to assess reinfection. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography, and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for reinfection after albendazole administration were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.56%–76.14%. Albendazole was 100% effective, but eggs began to be detected by 9–12 weeks posttreatment, increasing to 100% after 21 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that all individuals from this study had a probability of reinfection of 1.65× each week after treatment. The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura was 57.2% (95% CI = 54.62%–59.77% and chemotherapy was 34.7% effective. The prevalence for other minor gastrointestinal parasites ranged from 0.2% to 29.7%.Conclusion: This was a comprehensive study on gastrointestinal parasites in a rural community from southern Mexico and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first time that the effect

  4. Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Strose Villaça

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é considerada, atualmente, uma doença sistêmica, cujas alterações estruturais e metabólicas podem levar à disfunção muscular esquelética. Esta afeta negativamente o desempenho muscular respiratório e periférico, a capacidade funcional, a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde e mesmo a sobrevida. A indicação de suplementação de substâncias ergogênicas para pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica baseia-se no fato de que estas drogas podem evitar, ou minimizar, o catabolismo e/ou estimular a síntese protéica, diminuindo a depleção de massa muscular e aumentando a capacidade de exercício. A presente revisão sumariza o conhecimento disponível acerca da utilização de esteróides anabolizantes, creatina, L-carnitina, aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada e hormônio de crescimento em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. A vantagem do uso dessas substâncias ergogênicas parece residir no aumento da massa magra e/ou na indução de modificações bioenergéticas. Nesse contexto, a maior experiência acumulada é com os esteróides anabolizantes. Entretanto, os benefícios clínicos em relação à melhora da capacidade de exercício e força muscular, bem como os efeitos na morbimortalidade, não foram, até a presente data, consistentemente demonstrados. A suplementação ergogênica pode vir a se constituir numa ferramenta adjuvante para o tratamento de pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica avançada, especialmente naqueles com depleção muscular e/ou fraqueza periférica.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients

  5. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  6. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  7. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  8. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  9. Drug treatment and familiar music aids an attention shift from vision to somatosensation in Parkinson's disease on the reach-to-eat task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Travis, Scott G; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2011-03-01

    Sensory control of the natural skilled movement of reaching for a food target to eat (reach-to-eat) is closely coupled to the successive phases of the movement. Control subjects visually fixate the target from hand movement onset to the point that the digits contact the food, at which point they look away. This relationship between sensory attention and limb movement suggests that whereas limb advance is under visual control, grasping, limb withdrawal, and releasing the food to the mouth is guided by somatosensation. The pattern of sensory control is altered in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD subjects may visually fixate the target for longer durations prior to movement initiation, during the grasp, and during the initial portion of hand withdrawal suggesting that vision compensates for a somatosensory impairment. Because both medication and listening to favorite musical pieces have been reported to normalize some movements in subjects with PD, the present study compared the effect of medication and listening to preferred musical pieces on sensory attention shifts from vision to somatosensation during the reach-to-eat movement. Biometric measures of eye movement and the movement of the reaching limb were collected from PD subjects and aged-matched control subjects in four conditions in their own homes: off medication, off medication with music, on medication, and on medication with music. Unmedicated PD subjects were slower to visually disengage the target after grasping it. Their disengage latency was shortened by both music and medication. Medication and music did not improve other aspects of reaching, including reaching duration and the ratings of the movement elements of limb advance, grasping, and limb withdrawal. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that one way in which medication and music may aid movement in PD by normalizing somatosensory control of forelimb movement thus reducing compensatory visual monitoring. PMID:21073905

  10. 早期抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响%Survival effect regarding earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文杰; 安伟锋; 马彦民; 李宁; 朱谦; 孙定勇; 黄学勇; 许汴利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the survival effect of initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients at different stages so as to explore the best time of initiation with the treatment.Methods Information regarding the dates of AIDS patient initially receiving the anti-retroviral therapy during 2007-2012 was collected from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Integrated Control System.According to the level of baseline immunology,all the participants were divided into earlier treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts between 350/ μl and 500/μl) and conventional treatment group (baseline CD4+T cell counts ≤350/ μl).Data was analyzed under Survival and Review methods.Results A total number of 16 282 cases were selected.The mortality of conventional treatment group was obviously higher than the earlier treatment group (5.78/100 person year vs.1.64/100 person year),and the median survival time was lower than the earlier treatment group (2.07 year vs.3.15 year).The cumulative survival rate of the 6-year conventional treatment group was lower than the earlier treatment group (77.39% vs.92.10%,x2=156.00,P < 0.01).By means of multi-variable analysis,we found that factors as age,gender,marital status,route of transmission,schedule on initial therapy,number of symptoms at the baseline etc.in the conventional treatment group were associated with survival time of patients after the ART initiation (P<0.05),while gender,schedule for initial therapy,number of symptoms at baseline etc.in the earlier treatment group,were associated with survival time of patients after the initiation of ART (P<0.05).Conclusion Earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS patients could improve the survival rate and prolong the survival time.%目的 比较不同时间开始抗病毒治疗对艾滋病患者生存状况的影响,并探讨抗病毒治疗最佳时机.方法 利用国家艾滋病抗病毒治疗信息系统,收集2007-2012年河南省加入抗病毒治疗的艾滋病患者基本

  11. Crossflow Ultra-filter Module Draining and Flush Testing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Lessons Learned in De-clogging Crossflow Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes test work conducted in order to study crossflow ultra-filter module draining and flushing for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that the current design, with a flush tank at elevation 29.9 m (98'-00'') has enough pressure head to drain (to a minimum elevation ∼1.5 m [∼5'-00'']) and clean out the ultra-filter tube side. Without demonstrating this, a potential failure of the flush system could cause immovable solids to plug the tubular membranes of the filters causing serious adverse impacts to plant availability and/or throughput, and could permit deleterious flammable gas accumulations. In conjunction with the water flush, the plant also utilizes air purging to prevent build up of flammable gases. Two filter configurations were investigated, one being the baseline horizontal layout and one being an alternative vertical layout. The slurry used in the tests was a non radioactive simulant (kaolin-bentonite clay), and it mimicked the rheological properties of the real waste slurry. The filter modules were full scale items, being 2.44 m (8') in length and containing 241 by 1.3 cm (1/2'') id sintered stainless steel filter tubes. (authors)

  12. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  13. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  14. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  15. Evaluation of World Wide Web-based Lessons for a First Year Dental Biochemistry Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alan E. Levine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available First year dental students at The University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston (Dental Branch are required to take a basic biochemistry course. To facilitate learning and allow student self-assessment of their progress, WWW-based lessons covering intermediary metabolism were developed as a supplement to traditional lectures. Lesson design combined text, graphics, and animations and included learner control, links to other learning resources, and practice exercises and exams with immediate feedback. Results from an on-line questionnaire completed by students in two different classes showed that they completed 50% of the lessons and spent an average of 4 hrs. on-line. A majority of the students either agreed or strongly agreed that practice exercises were helpful, that the ability to control the pace of the lessons was important, that the lesson structure and presentation was easy to follow, that the illustrations, animations, and hyperlinks were helpful, and that the lessons were effective as a review. The very positive response to the WWW-based lessons indicates the usefulness of this approach as a study aid for dental students.

  16. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  17. Stress, Motivation and Professional Satisfaction among Health Care Workers in HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Centers in Urban Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Siril, Hellen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Hawkins, Claudia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Michelle S.; Ismail, Shabbir; Mdingi, Sarah Geoffrey; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Shortages of health care workers (HCWs) represents a serious challenge to ensuring effective HIV care in resource-limited settings (RLS). Stress, motivation, and job satisfaction have been linked with HCW retention and are important in addressing HCW shortages. In this cross-sectional study HCW stress, motivation and perceived ability to meet patient needs were assessed in PEPFAR-supported urban HIV care and treatment clinics (CTCs) in Tanzania. A self-administered questionnaire measuring mot...

  18. Computer training aids for nuclear operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Royal Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School at HMS SULTAN which is responsible for training all ratings and officers who operate Submarine Pressurised Water Reactor plants, has available a varied selection of classroom simulator training aids as well as purpose built Submarine Manoeuvring Room simulators. The use of these classroom training aids in the twelve months prior to Autumn 1981 is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using relatively expensive computer based aids to support classroom instruction for students who do not investigate mathematically the dynamics of the Reactor Plant are identified. The conclusions drawn indicate that for students of limited academic ability the classroom simulators are disproportionately expensive in cost, maintenance load, and instructional time. Secondly, the experience gained in the use of the Manoeuvring Room Simulators to train future operators who have just finished the academic phase of their training is outlined. The possible pitfalls for the instructor are discussed and the lessons learnt, concluding that these simulators provide a valuable substitute for the live plant enabling trainees to be brought up to a common standard and reducing their on job training time to an acceptable level. (author)

  19. Radiology Aide. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronek, Dennis

    This module was designed to assist educators in facilitating learning in health careers outside nursing. It may be used for classroom, on-the-job, or independent study. The module is oranized in 13 units. Each unit includes one or more lessons that contain the following components: scope of unit, unit objectives; student's information assignment,…

  20. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  1. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  2. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  3. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a...... positive and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  4. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  5. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  6. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  7. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  8. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...... labour capacity that prevents the real exchange rate from appreciating....

  9. Games Children Play: Playthings as User Friendly Aids for Learning in Art Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Elementary school art history lessons may be aided by the use of everyday games and playthings, such as jigsaw puzzles, board games, card games, puppets, and dolls, that have been altered to include an art history overlay. Such activities should help children better understand art and encourage them to talk about art. Specific examples of such…

  10. HIV/AIDS Educators: The Challenges and Issues for Namibian Bachelor of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Sara; Mundy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The Life Skills course is offered to Namibian students in grades eight through twelve. It includes lessons on HIV/AIDS, imparting information and equipping them with the necessary psycho-social skills to assist in reducing the risk of becoming infected. Teachers are the impetus for the success of the course. As such, research was undertaken to…

  11. Conventional systemic treatments associated with therapeutic sites of local lesions of secondary syphilis in the oral cavity in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Magdalena Giovani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with HIV infection may develop common diseases with atypical clinical features. HIV infection can change the classic clinical course of syphilis and increase the incidence of malignant syphilis. Malignant syphilis is a rare subtype of secondary syphilis that presents special clinical and histological features and has been associated with several processes characterized by variable degrees of immunosuppression. It is necessary to consider the possibility of this entity in the differential diagnoses in HIV-infected patients with cutaneous lesions. The dental surgeon (or oral surgeon is vital to the medical team for promoting the health and improving the quality of life of syphilis patients. A patient with HIV infection was referred to us for complaints of a white patch on the tongue, stinging and burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, and dryness of the mouth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have a tabetic gait (the Prussian soldier gait associated with Charcot arthropathy. We also identified bilateral lesions with ulceration and exposure of the tissue that were tender, characterized by discrete necrosis. The treatment that was initiated at that time involved cleaning the area with gauze to remove all the white patches, followed by rinsing with bicarbonate in water (one teaspoon of baking soda dissolved in half a glass of water four times a day. Additionally, fluconazole (100 mg/day for 7 days was prescribed. We diagnosed secondary malignant syphilis of approximately 5 days duration. As an adjunctive therapy, we performed low-intensity laser treatment using a GaAsAl (gallium-aluminum arsenide laser at 790 nm. With this treatment there was progressive resolution of the lesions.

  12. SAFE for PTSD: noncontact psychophysiological measure based on high-resolution thermal imaging to aid in PTSD diagnosis and assessment of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O.; Ma, Lein; Hutchinson, J. Andrew; Morgan, C. Andrew, III; Rasmusson, Ann; O'Kane, Barbara L.

    2012-06-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sometimes develops following exposure to very stressful or traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, rape, and war. It is arguably the signature injury of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTSD sufferers exhibit autonomic hyper-responsiveness to both neutral and trauma-related stimuli. In this study, we propose using high resolution thermal imaging of sweat-pores to obtain a noncontact, remote, and quantifiable measure of the sympathetic autonomic nervous reactivity to guide diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and tease out important cues to suicidality as a PTSD comorbidity.

  13. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  14. What Lessons Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    It has become commonplace to ask, whenever anything has gone wrong, what lessons can be learned from the experience. But the appearance of open-endedness in that question is misleading: not every answer that we could give to it is acceptable. There are, in the context of such a question, tacit constraints in what counts as a valid lesson to be…

  15. Austin ISD. Integrated Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This packet contains 14 lesson plans for integrated academic and vocational education courses. Lesson plans for the following courses are included: integrated physics and principles of technology; algebra and principles of technology; principles of technology, language arts, and economics; physics and industrial electronics; physics and…

  16. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  17. 符合治疗条件的HIV感染者/AIDS病人未接受HAART的影响因素%Influencing factors of HIV/AIDS patients eligible for HARRT but not receive antiretroviral treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    It is confirmed that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)is the most effective treatment for HIV infection now,but the proportion of treatment for eligible infected people is not high.The influence factors are various,mainly includes low cognitive level of patients,limited service,insufficient funding,social discrimination,drug toxicity and lifelong treatment.For expanding the treatment and increasing the coverage,four proposals are made:firstly,to improve the enthusiasm of patients; secondly,to reduce the burden of patients; thirdly,to strengthen the construction of grass-roots; and fourthly,to build a good social environment to reduce or eliminate discrimination.%高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)目前已被证实是针对艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染的最有效的治疗方法.但目前符合治疗标准的HIV感染者和艾滋病(AIDS)病人接受治疗的比例并不高,其影响因素是多方面的,主要包括:病人认知程度低、服务提供有限、资金投入不足、社会歧视、服药本身不良反应和需终身服药等.为扩大治疗和提高覆盖率,建议:一要提高病人治疗积极性;二要减轻病人治疗负担;三要加强基层建设;四要营造良好的社会环境,减少和消除歧视.

  18. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  19. Multinodular goiter treatment with radioiodine aided by recombinant human TSH in different doses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is not an optimal treatment for multinodular goiter (MNG). Surgery is the main therapeutic option because it decreases thyroid volume, reduces compression symptoms and provide histological diagnosis. Radioiodine (131I) is an efficient therapeutic option for the treatment of MNG mainly when surgery is not indicated or when the patient refused it. However, high activities of 131I are frequently required for clinically significant results. This procedure increases the body radiation exposure and the hospitalization costs. Recombinant human TSH (rh TSH) allows a reduction in the administered activity of 131I with effective thyroid volume (TV) reduction. However, this combination therapeutic can increase collateral effects. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low and intermediate doses of rh TSH compared to placebo, associated with a fixed activity of 131I in MNG treatment. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with MNG received 0.1 mg of rh TSH (group I, n=10), 0.01 mg of rh TSH (group II, n=10), or placebo (control group, n=10). After 24 hours, 30 mCi of 131I was given to all patients. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) was determined before and 24 hours after rh TSH. Before and 2, 7, 180 and 360 days after the TV was measured by magnetic resonance image (MRI). The smallest cross-sectional area of tracheal lumen (Scat) was also measured with MRI before, 2 and 7 days after treatment. Antithyroid antibodies, TSH, T3 and free T4 were assessed regularly. Results: After 6 months, the decrease in TV was more significant in groups I (30.3 +- 16.5%) and II (22.6 +- 14.5%), than in control group (5.0 +- 14.6%; p=0.01). After 12 months, TV decreased more in group I (39.2 +- 16.9%) and group II (38.8 +- 24.4%) than in group III (23.4 +- 23.59%) but it was not statistically significant (p=0.205). During the first 30 days,total T3 and free T4 increased, without reaching thyrotoxic levels and TSH decreased. After 12 months, 8 patients developed

  20. Lessons learned from the clinical development of oral peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Riis, Bente Juul; Mehta, Nozer; Stern, William; Arbit, Ehud; Christiansen, Claus; Henriksen, Kim

    2015-05-01

    The oral delivery of peptides and proteins has been hampered by an array of obstacles. However, several promising novel oral delivery systems have been developed. This paper reviews the most advanced oral formulation technologies, and highlights key lessons and implications from studies undertaken to date with these oral formulations. Special interest is given to oral salmon calcitonin (CT), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, PYY-(3-36), recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH(1-31)-NH2) and PTH(1-34), by different technologies. The issues addressed include (i) interaction with water, (ii) interaction with food, (iii) diurnal variation, (iv) inter- and intra-subject variability, (v) correlation between efficacy and exposure and (vi) key deliverables of different technologies. These key lessons may aid research in the development of other oral formulations. PMID:25408230

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD. Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound

  2. Lessons from Mayan Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Mayan culture collected exquisite astronomical data for over a millennium. However, it failed to come up with the breakthrough ideas of modern astronomy because the data was analyzed within a mythological culture of astrology that rested upon false but mathematically sophisticated theories about the Universe. Have we learned the necessary lessons to prevent our current scientific culture from resembling Mayan Astronomy? Clearly, data collection by itself is not a guarantee for good science as commonly assumed by funding agencies. A vibrant scientific culture should cultivate multiple approaches to analyzing existing data and to collecting new data.

  3. French Lessons A Memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Brilliantly uniting the personal and the critical, French Lessons is a powerful autobiographical experiment. It tells the story of an American woman escaping into the French language and of a scholar and teacher coming to grips with her history of learning. Kaplan begins with a distinctly American quest for an imaginary France of the intelligence. But soon her infatuation with all things French comes up against the dark, unimagined recesses of French political and cultural life.The daughter of a Jewish lawyer who prosecuted Nazi war criminals at Nuremburg, Kaplan grew up in the 1960s in the Mi

  4. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.Ifone lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.If one lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow

  6. AIDS: predicting cases nationally and locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, B R; Hagard, S

    1988-09-17

    Models for predicting the future course of the AIDS epidemic can be divided into five types: trend extrapolation models, compartment models, models based on the incubation period, comparison models, and models produced by expert committees. To predict the numbers of cases of AIDS in the United Kingdom and in East Anglia and Cambridge a two stage approach was chosen using trend extrapolation for the national case reports followed by reduction in scale to the two localities. The method predicted that about 2700 cases would be reported nationally during 1990 and about 6000 during 1992. The number of people with AIDS expected to present for treatment in East Anglia during 1990 was 48, and during 1992 was 105; for Cambridge the corresponding figures were 20 and 43. These figures with their estimated 95% confidence intervals will be used for planning local services for people with AIDS, and they emphasise the need for preventive action. PMID:3147734

  7. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  8. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  9. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  10. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  11. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  12. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  14. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  15. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage of...... data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness of...... foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid in...

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of...... the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  20. The effect of delayed death in HIV/AIDS models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutambi, Angelina Mageni

    2016-12-01

    HIV-infected patients who receive treatment survive for some years after they have acquired the disease. The received treatment causes sustained reduction of viral reproduction by improving the immune function, leading to prolonged progression period to AIDS development. This prolonged progression period has created variability in survival times that affects estimates produced using mathematical models that do not include delay in disease related mortality. This paper investigates the effect of including delay in AIDS death occurrence in HIV/AIDS transmission models. A simple mathematical model with two stages of HIV progression is developed and extended to include time delay in the occurrence of AIDS deaths. Numerical simulations indicate that time delay changes the mortality curves considerably but has less effect on the proportion of infectives. The study highlights the importance of incorporating delay in models of HIV/AIDS for the production of accurate HIV/AIDS estimates. PMID:27141921

  1. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is...... crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  2. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    The paper present the methodologies and tools developed in the framework of Performance Aided Design (PAD), a term that indicates the shift in the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools from a mere translation in a digital environment of the operations once carried on paper, to an evolving...... paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics, and...

  3. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  4. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... sustained future growth, Mozambique will have to develop its capacity to maximise the benefits from its natural resources while ensuring at the same time the necessary framework is put in place to promote constructive integration in international markets...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  5. World AIDS Day 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  6. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  7. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Casual contact, such as hugging Mosquitoes Participating in sports Touching items that were touched by a person ... 20 years. People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. They are at very high ...

  8. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  9. AIDS: A National Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues in Science and Technology, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains excerpts from a special study on the AIDS epidemic by the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences. Presents an overview of the problem, outlines educational needs and public health measures, and identifies future research needs. (ML)

  10. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands ... is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  11. P-VEP games aided combined treatment of amblyopia in children%P-VEP游戏辅助综合疗法治疗儿童弱视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹峥; 李小影; 邝英桥; 李婷; 黄慕贞; 夏旭光

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy for amblyopia in children by making use of pattern visual evoked potential ( P-VEP) game. METHODS: This was a prospective case control study. These asthenopic children were divided into two groups. The control group ( 66 eyes of 49 patients ): occlusive therapy with glasses, cover, precision work, red light treatment and so on, later the stereo vision training was added. The experimental group (72 eyes of 52 patients):conventional methods mentioned above with P - VEP games. RESULTS: The total effective rate and cure rate of experimental group in 6mo were higher than those of control group. The overall effective rate was 94. 4% in the experimental group and 83. 3% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between them (P CONCLUSION: The comprehensive therapy by making use of P-VEP game is an individualized effective new way in treating amblyopia.%目的:评价图形视觉诱发电位( pattern visual evoked potential,P-VEP )游戏辅助综合疗法治疗儿童弱视的疗效。  方法:采取前瞻性病例对照研究。设立试验组(个性化P-VEP电脑游戏辅助综合疗法)52例72眼和对照组(综合疗法组)49例66眼。对照组采用戴镜,遮盖+精细用目作业疗法,以及弱视红光治疗等生理刺激综合疗法,后期再加入立体视觉训练。试验组在综合治疗上辅助个性化P-VEP电脑游戏弱视训练。  结果:两组患儿治疗周期6 mo。试验组的疗效优于对照组,试验组中有效率达94.4%,对照组有效率为83.3%。差异有统计学意义。  结论:P-VEP电脑游戏辅助综合疗法是一种个性化的有效治疗儿童弱视的新方案。

  12. AIDS: the hidden enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J; Sabatier, R

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic an its effect on developing countries, with emphasis on Africa. The AIDS death toll will be high in the US: 180,000 by 1991, but it will be in the millions in developing countries. In Africa, AIDS is mainly transmitted heterosexually, is as prevalent among women as among men, and is taking a serious toll among professional classes and young wage earners. The social costs of funerals has increased, and company clinics and sick pay funds have been overwhelmed. In Uganda, the epidemic adds to the state of psychological shock people have sufferred because of the civil war. Medical professionals have been hard-pressed to acquire equipment for testing blood for the virus, although there have been efforts to protect blood supplies through exhaustive testing. Endemic tuberculosis becomes an even more serious problem in developing countries, since AIDS lowers resistance to it. AIDS also effects many developing country children, usually through infected mothers, who can transmit AIDS through breast milk or during pregnancy of birth. This poses a dilemma for promoters of breastfeeding. It is also feared that innoculation of immunosuppressed children may be dangerous. The global picture suggests that Africa is hardest hit: seropositivity prevalence ranges from 0.7% of Congo blood donors to 33% of male donors in Lusaka Zambia. Brazil's cases are mainly homosexual, and in Asia the prevalence is mostly low, although there is a great potential danger in countries where prostitution and heroin addiction are prevalent. The only effective weapon against AIDS is education and blood testing to prevent spread. Despite good education programs in some countries, e.g. Rwanda, there is still widespread ignorance of how AIDS is spread. PMID:12314457

  13. Aid and Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Filippo Presbitero

    2013-01-01

    Managing and identifying risks are a key challenge for Low Income Countries (LICs), which are extremely vulnerable to exogenous shocks. However, the use of risk management tools by developing countries is quite limited. The paper discusses in which ways aid could strengthen the capacity of LICs to deal with vulnerability to external shocks and to manage capital flows. We provide some novel empirical evidence on the potential role of aid as output stabilizer and shock absorber in recipient cou...

  14. Chagas' disease and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidian, Anil K; Louis M Weiss; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overlap of HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi infection occurs not only in endemic ar...

  15. [The liver and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  16. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  17. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem...... is the way in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  18. Throwing foreign aid at HIV/AIDS in developing countries: Missing the target?

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenkamp, Peter; Öhler, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    We assess empirically whether foreign official development assistance (ODA) has been effective in alleviating HIV/AIDS epidemics, which figures prominently among the Millennium Development Goals. We employ a difference-in-difference-in-differences approach to identify the treatment effect of ODA specifically meant to fight sexually transmitted diseases on HIV/AIDS-related outcome variables. We do not find that ODA has prevented new infections to an extent that would have reduced the number of...

  19. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. Anthropometric differences between HIV-infected individuals prior to antiretroviral treatment and the general population from 1998-2007: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT cohort and NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Atkinson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in body circumferences and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 between antiretroviral treatment (ART naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. METHODS: Waist, arm, and thigh circumferences and BMI were measured within the ALLRT and NHANES cohorts between 1998 and 2007. ALLRT is a prospective, longitudinal study of U.S. participants enrolled in randomized HIV treatment studies conducted by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG. NHANES is a representative group of the US population. The cohorts were analyzed in two time periods, to account for trends towards increased adiposity. Anthropometrics were displayed in percentiles by age and sex. Multiple linear regression models examined differences between cohorts. RESULTS: ALLRT had more males (82% versus 48%, p<0.0001, more black participants (32% versus 23%, p<0.0001, and less Hispanics (21% versus 30%, p<0.0001 than NHANES. Mean BMI was smaller in ALLRT males and females compared to NHANES by 1.6-2.4 kg/m(2 (p<0.0001. Mean waist and arm circumferences in both sexes and time periods were significantly smaller in ALLRT than in NHANES (p<0.0001. Mean thigh circumference in ALLRT was also smaller than NHANES among males (p<0.0001 in both time periods and females (p = 0.01 in the early time period. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in anthropometrics existed prior to ART initiation, in this large national cohort of HIV-infected individuals, compared to a representative HIV-uninfected cohort, indicating that HIV and its complications have important effects on body shape. Further longitudinal examination of anthropometrics in this HIV-infected cohort may provide additional insight into disease risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00001137 at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  1. Conclusions and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is the third in a series of national studies conducted under a unique partnership initiative officially registered with the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development by the IAEA, in cooperation with participating Cuban organizations and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Similar studies for Brazil and South Africa were completed in 2006. This section presents the main conclusions derived from this comprehensive assessment of the Cuban energy system performed within a sustainable development framework. It also outlines 'other accomplishments' of, and 'lessons learned' from, the cooperative effort conducted jointly by Cuban and international experts. It concludes with some reflections about 'next steps' that may be followed to continue advancing the concepts and ideas supporting sustainable development at the national and international levels

  2. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  3. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, T W; Doran, R. M.; Rowlands, P L; Curry, A.; Lacey, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A male patient is described with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis and chronic sinusitis due to infection with the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of conjunctival epithelial cells and nasal polypectomy specimens. Treatment with propamidine isethionate 0.1% (Brolene) eye drops six times daily led to a prompt resolution of the keratoconjunctivitis.

  4. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF DIFFUSED AERATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CADDAS (Computer Aided Design of Diffused Aeration Systems) is a microcomputer-based program that analyzes the cost and performance of diffused aeration used in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. The program can analyze both coarse bubble and fine pore diffusers as we...

  5. First-Aid Algorithms in Dental Avulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Joanna; Wilczynska-Borawska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Almost one fourth of traumatic dental injuries occur at schools or in their surroundings. Prevalence of tooth avulsion varies from 0.5% to 16% of all cases of dental trauma. Children with dental avulsion may seek help from school nurses so they should be able to provide first-aid treatment. However, many studies showed that the general level of…

  6. Lessons Learned from FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The US DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the long-term steward for 90 sites remediated under numerous regulatory regimes including the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In addition, LM holds considerable historical information, gathered in the 1970s, to determine site eligibility for remediation under FUSRAP. To date, 29 FUSRAP sites are in LM’s inventory of sites for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M), and 25 are with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for remediation or in the process of being transitioned to LM. It is forecasted that 13 FUSRAP sites will transfer from the USACE to LM over the next 10 years; however, the timing of the transfers is strongly dependent upon federal funding of the ongoing remedial actions. Historically, FUSRAP sites were generally cleaned up for “unrestricted” industrial use or remediated to the “cleanup standards” at that time, and their use remained unchanged. Today, these sites as well as the adjacent properties are now changing or envisioned to have changes in land use, typically from industrial to commercial or residential uses. The implication of land-use change affects DOE’s LTS&M responsibility for the sites under LM stewardship as well as the planning for the additional sites scheduled to transition in time. Coinciding with land-use changes at or near FUSRAP sites is an increased community awareness of these sites. As property development increases near FUSRAP sites, the general public and interested stakeholders regularly inquire about the sufficiency of cleanups that impact their neighborhoods and communities. LM has used this experience to address a series of lessons learned to improve our program management in light of the changing conditions of our sites. We describe these lessons learned as (1) improved stakeholder relations, (2) enhanced LTS&M requirements for the sites, and (3) greater involvement in the transition process.

  7. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  8. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  9. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  10. 桂西壮族地区艾滋病抗病毒治疗患者生存分析%Survival analysis of HIV/AIDS patients who received antiviral treatment in Western Guangxi Zhuang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 廖建英; 梁旭; 农慧桃; 柳智豪

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解桂西壮族地区艾滋病(AIDS)患者接受抗病毒治疗后的生存状况及其影响因素。方法采取回顾性队列研究方法,选择1495例2005~2013年首次在百色市接受抗病毒治疗的AIDS患者为研究对象,运用SPSS 21.0统计软件进行分析,寿命表法估计生存率,Kaplan- meier绘制生存曲线,多因素COX比例风险模型进行生存影响因素分析。结果研究对象男女比例为1.68∶1.00,平均年龄(41.63±12.90)岁,以壮族、已婚/同居、农村居住患者为主,感染途径主要为异性性途径传播。患者接受抗病毒治疗后第12、24、36、48和60个月的累积生存率为93.22%、90.78%、88.64%、87.87%和87.15%,死亡主要集中于治疗的前6个月,其中0~3个月100人年病死率为11.63,4~6个月为7.50,9个月后稳定在5.00以下。患者治疗前后D4+T淋巴细胞计数分别为(188.44±100.03)和(394.87±227.32)个/mm3,经抗病毒治疗后CD4+计数水平提高(=-28.082,=0.000)。基线CD4+计数水平<50个/mm3(A组)、50~199个/mm3(B组)和200~350个/mm3(C组),3组生存率比较差异有统计学意义(=0.000),A、B组患者相对于C组的死亡危险度分别为3.245(95%CI:1.940,5.428)和1.733(95%CI:1.088,2.762)。多因素COX比例风险模型分析结果显示,患者年龄、CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平、WHO临床分期、血红蛋白含量、血肌酐水平、谷草转氨酶水平、随访领药状态(是他人代领还是本人领取)、是否调整治疗方案等与生存时间存在统计学关联。结论抗病毒治疗可改善AIDS患者的预后,及早发现AIDS并及时进行抗病毒治疗,及时处置机会性感染性疾病,提高治疗依从性,对延长患者生存时间有重要意义。%Objective To understand the survival status of HIV/AIDS patients received antiviral treatment in Western Guangxi Zhuang Region and its influencing

  11. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  12. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  13. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throughout the body, including to the brain or bone marrow . It is often diagnosed in an advanced stage. Primary CNS lymphoma Primary CNS lymphoma starts in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). It is linked to the Epstein-Barr ...

  14. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throughout the body, including to the brain or bone marrow . It is often diagnosed in an advanced stage. Primary CNS lymphoma Primary CNS lymphoma starts in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). It is linked to the Epstein-Barr ...

  15. A constitution for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  16. Automated Reasoning Across Tactical Stories to Derive Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wesley Regian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Military Analogical Reasoning System (MARS is a performance support system and decision aid for commanders in Tactical Operations Centers. MARS enhances and supports the innate human ability for using stories to reason about tactical goals, plans, situations, and outcomes. The system operates by comparing many instances of stored tactical stories, determining which have analogous situations and lessons learned, and then returning a description of the lessons learned. The description of the lessons learned is at a level of abstraction that can be generalized to an appropriate range of tactical situations. The machine-understandable story representation is based on a military operations data model and associated tactical situation ontology. Thus each story can be thought of, and reasoned about, as an instance of an unfolding tactical situation. The analogical reasoning algorithm is based on Gentner's Structure Mapping Theory. Consider the following two stories. In the first, a U.S. platoon in Viet Nam diverts around a minefield and subsequently comes under ambush from a large hill overlooking their new position. In the second, a U.S. task force in Iraq diverts around a biochemical hazard and subsequently comes under ambush from the roof of an abandoned building. MARS recognizes these stories as analogical, and derives the following abstraction: When enemy-placed obstacles force us into an unplanned route, beware of ambush from elevation or concealment. In this paper we describe the MARS interface, military operations data model, tactical situation ontology, and analogical reasoning algorithm.

  17. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  18. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...... interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  19. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  20. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for...

  1. Designing and Adapting Tasks in Lesson Planning: A Critical Process of Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiakira

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that a lesson plan is a necessary product of Lesson Study. However, the collaborative work among teachers that goes into creating that lesson plan is largely under-appreciated by non-Japanese adopters of Lesson Study, possibly because the effort involved is invisible to outsiders, with our attention going to its most visible…

  2. 院前院内无缝衔接一体化创伤救治%Integrated First Aid for Trauma Patients by Combining Pre-hospital Care with In-hospital Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班宇侠; 舒艳; 刘利民; 万立东; 王玮; 胡怀建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility and necessity of a new first aid model for trauma which integrates pre—hospital medial care with in—hospital treatment. Methods A comparison was made at the times of pre—operation preparation and hospitalization between two different trauma rescue models. From October in 2010 to October in 2011,116 patients were managed with the new integrated first aid model (pre-hospital care, emergency and multi-department consultations in the hospital) and 86 patients with traditional model (triage in emergency room, preliminary diagnosis by orthopedic doctors, multi-department consultations and medical care). Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in pre—hospital index score (PHI). The total times needed for the preparation before emergency operation and for hospitalization of the new model group were (58±29)min and (28±15)d respectively while those for the traditional model group were (125±60)min and (40±19)d. The differences between the two groups were statistical significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion Both the time of pre-emergency operation and that of hospitalization for trauma patients are shortened through the application of the new trauma rescue model. Patients get better medical care and the efficiency of treatments is improved.%目的 探讨院前院内一体化创伤急救新模式的可行性和必要性.方法 对比研究院前院内联动、院内多学科创伤急救一体化救治的新模式治疗的116例创伤患者和到院后再行院内分诊、多科会诊、分科诊治的传统模式治疗的86例创伤患者,比较两种不同模式的急诊手术前时间和住院时间.结果 新模式的急诊手术前时间和住院时间为(58±29)min及(28±15)d,传统模式为(125±60)min及(40±19)d,2组比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论 院前院内无缝衔接的一体化急救新模式比到院后院内分诊的传统模式大大缩短了急诊反应

  3. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  4. New, More Authentic Model for AIDS Will Accelerate Studies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Researchers are working to develop a more authentic animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS that is expected to speed up studies of experimental treatments and vaccines.

  5. Children affected with HIV/AIDS: Information of HIV/AIDS in five Colombian cities*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Trejos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe information about HIV/AIDS in a youth population under 18 years of age affected with HIV/AIDS and caregivers in five Colombian cities: Cali, Buenaventura, Barranquilla, Santa Marta, and Cartagena. Methods: 286 personal surveys were conducted: 11 of children who were aware of their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS and 275 of caregivers of children who did not know their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS. The surveys were conducted in health institutions in the State and private sectors and private, using instruments in line with training programs from participating institutions to inquire about HIV/AIDS. Descriptive analysis was performed of the data and tabulation was done with the SPSS program. Results: Most children who knew their status of involvement with HIV/AIDS report that by acquiring the HIV virus, they may develop other diseases; however, half of these fail to recognize that AIDS weakens the body’s ability to fight infection. The children surveyed partly recognized the HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment mechanisms, while caregivers possess adequate information on the disease. We found reasons to delay the delivery of diagnosis by caregivers 96.2% (N=275 related to avoiding psychological harm to the children, and that if they were to know said status, they might inadvertently disclose this to others, probably exposing them to stigma and/or discrimination. Likewise, professionals providing health services to HIV seropositive children express lack of training regarding the proper procedure and age to reveal such information. Conclusions: It is a priority to enhance the capacity, information, and education of patients about effects, characteristics, manifestations, and treatment of the disease within the comprehensive health management processes conducive to supporting affected families.

  6. Lessons from Vietnam's first marine park

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C

    1994-01-01

    The recent establishment of a marine park in Vietnam offers lessons for future marine reserves in the country as well as for other countries considering their establishment. These lessons are contained in this brief article.

  7. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be...

  8. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health days Meetings and consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2015, 1.1 (940 000– ...

  9. Computer aided magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the elements of a computer aided magnet design system is outlined. The methods of solving the field equations are briefly reviewed, followed by a survey of available codes. Particular examples of the use of RAL codes in solving 3D magnetic design problems are given. Future developments are discussed. (author)

  10. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  12. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  13. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  14. AIDS Overspill to Everyman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Xu Wenqing, national project officer of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), recently issued a warning that the men/women ratio of HIV infection in China now stands at 5:5. This indicates that AiDS now threatens other than intravenous drug users, sex workers and hemophiliacs.

  15. Apartheid and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  16. DIAPASON, supervision aid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diapason, a supervision aid system, gives to the operator a synthetic representation of the process. It permits to predict the evolution of the process in order to realize an anticipated control; in incidental conditions, it permits a precocious detection and gives a default diagnostic. It comprises 3 modules used in a spent fuel reprocessing simulator. 9 refs

  17. Aid Projects Benefit Xigaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the thirdnational conference onwork in Tibet held by theCPC Central Committeeand the State Council meeting in July1994, Shanghai and Shandong provincedecided to provide aid to the Xigazearea from May 1995 onwards. Thefourth conference on work in Tibet heldin May 2001 again established that the

  18. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  19. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been d

  20. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…