WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids to navigation

  1. 33 CFR 66.10-15 - Aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aids to navigation. 66.10-15 Section 66.10-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System § 66.10-15 Aids to navigation....

  2. 33 CFR 67.35-10 - Private aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation. 67.35-10 Section 67.35-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Applications §...

  3. 33 CFR 100.45 - Establishment of aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment of aids to navigation. 100.45 Section 100.45 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... navigation. The District Commander will establish and maintain only those aids to navigation necessary...

  4. 33 CFR 209.325 - Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation lights, aids to navigation, navigation charts, and related data policy, practices and procedure. 209.325 Section 209.325 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 75 FR 8390 - St. Croix River Aids to Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard St. Croix River Aids to Navigation AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public... the aids to navigation in the St. Croix River. DATES: A public meeting will be held on Tuesday, March... review the current Aids to Navigation system on the St. Croix River and discuss concerns and...

  6. 33 CFR 66.05-35 - Private aids to navigation other than State owned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-35 Private... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Private aids to navigation other... States, shall establish, erect or maintain in State waters for private aids to navigation any aid...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-50 - Protection of private aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-50 Protection of private aids to navigation. Private aids to navigation lawfully maintained under... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of private aids...

  8. 33 CFR 66.05-25 - Change and modification of State aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aids to navigation. 66.05-25 Section 66.05-25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION State Aids to Navigation § 66.05-25 Change and modification of State aids to navigation. Wherever a State Administrator determines...

  9. 33 CFR 149.505 - What are the general requirements for aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for aids to navigation? 149.505 Section 149.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Aids to Navigation General § 149.505 What are the general requirements for aids to navigation? The following requirements apply to navigation aids under this subpart: (a) Section 66.01-5 of this chapter,...

  10. 33 CFR 150.710 - What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supplying power to aids to navigation? 150.710 Section 150.710 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.710 What are the requirements for supplying power to aids to navigation? The power of...

  11. 33 CFR 150.715 - What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lights used as aids to navigation? 150.715 Section 150.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.715 What are the requirements for lights used as aids to navigation? (a) Each light under part...

  12. 33 CFR 150.705 - What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? 150.705 Section 150.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Aids to Navigation § 150.705 What are the requirements for maintaining and inspecting aids to navigation? (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-20 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 4.05-20 Section 4.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  14. 46 CFR 122.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 122.230 Section... Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.230 Report of accident to aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under the jurisdiction of the Coast Guard, or is...

  15. 46 CFR 131.910 - Notices to mariners and aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. 131.910... OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.910 Notices to mariners and aids to navigation. Each master and mate shall... Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation in the area in which the vessel operates....

  16. 46 CFR 185.230 - Report of accident to aid to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of accident to aid to navigation. 185.230 Section 185.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... aid to navigation. Whenever a vessel collides with a buoy, or other aid to navigation under...

  17. Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix 2000 Project. Volume 1. Development and Application of an Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Hours: 0.00 LT ANT ?: DBN ANT ?: (Database: Survey.db Report#: 6) Appendix H Page H-21 12/02/91 BUOY TENDER SUMMARY Page 22 Primary Unit: ACACIA District...2-5 2.2.4 ATON Tug Barges ........................ 2-5 2.2.5 Aids to Navigation Teams ( ANTs ) ................. 2-6 2.3 ATON SERVICES...navigation boat ANT aids to navigation team AOPS abstract of operations ATON aids to navigation ATONIS aids to navigation information system BRIDGE

  18. 46 CFR 167.65-45 - Notice to mariners; aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice to mariners; aids to navigation. 167.65-45... navigation. (a) Officers are required to acquaint themselves with the latest information published by the Coast Guard and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency regarding aids to navigation, and neglect to...

  19. 76 FR 77585 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice to Manufacturers of Airport Lighting and Navigation Aid Equipment... lighting and navigation aid equipment. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP... navigation aid equipment that is lit with Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting. This notice...

  20. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide O. Nitti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM. A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  1. Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar to Aid UAV Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Davide O; Bovenga, Fabio; Chiaradia, Maria T; Greco, Mario; Pinelli, Gianpaolo

    2015-07-28

    This study explores the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to aid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation when Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements are not accurate enough to eliminate drifts from a planned trajectory. This problem can affect medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAV class, which permits heavy and wide payloads (as required by SAR) and flights for thousands of kilometres accumulating large drifts. The basic idea is to infer position and attitude of an aerial platform by inspecting both amplitude and phase of SAR images acquired onboard. For the amplitude-based approach, the system navigation corrections are obtained by matching the actual coordinates of ground landmarks with those automatically extracted from the SAR image. When the use of SAR amplitude is unfeasible, the phase content can be exploited through SAR interferometry by using a reference Digital Terrain Model (DTM). A feasibility analysis was carried out to derive system requirements by exploring both radiometric and geometric parameters of the acquisition setting. We showed that MALE UAV, specific commercial navigation sensors and SAR systems, typical landmark position accuracy and classes, and available DTMs lead to estimated UAV coordinates with errors bounded within ±12 m, thus making feasible the proposed SAR-based backup system.

  2. Florida coastal Aids to Navigation GIS data in 2001 (NODC Accession 0000599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The term Aids to Navigation (ATONS or AIDS) refers to a device outside of a vessel used to assist mariners in determining their position or safe course, or to warn...

  3. 33 CFR 401.54 - Interference with navigation aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interference with navigation aids. 401.54 Section 401.54 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION... with navigation aids. (a) Aids to navigation shall not be interfered with or used as moorings. (b)...

  4. Feasibility Study for an Advanced Lighted Aid to Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This network, comprised of some 15,000 fixed and moored (buoy) aids, supplies position information to mariners via visual markers and flashing lights...and moored (buoy) aids, supplies position information to mari- ners via visual markers and flashing lights. The Coast Guard is studying the use of

  5. 75 FR 1799 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS... Navigation (Loran-C) Signal commencing on or about February 8, 2010. The document had an incorrect word in... ``Transmission of the Loran-C signal and phased decommissioning of the Loran-C infrastructure will commence on...

  6. Airports and Navigation Aids Database System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Airport and Navigation Aids Database System is the repository of aeronautical data related to airports, runways, lighting, NAVAID and their components, obstacles, no...

  7. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.

  8. 75 FR 998 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS... Homeland Security Appropriations Act. The Act allows for the termination of the Loran-C system subject to the Coast Guard certifying that termination of the Loran-C signal will not adversely impact the...

  9. Nautical Navigation Aids (NAVAID) Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...

  10. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN, we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA. Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  11. Tactual Strip Maps as Navigational Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the history and use of tactual maps by blind and visually impaired travelers. It discusses textual patterns, symbols, and graphics; differences between conventional geographic-cartographic maps and strip maps used as navigational aids; and current advances, including disposable, quick-to-produce, and easy-to-update strip maps.…

  12. Aids to Navigation for US waters, including territories, as of April 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Structures intended to assist a navigator to determine position or safe course, or to warn of dangers or obstructions to navigation. This dataset includes lights,...

  13. A depth-based head-mounted visual display to aid navigation in partially sighted individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.

  14. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  15. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  16. Gravity Aided Navigation Precise Algorithm with Gauss Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Chaobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravity compensation of error equation thoroughly should be solved before the study on gravity aided navigation with high precision. A gravity aided navigation model construction algorithm based on research the algorithm to approximate local grid gravity anomaly filed with the 2D Gauss spline interpolation is proposed. Gravity disturbance vector, standard gravity value error and Eotvos effect are all compensated in this precision model. The experiment result shows that positioning accuracy is raised by 1 times, the attitude and velocity accuracy is raised by 1~2 times and the positional error is maintained from 100~200 m.

  17. Using an Empirical Model of Human Turning Motion to Aid Heading Estimation in a Personal Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Thomas

    With the adoption of Global Navigation Satellite Systems in smart phones, soldier equipment, and emergency responder navigation systems users have realized the usefulness of low cost Personal Navigation Systems. The state-of-the-art Personal Navigation System is a unit that fuses information based on external references with a low cost IMU. Due to the size, weight, power, and cost constraints imposed on a pedestrian navigation systems as well as current IMU performance limitations, the gyroscopes used to determine heading exhibit significant drift limiting the performance of the navigation system. In this thesis biomechanical signals are used to predict the onset of pedestrian turning motion. Experimental data from eight subjects captured in a gait laboratory using a Vicon motion tracking unit is used for validation. The analysis of experimental data shows the heading computed by turn prediction augmented integration is more accurate than open loop gyro integration alone.

  18. Computer Navigation-aided Resection of Sacral Chordomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Kun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resection of sacral chordomas is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and there are often no bony landmarks to guide the resection. Achieving adequate surgical margins is, therefore, difficult, and the recurrence rate is high. Use of computer navigation may allow optimal preoperative planning and improve precision in tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of computer navigation-aided resection of sacral chordomas. Methods: Between 2007 and 2013, a total of 26 patients with sacral chordoma underwent computer navigation-aided surgery were included and followed for a minimum of 18 months. There were 21 primary cases and 5 recurrent cases, with a mean age of 55.8 years old (range: 35-84 years old. Tumors were located above the level of the S3 neural foramen in 23 patients and below the level of the S3 neural foramen in 3 patients. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed with a computed tomography-based navigation system combined with the magnetic resonance images using the navigation software. Tumors were resected via a posterior approach assisted by the computer navigation. Mean follow-up was 38.6 months (range: 18-84 months. Results: Mean operative time was 307 min. Mean intraoperative blood loss was 3065 ml. For computer navigation, the mean registration deviation during surgery was 1.7 mm. There were 18 wide resections, 4 marginal resections, and 4 intralesional resections. All patients were alive at the final follow-up, with 2 (7.7% exhibiting tumor recurrence. The other 24 patients were tumor-free. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score was 27.3 (range: 19-30. Conclusions: Computer-assisted navigation can be safely applied to the resection of the sacral chordomas, allowing execution of preoperative plans, and achieving good oncological outcomes. Nevertheless, this needs to be accomplished by surgeons with adequate experience and skill.

  19. An Effective Terrain Aided Navigation for Low-Cost Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian; Dai, Chenxi; Fu, Jinbo

    2017-03-25

    Terrain-aided navigation is a potentially powerful solution for obtaining submerged position fixes for autonomous underwater vehicles. The application of terrain-aided navigation with high-accuracy inertial navigation systems has demonstrated meter-level navigation accuracy in sea trials. However, available sensors may be limited depending on the type of the mission. Such limitations, especially for low-grade navigation sensors, not only degrade the accuracy of traditional navigation systems, but further impact the ability to successfully employ terrain-aided navigation. To address this problem, a tightly-coupled navigation is presented to successfully estimate the critical sensor errors by incorporating raw sensor data directly into an augmented navigation system. Furthermore, three-dimensional distance errors are calculated, providing measurement updates through the particle filter for absolute and bounded position error. The development of the terrain aided navigation system is elaborated for a vehicle equipped with a non-inertial-grade strapdown inertial navigation system, a 4-beam Doppler Velocity Log range sensor and a sonar altimeter. Using experimental data for navigation performance evaluation in areas with different terrain characteristics, the experiment results further show that the proposed method can be successfully applied to the low-cost AUVs and significantly improves navigation performance.

  20. 33 CFR 64.31 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 64.31 Section 64.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION MARKING OF STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS...

  1. Simulation Platform for Vision Aided Inertial Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    canyons , indoors or underground. It is also possible for a GPS signal to be jammed. This weakness motivates the development of alternate navigation...accelerometer measurements, Taccel. - Velocity random walk due to accelerometer, VRW - Standard deviation of the time-correlated bias for gyro measurements...σgyro. - Time constant of the time-correlated bias for gyro measurements, Tgyro. - Angular random walk due to gyro, ARW 1.2 Simulate different

  2. Aided strapdown inertial navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Li, X. Rong

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a navigation algorithm based on aided strapdown inertial navigation (INS) for an underwater autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV is equipped with a long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and a depth sensor to aid the INS. They have, however, much slower data rates than that of the INS. A linearized, quaternion-based dynamic model and measurement model of the INS output errors are presented. Data from different sensors are fused by applying the extended Kalman filer (EKF) to estimate and correct the errors. Due to the difficulty of generating realistic simulation scenario, real data (raw INS measurement) collected from AUV field experiments are processed to test the algorithm. Without knowing the ground truth, however, performance evaluation becomes much more complicated and needs further research. In this paper, the problem is circumvented by considering the post-processed real data as the "ground truth" and noisy raw measurements are generated from this "ground truth" to feed the algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate the algorithm applicability and show that by incorporating readings from the ADCP and the depth sensor, the (horizontal) position errors still increase but with a significant lower rate than the case of stand-alone operation. If the LBL sensor is further included, the navigation errors can be constrained within a certain bound.

  3. Computer aided planning and navigation for orbito-zygomatic reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests a full protocol of Computer Aided Surgery as previously recommended in literature addressing the challenging task of primary or secondary reconstruction of orbito-zygomatic dislocation. First, on a specifically developed planning software, the best zygoma reduction and orbital boundaries reconstruction to achieve skeletal symmetry are determined. This treatment plan is then transferred to the 3D Navigation Systems within the operating room. After patient's anatomy registration to his preoperative CT scan data, the navigation system allows zygomatic guiding to its planned reduced location and bone orbital volume restoration control. The feasibility of this technique was checked in 3 patients with major orbito-zygomatic deformities. Preliminary clinical results are presented.

  4. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  5. A Visual-aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  6. Vision-aided Navigation for Autonomous Aircraft Based on Unscented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A vision-aided navigation system for autonomous aircraft is described in this paper. The vision navigation of the aircraft to the known scence is performed with a camera fixed on the aircraft. The location and pose of the aircraft are estimated with the corresponding control points which can be detected in the images captured. The control points are selected according their saliency and are tracked in sequential images based on Fourier-Melline transform. The simulation model of the aircraft dynamics and vision-aided navigation system based on Matlab/Simulink is built.The unscented Kalman filter is used to fuse the aircraft state information provided by the vision system and the inertial navigation system. Simulation results show that the vision-based navigation system provides satisfactory results of both accuracy and reliability.

  7. A Toolbox of Aiding Techniques for the HUGIN AUV Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern AUV designs must handle submerged autonomous operation for long periods of time. The state of the art solution embedded in the HUGIN AUVs is a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided Inertial Navigation System (INS that can integrate various forms of position measurement updates. In autonomous operations, position updates are only available in limited periods of time or space, thus the core velocity aided inertial navigation system must exhibit high accuracy However, position uncertainty of a DVL aided inertial navigation system will eventually drift off, compromising either mission operation or requirements for accurate positioning of payload data. To meet the requirements for a range of military and civilian AUV applications, the HUGIN vehicles come with a flexible and powerful set of navigation techniques. Methods for position updates include GPS surface fix, DGPS-USBL, Underwater Transponder Positioning (UTP and bathymetric terrain navigation. Based on synthetic aperture sonar technology, a potentially revolutionary accurate velocity measurement is under development. HUGIN also comes with a navigation post-processing system (NavLab, which can be applied to increase navigational integrity and maximize position accuracy.

  8. Research on the optimal plan for distribution and deployment of aids to navigation in the Qiongzhou Strait%琼州海峡航标配布优化方案的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德珍

    2009-01-01

    文中介绍了琼州海峡的自然条件,详细分析了船舶交通状况和航标配布现状,提出了改善琼州海峡船舶交通状况的航标配布优化方案.%This article describes the natural conditions of the Qiongzhou Strait,provides a detailed analysis of the vessel traffic situation and status of aids to navigation distribution,and puts forward an optimal plan for distribution and deployment of aids to navigation for improving the situation of vessel traffic in the Qiongzhou Strait.

  9. GPS-Aided Gyroscope-Free Inertial Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo

    2002-01-01

    A gyroscope-free inertial navigation system uses only accelerometers to compute navigation trajectories. It is a low-cost navigation system, but its output error diverges at a rate that is an order faster than that of a conventional gyroscope-based system. So integration with an external reference system, such as the Global Positioning System, is necessary for long-term navigation applications. In this pa-per, an integrated GPS and gyroscope-free INS system is designed to achieve stable long-...

  10. Model-aided Navigation with Sea Current Estimation for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Martinez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy to improve the navigation solution of the HRC-AUV by deploying a model-aided inertial navigation system (MA-INS. Based on a simpler three-DOF linear dynamic model (DM of the vehicle, and implemented through a Kalman filter (KF, the performance of the proposed MA-INS is compared to state-of-the-art solutions based on non-linear models. The model allows the online estimation of the sea current parameters before and during the navigation mission. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations as well as a statistical significance test are performed using both simulated and real data, demonstrating the usefulness of the proposed model-aided navigation.

  11. Ultrasound-Aided Pedestrian Dead Reckoning for Indoor Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, C.; Muthukrishnan, K.; Hazas, M.; Gellersen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Ad hoc solutions for tracking and providing navigation support to emergency response teams is an important and safety-critical challenge. We propose a navigation system based on a combination of foot-mounted inertial sensors and ultrasound beacons. We evaluate experimentally the performance of our

  12. [Navigation aid through the information overload].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Judith; Schindler, Birgit; Suter, Katja

    2014-10-01

    We live in the modern information society. "To be informed" has a crucial impact on the personal, professional, economic and social development. The knowledge of things and their relationships is essential for acute decisions as well as for long-term planning. And at no time it was easier to get the information required within shorter time periods--no matter to whatsoever. The offer of information of the World Wide Web is inexhaustible. This also applies to information about all possible therapeutic and pharmaceutical issues. But is the information found reliable, too? And are easily accessible sources credible? Can we deal with the information overload at these days or do we actually risk paddling only on the surface of the "information-sea", without ever perceiving the actual information depth and width, less to use it? How can we protect being taken in by marketing strategies? The present article describes a structured proceed when seeking literature to find useful medical and pharmaceutical information in a time saving manner.

  13. Performance Enhancements of Ranging Radio Aided Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    c22 c23 c31 c32 c33 37775 (2.1) pb = Cbap a (2.2) The DCM has the following properties if used with a right hand Cartesian frame: 1. Det(Cba) Cba...3 F11m = 26666666664 03 I3 03 03 03 CneGC e n 2Cne eieCen (fn) Cnb 03 03 03 (Cne!eie) 03 Cnb 03 03 03 1a I3 03 03 03 03 03 1 b I3 ...represents the distance to the landmark and is found from the z component of yn, pbcam, and s¯ c. d = [yn]z pn+Cnbp b cam z [CnbC b cs ¯ c]z (3.27) Now

  14. Terrain aided navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles with coarse maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Xianghong; Zhu, Yixian

    2016-09-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is a form of geophysical localization technique for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating in GPS-denied environments. TAN performance on sensor-rich AUVs has been evaluated in sea trials. However, many challenges remain before TAN can be successfully implemented on sensor-limited AUVs, especially with coarse maps. To improve TAN performance over coarse maps, a Gaussian process (GP) is proposed for the modeling of bathymetric terrain and integrated into the particle filter (GP-PF). GP is applied to provide not only the bathymetric value prediction through learning a set of bathymetric data from coarse maps but also the variance of the prediction. As a measurement update, calculated on bathymetric deviation is performed through the PF to obtain absolute and bounded positioning accuracy. Through the analysis of TAN performance on experimental data for two different terrains with map resolutions of 10-50 m, both the ability of the proposed model to represent the actual bathymetric terrain with accuracy and the effect of the GP-PF for TAN on sensor-limited systems in suited terrain are demonstrated. The experiment results further verify that there is an inverse relationship between the coarseness of the map and the overall TAN accuracy in rough terrains, but there is hardly any relationship between them in relatively flat terrains.

  15. 14 CFR 151.95 - Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... landing aids; and offsite work. 151.95 Section 151.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Standards § 151.95 Fences; distance markers; navigational and landing aids; and offsite work. (a) Boundary... navigational aids is eligible for inclusion in a proj- ect whenever necessitated by development on the...

  16. Navigation in GPS Denied Environments: Feature-Aided Inertial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Navigation Sensors and Integration Technology ( Capteurs de navigation a faible cout et technologie d’integration) RTO-EN-SET-116(2010) 14. ABSTRACT...order of 1-2 km. Now, there are many applications that require meter or sub-meter level accuracy (such as precision agriculture). Previously, due to...sufficient for many applications . Ironically, it is in just such urban/indoor locations where many people spend most of their time. (In fact, odds

  17. Neural Network Aided Kalman Filtering For Integrated GPS/INS Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong GUO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kalman filter (KF uses measurement updates to correct system states error and to limit the errors in navigation solutions. However, only when the system dynamic and measurement models are correctly defined, and the noise statistics for the process are completely known, KF can optimally estimate a system’s states. Without measurement updates, Kalman filter’s prediction diverges; therefore the performance of an integrated GPS/INS navigation system may degrade rapidly when GPS signals are unavailable. This paper presents a neural network (NN aided Kalman filtering method to improve navigation solutions of integrated GPS/INS navigation system. In the proposed loosely coupled GPS/INS navigation system, extended KF (EKF estimates the INS measurement errors, plus position, velocity and attitude errors, and provides precise navigation solutions while GPS signals are available. At the same time, multi-layer NN is trained to map the vehicle manoeuvre with INS prediction errors during each GPS epoch, which is the input of the EKF. During GPS signal blockages, the NN can be used to predict the INS errors for EKF measurement updates, and in this way to improve navigation solutions. The principle of this hybrid method and the NN design are presented. Land vehicle based field test data are processed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.

  18. Navigation Aids, Port of Green Bay navigation aids, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Navigation Aids dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Port...

  19. High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF. Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level and attitude (half-degree-level-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  20. High-Precision Image Aided Inertial Navigation with Known Features: Observability Analysis and Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-01-01

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference. PMID:25330046

  1. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  2. Error Characterization of Vision-Aided Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    run real-world data set. The characterization of the errors iv that occur in the navigation solution will serve to validate the canon of work previously...the EKF, δpn, δvn, and δψ are all modeled as stochastic processes, the biases δab0 and δbb0 are modeled as first-order Gauss -Markov processes, and

  3. Image-Aided Navigation Using Cooperative Binocular Stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    operating system used is Ubuntu Linux 12.04, running version 3.20-35 of the Linux kernel. The navigation software uses the computer vision library OpenCV ...detector, descriptor extractor, and descriptor matcher objects. OpenCV offers a number of traditional methods, such as SIFT [43] and SURF [6], as well as...conducted prior to each flight using a publicly available ROS camera calibration package. The camera calibration package uses OpenCV camera calibration

  4. Terrain Aided Navigation for Remus Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NAVIGATION FOR REMUS AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE by Jacob T. Juriga June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Doug Horner Second Reader: Noel DuToit...2014 Author: Jacob T. Juriga Approved by: Doug Horner Thesis Advisor Noel Du Toit Second Reader Garth Hobson Chair...I would like to acknowledge my advisor, Dr. Doug Horner , for his guidance and assistance throughout this process. His help was very much appreciated

  5. Underwater terrain-aided navigation based on multibeam bathymetric sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ziqi; Bian, Hongyu; Zielinski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which it employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

  6. Underwater Terrain-Aided Navigation Based on Multibeam Bathymetric Sonar Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqi Song; Hongyu Bian; Adam Zielinski

    2015-01-01

    Underwater terrain-aided navigation is used to complement the traditional inertial navigation employed by autonomous underwater vehicles during lengthy missions. It can provide fixed estimations by matching real-time depth data with a digital terrain map. This study presents the concept of using image processing techniques in the underwater terrain matching process. A traditional gray-scale histogram of an image is enriched by incorporation with spatial information in pixels. Edge corner pixels are then defined and used to construct an edge corner histogram, which employs as a template to scan the digital terrain map and estimate the fixes of the vehicle by searching the correlation peak. Simulations are performed to investigate the robustness of the proposed method, particularly in relation to its sensitivity to background noise, the scale of real-time images, and the travel direction of the vehicle. At an image resolution of 1 m2/pixel, the accuracy of localization is more than 10 meters.

  7. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  8. Integration of GPS and low cost INS for pedestrian navigation aided by building layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wenquan; Zhao Hongbo; Zhao Qi; Li Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    In outdoor environments, GPS is often used for pedestrian navigation by utilizing its sig-nals for position computation, but in indoor or semi-obstructed environments, GPS signals are often unavailable. Therefore, pedestrian navigation for these environments should be realized by the integration of GPS and inertial navigation system (INS). However, the lowcost INS could induce errors that may result in a large position drift. The problem can be minimized by mounting the sensors on the pedestrian’s foot, using zero velocity update (ZUPT) method with the standard navigation algorithm to restrict the error growth. However, heading drift still remains despite using ZUPT measurements since the heading error is unobservable. Also, foot mounted INS suffers from the initialization ambiguity of position and heading from GPS. In this paper, a novel algorithm is developed to mitigate the heading drift problem when using ZUPT. The method uses building lay-out to aid the heading measurement in Kalman filter, and it could also be combined for the initial-ization. The algorithm has been investigated with real field trials using the low cost Microstrain 3DM-GX3-25 inertial sensor, a Leica GS10 GPS receiver and a uBlox EVK-6T GPS receiver. It could be concluded that the proposed method offers a significant improvement in position accuracy for the long period, allowing pedestrian navigation for nearly40 min with mean position error less than 2.8 m. This method also has a considerable effect on the accuracy of the initialization.

  9. Land Vehicle Navigation with the Integration of GPS and Reduced INS: Performance Improvement with Velocity Aiding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songlai; Wang, Jinling

    The movement of a land vehicle is constrained because the vehicle always remains on the Earth's surface and only experiences small pitch and roll angles. So the GPS/INS integrated system for land vehicle navigation could be reconfigured to be the integration of GPS and reduced INS to cut down the costs. In a reduced INS, the vertical accelerometer and two horizontal gyros could be omitted from the system. But both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this configuration may result in the divergence of height solution and large velocity errors. To improve the system performances, precise velocity derived from GPS carrier phase measurements, together with the GPS single point positioning solution, is used to aid the reduced INS. Field test results have demonstrated that first, the aiding from GPS precise velocity overcomes the divergence problem of the integrated height solutions and improves the integrated velocity and secondly the proposed novel integration scheme could achieve comparable navigation accuracy with that from the GPS and full INS integrated system.

  10. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to m...

  11. Gravity Matching Aided Inertial Navigation Technique Based on Marginal Robust Unscented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the topic of gravity matching aided inertial navigation technology using Kalman filter. The dynamic state space model for Kalman filter is constructed as follows: the error equation of the inertial navigation system is employed as the process equation while the local gravity model based on 9-point surface interpolation is employed as the observation equation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed to address the nonlinearity of the observation equation. The filter is refined in two ways as follows. The marginalization technique is employed to explore the conditionally linear substructure to reduce the computational load; specifically, the number of the needed sigma points is reduced from 15 to 5 after this technique is used. A robust technique based on Chi-square test is employed to make the filter insensitive to the uncertainties in the above constructed observation model. Numerical simulation is carried out, and the efficacy of the proposed method is validated by the simulation results.

  12. Fusing Global Navigation With Computer-Aided Remote Driving Of Robotic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Cooper, Brian K.; Salo, Robert A.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    1987-02-01

    Very few existing robotic vehicle systems today have the ability to plan a path and then execute it. Subsystems to do parts of this problem do exist. Automatic route planners can plan a path for a theoretical vehicle. Vehicle control systems such as Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD)' can drive a vehicle with limited operator intervention. The combination of route planning with the vehicle control system is the concept of Navigation Fusion. Work is under way at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to fuse the functions of a route planner and a planetary rover prototype which is piloted using CARD. In the CARD system, the operator chooses a path for the vehicle using wide-baseline stereo images returned from cameras on the vehicle. The robotic vehicle then executes that path under computer control without operator intervention. The route is planned on a Symbolics LISP machine and is then displayed to the operator as a desired path. The concept of Navigation Fusion involves displaying this desired path in perspective on the operator's 3-dimensional display. It requires knowledge of the relationship between the images returned from the vehicle and any information about of the movement area (or map). The operator will modify this path as necessary to avoid obstacles. The vehicle will then be instructed to execute the path. The fusion of global route planning and local path execution allows more intelligent planning and execution of robotic vehicle movements.

  13. 超级电容器对航标能源发展的影响%Effect of Super Capacitors for Energy Development Aids to Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 王成成

    2016-01-01

    能源是社会和经济发展的重要物质基础,也是提升人们生活水平的先决条件。作为保障助航标志正常工作的重要动力,航标能源经历了从非电能源到电能能源的历史性演变。目前,航标能源的供电方式主要是太阳能电池+蓄电池的模式,但是太阳能电池板也存在着发电效率低,受气候环境因素影响大等诸多问题。%Energy is an important material basis for social and economic development,but also a prerequi-site for lifting people's living standards. As an important force guarantee the normal work of aids to naviga-tion,buoy energy has gone from non-electric energy to electricity energy historic evolution. Currently,the main way to buoy energy supply is a solar cell+battery mode, but there are also solar panels low power generation efficiency,climate environmental factors,and many other big problems.

  14. WiFi-Aided Magnetic Matching for Indoor Navigation with Consumer Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a WiFi-aided magnetic matching (MM algorithm for indoor pedestrian navigation with consumer portable devices. This algorithm reduces both the mismatching rate (i.e., the rate of matching to an incorrect point that is more than 20 m away from the true value and computational load of MM by using WiFi positioning solutions to limit the MM search space. Walking tests with Samsung Galaxy S3 and S4 smartphones in two different indoor environments (i.e., Environment #1 with abundant WiFi APs and significant magnetic features, and Environment #2 with less WiFi and magnetic information were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm. It was found that WiFi fingerprinting accuracy is related to the signal distributions. MM provided results with small fluctuations but had a significant mismatch rate; when aided by WiFi, MM’s robustness was significantly improved. The outcome of this research indicates that WiFi and MM have complementary characteristics as the former is a point-by-point matching approach and the latter is based on profile-matching. Furthermore, performance improvement through integrating WiFi and MM depends on the environment (e.g., the signal distributions of magnetic intensity and WiFi RSS: In Environment #1 tests, WiFi-aided MM and WiFi provided similar results; in Environment #2 tests, the former was approximately 41.6% better. Our results supported that the WiFi-aided MM algorithm provided more reliable solutions than both WiFi and MM in the areas that have poor WiFi signal distribution or indistinctive magnetic-gradient features.

  15. Application of inertial navigation to wellbore positional surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, A.C.

    1982-06-01

    There is an increasing need for higher accuracy in wellbore directional and positional surveying than is currently available using conventional techniques. Among the factors contributing to this need are closed interspacing of wells particularly from offshore platforms, deeper and more highly deviated wells, smaller target formations and the requirement for rapid drilling of relief wells in the case of blowouts. The application of inertial navigation system (INS) of suitable size and cost for this type of application is not inherently accurate enough to offer significant improvements in well-surveying accuracy. Techniques to improve accuracy are, in general, based on the fact that the dynamics associated with the propagation of the navigator errors are very well known. Inertial systems are routinely aided using external data from a number of sources. Such aiding may take the form of an external position or velocity measurement which is compared to the position or velocity indicated by the navigator. Kalman filter theory provides a convenient formulation for generation of a minimum variance estimate of the state vector of a linear system. The theory may be extended to the nonlinear case through the use of linearization about a state trajectory. This approach is currently seeing wide use in aiding of inertial navigation systems. The approach proposed here would use the Kalman filter formulation for estimation of the INS errors and updating of the navigator. This formulation also provides a structure for estimation of various instrument parameters which should improve system performance.

  16. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  17. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  18. Neural Network Aided Adaptive UKF Algorithm for GPS/INS Integration Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Xinglong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The predicted residual vectors should be zero-mean Gaussian white noise, which is the precondition for multiple fading factors adaptive filtering algorithm based on statistical information in GPS/INS integration system. However the abnormalities in observations will affect the distribution of the residual vectors. In this paper, a neural network aided adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors based on singular value decomposition(SVD is proposed. The algorithm uses the neural network algorithm to weaken the influence of the observed abnormalities on the residual vectors. Singular value decomposition instead of unscented transformation is adopted to suppress negative definite variation in priori covariance matrix of UKF. Since single fading factor in poor tracking of multiple variables has the limitation, multiple fading factors to adjust the predicted-state covariance matrix are constructed with better robustness so that each filter channel has different adjustability. Finally, vehicle measurement data are collected to validate the proposed algorithm. It shows that the neural network algorithm can prevent the observed abnormalities from affecting the distribution of the residual vectors, expanding the applied range of the adaptive algorithm. The neural network algorithm aided SVD-UKF algorithm with multiple fading factors is able to remove influences of state anomalies on condition of the observed abnormalities. The accuracy and reliability of the navigation solution can be improved by this algorithm.

  19. Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented with a Coded Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    to the lens to allow only green light to pass through the lens system, thereby reducing any chromatic aberration . The apertures consist of chrome...coded aperture configurations. Also, a green P01 filter is added to the front of the lens to prevent chromatic aberration . To measure the ( )psf aI s...pointing vector to pixel plane coordinates n/a T C pIX Translation matrix from pixel plane coordinates to pointing vector n/a W (7] , ’ ,sJ Aberration

  20. Computer aided navigation of mobile robots using animated synthetic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallevik, V.

    1992-04-01

    Telemanipulation in hazardous environments creates large problems for the manipulator operator. Due to limited information directly available, the operator has to rely on previous experience or memorizing earlier stages in an operation to be able to command the manipulator properly. Modeling the manipulator and the environment will greatly enhance the operator's ability to control the manipulator correctly. Information about the manipulator pose and obstructions will enable him to reach correct decisions based on immediately available information from the modeling system. 4 refs.

  1. Logical-Semantic Visual Navigators--Aids for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Steinberg, Valery E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the article in question is that the success of pupils' learning depends not only on the aptitude of pupils, but also on the teaching technique, including universal educational technique of various complexities. This problem is relevant on all levels of learning--from nursery schools up to higher education, including refresher…

  2. Kalmtool used for laser scanner aided navigation in orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lars Valdemar; Hansen, Søren; Andersen, Jens Christian;

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns localisation of an autonomous tractor in an orchard environment, with the purpose of designing a localisation solution to be compared with GPS. The localisation is based on an estimate found by an extended Kalman filter, which fuses measurements from encoders and gyro with row...

  3. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will...

  4. Parsimonious Ways to Use Vision for Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Graham

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of visual information for navigation appears to be a universal strategy for sighted animals, amongst which, one particular group of expert navigators are the ants. The broad interest in studies of ant navigation is in part due to their small brains, thus biomimetic engineers expect to be impressed by elegant control solutions, and psychologists might hope for a description of the minimal cognitive requirements for complex spatial behaviours. In this spirit, we have been taking an interdisciplinary approach to the visual guided navigation of ants in their natural habitat. Behavioural experiments and natural image statistics show that visual navigation need not depend on the remembering or recognition of objects. Further modelling work suggests how simple behavioural routines might enable navigation using familiarity detection rather than explicit recall, and we present a proof of concept that visual navigation using familiarity can be achieved without specifying when or what to learn, nor separating routes into sequences of waypoints. We suggest that our current model represents the only detailed and complete model of insect route guidance to date. What's more, we believe the suggested mechanisms represent useful parsimonious hypotheses for the visually guided navigation in larger-brain animals.

  5. Theoretical Limits of Lunar Vision Aided Navigation with Inertial Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    their teamwork and steadfast support given in times when encouragement was needed. Lastly, thank you to my parents for their ever present rallying...Used with permission [30]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.7 Digital Image Coordinate System. Used with permission [30...20 2.8 Angular field of view based on image array height (Side View

  6. 33 CFR 245.20 - Determination of hazard to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of hazard to navigation. 245.20 Section 245.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REMOVAL OF WRECKS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS § 245.20 Determination of hazard to...

  7. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  8. Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Atman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.

  9. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  10. Intelligent navigation to improve obstetrical sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    'Manual navigation' by the operator is the standard method used to obtain information from two-dimensional and volumetric sonography. Two-dimensional sonography is highly operator dependent and requires extensive training and expertise to assess fetal anatomy properly. Most of the sonographic examination time is devoted to acquisition of images, while 'retrieval' and display of diagnostic planes occurs rapidly (essentially instantaneously). In contrast, volumetric sonography has a rapid acquisition phase, but the retrieval and display of relevant diagnostic planes is often time-consuming, tedious and challenging. We propose the term 'intelligent navigation' to refer to a new method of interrogation of a volume dataset whereby identification and selection of key anatomical landmarks allow the system to: 1) generate a geometrical reconstruction of the organ of interest; and 2) automatically navigate, find, extract and display specific diagnostic planes. This is accomplished using operator-independent algorithms that are both predictable and adaptive. Virtual Intelligent Sonographer Assistance (VIS-Assistance®) is a tool that allows operator-independent sonographic navigation and exploration of the surrounding structures in previously identified diagnostic planes. The advantage of intelligent (over manual) navigation in volumetric sonography is the short time required for both acquisition and retrieval and display of diagnostic planes. Intelligent navigation technology automatically realigns the volume, and reorients and standardizes the anatomical position, so that the fetus and the diagnostic planes are consistently displayed in the same manner each time, regardless of the fetal position or the initial orientation. Automatic labeling of anatomical structures, subject orientation and each of the diagnostic planes is also possible. Intelligent navigation technology can operate on conventional computers, and is not dependent on specific ultrasound platforms or on the

  11. Speech Recognition Technology Applied to Intelligent Mobile Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The capability of human-computer interaction reflects the intelligent degree of mobile navigation system.The navigation data and functions of mobile navigation system are divided into system commands and non-system commands in this paper.And then a group of speech commands are Abstracted.This paper applies speech recognition technology to intelligent mobile navigation system to process speech commands and does some deep research on the integration of speech recognition technology with mobile navigation system.The navigation operation can be performed by speech commands,which makes human-computer interaction easy during navigation.Speech command interface of navigation system is implemented by Dutty ++ Software,which is based on speech recognition system -Via Voice of IBM.Through navigation experiments,navigation can be done almost without keyboard,which proved that human-computer interaction is very convenient by speech commands and the reliability is also higher.

  12. LIDAR-Aided Inertial Navigation with Extended Kalman Filtering for Pinpoint Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnardo, David M.; Aitken, Matthew L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2011-01-01

    In support of NASA s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project, an extended Kalman filter routine has been developed for estimating the position, velocity, and attitude of a spacecraft during the landing phase of a planetary mission. The proposed filter combines measurements of acceleration and angular velocity from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) with range and Doppler velocity observations from an onboard light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. These high-precision LIDAR measurements of distance to the ground and approach velocity will enable both robotic and manned vehicles to land safely and precisely at scientifically interesting sites. The filter has been extensively tested using a lunar landing simulation and shown to improve navigation over flat surfaces or rough terrain. Experimental results from a helicopter flight test performed at NASA Dryden in August 2008 demonstrate that LIDAR can be employed to significantly improve navigation based exclusively on IMU integration.

  13. Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

    2011-01-01

    A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

  14. Augmented Reality as a Navigation Tool to Employment Opportunities for Postsecondary Education Students with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of location-based augmented reality navigation compared to Google Maps and paper maps as navigation aids for students with disabilities. The participants in this single subject study were three college students with intellectual disability and one college student with autism spectrum disorder.…

  15. Pectoral fins aid in navigation of a complex environment by bluegill sunfish under sensory deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2013-08-15

    Complex structured environments offer fish advantages as places of refuge and areas of greater potential prey densities, but maneuvering through these environments is a navigational challenge. To successfully navigate complex habitats, fish must have sensory input relaying information about the proximity and size of obstacles. We investigated the role of the pectoral fins as mechanosensors in bluegill sunfish swimming through obstacle courses under different sensory deprivation and flow speed conditions. Sensory deprivation was accomplished by filming in the dark to remove visual input and/or temporarily blocking lateral line input via immersion in cobalt chloride. Fish used their pectoral fins to touch obstacles as they swam slowly past them under all conditions. Loss of visual and/or lateral line sensory input resulted in an increased number of fin taps and shorter tap durations while traversing the course. Propulsive pectoral fin strokes were made in open areas between obstacle posts and fish did not use the pectoral fins to push off or change heading. Bending of the flexible pectoral fin rays may initiate an afferent sensory input, which could be an important part of the proprioceptive feedback system needed to navigate complex environments. This behavioral evidence suggests that it is possible for unspecialized pectoral fins to act in both a sensory and a propulsive capacity.

  16. Particle-Filter-Based WiFi-Aided Reduced Inertial Sensors Navigation System for Indoor and GPS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Atia, M. M.; M. J. Korenberg; A. Noureldin

    2012-01-01

    Indoor navigation is challenging due to unavailability of satellites-based signals indoors. Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs) may be used as standalone navigation indoors. However, INS suffers from growing drifts without bounds due to error accumulation. On the other side, the IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi) is widely adopted which prompted many researchers to use it to provide positioning indoors using fingerprinting. However, due to WiFi signal noise and multipath errors indoors, WiFi positioning ...

  17. Adaptive Covariance Estimation Method for LiDAR-Aided Multi-Sensor Integrated Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of measurements covariance is a fundamental problem in sensors fusion algorithms and is crucial for the proper operation of filtering algorithms. This paper provides an innovative solution for this problem and realizes the proposed solution on a 2D indoor navigation system for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs that fuses measurements from a MEMS-grade gyroscope, speed measurements and a light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor. A computationally efficient weighted line extraction method is introduced, where the LiDAR intensity measurements are used, such that the random range errors and systematic errors due to surface reflectivity in LiDAR measurements are considered. The vehicle pose change is obtained from LiDAR line feature matching, and the corresponding pose change covariance is also estimated by a weighted least squares-based technique. The estimated LiDAR-based pose changes are applied as periodic updates to the Inertial Navigation System (INS in an innovative extended Kalman filter (EKF design. Besides, the influences of the environment geometry layout and line estimation error are discussed. Real experiments in indoor environment are performed to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results showed the great consistency between the LiDAR-estimated pose change covariance and the true accuracy. Therefore, this leads to a significant improvement in the vehicle’s integrated navigation accuracy.

  18. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  19. Fusion of Redundant Aided-inertial Sensors with Decentralised Kalman Filter for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Awale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most submarines carry more than one set of inertial navigation system (INS for redundancy and reliability. Apart from INS systems, the submarine carries other sensors that provide different navigation information. A major challenge is to combine these sensors and INS estimates in an optimal and robust manner for navigation. This issue has been addressed by Farrell1. The same approach is used in this paper to combine different sensor measurements along with INS system. However, since more than one INS system is available onboard, it would be better to use multiple INS systems at the same time to obtain a better estimate of states and to provide autonomy in the event of failure of one INS system. This would require us to combine the estimates obtained from local filters (one set of INS system integrated with external sensors, in some optimal way to provide a global estimate. Individual sensor and IMU measurements cannot be accessed in this scenario. Also, autonomous operation requires no sharing of information among local filters. Hence a decentralised Kalman filter approach is considered for combining the estimates of local filters to give a global estimate. This estimate would not be optimal, however. A better optimal estimate can be obtained by accessing individual measurements and augmenting the state vector in Kalman filter, but in that case, corruption of one INS system will lead to failure of the whole filter. Hence to ensure satisfactory performance of the filter even in the event of failure of some INS system, a decentralised Kalman filtering approach is considered.

  20. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  1. National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Main Navigation for the Office of AIDS Research Homepage ABOUT OAR SCIENTIFIC AREAS STRATEGIC PLAN ... HIV/AIDS INFORMATION Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research. Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research ...

  2. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  3. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  4. Enhanced Image-Aided Navigation Algorithm with Automatic Calibration and Affine Distortion Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.2 MIDG II MEMS -grade INS model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.3 Kalman filter state definitions...40 bb Gyroscope bias vector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 tnm Location of landmark m in the navigation frame. . . . . . 40...15 INS Inertial Navigation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 MEMS Micro Eletro-mechanical Systems

  5. Encounter detection to improve navigation in a group of unattended vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    2014-10-01

    Research was conducted on groups of unattended vehicles performing some collaborative tasks. Navigation of these vehicles and more specifically, knowing each other's position, is mandatory. In densely built environments, forests, etc., GPS is not always available or accurate. Using information about encounters between the vehicles may significantly improve position information. Detecting encounters can be done very easily with low cost sensors. TNO developed and patented an innovative technology that uses information on encounters to improve the position information. The first promising results show that information on encounters can be used in standard integrated INS/GNSS navigation systems to aid the navigation solution. To increase the number of encounters, a group of unattended vehicles may deliberately try to encounter each other if their navigation solution becomes less certain during GNSS outages.

  6. 78 FR 68861 - Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Navigation Products, Including GPS Devices, Navigation and Display Systems, Radar Systems... the United States after importation of certain navigation products, including GPS devices, navigation... products, including GPS devices, navigation and display systems, radar systems, navigational aids,...

  7. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  8. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  9. In-vehicle navigation system and map database. [Position on map determined by satellite and then use of detailed map]. Car navigation to chizu joho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, K. (Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-09-10

    Firstly, an indication is made that most functions of an in-vehicle navigation system relate to the use of a road map data, and on the conditions the map database therefor should provide depending on the intended usage. Secondly, an explanation is given on the self-contained navigation system and a combination of the self-contained navigation system and wireless navigation system to detect a position of the vehicle. In regaeds to the former, a method is introduced that the present location is estimated by means of adding the displacement vector per unit time derived from azimuth and distance sensors, and the error therefrom is cancelled by comparing it with the road map data. In regards to the latter, the wireless navigation aided by an orbital satellite and the proximity wireless navigation are described. Thirdly, functions to indicate the vehicle location on a map, retrieve and set the destination, and retrieve and indicate the facility guidance information are explained. Fourthly, a description is given on an automotive traffic information communicating system which indicates traffic information on a map and guide a recommended course to the destination. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 33 CFR 209.180 - Temporary closure of waterway to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary closure of waterway to navigation. 209.180 Section 209.180 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... navigation. (a) When an application is received for the temporary closure of a waterway for the...

  11. Aids to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mental Health Issues .............. .. 111-9 General Opinions ..... .... ....................... III-ll Challenging - lhe Nunbers Game...held to be inflammatory include referenc to the socialist and marxist background of the accused and his family, accusations that the accused was a sexual ...documents 11-5 N> THE PRE-INTIERVIEW QUESTIONaIRE Once in a while you may be so organized that you know in advance what clients will be gracing your office

  12. From translation to navigation of different discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livonen, Mirja; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model of the search term selection process based on our empirical study of professional searchers during the pre-online stage of the search process. The model characterizes the selection of search terms as the navigation of different discourses. Discourse refers to the ways of talking...... and synthesize differences and similarities among those discourses when selecting search terms. Six discourses emerged as sources of search terms in our study. These discourses are controlled vocabularies, documents and the domain, the practice of indexing, clients' search requests, databases, and the searchers...... selection process. It emphasizes the multiplicity and complexity of sources of search terms, the dynamic nature of the search term selection process, and the complex analysis and synthesis of differences and similarities among sources of search terms. It suggests that searchers may need to understand...

  13. Global navigation satellite system; Jisedai kokoho senjo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, S.; Suga, S. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The safety of civil aviation relies on ground navigation aids. In areas where there are no ground aids and on oceanic air routes, aircraft must depend on their own navigation system. The predicted increase in civil aviation traffic in the near future will make it difficult for current navigation aids to support navigation in all phases of flights. To avoid this problem, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is directing the establishment of standards for the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). GNSS employs navigation satellites, such as those of the global positioning system (GPS), to provide navigation capability throughout the world. In Japan, the Electronic Navigation Research Institute, the Ministry of Transport, and the Japan civil Aviation Promotion Foundation are carrying out research on this navigation system. Toshiba has been providing experimental equipment for this research. (author)

  14. Multi-Flight-Phase GPS Navigation Filter Applications to Terrestrial Vehicle Navigation and Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young W.; Montez, Moises N.

    1994-01-01

    A candidate onboard space navigation filter demonstrated excellent performance (less than 8 meter level RMS semi-major axis accuracy) in performing orbit determination of a low-Earth orbit Explorer satellite using single-frequency real GPS data. This performance is significantly better than predicted by other simulation studies using dual-frequency GPS data. The study results revealed the significance of two new modeling approaches evaluated in the work. One approach introduces a single-frequency ionospheric correction through pseudo-range and phase range averaging implementation. The other approach demonstrates a precise axis-dependent characterization of dynamic sample space uncertainty to compute a more accurate Kalman filter gain. Additionally, this navigation filter demonstrates a flexibility to accommodate both perturbational dynamic and observational biases required for multi-flight phase and inhomogeneous application environments. This paper reviews the potential application of these methods and the filter structure to terrestrial vehicle and positioning applications. Both the single-frequency ionospheric correction method and the axis-dependent state noise modeling approach offer valuable contributions in cost and accuracy improvements for terrestrial GPS receivers. With a modular design approach to either 'plug-in' or 'unplug' various force models, this multi-flight phase navigation filter design structure also provides a versatile GPS navigation software engine for both atmospheric and exo-atmospheric navigation or positioning use, thereby streamlining the flight phase or application-dependent software requirements. Thus, a standardized GPS navigation software engine that can reduce the development and maintenance cost of commercial GPS receivers is now possible.

  15. Femtosecond laser aided processing of optical sensor fibers for 3D medical navigation and tracking (FiberNavi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermann, Christian; Koch, Jan; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang; Witte, Michael; Kohn, Nils; Wilhelm, Dirk; Schneider, Armin; Reiser, Silvano; Feußner, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    A new concept for fiber-optical 3D shape sensing applying femtosecond laser technology for highprecision direct writing of Bragg gratings within the core and the cladding of single core standard telecom fibers is presented. This new technology enables a cost-efficient and real-time 3D shape sensing and navigation of medical catheters or endoscopes only by means of passive optical sensor elements. First prototypes showed the possibility to achieve absolute navigation accuracy of four mm per meter and have successfully been tested in clinical environment.

  16. An AtoN navigation-aids information distribution system%航标助航信息发布系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志秀; 张寿桂; 彭国均; 项鹭; 邵进兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to distribute real-time Aids to Navigation (AtoN) Navigation-aids information comprehensively, accurately and intuitively, An AtoN Navigation-aids information distribution system is designed and developed by using computer network technology, modern communication technology and some key technologies such as GPS, AIS, ECDIS and Web.The system conforms to the digital navigation strategic framework proposed by International Maritime Organization ( IMO), and in accordance with the modern AtoN development direction of International Association of Lighthouse Authorities ( IALA), and meets the requirement of recommended standards of IALA.The system implements comprehensive display function of 360° channel panorama( virtual three-dimensional) based on Image-Based Modeling and Rendering (IBMR) AtoN, AtoN and channel information based on Remote Sensing (RS) image, and physical and virtual AtoN information based on Automatic Identification System (AIS), etc.The users can understand scientific, comprehensive, timely, accurate, and intuitive AtoN navigation-aids information on Internet by using a common Web browser, which can improve the safety index of marine traffic and operational efficiency of port and vessels.%为全面、准确、直观地发布实时航标助航信息,应用计算机网络技术、现代通信技术以及GPS,AIS,ECDIS和Web等关键技术,设计开发航标助航信息发布系统.该系统符合国际海事组织(International Maritime Organization,IMO)提出的数字航海战略框架,适应国际航标协会(International Association of Lighthouse Authorities,IALA)现代航标发展方向,满足LALA有关推荐标准的要求.该系统实现基于图像建模与绘制(Image-Based Modeling and Rendering,IBMR)航标的360°航道全景图(虚拟三维)、基于遥感(Remote Sensing,RS)影像图的航标航道显示和基于自动识别系统(Automatic Identification System,AIS)的实体航标和虚拟航标信息显示等资料的综合显示

  17. Based on the Geomagnetic-aided Inertial Navigation System of State Feedback%基于地磁辅助惯性导航的状态反馈系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志勇; 艾文娟; 刘岩

    2015-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low precision of the inertial sensor of MEMS technology,a high precision of integrated navigation algorithm is put forward, adopt geomagnetic aided navigation with closed-loop correction, and the deviation of the magnetic and heading Angle of the observation is in order to achieve high precision of inertial navi-gation and a higher dynamic performance .Experiments show that state feedback of inertial navigation system can over-come the error accumulation of inertial navigation,greatly improve the anti-interference ability of the geomagnetic navi-gation,get better navigation accuracy.%针对MEMS技术的惯性传感器低精度的特点,提出一种高精度的组合导航算法,采用地磁辅助导航进行闭环校正,并对地磁的自差和航向角进行观测,以达到较高的惯性导航精度和更高的动态性能.实验证明,状态反馈的惯性导航系统能很好地克服惯导的误差累积,大幅度提高了地磁导航的抗干扰能力,得到较好的导航精度.

  18. Short-range navigation: does it contribute to understanding navigation over longer distances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett

    1996-01-01

    A major reason for analysing short-range navigation is that it is relatively easy to record on video tape the details of an animal's behaviour over an area of about a square metre. Frequently, the orientation of the animal's body is revealed in addition to its trajectory through space. This is particularly useful in the study of insect navigation, the subject of the four contributions to this section. An insect's eyes are fixed in its head, and there are often no significant head movements during flight. Consequently, reasonable assumptions can be made about where the insect looks while it navigates and how the image of its surroundings moves over its retina. All four contributions depend to a large degree upon being able to freeze behaviour on video tape and to infer what the animal sees. To what extent do the conclusions using the abundant information that can be collected in this way extrapolate to navigation on a larger scale? Clearly, the coded information that instructs the monarch butterfly on its migrations from wide areas of North America to northern Michoacan in Mexico contains elements unique to long-distance travel. But there may be many similarities in the mechanisms available to an orchid bee as it travels over its 20 km foraging route from orchid to orchid and a wasp negotiating the last few metres through a complex environment to reach its nest.

  19. Improving Real World Performance of Vision Aided Navigation in a Flight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Advanced Robotic Systems and the Real World’, IROS’94. Proceedings of the IEEE /RSJ/GI Inter- national Conference on, vol. 1. IEEE , 1994, pp. 431–438...solution for localization?” in Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2006. WMCSA’06. Proceedings. 7th IEEE Workshop on. IEEE , 2005, pp. 34–42. 8...197, 2005. 9. K. Kauman, J. Raquet, Y. Morton, and D. Garmatyuk, “Real-time UWB- OFDM radar-based navigation in unknown terrain,” IEEE Transactions on

  20. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...

  1. GPS computer navigators to shorten EMS response and transport times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, F S; Muramatsu, R S; Yoshida, B H; Yamamoto, L G

    2001-05-01

    GPS (global positioning satellite system to determine one's position on earth) units have become inexpensive and compact. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a GPS enhanced computer street map navigator to improve the ability of EMS drivers in an urban setting to locate their destination and shorten response times. For part I, residential addresses in the city were randomly selected from a telephone directory. Two driver/navigator teams were assigned to drive to the address adhering to speed limits. One team used a standard street map, whereas the other team used a GPS computer navigator. The travel time and distance of the runs were compared. For part II, the computer GPS navigator was placed on an ambulance to supplement their normal methods of navigation to find the address requesting EMS. After the run was completed, EMS providers were interviewed to determine their opinion of whether the GPS navigator was helpful. For part I the results showed that in the 29 initial test runs, comparing the GPS team versus the standard map team, the mean distances traveled were 8.7 versus 9.0 kilometers (not significant) and the mean travel times were 13.5 versus 14.6 minutes (P=.02), respectively. The GPS team arrived faster in 72% runs. For part II the results showed that most EMS providers surveyed noted that the GPS computer navigator enhanced their ability to find the destination and all EMS providers acknowledged that it would enhance their ability to find a destination in an area in which they were unfamiliar. These results suggest that a portable GPS computer navigator system is helpful and can enhance the ability of prehospital care providers to locate their destination. Because these units are accurate and inexpensive, GPS computer navigators may be a valuable tool in reducing pre-hospital transport times.

  2. Decision-Aiding and Optimization for Vertical Navigation of Long-Haul Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.; Sheridan, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    different airspace design and air traffic management policies. A decision aid is proposed which would combine the pilot's notion of optimality with the GA-based optimization, provide the pilot with a number of alternative pareto-optimal trajectories, and allow him to consider unmodelled attributes and constraints in choosing among them. A solution to the problem of displaying alternatives in a multi-attribute decision space is also presented.

  3. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  4. The Programmer's Guide to iSeries Navigator

    CERN Document Server

    Touhy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    iSeries Navigator is a favorite tool of operators and administrators-who use it with great success-but many programmers have missed the great programming tools that is provides! This book introduces you to iSeries Navigator along with all the powerful tools and interfaces that will expand your programming horizons. As iSeries applications continue to move toward a graphical user interface (GUI), so does the development environment. Programs such as CODE and WDSC may fill the need for the programming environment, but iSeries Navigator fills the programmer's need for general system access as wel

  5. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  6. Particle-Filter-Based WiFi-Aided Reduced Inertial Sensors Navigation System for Indoor and GPS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Atia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation is challenging due to unavailability of satellites-based signals indoors. Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs may be used as standalone navigation indoors. However, INS suffers from growing drifts without bounds due to error accumulation. On the other side, the IEEE 802.11 WLAN (WiFi is widely adopted which prompted many researchers to use it to provide positioning indoors using fingerprinting. However, due to WiFi signal noise and multipath errors indoors, WiFi positioning is scattered and noisy. To benefit from both WiFi and inertial systems, in this paper, two major techniques are applied. First, a low-cost Reduced Inertial Sensors System (RISS is integrated with WiFi to smooth the noisy scattered WiFi positioning and reduce RISS drifts. Second, a fast feature reduction technique is applied to fingerprinting to identify the WiFi access points with highest discrepancy power to be used for positioning. The RISS/WiFi system is implemented using a fast version of Mixture Particle Filter for state estimation as nonlinear non-Gaussian filtering algorithm. Real experiments showed that drifts of RISS are greatly reduced and the scattered noisy WiFi positioning is significantly smoothed. The proposed system provides smooth indoor positioning of 1 m accuracy 70% of the time outperforming each system individually.

  7. Current opinion on computer-aided surgical navigation and robotics: role in the treatment of sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musahl, Volker; Plakseychuk, Anton; Fu, Freddie H

    2002-01-01

    Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) may allow surgeons to be more precise and minimally invasive, in addition to being an excellent research tool. Medical imaging, such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography is not only an important diagnostic tool, but also a necessary planning tool. In orthopaedic sports medicine, precision is needed when placing tunnels for soft tissue fixation of replacement grafts. Two types of CAS systems -- passive and active -- have been developed. Passive systems, or surgical navigation systems, provide the surgeon with additional information prior to and during the surgical procedure (in real time). Active systems have the ability of performing certain surgical steps autonomously. Both active and passive CAS systems are currently a subject of basic science and clinical investigations and will be discussed and commented on in this article. In summary, passive navigation systems can provide additional information to the surgeon and can therefore lead to more precise tunnel placement. Active robotic technology seems to be accurate and feasible with promising initial results from Europe. However, active and passive CAS can only be as precise as the surgeon who plans the procedure. Therefore, future studies have to focus on integrating, arthroscopy, 3-D image-enhanced computer navigation, and virtual kinematics, as well as to increase precision in surgical techniques.

  8. Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Andrew P; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Chai, Fei; Hastings, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter released. Eleven sharks were rendered anosmic (nares occluded with cotton wool soaked in petroleum jelly); fifteen were sham controls. Mean swimming depth was 28.7 m. On average, tracks of control sharks ended 62.6% closer to shore, following relatively straight paths that were significantly directed over spatial scales exceeding 1600 m. In contrast, tracks of anosmic sharks ended 37.2% closer to shore, following significantly more tortuous paths that approximated correlated random walks. These results held after swimming paths were adjusted for current drift. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in sharks, likely mediated by chemical gradients as has been hypothesized for birds. Given the similarities between the fluid three-dimensional chemical atmosphere and ocean, further research comparing swimming and flying animals may lead to a unifying paradigm explaining their extraordinary navigational abilities.

  9. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... records from your hearing healthcare professional, and may purchase your hearing aid elsewhere (ex: by mail order, ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Situation awareness and driving performance in a simulated navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R; Kaber, D B

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify task and vehicle factors that may affect driver situation awareness (SA) and its relationship to performance, particularly in strategic (navigation) tasks. An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of in-vehicle navigation aids and reliability on driver SA and performance in a simulated navigation task. A total of 20 participants drove a virtual car and navigated a large virtual suburb. They were required to follow traffic signs and navigation directions from either a human aid via a mobile phone or an automated aid presented on a laptop. The navigation aids operated under three different levels of information reliability (100%, 80% and 60%). A control condition was used in which each aid presented a telemarketing survey and participants navigated using a map. Results revealed perfect navigation information generally improved driver SA and performance compared to unreliable navigation information and the control condition (task-irrelevant information). In-vehicle automation appears to mediate the relationship of driver SA to performance in terms of operational and strategic (navigation) behaviours. The findings of this work support consideration of driver SA in the design of future vehicle automation for navigation tasks.

  11. Polarimetric Enhancements to Electro-Optical Aided Navigation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Technical report , Daimler Chrysler Research and Technology, Machine Perception, 2005. 11. d’Angelo, Pablo and Chrisitan Wohler . “3D Surface...34 2.6.1 Lawrence Wolff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6.2 d’Angelo and Wohler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 2.7 The Unscented...work is described in Section 2.6.1. A significantly different approach was taken by Pablo d’Angelo and Christian Wohler and is described in Section 2.6.2

  12. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  13. Workers' Reactions to AIDS and Other Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Eugene P.; And Others

    Previous research on the public's response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been concerned with attitudes and knowledge in relation to the disease itself. This study investigated people's willingness to interact with individuals with AIDS in the workplace. Participants (N=358) were college students with an average age of 25.…

  14. Nyquist and Public Aid to Private Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Victor J.

    1975-01-01

    Noting that the latest Supreme Court decisions involving an application of the religion clauses of the first amendment to state statutes may serve to foreclose any further attempts by a state to aid parochial schools, the author suggests a new test that would satisfy both First Amendment and state aid proponent demands. (JT)

  15. Three-Dimensional Gravity Model Applied to Underwater Navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; FENG Hao; DENG Zhongliang; GAO Zhengbing

    2004-01-01

    At present, new integrated navigation, which usesthe location function of reference gravity anomaly map to control the errors of the inertial navigation system (INS), has been developed in marine navigation. It is named the gravityaided INS. Both the INS and real-time computation of gravity anomalies need a 3-D marine normal gravity model.Conventionally, a reduction method applied in geophysical survey is directly introduced to observed data processing. This reduction does not separate anomaly from normal gravity in the observed data, so errors cannot be avoided. The 3-D marine normal gravity model was derived from the J2 gravity model, and is suitable for the region whose depth is less than 1000 m.

  16. Navigating Stardust-NEXT: The Road to Tempel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Aron; Thompson, Paul; Jefferson, David C.; Ardalan, Shadan; McElrath, Timothy; Abrahamson, Matthew; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Halsell, C. Allen; Bhat, Ramachand; Gillam, Stephen; Owen, William; Riedel, J. Ed; Synnott, Stephen; Wang, Tseng-Chan " Mike" Chesley, Steven; Gilliland, Kevin; McAllister, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust-NExT (New Exploration of Tempel) mission, a follow-on to the Stardust prime mission, successfully completed a flyby of comet Tempel-1 on 2/14/11. However there were many challenges along the way in navigating this mission to its successful conclusion, most significantly low propellant margin and detection of the comet in imagery later than anticipated. These challenges and their ramifications forced the navigation team and the project to respond with flexibility and ingenuity. As a result, the resulting flyby at an altitude of 178 km was nearly flawless, accomplishing all its science objectives.

  17. Community to clinic navigation to improve diabetes outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural residents experience rates of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM that are considerably higher than their urban or suburban counterparts. Two primary modifiable factors, self-management and formal clinical management, have potential to greatly improve diabetes outcomes. “Community to Clinic Navigation to Improve Diabetes Outcomes,” is the first known randomized clinical trial pilot study to test a hybrid model of diabetes self-management education plus clinical navigation among rural residents with T2DM. Forty-one adults with T2DM were recruited from two federally qualified health centers in rural Appalachia from November 2014–January 2015. Community health workers provided navigation, including helping participants understand and implement a diabetes self-management program through six group sessions and, if needed, providing assistance in obtaining clinic visits (contacting providers' offices for appointments, making reminder calls, and facilitating transportation and dependent care. Pre and post-test data were collected on T2DM self-management, physical measures, demographics, psychosocial factors, and feasibility (cost, retention, and satisfaction. Although lacking statistical significance, some outcomes indicate trends in positive directions, including diet, foot care, glucose monitoring, and physical health, including decreased HbA1c and triglyceride levels. Process evaluations revealed high levels of satisfaction and feasibility. Due to the limited intervention dose, modest program expenditures (~$29,950, and a severely affected population most of whom had never received diabetes education, outcomes were not as robust as anticipated. Given high rates of satisfaction and retention, this culturally appropriate small group intervention holds promise for hard to reach rural populations. Modifications should include expanded recruitment venues, sample size, intervention dosage and longer term assessment.

  18. Non-GPS Navigation Using Vision-Aiding and Active Radio Range Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    technology has advanced to use ring laser gyros which are described in this paragraph. The inertia of a spinning mass causes it to resist changes in...Next, the INS body DCM is transposed, Cn ′ b = C bT n′ , to rotate the accelerometer specific force measurements, f b = [fx, fy, fz], from the INS b...65 IV. Results This chapter presents results and analysis for the data collections outlined inSection 3.2. Results from the stationary data collected

  19. Learning anticipation via spiking networks: application to navigation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Paolo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Patané, Luca

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a network of spiking neurons devoted to navigation control. Three different examples, dealing with stimuli of increasing complexity, are investigated. In the first one, obstacle avoidance in a simulated robot is achieved through a network of spiking neurons. In the second example, a second layer is designed aiming to provide the robot with a target approaching system, making it able to move towards visual targets. Finally, a network of spiking neurons for navigation based on visual cues is introduced. In all cases, the robot was assumed to rely on some a priori known responses to low-level sensors (i.e., to contact sensors in the case of obstacles, to proximity target sensors in the case of visual targets, or to the visual target for navigation with visual cues). Based on their knowledge, the robot has to learn the response to high-level stimuli (i.e., range finder sensors or visual input). The biologically plausible paradigm of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is included in the network to make the system able to learn high-level responses that guide navigation through a simple unstructured environment. The learning procedure is based on classical conditioning.

  20. User Interface Preferences in the Design of a Camera-Based Navigation and Wayfinding Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Development of a sensing device that can provide a sufficient perceptual substrate for persons with visual impairments to orient themselves and travel confidently has been a persistent rehabilitation technology goal, with the user interface posing a significant challenge. In the study presented here, we enlist the advice and ideas of…

  1. Pilot-Assisted Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Bearings-Only Measurements Taken Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command in Partial...their classroom . The students in the GNC track at AFIT, our long tech- nical discussions over coffee or a rip it will be some of my fondest memories...while eliminating 78 a large portion of the free INS error. Verified as a proof of concept in simulation, tasking the pilot to track a stationary ground

  2. CONDUCTING IFR FLIGHTS WITHOUT THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL NAVIGATION AIDS AT THE UNCONTROLLED AERODROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał GERATOWSKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flights conducted in accordance with the instrument flight rules (IFR allow to perform flights below the minimums for visual meteorological conditions. Nowadays, in Poland none of the uncontrolled aerodromes have implemented any IFR procedures. The paper presents an analysis of the international and national law in terms of establishing the appropriate IFR procedures at the uncontrolled aerodromes. The exemplary solutions, based on European uncontrolled aerodromes, are presented.

  3. Real-time Navigator Approach to Motion Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ This presentation attempts a summary discourse on the real time navigator approach to suppressing motion effects in thoracic MRA, particularly in coronary MRA. Organs in the thoracic body trunk experience physiologic motion due to cardiac contraction, respiration, peristalsis and other gross displacements.

  4. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  5. Navigation of the EPOXI Spacecraft to Comet Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Abrahamson, Matt; Chesley, Steven; Chung, Min-Kun; Halsell, Allen; Haw, Robert; Helfrich, Cliff; Jefferson, David; Kennedy, Brian; McElrath, Tim; Owen, William; Rush, Brian; Smith, Jonathon; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Yen, Chen-Wan

    2011-01-01

    On November 4, 2010, the EPOXI spacecraft flew by the comet Hartley 2, marking the fourth time that a NASA spacecraft successfully captured high resolution images of a cometary nucleus. EPOXI is the extended mission of the Deep Impact mission, which delivered an impactor on comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005. EPOXI officially started in September 2007 and eventually took over 3 years of flight time and had 3 Earth gravity assists to achieve the proper encounter conditions. In the process, the mission was redesigned to accommodate a new comet as the target and changes in the trajectory to achieve better imaging conditions at encounter. Challenges in navigation of the spacecraft included precision targeting of several Earth flybys and the comet encounter, uncertainties in determining the ephemeris of the comet relative to the spacecraft, and the high accuracy trajectory knowledge needed to image the comet during the encounter. This paper presents an overview of the navigation process used for the mission.

  6. 75 FR 45114 - Rite Aid Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Rite Aid Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint... invited to submit written comments electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``Rite...

  7. AIDS in position to ravage India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, K S

    1996-09-01

    The Joint UN Program on AIDS reports that India has more than 3 million adults infected with HIV, more HIV-infected adults than any other country in the world. By the year 2005, India will have more people infected with HIV than does Africa. Having sex with a Bombay housewife today is at least twice as risky as it was to have sex with a prostitute in the city's red light district in 1988. 2-3% of all women in the city are infected with HIV. There is ignorance, apathy, corruption, and lack of commitment at all levels with regard to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, India's lackluster campaign against AIDS launched 10 years ago has lost momentum just as the epidemic is exploding and at a time when traditional beliefs about cultural barriers and the sexual behavior of Indian males are being called into question. Considerable homosexual behavior occurs in India. However, the most important factor contributing to the spread of HIV throughout India is the virus' spread from urban areas into small villages, often through migrant laborers. Ignorance, illiteracy, and poverty in villages will make AIDS prevention especially difficult. Indian government policy forbidding the distribution of condoms in prisons, needles to injectable-drug users, and free drugs to AIDS patients further contributes to the spread of HIV.

  8. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  9. A voxelization approach to navigate through nested geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Brent Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High energy physics experiment software typically implements a detailed description of the geometry of the relevant detector. As modern detectors increase in complexity, modelling them becomes more challenging. Typically such models are built as a nested hierarchy of O(10000) volumes reaching a depth of 10 - 20. It is desirable to develop data structures and algorithms which allow fast and efficient navigation though a given detector geometry model. We investigate the feasibility of voxelisation techniques to this end.

  10. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  11. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  12. Image Based Solution to Occlusion Problem for Multiple Robots Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Mohammad Khan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.

  13. A high-accuracy two-position alignment inertial navigation system for lunar rovers aided by a star sensor with a calibration and positioning function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Yang, Yanqiang; Liu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    An integrated inertial/celestial navigation system (INS/CNS) has wide applicability in lunar rovers as it provides accurate and autonomous navigational information. Initialization is particularly vital for a INS. This paper proposes a two-position initialization method based on a standard Kalman filter. The difference between the computed star vector and the measured star vector is measured. With the aid of a star sensor and the two positions, the attitudinal and positional errors can be greatly reduced, and the biases of three gyros and accelerometers can also be estimated. The semi-physical simulation results show that the positional and attitudinal errors converge within 0.07″ and 0.1 m, respectively, when the given initial positional error is 1 km and the attitudinal error is 10°. These good results show that the proposed method can accomplish alignment, positioning and calibration functions simultaneously. Thus the proposed two-position initialization method has the potential for application in lunar rover navigation.

  14. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

  15. HIV/AIDS Researchers Interaction with Schoolteachers: A Key to Combat AIDS among Brazilian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Simone; de Castro, Fabiola Attie; de Castro Amarante, Maria Fernanda; Barbieri, Marisa Ramos; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that information on HIV/AIDS is a strategy for disease control, this project was planned to provide comprehensive information about HIV infection and AIDS to schoolteachers and their students. Previous analysis of adolescent students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS showed that they still have doubts about transmission, diagnosis, and…

  16. Navigation between the planets. [Viking spacecraft flight to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in spacecraft tracking, chronometry, ephemerides, and orbit and trajectory determinations are reviewed. Improvements in timekeeping are reviewed, as well as precision distance and range measurements; orbit determinations, trajectory-correction maneuvers, flight path optimization, and information provided by rotation of the tracking station with the earth's surface. Doppler and tropospheric wave propagation effects are dealt with. Nongravitational perturbations (solar radiation pressure, release of gases from the spacecraft, stochastic unmodeled accelerations and sequential estimation to cope with them), the effect of the target planet's gravitational field upon close approach, and navigation problems in the outer reaches of the solar system (TV data telemetered back for inertial navigation) are covered. By-products of the research include: refined data on the mass of planets, on planetary mass distributions, planet configurations, on physical properties of the atmospheres and ionospheres of planets, and opportunities for refined tests of gravitation and relativity theories and models.

  17. Navigation strategy training using virtual reality in six chronic stroke patients: A novel and explorative approach to the rehabilitation of navigation impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Michiel H G; van der Ham, Ineke J M; Jagersma, Elbrich; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that navigation impairment is a common complaint after brain injury. Effective training programmes aiming to improve navigation ability in neurological patients are, however, scarce. The few reported programmes are merely focused on recalling specific routes rather than encouraging brain-damaged patients to use an alternative navigation strategy, applicable to any route. Our aim was therefore to investigate the feasibility of a (virtual reality) navigation training as a tool to instruct chronic stroke patients to adopt an alternative navigation strategy. Navigation ability was systematically assessed before the training. The training approach was then determined based on the individual pattern of navigation deficits of each patient. The use of virtual reality in the navigation strategy training in six middle-aged stroke patients was found to be highly feasible. Furthermore, five patients learned to (partially) apply an alternative navigation strategy in the virtual environment, suggesting that navigation strategies are mouldable rather than static. In the evaluation of their training experiences, the patients judged the training as valuable and proposed some suggestions for further improvement. The notion that the navigation strategy people use can be influenced after a short training procedure is a novel finding and initiates a direction for future studies.

  18. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  19. Aid To Solar Collector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar heating and cooling systems employ coatings to increase efficiency. Designers want a coating which absorbs solar heat to the maximum extent possible with minimal emittance of infrared radiation, which occurs when the collector plate gets hot. The coating is important because too much coating causes energy loss by emittance, too little reduces the collector's ability to absorb heat. NASA's Lewis Research Center, which conducts solar energy research, saw a need for a simple means of testing coating samples for emittance. Such equipment is available to research laboratories, but it is complex and expensive

  20. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate, by means of a computer simulation, the performance sensitivity of helicopter IMC DSAL operations as a function of navigation system parameters are presented. A mathematical model representing generically a navigation system is formulated. The scenario simulated consists of a straight in helicopter approach to landing along a 6 deg glideslope. The deceleration magnitude chosen is 03g. The navigation model parameters are varied and the statistics of the total system errors (TSE) computed. These statistics are used to determine the critical navigation system parameters that affect the performance of the closed-loop navigation, guidance and control system of a UH-1H helicopter.

  1. An Agent-Based Model for Navigation Simulation in a Heterogeneous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex navigation (e.g. indoor and outdoor environments) can be studied as a system-of-systems problem. The model is made up of disparate systems that can aid a user in navigating from one location to another, utilizing whatever sensor system or information is available. By using intelligent navigation sensors and techniques (e.g. RFID, Wifi,…

  2. Dermatitis herpetiformis intolerant to dapsone in Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man with AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis presented with lesions suggestive of dermatitis herpetiformis and intolerance to dapsone. He was managed successfully with a combination of nicotinamide 200 mg/day and indomethacin 75 mg/day, topical steroids and gluten free diet.

  3. Dutch aid to education and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Novelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on developments in Dutch aid to education in conflict affected areas in the last decade, with a focus on the period 2007‐2010, when ex‐Minister for International Development, Koenders was in office. In this relatively brief time frame, Koenders prioritised development cooperation

  4. Developing Navigation Competencies to Care for Older Rural Adults with Advanced Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation.

  5. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  6. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Levene, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This book is a second edition, updated and expanded to explain the technologies that help us find information on the web.  Search engines and web navigation tools have become ubiquitous in our day to day use of the web as an information source, a tool for commercial transactions and a social computing tool. Moreover, through the mobile web we have access to the web's services when we are on the move.  This book demystifies the tools that we use when interacting with the web, and gives the reader a detailed overview of where we are and where we are going in terms of search engine

  7. To reiterate the concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jie HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01

  8. Optimal control problems related to the navigation channel engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 曾庆存; 郭冬建; 刘卓

    1997-01-01

    The navigation channel engineering poses optimal control problems of how to find the optimal way of engineering such that the water depth of the channel is maximum under certain budget constraint, or the cost of me en-gineering is minimum while certain goals are achieved. These are typical control problems of distributed system gov erned by hydraulic/sedimentation models. The problems and methods of solutions are discussed Since the models, usually complicated, are nonlinear, they can be solved by solving a series of linear problems For linear problems the solutions are given. Thus the algorithms are simplified.

  9. [First aid to persons with explosion trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-10-01

    Modern organization providing medical aid to victims of explosion trauma in peace time, the success of which largely depends on the timely and professional interaction among the structures involeved into emergency relief operation is represented in the article. Content and sequence of events providing emergency medical and first medical aid to victims of the explosions, and the appropriateness of allocation affected groups, based on the predicted effectiveness of medical care is analyzed. The algorithm, currently used by ambulance crews, of assistance to victims with explosion and order evacuations is analyzed. The content of therapeutic measures in receipt of the wounded on the steps of skilled and specialized surgical care in accordance with the idea of a separation surgery on three stages (damage control). The content of the main levels of damage control orthopedics is introduced.

  10. Engineering a Multimission Approach to Navigation Ground Data System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimatos, Dimitrios V.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mission Design and Navigation (MDNAV) Section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports many deep space and earth orbiting missions from formulation to end of mission operations. The requirements of these missions are met with a multimission approach to MDNAV ground data system (GDS) infrastructure capable of being shared and allocated in a seamless and consistent manner across missions. The MDNAV computing infrastructure consists of compute clusters, network attached storage, mission support area facilities, and desktop hardware. The multimission architecture allows these assets, and even personnel, to be leveraged effectively across the project lifecycle and across multiple missions simultaneously. It provides a more robust and capable infrastructure to each mission than might be possible if each constructed its own. It also enables a consistent interface and environment within which teams can conduct all mission analysis and navigation functions including: trajectory design; ephemeris generation; orbit determination; maneuver design; and entry, descent, and landing analysis. The savings of these efficiencies more than offset the costs of increased complexity and other challenges that had to be addressed: configuration management, scheduling conflicts, and competition for resources. This paper examines the benefits of the multimission MDNAV ground data system infrastructure, focusing on the hardware and software architecture. The result is an efficient, robust, scalable MDNAV ground data system capable of supporting more than a dozen active missions at once.

  11. Neuro-fuzzy controller to navigate an unmanned vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira

    2013-12-01

    A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

  12. Serendipity, International Cooperation and Navigational Aids: A History of Radio Echo Sounding (RES) Technologies, 1958-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, S.; Dean, K.; Naylor, S.; Siegert, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the history of RES and examines major technological advances that fostered the use of this technique in the sub-glacial exploration of Antarctica. The paper will especially focus on three themes: the role played by accidental discoveries in the origins of RES; the importance of international collaboration in its technological development; and the need of establishing new technological networks in the deployment of RES apparatus during Antarctic missions. The origins of RES can be traced back to two important -albeit accidental- findings. First, during post-war US military operations in the Antarctic radio altimeters produced gross errors in height indication. Furthermore, during the IGY ionospheric research and sounding was hampered by interference due to bottom echoes. These serendipitous events helped to figure out that the Antarctic ice was transparent to certain frequencies, and therefore new radio technologies could be used to sound what lay beneath it. The establishment of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Antarctic Treaty (AT) provided a new international framework vital to the development of RES technologies. This allowed researchers from different countries to come together and discuss important technological features for the first time. At a technical level, the setting up of international experiments (such as those of 1963 and 1964 in Greenland) gave an opportunity for experts from different countries to compare the performance of new RES apparatus. At a political level, the parallel debate within the AT community on the allocation of Antarctic radio frequencies helped radio engineers to work out ways to circumvent interference with radio communications. Finally, the deployment of RES equipment in Antarctic exploration relied upon a number of technological aids to improve the potential and accuracy of geophysical sounding. The use of new aircrafts, guidance systems, and computers proved vital in many

  13. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Le

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.

  14. Online Trajectory Reshaping for a Launch Vehicle to Minimize the Final Error Caused by Navigation and Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous launch vehicles, once lifted off from the launch pad, equipped with an onboard intelligence which aids in achieving the mission objectives with high accuracy. The accuracy of the mission depends basically on navigation and guidance errors caused at burnout condition, after which the vehicle follows an elliptical path upto impact. The paper describes how to handle the final impact and injection error caused by these navigation and guidance errors. In the current work the initial burnout conditions are tuned and corrected such that the terminal impact point is achieved within the desired tolerance bounds. A two point boundary value problem is solved using the gradient method, for determining the impact errors. The algorithm is validated by simulation studies for various burnout conditions.

  15. Online Trajectory Reshaping for a Launch Vehicle to Minimize the Final Error Caused by Navigation and Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous launch vehicles, once lifted off from the launch pad, equipped with an onboard intelligence which aids in achieving the mission objectives with high accuracy. The accuracy of the mission depends basically on navigation and guidance errors caused at burnout condition, after which the vehicle follows an elliptical path upto impact. The paper describes how to handle the final impact and injection error caused by these navigation and guidance errors. In the current work the initial burnout conditions are tuned and corrected such that the terminal impact point is achieved within the desired tolerance bounds. A two point boundary value problem is solved using the gradient method, for determining the impact errors. The algorithm is validated by simulation studies for various burnout conditions.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.254-261, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2414

  16. Advanced Navigation System for Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Satheesh Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of navigation are present in today’s world, leading from satellite based navigation to several archaic forms of navigation like star gazing. Now, lots of technologies are available to achieve this but with certain limitations. For example, FOG based navigation provides accuracy with in 0.10-100 range which is not sufficient for various military applications. Therefore, there is a need to design a system which will have better accuracy and thus requires development of ring laser gyro-based inertial systems. This paper concentrates on the aided navigation system based on ring laser gyro of 0.01 deg/hr class and GPS - GLONASS to further enhance the capability of system in terms of accuracy. The usage of such systems not only provides accurate results momentarily but it also persists for longer duration with the aid of GPS - GLONASS for applications like aircraft, ship and long range missiles. The system provides accuracy of the level of 1 Nm/hr in pure navigation and 30 m with the aid of GPS - GLONASS. Apart from this, the availability of gyro-compass and baro-inertial algorithms further enhances the system capabilities and made them self dependent to the major extent.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.131-137, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4254

  17. "Aid Like a Paycheck: Engaging with Policymakers and Practitioners to Evaluate and Improve Financial Aid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Evan; O'Connell, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    "Aid Like A Paycheck" is a large-scale pilot evaluation of whether an innovative approach to disbursing financial aid can improve academic and financial outcomes for low-income community college students. Lessons from the pilot evaluation were used to create and fine-tune a logic model depicting activities, outputs, mediators, and…

  18. Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Strohmaier, Markus; Helic, Denis; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    The need to examine the behavior of different user groups is a fundamental requirement when building information systems. In this paper, we present Ontology-based Decentralized Search (OBDS), a novel method to model the navigation behavior of users equipped with different types of background knowledge. Ontology-based Decentralized Search combines decentralized search, an established method for navigation in social networks, and ontologies to model navigation behavior in information networks. The method uses ontologies as an explicit representation of background knowledge to inform the navigation process and guide it towards navigation targets. By using different ontologies, users equipped with different types of background knowledge can be represented. We demonstrate our method using four biomedical ontologies and their associated Wikipedia articles. We compare our simulation results with base line approaches and with results obtained from a user study. We find that our method produces click paths that have properties similar to those originating from human navigators. The results suggest that our method can be used to model human navigation behavior in systems that are based on information networks, such as Wikipedia. This paper makes the following contributions: (i) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the utility of ontologies in modeling human navigation and (ii) it yields new insights and understanding about the mechanisms of human navigation in information networks.

  19. Bayesian statistics and information fusion for GPS-denied navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Brian Lee

    It is well known that satellite navigation systems are vulnerable to disruption due to jamming, spoofing, or obstruction of the signal. The desire for robust navigation of aircraft in GPS-denied environments has motivated the development of feature-aided navigation systems, in which measurements of environmental features are used to complement the dead reckoning solution produced by an inertial navigation system. Examples of environmental features which can be exploited for navigation include star positions, terrain elevation, terrestrial wireless signals, and features extracted from photographic data. Feature-aided navigation represents a particularly challenging estimation problem because the measurements are often strongly nonlinear, and the quality of the navigation solution is limited by the knowledge of nuisance parameters which may be difficult to model accurately. As a result, integration approaches based on the Kalman filter and its variants may fail to give adequate performance. This project develops a framework for the integration of feature-aided navigation techniques using Bayesian statistics. In this approach, the probability density function for aircraft horizontal position (latitude and longitude) is approximated by a two-dimensional point mass function defined on a rectangular grid. Nuisance parameters are estimated using a hypothesis based approach (Multiple Model Adaptive Estimation) which continuously maintains an accurate probability density even in the presence of strong nonlinearities. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by the simulated use of terrain referenced navigation and wireless time-of-arrival positioning to estimate a reference aircraft trajectory. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that accurate position estimates can be obtained in terrain referenced navigation even with a strongly nonlinear altitude bias. The integration of terrain referenced and wireless time-of-arrival measurements is described along with

  20. Modeling the contributions of Basal ganglia and Hippocampus to spatial navigation using reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Sukumar

    Full Text Available A computational neural model that describes the competing roles of Basal Ganglia and Hippocampus in spatial navigation is presented. Model performance is evaluated on a simulated Morris water maze explored by a model rat. Cue-based and place-based navigational strategies, thought to be subserved by the Basal ganglia and Hippocampus respectively, are described. In cue-based navigation, the model rat learns to directly head towards a visible target, while in place-based navigation the target position is represented in terms of spatial context provided by an array of poles placed around the pool. Learning is formulated within the framework of Reinforcement Learning, with the nigrostriatal dopamine signal playing the role of Temporal Difference Error. Navigation inherently involves two apparently contradictory movements: goal oriented movements vs. random, wandering movements. The model hypothesizes that while the goal-directedness is determined by the gradient in Value function, randomness is driven by the complex activity of the SubThalamic Nucleus (STN-Globus Pallidus externa (GPe system. Each navigational system is associated with a Critic, prescribing actions that maximize value gradients for the corresponding system. In the integrated system, that incorporates both cue-based and place-based forms of navigation, navigation at a given position is determined by the system whose value function is greater at that position. The proposed model describes the experimental results of [1], a lesion-study that investigates the competition between cue-based and place-based navigational systems. The present study also examines impaired navigational performance under Parkinsonian-like conditions. The integrated navigational system, operated under dopamine-deficient conditions, exhibits increased escape latency as was observed in experimental literature describing MPTP model rats navigating a water maze.

  1. GPS/DR integrated navigation aided by simultaneous localization and mapping%同时定位与制图辅助的GPS/DR组合导航

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程见童; 张为华; 江振宇

    2014-01-01

    Considering the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS)/Dead Reckoning (DR)integrated system degrading dramatically when GPS signal is outage or blocked,a Compressed Extend Kalman Filter (CEKF)-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)aided GPS/DR integrated navigation method was addressed.The error of DR system was restrained with SLAM correction when the GPS solutions were unavailable.Accordingly,the GPS location corrected the error and improves the uncertainty of SLAM mapping when GPS positioning was accessible.A filter of CEKF-based SLAM/GPS integrated was designed to realize the real time implement of SLAM/GPS in a large scale environment.Compared with the SLAM locating using the real experiment dataset,the SLAM aided GPS/DR integrated method enhanced the system performance of positioning as well as the accuracy of SLAM mapping raised approximate 10m.%针对全球定位系统在信号失锁条件下与航位推算组合导航的系统误差快速累积问题,提出一种基于压缩扩展卡尔曼滤波的同时定位与制图的辅助的全球定位系统/航位推算组合导航方法。该方法利用同时定位与辅助实现运动平台在全球定位系统信号无效时连续稳定导航,抑制航位推算定位误差的累积,并利用全球定位系统定位结果校正同时定位与辅助制图误差,减小地图的不确定性。设计基于压缩扩展卡尔曼滤波的同时定位与辅助/全球定位系统组合滤波器,实现大尺度环境下同时定位与辅助/全球定位系统的实时解算。真实实验数据计算结果分析表明,相对于同时定位与辅助定位结果,同时定位与辅助的全球定位系统/航位推算组合导航可有效提高系统定位性能,使得制图精度提高10m。

  2. Access to Adequate Healthcare for Hmong Women: A Patient Navigation Program to Increase Pap Test Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon S. Chen, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a Hmong Cervical Cancer Intervention Program utilizing a patient navigation model to raise cervical cancer awareness for Hmong women through educational workshops and to assist Hmong women in obtaining a Pap test. Out of 402 women who participated in a baseline survey, the Patient Navigation Program was able to enroll 109 participants who had not had a Pap test in the past 3 years and had never had a Pap test. Through utilization of outreach, an awareness campaign and patient navigation support, at least 38 percent of 109 participants obtained a Pap test. Overall, 21 workshops and 43 outreach activities were conducted by the Hmong Women’s Heritage Association, leading to 63 percent of those enrolled in the Patient Navigation Program who could be contacted to obtain a Pap test.

  3. Vision/INS Integrated Navigation System for Poor Vision Navigation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of an inertial navigation system, many aiding sensors can be used. Among these aiding sensors, a vision sensor is of particular note due to its benefits in terms of weight, cost, and power consumption. This paper proposes an inertial and vision integrated navigation method for poor vision navigation environments. The proposed method uses focal plane measurements of landmarks in order to provide position, velocity and attitude outputs even when the number of landmarks on the focal plane is not enough for navigation. In order to verify the proposed method, computer simulations and van tests are carried out. The results show that the proposed method gives accurate and reliable position, velocity and attitude outputs when the number of landmarks is insufficient.

  4. Reimagining Financial Aid to Improve Student Access and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    As the student aid programs rapidly approach reauthorization in 2014, they continue to face severe funding and efficiency problems. With grant assistance from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through their "Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery" (RADD) project, the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) examined…

  5. Doctor Strives to Prevent and Treat AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ONE day in 1989, Dr. Xu Lianzhi received laboratory test result from a man over 50, which clearly showed that he had the AIDS virus. This man was Dr. Xu’s first patient who was infected with the AIDS virus, and was also the first case of AIDS discovered during a routine health check in China. Dr. Xu is the head physician of the Department of Infectious Diseases at the Beijing You An Hospital, a member of the Beijing Venereal

  6. Threat to AIDS funding continues past fiscal 1996 budget battles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-01-01

    AIDS community advocates face an ongoing battle to gain funding for AIDS research, care, and prevention within the upcoming 1997 fiscal year. The level of uncertainty experienced by the advocates has never been this high. The Democrats' and Republicans' call for a balanced budget will hurt AIDS programs, and domestic discretionary spending will be severely restricted in fiscal years 1996 to 2002. The challenge to AIDS advocates is to try to preserve the integrity of vital programs and safeguard the already fragile AIDS care infrastructure.

  7. Examining Augmented Reality to Improve Navigation Skills in Postsecondary Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cate C.; Cihak, David F.; Kim, Byungkeon; McMahon, Don D.; Wright, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using mobile technology to improve navigation skills in three students with intellectual disability (ID) in a postsecondary education program. Navigation skills included using an augmented reality iPhone app to make correct "waypoint" decisions when traveling by foot on a university…

  8. From Phonomecanocardiography to Phonocardiography computer aided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, J.; Tavera, F.; López, G.; Velázquez, J. M.; Hernández, R. T.; López, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Due to lack of training doctors to identify many of the disorders in the heart by conventional listening, it is necessary to add an objective and methodological analysis to support this technique. In order to obtain information of the performance of the heart to be able to diagnose heart disease through a simple, cost-effective procedure by means of a data acquisition system, we have obtained Phonocardiograms (PCG), which are images of the sounds emitted by the heart. A program of acoustic, visual and artificial vision recognition was elaborated to interpret them. Based on the results of previous research of cardiologists a code of interpretation of PCG and associated diseases was elaborated. Also a site, within the university campus, of experimental sampling of cardiac data was created. Phonocardiography computer-aided is a viable and low cost procedure which provides additional medical information to make a diagnosis of complex heart diseases. We show some previous results.

  9. Switching from Reaching to Navigation: Differential Cognitive Strategies for Spatial Memory in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonti, Vittorio; Cioni, Giovanni; Berthoz, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Navigational and reaching spaces are known to involve different cognitive strategies and brain networks, whose development in humans is still debated. In fact, high-level spatial processing, including allocentric location encoding, is already available to very young children, but navigational strategies are not mature until late childhood. The…

  10. Reforming Student Aid: How to Simplify Tax Aid and Use Performance Metrics to Improve College Choices and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Patrick; Harmon, Tim; Strawn, Julie; Choitz, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Any reform of federal student aid must address the twin challenges of college affordability and completion, which are inextricably linked. Here, CLASP has proposed ways to redirect existing federal student aid spending toward the low- and modest income families who need it most. These are the students for whom federal aid makes a difference in…

  11. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  12. Mentoring Nurses in Political Skill to Navigate Organizational Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the correlations between mentoring functions and political skill development among nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or doctorate of nursing practice (DNP) degree. Background. The healthcare system is in flux; future generations of Ph.D. and DNP nurse leaders will be required to demonstrate political acumen. Political skill to navigate organizational politics has had limited research within nursing. Methods. A cross-sectional research design using a web-based survey of 222 nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP. This study utilized two validated tools to measure mentoring functions and political skill. Results. The response rate was 52% (n = 115) of which 86 were Ph.D. and 29 were DNPs. An informal mentoring relationship was described by 62% of the respondents and formal mentoring by 35% of the protégés; only 25% (n = 74) established a mentoring contract. Mentoring score showed significance for total political skill and moderate effect on the networking ability. The mentoring functions of advocacy, career development facilitation, learning facilitation, and friendship were found to correlate significantly with total political skill scores. Conclusions. This study established a benefit for nurses who have earned or are candidates for a Ph.D. or DNP from mentoring to support political skill development. PMID:27777798

  13. Assessing Binocular Advantage in Aided Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Night /day Imaging Technologies, ANIT, Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Aided Vision , Binocular...advantage of binocularity in aided vision . Key Words: Head Mounted Display, Night Vision Goggle , Stereopsis, Modulation Transfer Function...veridical perception allows the operator to navigate and manipulate the environment in a natural and efficient manner. Night vision goggles (NVGs),

  14. Recent Trends in the Arctic Navigable Ice Season and Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, J.; Drobot, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the potential effects of Arctic climate warming is an increase in the navigable ice season, perhaps resulting in development of the Arctic as a major shipping route. The distance from western North American ports to Europe through the Northwest Passage (NWP) or the Northern Sea Route (NSR) is typically 20 to 60 percent shorter than travel through the Panama Canal, while travel between Europe and the Far East may be reduced by as much as three weeks compared to transport through the Suez Canal. An increase in the navigable ice season would also improve commercial opportunities within the Arctic region, such as mineral and oil exploration and tourism, which could potentially expand the economic base of Arctic residents and companies, but which would also have negative environmental impacts. Utilizing daily passive-microwave derived sea ice concentrations, trends and variability in the Arctic navigable ice season are examined from 1979 through 2001. Trend analyses suggest large increases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Beaufort Sea, with decreases in the length of the navigable ice season in the Bering Sea. Interannual variations in the navigable ice season largely are governed by fluctuations in low-frequency atmospheric circulation, although the specific annular modes affecting the length of the navigable ice season vary by region. In the Beaufort and East Siberian seas, variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation control the navigable ice season, while variations in the East Pacific anomaly play an important role in controlling the navigable ice season in the Kara and Barents seas. In Hudson Bay, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Baffin Bay, interannual variations in the navigable ice season are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  15. Ecological validity of virtual environments to assess human navigation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eVan Der Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Route memory is frequently assessed in virtual environments. These environments can be presented in a fully controlled manner and are easy to use. Yet they lack the physical involvement that participants have when navigating real environments. For some aspects of route memory this may result in reduced performance in virtual environments. We assessed route memory performance in four different environments: real, virtual, virtual with directional information (compass, and hybrid. In the hybrid environment, participants walked the route outside on an open field, while all route information (i.e. path, landmarks was shown simultaneously on a handheld tablet computer. Results indicate that performance in the real life environment was better than in the virtual conditions for tasks relying on survey knowledge, like pointing to start and end point, and map drawing. Performance in the hybrid condition however, hardly differed from real life performance. Performance in the virtual environment did not benefit from directional information. Given these findings, the hybrid condition may offer the best of both worlds: the performance level is comparable to that of real life for route memory, yet it offers full control of visual input during route learning.

  16. 33 CFR 207.170d - Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek, navigation lock (S-193) across the entrance to Taylor Creek at Lake Okeechobee, Okeechobee, Fla.; use, administration..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.170d Taylor Creek, navigation...

  17. A Concise Guide to Feature Histograms with Applications to LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Andrew P.; Christian, John A.; Evans, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    With the availability and popularity of 3D sensors, it is advantageous to re-examine the use of point cloud descriptors for the purpose of pose estimation and spacecraft relative navigation. One popular descriptor is the oriented unique repeatable clustered viewpoint feature histogram (OUR-CVFH), which is most often utilized in personal and industrial robotics to simultaneously recognize and navigate relative to an object. Recent research into using the OUR-CVFH descriptor for spacecraft navigation has produced favorable results. Since OUR-CVFH is the most recent innovation in a large family of feature histogram point cloud descriptors, discussions of parameter settings and insights into its functionality are spread among various publications and online resources. This paper organizes the history of feature histogram point cloud descriptors for a straightforward explanation of their evolution. This article compiles all the requisite information needed to implement OUR-CVFH into one location, as well as providing useful suggestions on how to tune the generation parameters. This work is beneficial for anyone interested in using this histogram descriptor for object recognition or navigation - may it be personal robotics or spacecraft navigation.

  18. A Kalman Approach to Lunar Surface Navigation using Radiometric and Inertial Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Sands, O. Scott; Nguyen, Binh V.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on a surface navigation system to determine astronaut position, guide exploration, and return safely to the lunar habitat. In this report, we investigate one potential architecture for surface navigation, using an extended Kalman filter to integrate radiometric and inertial measurements. We present a possible infrastructure to support this technique, and we examine an approach to simulating navigational accuracy based on several different system configurations. The results show that position error can be reduced to 1 m after 5 min of processing, given two satellites, one surface communication terminal, and knowledge of the starting position to within 100 m.

  19. Navigation and Control of a Vehicle to the Parking Place Using Ins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav PIRNÍK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses possibility of usage of the inertial navigation system for an autonomous navigation of a vehicle to the parking place inside intelligent parking house. Our research has shown that inertial navigation is suitable only for heading and attitude estimation. In order to achieve reliable and precise position estimation the additional odometer sensor is required. Article also describes control algorithm which can be used for steering control of the car according to pre-set waypoints. Waypoints have to be placed with respect to the dimensions and overall maneuverability of the vehicle.

  20. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, C.; Skovdal, Morten; Gibbs, A.

    2011-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially...... be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its...... reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v...

  1. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and... North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace Section 1 NAT MNPS.... Section 2 The navigation performance capability required for aircraft to be operated in the...

  3. From organized internal traffic to collective navigation of bacterial swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Gil; Shklarsh, Adi; Kalisman, Oren; Ingham, Colin; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial swarming resulting in collective navigation over surfaces provides a valuable example of cooperative colonization of new territories. The social bacterium Paenibacillus vortex exhibits successful and diverse swarming strategies. When grown on hard agar surfaces with peptone, P. vortex develops complex colonies of vortices (rotating bacterial aggregates). In contrast, during growth on Mueller-Hinton broth gelled into a soft agar surface, a new strategy of multi-level organization is revealed: the colonies are organized into a special network of swarms (or ‘snakes’ of a fraction of millimeter in width) with intricate internal traffic. More specifically, cell movement is organized in two or three lanes of bacteria traveling between the back and the front of the swarm. This special form of cellular logistics suggests new methods in which bacteria can share resources and risk while searching for food or migrating into new territories. While the vortices-based organization on hard agar surfaces has been modeled before, here, we introduce a new multi-agent bacterial swarming model devised to capture the swarms-based organization on soft surfaces. We test two putative generic mechanisms that may underlie the observed swarming logistics: (i) chemo-activated taxis in response to chemical cues and (ii) special align-and-push interactions between the bacteria and the boundary of the layer of lubricant collectively generated by the swarming bacteria. Using realistic parameters, the model captures the observed phenomena with semi-quantitative agreement in terms of the velocity as well as the dynamics of the swarm and its envelope. This agreement implies that the bacteria interactions with the swarm boundary play a crucial role in mediating the interplay between the collective movement of the swarm and the internal traffic dynamics.

  4. Mathematical and statistical approaches to AIDS epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The 18 research articles of this volume discuss the major themes that have emerged from mathematical and statistical research in the epidemiology of HIV. The opening paper reviews important recent contributions. Five sections follow: Statistical Methodology and Forecasting, Infectivity and the HIV, Heterogeneity and HIV Transmission Dynamics, Social Dynamics and AIDS, and The Immune System and The HIV. In each, leading experts in AIDS epidemiology present the recent results. Some address the role of variable infectivity, heterogeneous mixing, and long periods of infectiousness in the dynamics of HIV; others concentrate on parameter estimation and short-term forecasting. The last section looks at the interaction between the HIV and the immune system.

  5. Ground Optical Navigation for the Stardust-Next Mission to Comet 9P/TEMPEL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Stephen D.; Riedel, J. Ed.; Owen, William M., Jr.; Wang, Tseng-Chan Mike; Werner, Robert A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Chesley, Steven R.; Thompson, Paul F.; Wolf, Aron A.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based optical navigation (OpNav) using pictures taken by the Naviga-tion camera on the Stardust spacecraft provided the target-relative information needed to design maneuvers during its approach to comet Tempel 1. Hardware problems, limited downlink bandwidth, and changes in the flight profile affected the OpNav picture schedule, sometimes in near-real time. The Stardust naviga-tion camera and attitude control presented challenges. Picture-processing techniques were developed during approach that included background estimation, co-addition, and co-registration. These techniques, along with adaptive picture scheduling, successfully addressed the challenges.

  6. 33 CFR 263.27 - Authority for mitigation of shore damage attributable to navigation works (Section 111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Shore Protection Policy § 263.27 Authority for mitigation of shore damage attributable to navigation... and hurricane protection projects. (3) Mitigation of shore damages is defined as the construction of... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority for mitigation of...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 121 - Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... System (INS): Request for Evaluation; Equipment and Equipment Installation; Training Program; Equipment... OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. G Appendix G to Part 121—Doppler Radar and Inertial Navigation System (INS): Request... installation—Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) or Doppler Radar System. (a) Inertial Navigation and...

  8. The 2004 International AIDS Conference and how to globally counter HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemyor, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    This article reports noteworthy HIV/AIDS clinical trials presented at the XVth International AIDS Conference, Bangkok, July 2004, and also outlines goals of comprehensive prevention, care, treatment, and monitoring plans. The Bangkok conference theme was "Access for All." Outlined are goals of comprehensive prevention, care, and treatment programs: increased education and prevention efforts, greater involvement of national health authorities, reduction of new HIV infections, increased use of voluntary counseling and testing, increased acceptance and use of condoms, acceptance of an individual's right to be protected against HIV infection during sexual activity, increased support of NGOs, reduction of sexual partners, increased sexual fidelity, availability of antiretroviral medication, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, reduction of AIDS deaths, improved surveillance of sexually transmitted infections, improved blood supply security, increased coordination with tuberculosis and malaria treatment, equity for urban and rural persons, increased orphan services, reduction of orphan rate, greater involvement of local leaders, increased media involvement, reducing HIV/AIDS discussion taboo, reduced injecting drug user needle sharing, and continuing education for health care professionals. Monitoring parameters include incidence and prevalence of HIV infections, use of voluntary counseling and testing, condom use and attitudes to right of protection, AIDS deaths, orphan rate, public advertisements, leadership participation, antiretroviral use and availability, public awareness of services, blood supply security, and professional education.

  9. THE EQUALIZING IMPACT OF STATE AID TO EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKIN, DAVID

    THE STATE AID TO EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN KENTUCKY, MISSOURI, AND TENNESSEE ARE INVESTIGATED WITH RESPECT TO THEIR COMPENSATION FOR DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY OF LOCAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO SUPPORT EDUCATION. A HYPOTHETICAL AID FORMULA WAS USED AS A STANDARD AGAINST WHICH TO MEASURE THE PRESENT EQUALIZATION SCHEMA IN EACH OF THE THREE STATES. KENTUCKY…

  10. Machine Vision for Relative Spacecraft Navigation During Approach to Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong; Baker, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a machine vision system for relative spacecraft navigation during the terminal phase of approach to docking that: 1) matches high contrast image features of the target vehicle, as seen by a camera that is bore-sighted to the docking adapter on the chase vehicle, to the corresponding features in a 3d model of the docking adapter on the target vehicle and 2) is robust to on-orbit lighting. An implementation is provided for the case of the Space Shuttle Orbiter docking to the International Space Station (ISS) with quantitative test results using a full scale, medium fidelity mock-up of the ISS docking adapter mounted on a 6-DOF motion platform at the NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center Flight Robotics Laboratory and qualitative test results using recorded video from the Orbiter Docking System Camera (ODSC) during multiple orbiter to ISS docking missions. The Natural Feature Image Registration (NFIR) system consists of two modules: 1) Tracking which tracks the target object from image to image and estimates the position and orientation (pose) of the docking camera relative to the target object and 2) Acquisition which recognizes the target object if it is in the docking camera Field-of-View and provides an approximate pose that is used to initialize tracking. Detected image edges are matched to the 3d model edges whose predicted location, based on the pose estimate and its first time derivative from the previous frame, is closest to the detected edge1 . Mismatches are eliminated using a rigid motion constraint. The remaining 2d image to 3d model matches are used to make a least squares estimate of the change in relative pose from the previous image to the current image. The changes in position and in attitude are used as data for two Kalman filters whose outputs are smoothed estimate of position and velocity plus attitude and attitude rate that are then used to predict the location of the 3d model features in the next image.

  11. "Repellent and Shameful": The Portrayal of AIDS in "America Responds to AIDS" Broadcast Public Service Announcements, 1987-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    To address a need for increased discussion of the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and an increased educative effort to prevent people from acquiring HIV infection, a study investigated one element of an AIDS campaign of the past: the "America Responds to AIDS" television and radio public service announcements…

  12. Concerns regarding Direct-to-Consumer Hearing Aid Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    An individual over age 18 can purchase a hearing aid online or through mail order if they sign a waiver declining a medical evaluation, while those under 18 are required to be seen by a physician to obtain medical consent. However, in many states there is nothing to prevent a parent or caregiver from purchasing hearing aids for their child from a…

  13. Balloon-guided navigation technique to perform stenting in an acutely angled anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Moscovici, Samuel; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The complex anatomic features of wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent an endovascular challenge. Compliant balloons and microstents are frequently required to achieve aneurysm occlusion. When the angle between the A1 and A2 segments is acute, microcatheter navigation is hazardous, and may be difficult or sometimes impossible with standard techniques. We present our technique using a support balloon to facilitate guidewire engagement and navigation of A2, and to assist with microcatheterization in this unfavorable vascular anatomy.

  14. Decision aid reliance: modeling the effects of decision aid reliability and pressures to perform on reliance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I. Gomaa; J.E. Hunton; E.H.J. Vaassen; M.A. Carree

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effects of decision aid reliability and pressure to perform on decision aid reliance. A total of 403 students took part in a four (pressures to perform: one through four) by five (decision aid reliability: 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90%) between-participants experiment. We test two co

  15. 32 CFR 651.52 - Aids to information gathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aids to information gathering. 651.52 Section 651.52 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED... Process § 651.52 Aids to information gathering. The proponent may use or develop graphic or...

  16. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, C.; Skovdal, Morten; Gibbs, A.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v...

  17. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  18. Responses to HIV / AIDS: the case of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, S

    1995-08-01

    Malaysia has an estimated population of 18.8 million people. The first AIDS case of Malaysian origin was detected in December 1986. As of April 30, 1995, there were cumulatively 12,122 reported HIV infections and 228 cases of AIDS. Of the 12,122 HIV cases, 78% are attributed to IV drug use, 17% to other unknown routes, and 2% to heterosexual sex. While the Malaysian government's initial anti-AIDS campaign used fear tactics, public campaigns have recently been revised to employ a softer approach, minimizing fear tactics and referring to transmission risks as high-risk behavior. The government's main anti-AIDS strategy has concentrated upon preventing transmission through mass awareness campaigns and motivating behavioral change. Harm reduction measures such as condom distribution remain limited to specific target groups such as people already infected with HIV/AIDS. Syringe and needle exchange activities are not allowed under Malaysia's anti-drug laws. Complementing and supporting the government's anti-AIDS campaign are nongovernmental organizations working upon HIV/AIDS which are affiliated with the Malaysian AIDS Council. The majority of programs concentrate upon basic education and awareness, although some programs provide direct service-oriented activities.

  19. Financial Aid and Enrollment: Questions for Boards to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper encourages board members to take a step back and think about long-term strategies for ensuring that financial aid policies are consistent with institutional mission at the same time that they serve fiscal and enrollment goals. While board members can determine financial aid and enrollment policies only at the broadest level, it is…

  20. Effectiveness of a teleaudiology approach to hearing aid fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Peter J; Blamey, Jeremy K; Saunders, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an online speech perception test (SPT) for the measurement of hearing and hearing aid fitting in comparison with conventional methods. Phase 1 was performed with 88 people to evaluate the SPT for the detection of significant hearing loss. The SPT had high sensitivity (94%) and high selectivity (98%). In Phase 2, phonetic stimulus-response matrices derived from the SPT results for 408 people were used to calculate "Infograms™." At every frequency, there was a highly significant correlation (p hearing thresholds derived from the Infogram and conventional audiograms. In Phase 3, initial hearing aid fittings were derived from conventional audiograms and Infograms for two groups of hearing impaired people. Unaided and aided SPTs were used to measure the perceptual benefit of the aids for the two groups. The mean increases between unaided and aided SPT scores were 19.6%, and 22.2% (n = 517, 484; t = 2.2; p hearing aids fitted using conventional audiograms and Infograms respectively. The research provided evidence that the SPT is a highly effective tool for the detection and measurement of hearing loss and hearing aid fitting. Use of the SPT reduces the costs and increases the effectiveness of hearing aid fitting, thereby enabling a sustainable teleaudiology business model.

  1. Sexually Active Students Found Failing to Take Precautions Against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1988-01-01

    College officials are finding that after three years of efforts to educate college students about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), many still don't think they are vulnerable and are not protecting themselves against the disease. More creative and personal AIDS education strategies are needed. (MSE)

  2. Student Aid for the Eighties: Report of the Study of Financial Aid to Maritime Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission, Fredericton (New Brunswick).

    A research report on financial aid to maritime student (those in the Maritime Provinces) enrolled in postsecondary education in Canada is presented in English and French versions. The study was designed to: (1) prepare a historical perspective of and rationale for programs of financial assistance to students; (2) review and compare existing…

  3. Targeting of AID-mediated sequence diversification to immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, Naga Rama; Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2011-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key enzyme for antibody-mediated immune responses. Antibodies are encoded by the immunoglobulin genes and AID acts as a transcription-dependent DNA mutator on these genes to improve antibody affinity and effector functions. An emerging theme in field is that many transcribed genes are potential targets of AID, presenting an obvious danger to genomic integrity. Thus there are mechanisms in place to ensure that mutagenic outcomes of AID activity are specifically restricted to the immunoglobulin loci. Cis-regulatory targeting elements mediate this effect and their mode of action is probably a combination of immunoglobulin gene specific activation of AID and a perversion of faithful DNA repair towards error-prone outcomes.

  4. Development of an interactive module to enhance and understand cavity navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Newball, Andrés A; Roviello, Franco; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Herrera, Francisco J; Marin, Cesar A

    2007-01-01

    The Interactive Module for Cavity Navigation (IMCA) was created in order to enhance the Web Environment for Surgical Skills Training in Otolaryngology (WESST--OT); later, it was found that it could be used as an independent module which allowed the practice of path navigation in any medical cavity, and its potential use with patients was evidenced. This paper describes the making of IMCA and the potential use of genetic algorithms in path generation.

  5. Estimation with applications to tracking and navigation theory, algorthims and software

    CERN Document Server

    Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2001-01-01

    Expert coverage of the design and implementation of state estimation algorithms for tracking and navigation Estimation with Applications to Tracking and Navigation treats the estimation of various quantities from inherently inaccurate remote observations. It explains state estimator design using a balanced combination of linear systems, probability, and statistics. The authors provide a review of the necessary background mathematical techniques and offer an overview of the basic concepts in estimation. They then provide detailed treatments of all the major issues in estimatio

  6. Navigating the Financial Aid System in the Community College: The Lived Experience of Students Formerly in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemsaas, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    For many low-income and disadvantaged students formerly in foster care, community colleges are the main post-secondary educational pathway to socioeconomic opportunities. However, students formerly in foster care face many barriers in accessing college as well as actually succeeding in achieving a college degree. Although considerable efforts have…

  7. Autonomous navigation to quasi-periodic orbits near translunar libration points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wuxing; Qian Yingjing; Gao Changsheng; Li Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    Libration-point missions have been very useful and successful. Due to the unstable nat-ures of most of these orbits, the long-time stationkeeping demands frequent maneuvers and precise orbit determinations. Earth-based tracking will have to undertake much more responsibilities with the increasing number of libration missions. An autonomous navigation system could offer a better way to decrease the need for Earth-based tracking. Nevertheless, when an autonomous navigation system is applied, there are three important factors affecting autonomous navigation accuracy, i.e., the accuracy of initial conditions, the accuracy of measurements, and the accuracy of onboard dynamics for propagation. This paper focuses on analyzing the influence from the third factor and finding an appropriate navigation dynamics, which can satisfy the requirement of estimation accuracy but not cause too much burden for onboard computation. When considering the restricted three-body model and the bicircular restricted four-body model as navigation dynamics, the astrin-gency is not shown during the simulations. Meanwhile, when considering the influences of the Sun’s direct and indirect perturbations and the eccentricity of the Moon’s orbit, a new navigation dynamic model with the standard ephemerides is proposed. The simulation shows the feasibility of the proposed model.

  8. Inertial sensor self-calibration in a visually-aided navigation approach for a micro-AUV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Font, Francisco; Massot-Campos, Miquel; Negre-Carrasco, Pep Lluis; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel; Beltran, Joan P

    2015-01-16

    This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF), which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope). The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time.

  9. Inertial Sensor Self-Calibration in a Visually-Aided Navigation Approach for a Micro-AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Font, Francisco; Massot-Campos, Miquel; Negre-Carrasco, Pep Lluis; Oliver-Codina, Gabriel; Beltran, Joan P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF), which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope). The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time. PMID:25602263

  10. Inertial Sensor Self-Calibration in a Visually-Aided Navigation Approach for a Micro-AUV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bonin-Font

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new solution for underwater observation, image recording, mapping and 3D reconstruction in shallow waters. The platform, designed as a research and testing tool, is based on a small underwater robot equipped with a MEMS-based IMU, two stereo cameras and a pressure sensor. The data given by the sensors are fused, adjusted and corrected in a multiplicative error state Kalman filter (MESKF, which returns a single vector with the pose and twist of the vehicle and the biases of the inertial sensors (the accelerometer and the gyroscope. The inclusion of these biases in the state vector permits their self-calibration and stabilization, improving the estimates of the robot orientation. Experiments in controlled underwater scenarios and in the sea have demonstrated a satisfactory performance and the capacity of the vehicle to operate in real environments and in real time.

  11. Reforming Student Aid: How to Simplify Tax Aid and Use Performance Metrics to Improve College Choices and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Patrick; Harmon, Tim; Strawn, Julie; Choitz, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades, college costs have increased nearly four times faster than median family income. Financial aid has not filled the growing gap, and the share of college costs not covered by financial aid or what the family is expected to contribute has risen sharply. Rising costs and rising debt make college a riskier investment for…

  12. Participants' dynamic orientation to folder navigation when using a VOCA with a touch screen in talk-in-interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Niklas; Svensson, Eva; Telford, Jeanette

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a conversation-analysis case study of interaction between a child with cerebral palsy and an adult using a computer-based voice output communication aid (VOCA) device with a touch-sensitive screen-input system. Data was collected from video recordings of everyday activities at school. The public nature of the VOCA-mediated turn construction process (hand movements towards the screen, on-screen folder navigation, synthetic speech) displays the projection of the turn under way and its possible continuations. The adult interlocutor orients to such projections when contributing to the topic of the ongoing turn and when initiating repair on its topical development. Contributing may activate the AAC user's further involvement in the ongoing turn, while repair may restrict the AAC user's influence on the topical progression. The findings are relevant for clinical assessment and intervention.

  13. 33 CFR 66.05-100 - Designation of navigable waters as State waters for private aids to navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Missouri. Teach water within the State except the: (1) Mississippi River; and (2) Missouri River. (d...) Leesville Lake, on the Roanoke River below Smith Mountain Dam. (3) The portions of the following...

  14. STATE AID AND PARTICIPATION TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE FLOWS. ROMANIAS CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Elena Mihaela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the Romanian state aid and participation to the international trade flows. The purpose of this research was to determine whether the state aid offered takes into account the evolution and the requirements of the new market conditions generated by the economic and financial crisis. Our main conclusion was that regarding Romanias participation to the international trade flows, as the state aid measures focused mainly on sectors with high social impact, trade came second on the governments concern.

  15. AIDS: Zambians seem to be getting the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilikisha, M

    1990-01-01

    The 1st phase of the Ministry of Health of Zambia's US$4 million mass education campaign for the prevention of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), carried out in 1988-89 with help from Sweden and Norway, appears to have been highly effective. 95% of rural residents are now aware of AIDS, and the majority know the disease has no cure. In urban areas, the "Times of Zambia" and the "Zambia Daily Mail" have presented AIDS educational messages on their front pages. In rural areas, residents have been reached through marketplace performances and use of the existing primary health care infrastructure. In addition, health workers have received extensive training on counseling AIDS patients and their relatives as well as contact tracing. AIDS will soon be part of the science curriculum in Zambian schools and more street performances are being organized. Presumably as a result of the AIDS education campaign, the number of reported cases of other sexually transmitted diseases has declined--in Lusaka, example, reported cases dropped from 109,496 in 1987 to 101,286 in 1988. There has also been a dramatic increase in the demand for condoms, although part of this may reflect family planning program efforts. By July 1989, Zambia had a total of 2104 reported cases of AIDS.

  16. A Discussion on e-Navigation and Implementation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Aydogdu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic navigation, which has great important for ship management, has taken a step with technological improvements. In the result of these enhancements, new systems appeared as well as existing systems and these systems began to be integrated each other or used data of obtaining from the others like that AIS, Radar, ECDIS etc. All these and likely future systems have been put together under the roof of enhanced navigation (e-navigation is defined by organizations such as International Maritime Organization (IMO, International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA, General Lighthouse Authority (GLA etc. Especially IALA guidelines serve as model future applications in Turkish waterways. In this study aim to redefine e-navigation concept based on maritime safety awareness, maritime service portfolio (MSC 85/26 and discuss possible applications.

  17. Beijing Encourages High-Risk Groups to Undertake AIDS Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    High-risk groups in Beijing, China's capital city, such as sex workers, drug-takers who share needles and gay communities are being encouraged to take voluntary counseling and tests (VCT) as part of an effort to stem the spread of AIDS. Tens of thousands of flyers have been distributed to disease control centers at district levels, and they will be handed to high-risk individuals by AIDS workers and volunteers over the next few weeks.

  18. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  19. Development of NASA's Space Communications and Navigation Test Bed Aboard ISS to Investigate SDR, On-Board Networking and Navigation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Lux, James P.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an experimental flight payload (referred to as the Space Communication and Navigation (SCAN) Test Bed) to investigate software defined radio (SDR), networking, and navigation technologies, operationally in the space environment. The payload consists of three software defined radios each compliant to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture, a common software interface description standard for software defined radios. The software defined radios are new technology developments underway by NASA and industry partners. Planned for launch in early 2012, the payload will be externally mounted to the International Space Station truss and conduct experiments representative of future mission capability.

  20. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  1. Eye Tracking to Explore the Impacts of Photorealistic 3d Representations in Pedstrian Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihua; Liao, Hua

    2016-06-01

    Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D) maps, photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of cities (e.g., Google Earth) have gained much attention by scientists and public users as another option. However, there is no consistent evidence on the influences of 3D photorealism on pedestrian navigation. Whether 3D photorealism can communicate cartographic information for navigation with higher effectiveness and efficiency and lower cognitive workload compared to the traditional symbolic 2D maps remains unknown. This study aims to explore whether the photorealistic 3D representation can facilitate processes of map reading and navigation in digital environments using a lab-based eye tracking approach. Here we show the differences of symbolic 2D maps versus photorealistic 3D representations depending on users' eye-movement and navigation behaviour data. We found that the participants using the 3D representation were less effective, less efficient and were required higher cognitive workload than using the 2D map for map reading. However, participants using the 3D representation performed more efficiently in self-localization and orientation at the complex decision points. The empirical results can be helpful to improve the usability of pedestrian navigation maps in future designs.

  2. Bearing witness to suffering in AIDS: constructing meaning from loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, V P

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of AIDS volunteerism has been described as an act of bearing witness. It has been suggested that bearing witness assists individuals affected by the suffering in HIV/AIDS to heal. The purpose of this research was to explore AIDS volunteerism as a potentially healing phenomenon. Using grounded theory methodology, open-ended interviews were conducted with 17 participants over a 7-month period of time. The constant comparative method was used for data analysis. A substantive theory was generated that identified the basic sociological process as constructing meaning from loss and described the transformative psychosocial and spiritual healing process individuals undergo as they volunteer. Constructing meaning from loss is described within the following three major stages: (a) experiencing suffering, (b) containing suffering, and (c) transforming suffering. Characteristics within each stage are described. Suffering and complex loss are major issues in HIV/AIDS. Interventions are recommended for nurses who care for those affected by HIV disease.

  3. Navigated Pin-Point Approach to Osteoid Osteoma Adjacent to the Facet Joint of Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Nishizawa, Kazuya; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign osteoblastic tumor. Its curative treatment is complete removal of the nidus, where intraoperative localization of the nidus governs clinical results. However, treatment can be difficult since the lesion is often invisible over the bony surface. Accordingly, establishment of an ideal less invasive surgical strategy for spinal OO remains yet unsettled. We illustrate the efficacy of a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system in excising OO located adjacent to the facet joint of spine. In our 2 cases, complete and pin-point removal of the nidus located close to the facet joint was successfully achieved, without excessive removal of the bone potentially leading to spinal instability and possible damage of nearby neurovascular structures. We advocate a less invasive approach to spinal OO, particularly in an environment with an available CT-based navigation system. PMID:26949472

  4. 50 YEARS OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT Aid to Tibet(Ⅳ)——62 Aid Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GYIAREN

    2002-01-01

    In July 1994,the CPC Central Committee and the State Council held theThird National Conference on Work in Tibet.During the conference, JiangZemin,General Party Secretary and State President,said that showing carefor,and providing aid to Tibet constituted the consistent policy of the Partyand the State,and the bounden duty of peoples of all ethnic groups in the country.

  5. Adaptive Iterated Extended Kalman Filter and Its Application to Autonomous Integrated Navigation for Indoor Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the core of the integrated navigation system, the data fusion algorithm should be designed seriously. In order to improve the accuracy of data fusion, this work proposed an adaptive iterated extended Kalman (AIEKF which used the noise statistics estimator in the iterated extended Kalman (IEKF, and then AIEKF is used to deal with the nonlinear problem in the inertial navigation systems (INS/wireless sensors networks (WSNs-integrated navigation system. Practical test has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the mean root-mean-square error (RMSE of position by about 92.53%, 67.93%, 55.97%, and 30.09% compared with the INS only, WSN, EKF, and IEKF.

  6. Adaptive iterated extended Kalman filter and its application to autonomous integrated navigation for indoor robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Chen, Xiyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    As the core of the integrated navigation system, the data fusion algorithm should be designed seriously. In order to improve the accuracy of data fusion, this work proposed an adaptive iterated extended Kalman (AIEKF) which used the noise statistics estimator in the iterated extended Kalman (IEKF), and then AIEKF is used to deal with the nonlinear problem in the inertial navigation systems (INS)/wireless sensors networks (WSNs)-integrated navigation system. Practical test has been done to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is effective to reduce the mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of position by about 92.53%, 67.93%, 55.97%, and 30.09% compared with the INS only, WSN, EKF, and IEKF.

  7. Seeking better ways to teach youth about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1993-10-01

    AIDS prevention efforts are confounded in countries where poverty and lack of resources are prevalent. The World Health Organization estimates that about 50% of HIV infections worldwide occur among people aged under 25 years. Adolescents are also particularly affected by high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. One of the barriers to reducing transmission of HIV infections is the ambivalent attitudes of adults to adolescent sexuality. Another barrier is resistance to sex education programs due to fear that sex education promotes earlier or increased sexual activity. The message of "no sex before marriage" is not reaching youth. Marriage age is being delayed, but traditional family units are ineffective when students are away from home. Women's low status is another barrier to AIDS prevention. In Zimbabwe, an educational effort is being directed to eight and nine year olds. The message is a warning about "sugar daddies" or older men seeking the sexual favors of young girls in exchange for money or resources. In Thailand, AIDS education is incorporated into the primary level schools as "Life Experience" and "Character and Development." Positive attitudes and solving personal and social problems are addressed. On the secondary level, the focus is on how students can protect themselves from sexual diseases and on AIDS information. AIDS awareness is taught through writing and art competitions. Prominent artists and movie stars draw attention to AIDS and other adolescent sexual issues. Evaluation of such programs is just beginning. Some preliminary findings from seven evaluation projects reveals that discussion within families increases after exposure to AIDS information in the curriculum, and many school officials are now more aware of the importance of condom use. In Uganda, findings from an AIDS education project show that youth are knowledgeable about AIDS, but actions remain unaffected. The concern is that education is too late or may be inappropriate to meet

  8. Peer Navigators and Integrated Care to Address Ethnic Health Disparities of People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Pickett, Susan; Batia, Karen; Michaels, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    People of color with serious mental illnesses experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. Patient navigators, developed for cancer care, may help this group benefit from integrated care. This review examined patient navigators’ key ingredients for cancer care for relevance to patients of color for application of peer services to psychiatric goals. Among cancer patients, navigators lead to greater treatment engagement and improved health outcomes for ethnic minority groups. Research also suggests peers can improve integrated care by providing effective psychiatric services to individuals with mental illness. Ongoing research examines peer navigators’ impact on integrated care for patients of color. PMID:25144699

  9. The Satellite Systems Applications to Automate Navigation in the Coastal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katenin Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of automatic pilotage along a guided path are well known in the practice of navigation. However these methods have a number of drawbacks, which reduce the effectiveness of their application. It is especially important for river-sea vessel in poor visibility. Because of the large inertia of the vessel and its hydrodynamic properties that are changed by external influences, the process has unstable oscillatory nature. Therefore the vessel moves not in a straight line, but on a winding curve having the general direction that corresponds to the specified value. In this paper new method of coastal navigation with invented new devices supported with satellite navigation receiver is presented.

  10. Design and development of adapters for electromagnetic trackers to perform navigated laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweikard Achim

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA is an accepted approach to treat unresectable liver tumours distinguishing itself from other techniques by combining minimal invasiveness and the advantages of a surgical approach. The major task of laparoscopic RFA is the accurate needle placement to achieve complete tumour ablation. The use of an ultrasound-based, laparoscopic online-navigation system could increase the safety and accuracy of punctures. To connect such a system with the laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS transducer or the RFA needle especially designed adapters are needed. In this article we present our first experiences and prototypes for different sterilizable adapters for an electromagnetic navigation system for laparoscopic RFA. Methods All adapters were constructed with the help of a standard 3D CAD software. The adapters were built from medical stainless steel alloys and polyetherketone (PEEK. Prototypes were built in aluminium and polyoxymethilen (POM. We have designed and developed several adapters for the connection of electromagnetical tracking systems with different RFA needles and a laparoscopic ultrasound transducers. Results Based on earlier experiences of the initial version of the adapter, sterilisable adapters have been developed using biocompatible materials only. After short introduction, the adapters could be mounted to the laparoscopic ultrasound probe and the RFA needle under sterile conditions without any difficulties. Laboratory tests showed no disturbance of laparoscopic navigation system by the adapters. Anatomic landmarks in the liver could be safely reached. The adapters showed good feasibility, ergonomics, sterilizability and stability. Conclusion The development of usable adapters is the prerequisite for accurate tracking of a RFA needle for laparoscopic navigation purposes as well as 3D navigated ultrasound data acquisition. We designed, tested and used different adapters for the use of a

  11. AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAVIGATION, REPORTS), (*CONTROL SYSTEMS, *INFORMATION THEORY), ABSTRACTS, OPTIMIZATION, DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING, GAME THEORY, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, FOURIER ANALYSIS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, DEMODULATION, NAVIGATION CHARTS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , TIME SHARING, GRAPHICS, DIGITAL COMPUTERS, FEEDBACK, STABILITY

  12. Host genetic factors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2010-04-01

    HIV-1 infection has rapidly spread worldwide and has become the leading cause of mortality in infectious diseases. The duration for development of AIDS (AIDS progression) is highly variable among HIV–1 infected individuals, ranging from 2–3 years to no signs of AIDS development in the entire lifetime. Several factors regulate the rate at which HIV-1 infection progresses to AIDS. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases as AIDS and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  13. Should the United States Continue to Provide Aid to Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    emerged.11 Post-war aid can be broken down into seven broad categories: its birth at Bretton Woods in the 1940s; the era of the Marshall Plan in the...as the only solution to Africa’s myriad of problems.12 The main agenda of the Bretton Woods conference was to restructure international finance...1930s.13 As they anticipated the post-Second World War era, the architects of Bretton Woods foresaw that if Europe were to regain any semblance of

  14. Task-Based Navigation of a Taxonomy Interface to a Digital Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Wang, Zhonghong; Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This is a study of hierarchical navigation; how users browse a taxonomy-based interface to an organizational repository to locate information resources. The study is part of a project to develop a taxonomy for an library and information science department to organize resources and support user browsing in a digital repository.…

  15. Hey, Small Spender: An Insider's Guide to Navigating ALA's Chicago Conference on the Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an insider's guide to navigating the American Library Association's (ALA) annual conference in Chicago on July 9-15. As for the extracurricular activities, Chicago has a lot to offer. This article provides tips from the arts and entertainment bible "Time Out Chicago" on where to go and what to do (on a limited…

  16. Hippocampal Contribution to Vector Model Hypothesis during Cue-Dependent Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviney, Mairead; Fey, Dirk; Commins, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Learning to navigate toward a goal is an essential skill. Place learning is thought to rely on the ability of animals to associate the location of a goal with surrounding environmental cues. Using the Morris water maze, a task popularly used to examine place learning, we demonstrate that distal cues provide animals with distance and directional…

  17. Video Now Available to Help You Navigate the Poster Website | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having trouble finding a Poster article on a specific topic? Don’t know where to look for the Poster Puzzler? Want to comment on an article that you especially liked? Now you can learn how to navigate the Poster newsletter by viewing a video that walks you through all the features of the newsletter site.

  18. The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women's intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ

    1998-01-01

    Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest a

  19. Retrofitting a crown to a sleep apnea device by using computer-aided design and computer-aided milling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biethman, Rick; Land, Martin F; Hruskocy, Heather; Colgin, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    Retrofitting a new crown to an existing dental device is challenging. The continued evolution of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) significantly simplifies the process. This article demonstrates retrofitting a gold crown to an existing sleep apnea device.

  20. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  1. 40 CFR 227.10 - Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., shorelines or beaches. 227.10 Section 227.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Environmental Impact § 227.10 Hazards to fishing, navigation, shorelines or beaches. (a) Wastes which may... present a hazard to shorelines or beaches may be dumped only at sites and under conditions which...

  2. Landmarks or panoramas: what do navigating ants attend to for guidance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnon Guy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects are known to rely on terrestrial landmarks for navigation. Landmarks are used to chart a route or pinpoint a goal. The distant panorama, however, is often thought not to guide navigation directly during a familiar journey, but to act as a contextual cue that primes the correct memory of the landmarks. Results We provided Melophorus bagoti ants with a huge artificial landmark located right near the nest entrance to find out whether navigating ants focus on such a prominent visual landmark for homing guidance. When the landmark was displaced by small or large distances, ant routes were affected differently. Certain behaviours appeared inconsistent with the hypothesis that guidance was based on the landmark only. Instead, comparisons of panoramic images recorded on the field, encompassing both landmark and distal panorama, could explain most aspects of the ant behaviours. Conclusion Ants navigating along a familiar route do not focus on obvious landmarks or filter out distal panoramic cues, but appear to be guided by cues covering a large area of their panoramic visual field, including both landmarks and distal panorama. Using panoramic views seems an appropriate strategy to cope with the complexity of natural scenes and the poor resolution of insects' eyes. The ability to isolate landmarks from the rest of a scene may be beyond the capacity of animals that do not possess a dedicated object-perception visual stream like primates.

  3. Navigating the Rural Terrain: Educators' Visions to Promote Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Margaret; Saul, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of rural education emphasize the need to examine supports which may promote rural educators given the challenging contexts of which they face. Teacher visioning has been conceptualized as a navigational tool to help sustain and promote teachers given high-challenging contexts. The current study explored 10 public school teachers from…

  4. Flight Mechanics/Estimation Theory Symposium. [with application to autonomous navigation and attitude/orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. J. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Onboard and real time image processing to enhance geometric correction of the data is discussed with application to autonomous navigation and attitude and orbit determination. Specific topics covered include: (1) LANDSAT landmark data; (2) star sensing and pattern recognition; (3) filtering algorithms for Global Positioning System; and (4) determining orbital elements for geostationary satellites.

  5. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacture). A Brief Guide to Materials in the Library of Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, George D.

    This brief guide to materials in the Library of Congress (LC) on computer aided design and/or computer aided manufacturing lists reference materials and other information sources under 13 headings: (1) brief introductions; (2) LC subject headings used for such materials; (3) textbooks; (4) additional titles; (5) glossaries and handbooks; (6)…

  6. SLAM algorithm applied to robotics assistance for navigation in unknown environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Pereira Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of robotic tools with assistance technology determines a slightly explored area of applications and advantages for disability or elder people in their daily tasks. Autonomous motorized wheelchair navigation inside an environment, behaviour based control of orthopaedic arms or user's preference learning from a friendly interface are some examples of this new field. In this paper, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM algorithm is implemented to allow the environmental learning by a mobile robot while its navigation is governed by electromyographic signals. The entire system is part autonomous and part user-decision dependent (semi-autonomous. The environmental learning executed by the SLAM algorithm and the low level behaviour-based reactions of the mobile robot are robotic autonomous tasks, whereas the mobile robot navigation inside an environment is commanded by a Muscle-Computer Interface (MCI. Methods In this paper, a sequential Extended Kalman Filter (EKF feature-based SLAM algorithm is implemented. The features correspond to lines and corners -concave and convex- of the environment. From the SLAM architecture, a global metric map of the environment is derived. The electromyographic signals that command the robot's movements can be adapted to the patient's disabilities. For mobile robot navigation purposes, five commands were obtained from the MCI: turn to the left, turn to the right, stop, start and exit. A kinematic controller to control the mobile robot was implemented. A low level behavior strategy was also implemented to avoid robot's collisions with the environment and moving agents. Results The entire system was tested in a population of seven volunteers: three elder, two below-elbow amputees and two young normally limbed patients. The experiments were performed within a closed low dynamic environment. Subjects took an average time of 35 minutes to navigate the environment and to learn how

  7. Enabling obstacle avoidance for Google maps' navigation service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedkov, S.; Zlatanova, S.

    2011-01-01

    City infrastructures are sensitive to disasters. To aid rescue workers and citizens, a system is needed which determines the shortest route to a certain location, taking the damages of the infrastructure into account. The biggest disadvantage of current navigation systems is that they are “closed” i

  8. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  9. Vehicle navigation systems as a means to reduce energy use in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karppinen, A.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this study is to establish the basis for the assessment of the potential of vehicle navigation systems as a tool to gain a reduction in traffic energy consumption. The most promising functions of the in-vehicle systems in this respect are navigation and route guidance. Dynamic traffic management realised with modern traffic information systems and working in parallel with the dynamic route guidance systems seems to have the highest potential in the task of reducing traffic energy consumption. In the study, the fundamental ideas of vehicle navigation are discussed. Then the categorisation of Road Vehicle Communication (RVC) systems and the relevant functions of in-vehicle systems are presented as the basis for descripting various systems. Traffic assignment models are an indispensable instrument in the assessment of vehicle navigation systems in the context on energy saving. Some of the recent models are discussed briefly. Future work will concentrate on a small scale field experiment in the greater Helsinki area and the development and exploitation of a dynamic traffic assignment model to evaluate the possible energy savings in the test area

  10. Real-time Imaging Orientation Determination System to Verify Imaging Polarization Navigation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired imaging polarization navigation which can provide navigation information and is capable of sensing polarization information has advantages of high-precision and anti-interference over polarization navigation sensors that use photodiodes. Although all types of imaging polarimeters exist, they may not qualify for the research on the imaging polarization navigation algorithm. To verify the algorithm, a real-time imaging orientation determination system was designed and implemented. Essential calibration procedures for the type of system that contained camera parameter calibration and the inconsistency of complementary metal oxide semiconductor calibration were discussed, designed, and implemented. Calibration results were used to undistort and rectify the multi-camera system. An orientation determination experiment was conducted. The results indicated that the system could acquire and compute the polarized skylight images throughout the calibrations and resolve orientation by the algorithm to verify in real-time. An orientation determination algorithm based on image processing was tested on the system. The performance and properties of the algorithm were evaluated. The rate of the algorithm was over 1 Hz, the error was over 0.313°, and the population standard deviation was 0.148° without any data filter.

  11. Empowering communities to fight AIDS through participatory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, A; Kabandu, M; Musungu, M J

    1994-05-01

    A field test combined participatory evaluation methods with more traditional techniques to assess the progress of The AIDS Service Organization (TASO) Community Initiatives program in Uganda to encourage greater community involvement in improving the program. Approximately 1.5 million people in Uganda are infected with the HIV virus. Estimated HIV prevalence ranges from 25 to 30% in the capital city of Kampala and is as high as 50% in some trading centers along the main highway, but as low as 1% in some rural areas. To empower people within their own communities to prevent the further spread of HIV and better support people with AIDS, TASO launched The Community Initiatives program in 1990. Under this program, TASO trainers help community leaders form a village AIDS committee and identify community needs and objectives. Local leaders then select community AIDS workers, who receive training from TASO in AIDS prevention, education, counseling, and care. These community volunteers conduct formal and informal educational sessions with groups and individuals, visit homes to provide counseling and assistance with care, distribute condoms, and refer people for HIV testing and medical treatment. During 1993 an evaluation plan in 2 of the 17 TCI-supported communities was field tested. The primary data collection methods were a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey, followed by focus group discussions, and individual interviews with key informants. Several participatory methods also involved community members in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. More than 300 people gathered in the trading center of Biharwe to comment on the evaluation results from a community-based AIDS program. Through this process of encouraging audience participation and eliciting feedback, the evaluation sessions armed the work of the community implementors, disseminated more knowledge about changing sexual norms, and fostered greater community support for the program.

  12. Complementary terrain/single beacon-based AUV navigation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maurya, P.; Curado, T.F.; António, P.

    This paper describes work done towards the development of advanced geophysical-based navigation systems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The specific problem that we tackle is that of combining terrain-aided navigation (TAN) with single-beacon...

  13. States may need aid to obtain aid for energy-conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The $50 million in aid for states' energy conservation, authorized by Congress in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (PL94-163), would more than fill the gap left by shrinkage of other Federal programs. But much of the $50 million will be difficult to get, even for states like Pennsylvania which has an energetic conservation program. To qualify for aid, governors must fight difficult political battles on state and local levels. The priorities that Congress imposes as funding criteria are mandatory lighting-efficiency standards for public buildings; programs to promote carpooling and public transport; legalization of right turns at red lights; establishment of energy efficiency as a governing consideration in the procurement procedures of states and their political subdivisions; and mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings. Guidelines for meeting those criteria were recently promulgated by the Federal Energy Administration, but FEA has not yet published critical data projections and measurement methodologies. (MCW)

  14. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  15. Operation and Maintenance, 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 2. Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    Falls 196 Impacts and Effects of Alternative Management Plans for 223 Operation and Maintenance of Nine-Foot Navigation Channel Pool 1 xii TABLE OF...DNUMBTPULEONRCR IPE TINICTE HWDRULI DUST PANY QREDGE HDSTRICA TABLA SUMMRY O THE"SLN LOATON VOLUMEC ANERQEC VOL DREDDEE ST00 PAUL OFNRAT DREDGIN INPON...C 4.C tt0 na a-at W"a- 4. t0 o I It E On N a co .tltt.C 084t-C .0 00 88 o. E~s. 3 ttt. ttttt tC~~ t 9 R T. PAULtttt DISRIC S XII 2 FODVLMS RBTR TEM N

  16. Local Notice to Mariners by USCG District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  17. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  18. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  19. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  20. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  1. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  2. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  3. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  4. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  5. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  6. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  7. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  8. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  9. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  10. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  11. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  12. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  13. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  14. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest to...

  15. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  16. USCG Local Notice to Mariners: 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The LNM is the primary means for disseminating information concerning aids to navigation, hazards to navigation, and other items of marine information of interest...

  17. An Introduction to Neural Networks for Hearing Aid Noise Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun W.; Tyler, Richard S.

    1995-01-01

    This article introduces the use of multilayered artificial neural networks in hearing aid noise recognition. It reviews basic principles of neural networks, and offers an example of an application in which a neural network is used to identify the presence or absence of noise in speech. The ability of neural networks to "learn" the…

  18. Cost Utility: An Aid to Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Crist H.

    A set of procedures were developed which assist in structuring tasks and objectives in a manner to permit rational decision making. The model uses a jury of experts to rank various objectives and program processes in terms of their importance. Values are generated which relate to costs in the form of a utility-cost ratio. The model was tested in a…

  19. U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-11

    received grants from the State Department’s Migration and Refugee Assistance account (MRA)58 to assist in the resettlement of migrants to Israel...FMF to Israel and $10 million in Migration and Refugee Assistance. The Missile Defense Agency’s FY2015 request for joint U.S.- Israeli programs is...Other Ongoing Assistance and Cooperative Programs .................................................................. 16 Migration & Refugee Assistance

  20. Clinical algorithms to aid osteoarthritis guideline dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneses, S. R. F.; Goode, A. P.; Nelson, A. E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous scientific organisations have developed evidence-based recommendations aiming to optimise the management of osteoarthritis (OA). Uptake, however, has been suboptimal. The purpose of this exercise was to harmonize the recent recommendations and develop a user-friendly treatment...... to facilitate the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice are necessary. The algorithms proposed are examples of how to apply recommendations in the clinical context, helping the clinician to visualise the patient flow and timing of different treatment modalities. (C) 2016 Osteoarthritis Research...

  1. Design of intelligent fault-tolerant to passive underwater integrated navigation system%水下无源组合导航系统智能容错方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩娟; 徐晓苏; 王立辉; 李瑶

    2013-01-01

      为提高自主水下航行器的导航精度,比较目前 AUV 常用的水下导航方式,将捷联式惯性导航系统与地球物理导航系统相结合构成水下无源组合导航系统。采用容错联邦卡尔曼滤波对各子系统信息进行故障诊断、系统重构和融合。针对传统的2c检验法不能确定故障具体原因,而仅能判断量测信息是否有效的缺陷,提出利用神经网络辅助2c检验法进行故障诊断。通过对水下组合导航系统算法进行仿真分析,结果表明该算法能够快速、准确地判断系统故障源,通过故障隔离和系统重构,使系统在故障情况下依然保持正常工作。%To improve the navigation accuracy of autonomous underwater vehicle, an integrated navigation system was proposed, which was composed of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), terrain-aided navigation (TAN) system and gravity-aided navigation (GAN) system. A fault-tolerant federated Kalman filter was used to fuse the various navigation sensors, detect the system fault and reconstruct the navigation system. In view that traditional cai-square hypothesis testing processes fault detection cannot determine the specific cause of the fault, and could only determine the validity of measure information, a new fault detection algorithm based on neural network was adopted. The application on underwater integrated navigation system demonstrates that the algorithm can rapidly and accurately detecting and identify the faults in the system. Therefore the effective fault isolating can be performed to realize the fault tolerance navigation.

  2. Knowledge Discovery as an Aid to Organizational Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siau, Keng

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the concept of knowledge discovery, a process of searching for associations in large volumes of computer data, as an aid to creativity. It then discusses the various techniques in knowledge discovery. Mednick's associative theory of creative thought serves as the theoretical foundation for this research. (Contains…

  3. Visualizing Testsuites to Aid in Software Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Van Deursen, A.; Moonen, L.; Zaidman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Agile software development methods such as eXtreme Programming have brought renewed attention to testing during the software development process, both as a quality assurance method and as a form of live documentation. It is for this reason that a software system’s testsuite is an ideal starting poin

  4. SRA (Short Range Aids to Navigation) Resource Management: Measures of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Riverwav Harbor Se’’ce Donald S. Bruner .Harold E. Bruner Haron Barge Company Bill Kinzeler Don Rudd Canal Barge Company Captain Earl Daily...Incorporated - St. Charles, MO Jerome P. Conrey.. WJG Telephone Company Mr. Alvin W. Pyle "’ A-57 - .,r 7" t13 a 61* a- - vP .P. W .i.J ed𔃻. Department of the

  5. Gravity Gradiometry and Map Matching: An Aid to Aircraft Inertial Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Air Force Institute of Technology BEP Break Even Point CEP Circular Error Probable (50th percentile) CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force DTED...performance gain for playing the GAME was a factor of...\

  6. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  7. Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M; Wangombe, J

    1995-01-01

    A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.

  8. COMPUTATION OF RETURN FLOWS DUE TO NAVIGATION TRAFFICS IN RESTRICTED WATERWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.S.MAZUMDER; S.K.DAS; S.N.DAS

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of an empirical model to compute the return flow due to the movement of navigation traffics in restricted waterway when the speed of the navigation traffic is under sub-critical range. The velocity profile of the return flow is modelled, where the functional dependence with respect to ambient flow, principal dimensions of the vessel, wetted cross-sectional area of the river, width and average depth of the river, and the lateral distance of the vessel from the bank are implicitly considered. This model has been validated with the observed data collected from the four specific sites, such as Kampsville, Apple River Island, Goose Island and Clarks Ferry of Illinois River during barge-tow movement. The present model shows significant improvement of return flow prediction in comparison to earlier empirical results. This model has also the ability to determine the locus of zero velocity point.

  9. Benefits of Using Remotely Operated Vehicles to Inspect USACE Navigation Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    navigation structures. ROVs are a class of maneuverable underwater robotic vehicles that are tethered via an umbilical cord to a surface operator...station. The umbilical carries power and operation signals to the ROV and returns video, still images, and vehicle status and sensor data to the...inspections. The primary users driving ROV technology have been the offshore oil industry, the hydroelectric and nuclear power industries, various navies

  10. Is traditional financial aid too little, too late to help youth succeed in college? An introduction to The Degree Project promise scholarship experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N

    2013-01-01

    One of the key barriers in accessing postsecondary opportunities for many students is financial aid. This chapter begins by providing a review of prior evidence on the relationship between financial aid and postsecondary outcomes. One type of financial aid intervention that challenges traditional aid and scholarship options are "promise programs." These programs make commitments to low-income students when they are much younger than when students typically apply for aid and have the potential to encourage students to better prepare during high school, develop the social capital they need to navigate the path to college, and pay for growing college costs. In this chapter, the author describes the design and rationale for The Degree Project (TDP), which is the first randomized trial of a promise scholarship in the United States. In addition to the important new evidence the demonstration program will generate, TDP also shows how educators and researchers can work together to provide the insight and answers policy makers need to address very real education gaps.

  11. Differential GNSS and Vision-Based Tracking to Improve Navigation Performance in Cooperative Multi-UAV Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrella, Amedeo Rodi; Fasano, Giancarmine; Accardo, Domenico; Moccia, Antonio

    2016-12-17

    Autonomous navigation of micro-UAVs is typically based on the integration of low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based inertial and magnetic sensors to stabilize and control the flight. The resulting navigation performance in terms of position and attitude accuracy may not suffice for other mission needs, such as the ones relevant to fine sensor pointing. In this framework, this paper presents a cooperative UAV navigation algorithm that allows a chief vehicle, equipped with inertial and magnetic sensors, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and a vision system, to improve its navigation performance (in real time or in the post processing phase) exploiting formation flying deputy vehicles equipped with GPS receivers. The focus is set on outdoor environments and the key concept is to exploit differential GPS among vehicles and vision-based tracking (DGPS/Vision) to build a virtual additional navigation sensor whose information is then integrated in a sensor fusion algorithm based on an Extended Kalman Filter. The developed concept and processing architecture are described, with a focus on DGPS/Vision attitude determination algorithm. Performance assessment is carried out on the basis of both numerical simulations and flight tests. In the latter ones, navigation estimates derived from the DGPS/Vision approach are compared with those provided by the onboard autopilot system of a customized quadrotor. The analysis shows the potential of the developed approach, mainly deriving from the possibility to exploit magnetic- and inertial-independent accurate attitude information.

  12. Evaluation of navigation interfaces in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Daniel R.

    2014-02-01

    When users are immersed in cave-like virtual reality systems, navigational interfaces have to be used when the size of the virtual environment becomes larger than the physical extent of the cave floor. However, using navigation interfaces, physically static users experience self-motion (visually-induced vection). As a consequence, sensorial incoherence between vision (indicating self-motion) and other proprioceptive inputs (indicating immobility) can make them feel dizzy and disoriented. We tested, in two experimental studies, different locomotion interfaces. The objective was twofold: testing spatial learning and cybersickness. In a first experiment, using first-person navigation with a flystick ®, we tested the effect of sensorial aids, a spatialized sound or guiding arrows on the ground, attracting the user toward the goal of the navigation task. Results revealed that sensorial aids tended to impact negatively spatial learning. Moreover, subjects reported significant levels of cybersickness. In a second experiment, we tested whether such negative effects could be due to poorly controlled rotational motion during simulated self-motion. Subjects used a gamepad, in which rotational and translational displacements were independently controlled by two joysticks. Furthermore, we tested first- versus third-person navigation. No significant difference was observed between these two conditions. Overall, cybersickness tended to be lower, as compared to experiment 1, but the difference was not significant. Future research should evaluate further the hypothesis of the role of passively perceived optical flow in cybersickness, but manipulating the virtual environment'sperrot structure. It also seems that video-gaming experience might be involved in the user's sensitivity to cybersickness.

  13. Determinants of inland navigation on the Vistula from Warsaw to Gdańsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bolt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne transport is the cheapest, the safest and the least harmful to the natural environment. Restoring regular waterway cargo transport will require revitalisation of the existing trans- -shipment and logistics infrastructure for commercial inland ports and building new. Transport policy makers must remember that waterborne transport is the most ecological type of transport. It produces only 10% of the gases emitted to the atmosphere by equivalent road transport. Its energy intensity constitutes 30% of the energy intensity of road transport. This article addresses the issues related to inland navigation on the lower Vistula, presenting the river as a waterway, along with its quality and general conditions for navigation. It describes the arrangement and condition of water infrastructure, with particular focus on river ports and the inland waterway fleet.

  14. Indoor Navigation to Support the Blind Person Using True Pathway within the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Map creation remains a very active field in the robotics and AI community, however it contains some challenge points like data association and the high degree of accuracy of localization which are seems to be difficult in some cases, more than that, most of these study focus on the robot navigation, without any consideration for the semantic of the environment, to serve human like blind persons. Approach: This study introduced a monocular SLAM method, which uses the Scale Invariant Features Transform (SIFT representation for the scene. The scene represented as clouds of sift features within the map; this hierarchical representation of space, serving to estimate the current direction in the environment within the current session. The system exploited the tracking of the same features of successive frames to calculate scalar weights for these features, to build a map of the environment indicating the camera movement, then by comparing the camera movement of the current moving with the true pathway within the same session the system can help and advice the blind person to navigate more confidently, through auditory information for the path way in the surroundings. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF used to estimate the camera movement within the successive frames. Results: The experimental work tested using the proposed method with a hand-held camera walking in indoor environment. The results show a good estimation on the spatial locations of the camera within few milliseconds. Tracking of the true pathway in addition to semantic environment within the session can give a good support to the blind person for navigation. Conclusion: The study presented new semantic features model helping the blind person for navigation environment using these clouds of features, for long-term appearance-based localization of a cane with web camera vision as the external sensor.

  15. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Golub; Bennett, Alex S.; Luther Elliott

    2015-01-01

    This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating th...

  16. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther

    2015-03-30

    This paper places America's "war on drugs" in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  17. ARCHITECTURE AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION FOR ROBOTS TO NAVIGATE IN UNKNOWN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenfeng; Christensen I.Henrik; Oreb(a)ck Anders

    2005-01-01

    It is discussed with the design and implementation of an architecture for a mobile robot to navigate in dynamic and unknown indoor environments. The architecture is based on the framework of Open Robot Control Software at KTH (OROCOS@KTH), which is also discussed and evaluated to navigate indoor efficiently, a new algorithm named door-like-exit detection is proposed which employs 2D feature of a door and extracts key points of pathway from the raw data of a laser scanner. As a hybrid architecture, it is decomposed into several basic components which can be classified as either deliberative or reactive. Each component can concurrently execute and communicate with another. It is expansible and transferable and its components are reusable.

  18. Bio-Inspired Principles Applied to the Guidance, Navigation and Control of UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Strydom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a number of biologically inspired principles that have been applied to the visual guidance, navigation and control of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS. The current limitations of UAS systems are outlined, such as the over-reliance on GPS, the requirement for more self-reliant systems and the need for UAS to have a greater understanding of their environment. It is evident that insects, even with their small brains and limited intelligence, have overcome many of the shortcomings of the current state of the art in autonomous aerial guidance. This has motivated research into bio-inspired systems and algorithms, specifically vision-based navigation, situational awareness and guidance.

  19. Indication and training protocols to provide “vision” aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Franciscus J.J.M.; Melis, Bart; Havik, Else

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Support for visually impaired or blind people (VIPs) can be a selection out of a wide range of opportunities: optical magnifiers, CCTV magnifiers, guide dogs, Braille display, night vision goggles, GPS-based navigation systems, indoor navigation systems, orientation and route instructi

  20. Applying a sunburst visualization to summarize user navigation sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodden, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    For many Web-based applications, it's important to be able to analyze the paths users have taken through a site--for example, to understand how they're discovering engaging content. These paths are difficult to summarize visually because of the underlying data's complexity. A Google researcher applied a sunburst visualization to this problem, after simplifying the data into a hierarchical format. The resulting visualization was successful in YouTube and is widely referenced and accessed. The code for the visualization is available as open source.

  1. California court to rule on insurer's denial of AIDS benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-16

    California Insurance Commissioner Chuck Quakenbush is asking the California Supreme Court to overturn a lower court ruling that bars policyholders from receiving disability payments because of AIDS. The State Court of Appeals ruled that Paul Revere Life Insurance Co. could deny coverage to [name removed] because his HIV infection amounted to a pre-existing condition. [Name removed] applied for the policy in 1988. He paid premiums for 5 years, longer than the 2 years the company had to confirm his medical condition. When he became unable to work because of AIDS, he applied for disability. The Commissioner says the intent behind the incontestability clause is to protect consumers from having claims denied after 2 years because of pre-existing conditions. One of [name removed]'s lawyers noted that the company's practice of offering insurance without any medical qualifications is not in line with industry standards. No date has been scheduled for oral arguments in the case.

  2. An Analytical Approach to Avoid Obstacles in Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Brandão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear supervised globally stable controller is proposed to reactively guide a mobile robot to avoid obstacles while seeking a goal. Whenever the robot detects an object nearby, its orientation is changed to be aligned with the tangent to the border of the obstacle. Then, the robot starts following it, looking for a feasible path to its goal. The supervisor is responsible for deciding which path to take when the robot faces some particular obstacle configurations that are quite difficult to deal with. Several simulations and experiments were run to validate the proposal, some of which are discussed here. To run the experiments, the proposed controller is programmed into the onboard computer of a real unicycle mobile platform, equipped with a laser range scanner. As for the simulations, the models of the same experimental setup were used. The final conclusion is that the nonlinear supervised controller proposed to solve the problem of avoiding obstacles during goal seeking has been validated, based on the theoretical analysis, and the simulated and experimental results.

  3. A HEURISTIC CASCADING FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO REACTIVE NAVIGATION FOR UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Yew-Chung Chak; Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The capability of navigating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) safely in unknown terrain offers huge potential for wider applications in non-segregated airspace. Flying in non-segregated airspace present a risk of collision with static obstacles (e.g., towers, power lines) and moving obstacles (e.g., aircraft, balloons). In this work, we propose a heuristic cascading fuzzy logic control strategy to solve for the Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) problem, in which the contro...

  4. National Waterways Study. Analysis of Navigation Relationships to Other Water Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    system is given in Table II-l, and a map of the system showing the geographic distribution of these uses is provided in Figure II-A. RELATIVE...supply from Buford to Atlanta, which will be discussed later in this segement discussion. (e) Water Quality. Legal requirements in the project...conflicts along key dimensions (segment type, level of commercial navigation, number of purposes and uses, geographical location). This procedure was

  5. SBIR Technology Applications to Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrecht, Phil; Eblen, Pat; Rush, John; Tzinis, Irene

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mission of the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office with particular emphasis on opportunities for technology development with SBIR companies. The SCaN office manages NASA's space communications and navigation networks: the Near Earth Network (NEN), the Space Network (SN), and the Deep Space Network (DSN). The SCaN networks nodes are shown on a world wide map and the networks are described. Two types of technologies are described: Pull technology, and Push technologies. A listing of technology themes is presented, with a discussion on Software defined Radios, Optical Communications Technology, and Lunar Lasercom Space Terminal (LLST). Other technologies that are being investigated are some Game Changing Technologies (GCT) i.e., technologies that offer the potential for improving comm. or nav. performance to the point that radical new mission objectives are possible, such as Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters, Silicon Nanowire Optical Detectors, and Auto-Configuring Cognitive Communications

  6. Navigating the Race to the Top Traffic Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early last week the U.S. Department of Education announced an unexpected 16 finalists for the first round of Race to the Top (RTT) funding--a veritable traffic jam in the Race to the Top. The finalists have requested a total of $6.5 billion in funds, but only $4.3 billion is up for grabs, and that needs to be spread over two rounds of competition.…

  7. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests. PMID:27483264

  8. Object Detection Applied to Indoor Environments for Mobile Robot Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandra Carolina; Gómez, Clara; Crespo, Jonathan; Barber, Ramón

    2016-07-28

    To move around the environment, human beings depend on sight more than their other senses, because it provides information about the size, shape, color and position of an object. The increasing interest in building autonomous mobile systems makes the detection and recognition of objects in indoor environments a very important and challenging task. In this work, a vision system to detect objects considering usual human environments, able to work on a real mobile robot, is developed. In the proposed system, the classification method used is Support Vector Machine (SVM) and as input to this system, RGB and depth images are used. Different segmentation techniques have been applied to each kind of object. Similarly, two alternatives to extract features of the objects are explored, based on geometric shape descriptors and bag of words. The experimental results have demonstrated the usefulness of the system for the detection and location of the objects in indoor environments. Furthermore, through the comparison of two proposed methods for extracting features, it has been determined which alternative offers better performance. The final results have been obtained taking into account the proposed problem and that the environment has not been changed, that is to say, the environment has not been altered to perform the tests.

  9. From Apprenticeship to Higher Education: Navigating the Credential Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismore, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    The credential landscape of vocational and higher education in the UK has expanded in recent years, alongside a rise in the number of students undertaking qualifications and a steady increase in tuition fees. The transition from an apprenticeship to higher education is one example of the progression from vocational to higher education. However,…

  10. ¿Anchoring on objectivity or navigating to pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ibáñez Gracia

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿What is it that moves into researching? ¿Why do we conduct it and what is such effort worth? These are the main questions underlying this paper: a tour into several of the topics involved in the "ought to's" of social sciences -objectivity, knowledge, transformation. His claim is that "pleasure is precisely what we count on to found our commitment for researching". Such claim does not imply in any way rather soft or pleasing criteria, for only the studies of great quality, implacable rigour, conscious elaboration and sustained effort, manage to reach the place of a beautiful objects of thought, capable of modifying their authors as well as those who enter in contact with them. To replace that old barometer of objectivity by the hetherodox barometer of pleasure -the main subject of this paper- is not to lowen any of the levels that a good social practice demands. Quite the contrary.

  11. Using TQM to improve management of home health aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansky, K H; Brannon, D

    1996-12-01

    Home health aides are at the front line of the home health industry, raising quality of care issues and human resource (HR) management challenges. Total quality management (TQM) provides a framework to help meet those challenges. The authors investigated the relationship between TQM and HR effectiveness in home health agencies. Results suggest that TQM practices are related to HR effectiveness. Suggestions are offered to make human resource management consistent with a TQM culture.

  12. AIDS in an infant causing severe failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Jones, A C; Larcher, V F; Price, E H

    1987-07-01

    A nine-month-old female Jamaican infant presented with a history of severe failure to thrive, recurrent pneumonia and developmental delay. She was found to have hepatosplenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and hypotonia. Investigations revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, cytomegalovirus in her urine, and patchy lung infiltrates on her chest radiographs. Three separate tests were positive for human immunodeficiency virus in both the infant and her mother, suggesting vertical transmission, and confirming AIDS as the cause of the severe failure to thrive.

  13. Navigating Bioenergy. Contributing to informed decision making on bioenergy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, M.; Reumerman, P.; Frederiks, B. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    In order to further contribute to sustainable global bioenergy development, UNIDO will this year be launching the Bioenergy Capacity Building Programme (BIOCAB), offering a comprehensive training package to policy makers and entrepreneurs aimed at enhancing their engagement in shaping a sustainable bioenergy industry in developing countries. The training package, disseminated through a network of key institutions and certified trainers, will consist of four modules covering the following subjects: Technologies and Processes, Policy, Socio-Economic and Environmental Issues, Financial and Project Development Issues, Industrial Applications for Productive Use. While designing the training package and its modules at a meeting hosted by UNIDO at headquarters in August 2008, experts reiterated a demand, previously expressed by UNIDO clients at various international fora, for an easy-to-read, practical and user-friendly introduction to certain contentious bioenergy issues. The expert meeting selected the most hotly-debated bioenergy issues and came up with the following eight topics: (1) Jatropha, the feedstock of the future?; (2) Biomethane, is it an underestimated energy source?; (3) Energy from Municipal Solid Waste, can this potential be realized?; (4) The Biorefinery Concept, how relevant is it for developing countries?; (5) Competition with Food, what are the facts in the food versus fuel discussion?; (6) Sustainability and Certification of Biomass, what are the benefits?; (7) Clean Development Mechanism, how does it work?; (8) Success Stories.

  14. Machine Vision Applied to Navigation of Confined Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeri M.; Broderick, David J.; Howard, Ricky; Corder, Eric L.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of space related assets has been emphasized after the second loss of a Space Shuttle. The intricate nature of the hardware being inspected often requires a complete disassembly to perform a thorough inspection which can be difficult as well as costly. Furthermore, it is imperative that the hardware under inspection not be altered in any other manner than that which is intended. In these cases the use of machine vision can allow for inspection with greater frequency using less intrusive methods. Such systems can provide feedback to guide, not only manually controlled instrumentation, but autonomous robotic platforms as well. This paper serves to detail a method using machine vision to provide such sensing capabilities in a compact package. A single camera is used in conjunction with a projected reference grid to ascertain precise distance measurements. The design of the sensor focuses on the use of conventional components in an unconventional manner with the goal of providing a solution for systems that do not require or cannot accommodate more complex vision systems.

  15. Pathways to care: how superdiversity shapes the need for navigational assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill; Davison, Charlie; Bradby, Hannah; Krause, Kristine; Mejías, Felipe Morente; Alex, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    The recently developed sociological concept of superdiversity provides a potentially interesting and useful way of developing an understanding of life in contemporary Europe. Here we report on research based on individual narratives about access to health care, as described by a range of people from very different sociocultural backgrounds in four European countries. This article notes the frequent appearance in first-person narratives of the need for navigational assistance in the form of knowledge, cultural competence and orientation that facilitate the identification and use of pathways to health care. Our dataset of 24 semi-structured interviews suggests that, in the context of needing health care, the feeling of being a 'stranger in a strange land' is common in people from a wide range of backgrounds. In social settings characterised by transnationalism and cultural heterogeneity, it is important to understand the need for navigational assistance, particularly at times of uncertainty, in the design and delivery of health services. The relationship between the inhabitants of contemporary Europe and the healthcare systems available in the places where they live is dominated by both complexity and contingency - and this is the cultural field in which navigation operates.

  16. An algebraic perspective to single-transponder underwater navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Reger, Johann

    This paper studies the position estimation of an underwater vehicle using a single acoustic transponder. The chosen estimation approach is based on nonlinear differential algebraic methods which allow to express very simply conditions for observability. These are then used in combination with an ......This paper studies the position estimation of an underwater vehicle using a single acoustic transponder. The chosen estimation approach is based on nonlinear differential algebraic methods which allow to express very simply conditions for observability. These are then used in combination...

  17. NAVIGATING A QUALITY ROUTE TO A NATIONAL SAFETY AWARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE SS

    2009-05-26

    Deming quality methodologies applied to safety are recognized with the National Safety Council's annual Robert W. Campbell Award. Over the last ten years, the implementation of Statistical Process Control and quality methodologies at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have contributed to improved safety. Improvements attributed to Statistical Process Control are evidenced in Occupational Safety and Health records and documented through several articles in Quality Progress and the American Society of Safety Engineers publication, Professional Safety. Statistical trending of safety, quality, and occurrence data continues to playa key role in improving safety and quality at what has been called the world's largest environmental cleanup project. DOE's Hanford Site played a pivotal role in the nation's defense beginning in the 1940s, when it was established as part of the Manhattan Project. After more than 50 years of producing material for nuclear weapons, Hanford, which covers 586 square miles in southeastern Washington state, is now focused on three outcomes: (1) Restoring the Columbia River corridor for multiple uses; (2) Transitioning the central plateau to support long-term waste management; and (3) Putting DOE assets to work for the future. The current environmental cleanup mission faces challenges of overlapping technical, political, regulatory, environmental, and cultural interests. From Oct. 1, 1996 through Sept. 30, 2008, Fluor Hanford was a prime contractor to the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office. In this role, Fluor Hanford managed several major cleanup activities that included dismantling former nuclear-processing facilities, cleaning up the Site's contaminated groundwater, retrieving and processing transuranic waste for shipment and disposal off-site, maintaining the Site's infrastructure, providing security and fire protection, and operating the Volpentest HAMMER Training and Education

  18. Optical flow and inertial navigation system fusion in the UAV navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A.; Miller, A.; Miller, B.; Stepanyan, K.

    2016-10-01

    In recent years navigation on the basis of computation of the camera path and the distance to obstacles with the aid of field of image motion velocities (i.e. optical flow, OF) became highly demanded particularly in the area of relatively small and even micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Video sequences captured by onboard camera gives the possibility of the OF calculation with the aid of relatively simple algorithms like Lucas-Kanade. The complete OF is the linear function of linear and angular velocities of the UAV which provides an additional means for the navigation parameters estimation. Such UAV navigation approach presumes that on-board camera gives the video sequence of the underlying surface images providing the information about the UAV evolutions. Navigation parameters are extracted on the basis of exact OF formulas which gives the observation process description for estimation based on Kalman filtering. One can expect the high accuracy of the estimated parameters (linear and angular velocities) because their number is substantially less than the number of measurements (practically the number of the camera pixels).

  19. Geomorphic Investigation of Shreveport to Daingerfield Navigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    which are common for older mature soils. Soils at this location contain both argillic and fragipan horizons. Argillic horizons are a diagnostic soil...soils or the underlying parent material (Birkeland 1984). Clay content and thickness in argillic horizons are variable 26 Ch,•oe 4 Geomorphic...over- lying soils, etc.). Evidence for translocated clay particles from the overlying horizon must be present for a soil to contain an argillic horizon

  20. Challenges to Autonomous Navigation in Complex Urban Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    a, Robert E. Karlsen a, Chip DiBerardino b, Edward Mottern b, & N. Joseph Kott, III a aU.S. Army Tank- Automotive Research, Development & Engineering...Gray; Robert Karlsen; Chip DiBerardino; Edward Mottern; N. Joseph Kott, III 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...There are a variety of sensors that a UGV can use to provide information about its environment, including active systems such as RADAR , LIDAR and

  1. Web Usage Mining Applied to Records of Navigation by Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darian Horacio Grass Boada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Knowledge Discovery on Databases (KDD process applied on the internetsurfing logs at the University of Informatics Sciences. In this context, it describes a Web-UsageMining process using as data sources; the internet surfing logs stored by the proxy server, and alsodescriptive information regarding the users of such surfing service, which was provided by the institution’spersonnel management systems. Statistical, numerical and clustering techniques were combinedseeking to identify user groups with similar internet surfing account usage, in hopes of providingimportant information for decision making processes carried out by the Network Management andSecurity Office or other areas of the institution. This paper describes the methods and techniquesused, and the procedure utilized for performing the descriptive clustering task. This procedure proposesthe use of the CUR matricial decomposition to identify the possible number of groups to identify by thek-medoides clustering algorithm. Lastly, the experiments carried out and the evaluations of the groupsobtained are described and examples of some of the patterns obtained are presented.

  2. CD4 count and viral load specific rates of AIDS, non-AIDS and deaths according to current antiretroviral use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mocroft

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background CD4 and viral loads are used in clinical trials as surrogate endpoints for assessing efficacy of newly available antiretrovirals. If antiretrovirals act through other pathways or negatively affect the risk of disease this would not be identified prior to licensing. The aims of this study were to investigate the CD4 and viral load specific rates of fatal and non-fatal AIDS and non-AIDS events according to current antiretrovirals. Methods Poisson regression was used to compare overall events (fatal or non-fatal AIDS, non-AIDS or death, AIDS events (fatal and non-fatal or non-AIDS events (fatal or non-fatal for specific nucleoside pairs and third drugs used with>1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU after January 1st 2001. Results 9801 patients were included. The median baseline date was January 2004 (interquartile range [IQR] January 2001–February 2007, age was 40.4 (IQR 34.6–47.3 years, and time since starting cART was 3.3 (IQR 0.9–5.1 years. At baseline, the median nadir CD4 was 162 (IQR 71–257/mm3, baseline CD4 was 390 (IQR 249–571/mm3, viral load was 1.9 (IQR 1.7–3.3 log10copies/ml and 2961 (30.2% had a prior AIDS diagnosis and 6.4 years prior to baseline. During 42372.5 PYFU, 1203 (437 AIDS and 766 non-AIDS events occurred. The overall event rate was 2.8 per 100 PYFU (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7–3.0, of AIDS events was 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.1 and of non-AIDS events was 1.8 (95% CI 1.7–1.9. Of the AIDS events, 53 (12.1%were fatal as were 239 (31.2% of the non-AIDS events. After adjustment, there was weak evidence of a difference in the overall events rates between nucleoside pairs (global p-value=0.084, and third drugs (global p-value=0.031. Compared to zidovudine/lamivudine, patients taking abacavir/lamivudine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 1.22; 95% CI 0.99–1.49 and abacavir plus one other nucleoside (aIRR 1.51; 95% CI 1.14–2.02 had an increased incidence of overall events. Comparing the third drugs

  3. 'Redefining health care': medical homes or archipelagos to navigate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, Alain C; Crosson, Francis J; Shortell, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the structure of the health care delivery system, emphasizing physician group practices. The authors argue for comprehensive integrated delivery systems (IDSs). The jumping-off point for their analysis is the recently published Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results, by Michael Porter and Elizabeth Teisberg. The authors focus on the book's core idea that competitors should be freestanding integrated practice units (or "islands in archipelagos") versus IDSs (or "medical homes"). In any case, the authors contend that this issue should be resolved by competition to attract and serve informed, cost-conscious, responsible consumers on a level playing field.

  4. Three dimensional creativity three navigations to extend our thoughts

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kwang Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Is creativity something that we are simply born with and cannot hone with effort? Some say that creativity cannot be cultivated. Is it true? In general, our thinking sticks to reality unless there is any external stimulation. With our thinking fixed on a certain situation, it becomes difficult to come up with a fresh idea. In this regard, three questions are suggested: (1) Question of Time: When a problem arises, question yourself on a time axis first of all. How would the matter be handled 10 or 20 years from now? (2) Question of Space: Ask yourself some questions on its spatial elements. How would the matter be handled in Saudi Arabia or in China? (3) Question of Field: Apply the given problem in a variety of fields. How would the matter be handled in the field of music or electronic engineering? The three questions suggested here are given on the three axes: time, space, and field, and this book deals with theoretical and practical aspects on the topics. In this way it is a unique book about the systematic...

  5. US Foreign Policy and Aid to the Peace Corps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D.A. Schaefer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study examined foreign aid as administered by the US Agency for International Development (USAID through four presidencies, beginning with the Reagan era. Aid dispensed to the Peace Corps for humanitarian purposes was the major focus of the investigation. The research proposed that such aid should continue under the President Barack Obama administration. Approach: The approach taken used both qualitative analyses of the four administrations along with quantitative analyses of the data from USAID. Results: The findings indicated that, while many forms of economic and military assistance had been both used and abused throughout much of American history, the Peace Corps created under President John F. Kennedy presented an exception. However, the Peace Corps had received both benefit and harm as a beneficiary of US foreign aid due to fluctuating economic realities associated with the federal budget. President Reagan was a strong supporter of the Peace Corps; yet, it was “under his watch” that the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Deficit Reduction Act of 1985 was passed, which negatively influenced nearly all forms of economic and military assistance distributed through USAID. Starting with President Clinton’s second term funding for USAID dramatically increased. Conclusion: The Peace Corps was not immune to the adverse effects, but funding also increased under President Clinton. From this time onward, the Peace Corps has enjoyed a high level of political and financial support, a scenario that deserves to be continued under President Obama. This study can help future analyses of the US presidential responses to the giving of assistance to the Peace Corps.

  6. United Nations system efforts to support the response to AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Lin; HE; Joel; REHNSTROM

    2005-01-01

    In the last two years, we have seen a remarkable intensification in the response to AIDS in China. A number of organizations have joined and contributed to the efforts of the Chinese government in responding the AIDS epidemic in China. This article specifically describes the role of the United Nations in supporting and strengthening those responses.Achievements of the United Nations (UN) highlighted in the article include: strengthened leadership and political commitment to respond to AIDS; improved HIV/AIDS surveillance and information; expanded prevention efforts; improved treatment, care and support to people living with HIV and increased resources for AIDS programs. Additional roles of e., one national plan on AIDS; one national coordinating authority for AIDS; and one monitoring and evaluation system for AIDS. In addition, the UN system is expected to strengthen alignment and harmonization of activities of all international organizations and improved accountability and oversight. Remaining challenges identified include increasing awareness of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination; reducing vulnerability and risk behaviour among specific groups;providing improved treatment, care and support for people living with HIV; promoting stronger engagement by civil society, and; addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS.

  7. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  8. Conceptual Design of a Communication-Based Deep Space Navigation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan J.; Chuang, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    As the need grows for increased autonomy and position knowledge accuracy to support missions beyond Earth orbit, engineers must push and develop more advanced navigation sensors and systems that operate independent of Earth-based analysis and processing. Several spacecraft are approaching this problem using inter-spacecraft radiometric tracking and onboard autonomous optical navigation methods. This paper proposes an alternative implementation to aid in spacecraft position fixing. The proposed method Network-Based Navigation technique takes advantage of the communication data being sent between spacecraft and between spacecraft and ground control to embed navigation information. The navigation system uses these packets to provide navigation estimates to an onboard navigation filter to augment traditional ground-based radiometric tracking techniques. As opposed to using digital signal measurements to capture inherent information of the transmitted signal itself, this method relies on the embedded navigation packet headers to calculate a navigation estimate. This method is heavily dependent on clock accuracy and the initial results show the promising performance of a notional system.

  9. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.

  10. What Is the Aggregate Economic Rate of Return to Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, academic studies have been converging towards the view that foreign aid promotes aggregate economic growth. We employ a simulation approach to: (i) validate the coherence of empirical aid-growth studies published since 2008; and (ii) calculate plausible ranges for the rate...... of return to aid. Our results highlight the long run nature of aid-financed investments and the importance of channels other than accumulation of physical capital. We find the return to aid lies in ranges commonly accepted for public investments and there is little to justify the view that aid has had...

  11. A Spatial Cognitive Map and a Human-Like Memory Model Dedicated to Pedestrian Navigation in Virtual Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Romain; Donikian, Stéphane

    Many articles dealing with agent navigation in an urban environment involve the use of various heuristics. Among them, one is prevalent: the search of the shortest path between two points. This strategy impairs the realism of the resulting behaviour. Indeed, psychological studies state that such a navigation behaviour is conditioned by the knowledge the subject has of its environment. Furthermore, the path a city dweller can follow may be influenced by many factors like his daily habits, or the path simplicity in term of minimum of direction changes. It appeared interesting to us to investigate how to mimic human navigation behavior with an autonomous agent. The solution we propose relies on an architecture based on a generic model of informed environment, a spatial cognitive map model merged with a human-like memory model, representing the agent's temporal knowledge of the environment, it gained along its experiences of navigation.

  12. Hearing Aids: How to Choose the Right One

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... audio from a television, a computer or a music device with a cord. Variable programming. Some hearing aids can store several preprogrammed settings for various listening needs and environments. Environmental noise control. Some hearing aids offer noise cancellation, which ...

  13. Current Challenges to the United States’ AIDS Drug Assistance Program and Possible Implications of the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. McManus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the “payer of last resort” for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and limited funding, ADAPs are employing cost containment measures. Since 2010, emergency federal funds have bailed out ADAP, but these are not sustainable. In the coming years, providers and policy makers associated with HIV care will need to navigate the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Lessons learned from the challenges associated with providing sustainable access to ART for vulnerable populations through ADAP should inform upcoming decisions about how to ensure delivery of ART during and after the implementation of the ACA.

  14. Ecodesign Navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M; Evans, S.; McAloone, Timothy Charles;

    The Ecodesign Navigator is the product of a three-year research project called DEEDS - DEsign for Environment Decision Support. The initial partners were Manchester Metropolitan University, Cranfield University, Engineering 6 Physical Sciences Resaech Council, Electrolux, ICL, and the Industry...

  15. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  16. The Use of the Lead and Line by Early Navigators in the North Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kemp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws attention to the lack of information as to how early North Sea sailors navigated, particularly during the one thousand year period that followed Roman times. The lead and line was the only navigational aid available for most of this period, but there is little recorded as to whether it was used simply for ensuring a ship or boat had enough water to proceed or whether, together with the knowledge it provided of the nature of the sea bed, it was used as a more positive position fixing device. The author would appreciate any information relating to navigation techniques used during this period.

  17. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact services and communication interventions…

  18. Comparing the Usefulness of Video and Map Information In Navigation Tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis W. Nielsen; Michael A. Goodrich

    2006-03-01

    One of the fundamental aspects of robot teleoperation is the ability to successfully navigate a robot through an environment. We define successful navigation to mean that the robot minimizes collisions and arrives at the destination in a timely manner. Often video and map information is presented to a robot operator to aid in navigation tasks. This paper addresses the usefulness of map and video information in a navigation task by comparing a side-by-side (2D) representation and an integrated (3D) representation in both a simulated and a real world study. The results suggest that sometimes video is more helpful than a map and other times a map is more helpful than video. From a design perspective, an integrated representation seems to help navigation more than placing map and video side-by-side.

  19. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    -technical system, the attack navigator identifies routes to an attacker goal. Specific attacker properties such as skill or resources can be included through attacker profiles. This enables defenders to explore attack scenarios and the effectiveness of defense alternatives under different threat conditions....... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  20. Mobile Robot Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Robots will soon take part in everyone’s daily life. In industrial production this has been the case for many years, but up to now the use of mobile robots has been limited to a few and isolated applications like lawn mowing, surveillance, agricultural production and military applications....... The research is now progressing towards autonomous robots which will be able to assist us in our daily life. One of the enabling technologies is navigation, and navigation is the subject of this thesis. Navigation of an autonomous robot is concerned with the ability of the robot to direct itself from...

  1. 'Outsmarting Traffic, Together': Driving as Social Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hind

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The automotive world is evolving. Ten years ago Nigel Thrift (2004: 41 made the claim that the experience of driving was slipping into our 'technological unconscious'. Only recently the New York Times suggested that with the rise of automated driving, standalone navigation tools as we know them would cease to exist, instead being 'fully absorbed into the machine' (Fisher, 2013. But in order to bridge the gap between past and future driving worlds, another technological evolution is emerging. This short, critical piece charts the rise of what has been called 'social navigation' in the industry; the development of digital mapping platforms designed to foster automotive sociality. It makes two provisional points. Firstly, that 'ludic' conceptualisations can shed light on the ongoing reconfiguration of drivers, vehicles, roads and technological aids such as touch-screen satellite navigation platforms. And secondly, that as a result of this, there is a coming-into-being of a new kind of driving politics; a 'casual politicking' centred on an engagement with digital interfaces. We explicate both by turning our attention towards Waze; a social navigation application that encourages users to interact with various driving dynamics.   

  2. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is localized to subnuclear domains enriched in splicing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yi, E-mail: yihooyi@gmail.com; Ericsson, Ida, E-mail: ida.ericsson@ntnu.no; Doseth, Berit, E-mail: berit.doseth@ntnu.no; Liabakk, Nina B., E-mail: nina.beate.liabakk@ntnu.no; Krokan, Hans E., E-mail: hans.krokan@ntnu.no; Kavli, Bodil, E-mail: bodil.kavli@ntnu.no

    2014-03-10

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme in adaptive immunity. AID initiates the antibody diversification processes in activated B cells by deaminating cytosine to uracil in immunoglobulin genes. To some extent other genes are also targeted, which may lead to genome instability and B cell malignancy. Thus, it is crucial to understand its targeting and regulation mechanisms. AID is regulated at several levels including subcellular compartmentalization. However, the complex nuclear distribution and trafficking of AID has not been studied in detail previously. In this work, we examined the subnuclear localization of AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 and found that they associate with spliceosome-associated structures including Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. Moreover, protein kinase A (PKA), which activates AID by phosphorylation at Ser38, is present together with AID in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we demonstrate that AID physically associates with the major spliceosome subunits (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, snRNPs), as well as other essential splicing components, in addition to the transcription machinery. Based on our findings and the literature, we suggest a transcription-coupled splicing-associated model for AID targeting and activation. - Highlights: • AID and its interaction partner CTNNBL1 localize to Cajal bodies and nuclear speckles. • AID associates with its activating kinase PKA in nuclear speckles. • AID is linked to the splicing machinery in switching B-cells. • Our findings suggest a transcription-coupled splicing associated mechanism for AID targeting and activation.

  3. Mental space travel: damage to posterior parietal cortex prevents egocentric navigation and reexperiencing of remote spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-05-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might support egocentric representations. To date, however, few studies have examined long-standing egocentric representations of environments learned long ago. Here we tested 7 patients with focal lesions in PPC and 12 normal controls in remote spatial memory tasks, including 2 tasks reportedly reliant on allocentric representations (distance and proximity judgments) and 2 tasks reportedly reliant on egocentric representations (landmark sequencing and route navigation; see Rosenbaum, Ziegler, Winocur, Grady, & Moscovitch, 2004). Patients were unimpaired in distance and proximity judgments. In contrast, they all failed in route navigation, and left-lesioned patients also showed marginally impaired performance in landmark sequencing. Patients' subjective experience associated with navigation was impoverished and disembodied compared with that of the controls. These results suggest that PPC is crucial for accessing remote spatial memories within an egocentric reference frame that enables both navigation and reexperiencing. Additionally, PPC was found to be necessary to implement specific aspects of allocentric navigation with high demands on spontaneous retrieval.

  4. Pulsar/CNS integrated navigation based on federated UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Liu; Jie Ma; Jinwen Tian

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the autonomous navigation capability of satellite,a pulsar/CNS(celestial navigation system)integrated navigation method based on federated unscented Kalman filter(UKF)is proposed.The celestial navigation is a mature and stable navigation method.However,its position determination performance is not satisfied due to the low accuracy of horizon sensor.Single pulsar navigation is a new navigation method,which can provide highly accurate range measurements.The major drawback of single pulsar navigation is that the system is completely unobservabie.As two methods are complementary to each other,the federated UKF is used here for fusing the navigation data from single pulsar navigation and CNS.Compared to the traditional celestial navigation method and single pulsar navigation,the integrated navigation method can provide better navigation performance.The simulation results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the navigation method.

  5. From self-assessment to frustration, a small step toward autonomy in robotic navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffret, Adrien; Cuperlier, Nicolas; Tarroux, Philippe; Gaussier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy and self-improvement capabilities are still challenging in the fields of robotics and machine learning. Allowing a robot to autonomously navigate in wide and unknown environments not only requires a repertoire of robust strategies to cope with miscellaneous situations, but also needs mechanisms of self-assessment for guiding learning and for monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies requires feedbacks on the behavior's quality, from a given fitness system in order to take correct decisions. In this work, we focus on how a second-order controller can be used to (1) manage behaviors according to the situation and (2) seek for human interactions to improve skills. Following an incremental and constructivist approach, we present a generic neural architecture, based on an on-line novelty detection algorithm that may be able to self-evaluate any sensory-motor strategies. This architecture learns contingencies between sensations and actions, giving the expected sensation from the previous perception. Prediction error, coming from surprising events, provides a measure of the quality of the underlying sensory-motor contingencies. We show how a simple second-order controller (emotional system) based on the prediction progress allows the system to regulate its behavior to solve complex navigation tasks and also succeeds in asking for help if it detects dead-lock situations. We propose that this model could be a key structure toward self-assessment and autonomy. We made several experiments that can account for such properties for two different strategies (road following and place cells based navigation) in different situations.

  6. From Self-Assessment to Frustration, A Small Step Towards Autonomy in Robotic Navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eJauffret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy and self-improvement capabilities are still challenging in the fields of robotics and machine learning. Allowing a robot to autonomously navigate in wide and unknown environments not only requires a repertoire of robust strategies to cope with miscellaneous situations, but also needs mechanisms of self-assessment for guiding learning and for monitoring strategies. Monitoring strategies requires feedbacks on the behavior’s quality, from a given fitness system in order to take correct decisions.In this work, we focus on how a second-order controller can be used to (1 manage behaviors according to the situation and (2 seek for human interactions to improve skills. Following an incremental and constructivist approach, we present a generic neural architecture, based on an online novelty detection algorithm that may be able to self-evaluate any sensory-motor strategies. This architecture learns contingencies between sensations and actions, giving the expected sensation from the previous perception. Prediction error, coming from surprising events, provides a measure of the quality of the underlying sensory-motor contingencies. We show how a simple second-order controller (emotional system based on the prediction progress allows the system to regulate its behavior to solve complex navigation tasks and also succeeds in asking for help if it detects dead-lock situations.We propose that this model could be a key structure toward self-assessment and autonomy. We made several experiments that can account for such properties for two different strategies (road following and place cells based navigation in different situations.

  7. [Computer-assisted navigation in orthognathic surgery. Application to Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassarou, M; Benassarou, A; Meyer, C

    2013-08-05

    Computer-assisted navigation is a tool that allows the surgeon to reach intraoperatively a previously defined target. This technique can be applied to the positioning of bone fragments in orthognathic surgery. It is not used routinely yet because there are no specifically dedicated systems available on the market for this kind of surgery. The goal of our study was to describe the various systems that could be used in orthognathic surgery and to report our experience of computer-assisted surgery in the positioning of the maxilla during maxillomandibular osteotomies.

  8. Visual Navigation of Complex Information Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah North

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors lay the foundation for the introduction of visual navigation aid to assist computer users in direct manipulation of the complex information spaces. By exploring present research on scientific data visualisation and creating a case for improved information visualisation tools, they introduce the design of an improved information visualisation interface utilizing dynamic slider, called Visual-X, incorporating icons with bindable attributes (glyphs. Exploring the improvement that these data visualisations, make to a computing environment, the authors conduct an experiment to compare the performance of subjects who use traditional interfaces and Visual-X. Methodology is presented and conclusions reveal that the use of Visual-X appears to be a promising approach in providing users with a navigation tool that does not overload their cognitive processes.

  9. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  10. New Method of Reconstruction from Nonparallel Stereo and Application to Surgical Navigator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new method to reconstruct 3D scene points from nonparallel stereo is proposed. From a pair of conjugate images in an arbitrarily configured stereo system that has been calibrated, coordinates of 3D scene points can be computed directly using the method, bypassing the process of rectifying images or iterative solution involved in existing methods. Experiment results from both simulated data and real images validate the method. Practical application to surgical navigator shows that the method has advantages to improve efficiency and accuracy of 3D reconstruction from nonparallel stereo system in comparison with the conventional method that employs algorithm for standard parallel axes stereo geometry.

  11. International health financing and the response to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel; Gottret, Pablo; Yeh, Ethan; de Beyer, Joy; Oelrichs, Robert; Zewdie, Debrework

    2009-11-01

    Efforts to finance HIV responses have generated large increases in funding, catalyzed activism and institutional innovation, and brought renewed attention to health issues and systems. The benefits go well beyond HIV programs. The substantial increases in HIV funding are a tiny percentage of overall increases in health financing, with other areas also seeing large absolute increases. Data on health funding suggest an improved "pro-poor" distribution, with Africa benefiting relatively more from increased external flows. A literature review found few evidence-based analyses of the impact of AIDS programs and funding on broader health financing. Conceptual frameworks that would facilitate such analysis are summarized.

  12. A smart multisensor approach to assist blind people in specific urban navigation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, B

    2008-12-01

    Visually impaired people are often discouraged in using electronic aids due to complexity of operation, large amount of training, nonoptimized degree of information provided to the user, and high cost. In this paper, a new multisensor architecture is discussed, which would help blind people to perform urban mobility tasks. The device is based on a multisensor strategy and adopts smart signal processing.

  13. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golub

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper places America's “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  14. Using machine learning to blend human and robot controls for assisted wheelchair navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goil, Aditya; Derry, Matthew; Argall, Brenna D

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an algorithm for collaborative control of an assistive semi-autonomous wheelchair. Our approach is based on a statistical machine learning technique to learn task variability from demonstration examples. The algorithm has been developed in the context of shared-control powered wheelchairs that provide assistance to individuals with impairments that affect their control in challenging driving scenarios, like doorway navigation. We validate our algorithm within a simulation environment, and find that with relatively few demonstrations, our approach allows for safe traversal of the doorway while maintaining a high level of user control.

  15. 75 FR 70921 - Simon Property Group, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Simon Property Group, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public... practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  16. Using Financial Aid to Speed Degree Completion: A Look at MDRC's Research. Issue Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Financial aid has long been used to increase access to postsecondary education, particularly for underrepresented students. Given the size of the financial aid system and the widespread use of aid, it should also be thought of as a tool to improve academic success and postsecondary completion. Evidence suggests that using additional financial aid…

  17. HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romina do Socorro Marques de Oliveira; Adele Schwartz Benzaken; Valeria Saraceni; Meritxell Sabidó

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases ...

  18. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Chin, Hoong Chor

    Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.

  19. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  20. 23 CFR 630.709 - Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project. 630.709... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Advance Construction of Federal-Aid Projects § 630.709 Conversion to a regular Federal-aid project. (a) The State Department of Transportation may submit a...

  1. Principles to enable leaders to navigate the harsh realities of crisis and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara J

    2010-07-01

    Leadership during a crisis that involves the physical safety and emotional or financial wellbeing of those being led offers an intense environment that may not allow for on-the-job training. One of the challenges faced by crisis leaders is to communicate effectively the courses of action needed to allow for a reduction of harm to individuals and the ultimate restoration of the group, organisation or community. The six principles of crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) give leaders tools to navigate the harsh realities of speaking to employees, media, partners and stakeholders during an intense crisis. CERC also helps leaders to avoid the five most common communication mistakes during crises. Much of the harmful individual and group behaviour predicted in a profound crisis can be mitigated with effective crisis and emergency risk communication. A leader must anticipate what mental stresses followers will be experiencing and apply appropriate communication strategies to attempt to manage these stresses among staff or the public and preserve or repair the organisation's reputation. In an emergency, the right message at the right time is a 'resource multiplier' - it helps leaders to get their job done.

  2. A digital processing strategy to optimize hearing aid outputs directly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Peter J; Martin, Lois F A; Fiket, Hayley J

    2004-01-01

    A new amplification strategy (ADRO), based on 64 independently operating channels, was compared with a nine-channel wide dynamic range compression strategy (WDRC). Open-platform in-the-ear hearing instruments were configured either with ADRO or the manufacturer's WDRC strategy. Twenty-two subjects with mild to moderate hearing loss took home the ADRO or WDRC hearing aids. After three weeks' acclimatization, the aids were evaluated using monosyllables in quiet at 50 to 65 dB SPL and sentences in eight-talker babble. The acclimatization and evaluation were repeated in the second phase of the balanced reverse-block blind experimental design. The ADRO program showed a statistically significant mean advantage of 7.85% word score (95% confidence interval 3.19% to 12.51%; p = 0.002) and 6.41% phoneme score for the monosyllables in quiet (95% confidence interval 2.03% to 10.79%; p = 0.006). A statistically significant advantage of 7.25% was also found for the ADRO program in background noise (95% confidence interval 1.95% to 12.55%; p = 0.010). The results are consistent with earlier data for listeners with moderate to severe hearing loss.

  3. Instrumented sparring vest to aid in martial arts scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Katie; Logan, Rachel; Sluti, Anne; Rogge, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Competitors in certain martial arts, such as Taekwondo, are required to wear protective vests during competition. This article outlines the design and fabrication of an instrumented martial arts sparring vest that will aid in martial arts scoring, which is currently a work in progress. After fabrication, this instrumented vest and associated system will not only provide the same protection as before modification, but will also report the location and force magnitude of strikes applied to the vest. This will aid in scoring of martial arts competitions, as it will determine if a strike is forceful enough to be considered deliberate and therefore is a valid point-scoring strike. This will make scoring of competitions unbiased and equal for all competitors, something that is difficult to achieve based solely on a judge's assessment by observation. The system will also indicate the probable injury resulting from a strike, for example, no injury, bruising or bone fracture. If a competitor's strike force is excessive and serious injury could result, the system will indicate this so action can be taken, such as penalty or disqualification of a competitor. Both tissue testing and force testing will be conducted prior to vest fabrication to determine estimates of forces that will damage tissue and typical forces experienced during competition. After testing is complete, the system will be fabricated and the testing results will be implemented into the associated software.

  4. Scientists Grow Therapeutic Protein in Engineered Soya Bean Seeds to Prevent AIDS | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified soya beans provide a scalable, low-cost method of producing microbicides that prevent AIDS, a technique sustainable for resource-poor countries where AIDS is spreading rapidly. According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, more than 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV. While the number of AIDS-related deaths are decreasing, infection rates are still increasing, specifically in Eastern and Southern Africa.

  5. A holistic model for matching high-tech hearing aid features to elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C E; Danhauer, J L; Krishnamurti, S

    2000-12-01

    Successful hearing aid fittings using high-technology features for elderly patients require consideration of factors beyond results obtained from routine audiologic evaluations. A holistic hearing aid selection, fitting, and evaluation approach that considers patient characteristics from communication, physical, psychological, and social assessment domains is presented here along with a checklist and flowcharts for matching high-tech hearing aid features to older persons who are hearing aid candidates.

  6. Unsupervised learning of reflexive and action-based affordances to model adaptive navigational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weiller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a cognitive model capable to model a variety of behavioral domains and apply it to a navigational task. We used place cells as sensory representation, such that the cells’ place fields divided the environment into discrete states. The robot learns knowledge of the environment by memorizing the sensory outcome of its motor actions. This is composed of a central process, learning the probability of state-to-state transitions by motor actions and a distal processing routine, learning the extent to which these state-to-state transitions are caused by sensory-driven reflex behavior (obstacle avoidance. Navigational decision making integrates central and distal learned environmental knowledge to select an action that leads to a goal state. Differentiating distal and central processing increases the behavioral accuracy of the selected actions and the ability of behavioral adaptation to a changed environment. We propose that the system can canonically be expanded to model other behaviors, using alternative definitions of states and actions. The emphasis of this paper is to test this general cognitive model on a robot in a real world environment

  7. Performance Characteristic Mems-Based IMUs for UAVs Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Hansen, J. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK), and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outage.

  8. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC MEMS-BASED IMUs FOR UAVs NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK, and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS signal outage.

  9. Data Mining to Facilitate Effective User Navigation and Improve Structure of a Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Mohod,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Now a days for a company it is very important to have active presence on web to become successful in electronic market. This requirement is fulfilled by an interactive website of a company. Website can be used to sell goods, maintain customer relationships, promotion of goods. By looking at the customer's response towards website we can decide campaign for future products and services. So for this website should be interactive and must be used by user by the way designer wants to. So, it is very important to study navigational behavior of a customer. By analyzing the web logs which records the navigational activity of the customer we can get several sequential patterns which helps us to study whether user is pursuing site's goal or not. Sequences are analyzed with WUM (Web Utilization Miner which gives g-sequence (Generalized Sequence and aggregate tree as an output. On the basis of the structure that is given by WUM, conclusions are studied and it is decided whether site structure needs improvement; The improvements suggested should be minimum but at the same time site should satisfy business goal. A mathematical programming model is used which suggest minimum improvements to site. Improvements which tends to change structure of site are avoided as it may be confusing for old site user.

  10. Creating and sustaining an effective coaching culture in home care: one organization's performance improvement related to aides and aide retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marki

    2011-05-01

    Relationships between aides and their supervisors are often challenging. Unproductive disciplinary conversations lead to increased dissatisfaction, low morale, high turnover, and stress levels among staff. This cycle can continue to spiral if not effectively addressed and aimed in a positive direction. This article shares the experience of an organization that addressed this concern through a performance improvement initiative.

  11. Funding Your Education: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Every student, who meets some basic eligibility requirements, can get some type of financial aid regardless of age or family income. Federal student aid is a financial aid from the federal government to help a student pay for education expenses at an eligible college, technical school, vocational school, or graduate school. There are three…

  12. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal student aid is a financial help for eligible students to pay for educational expenses at an eligible postsecondary school (e.g., college, vocational school, graduate school). There are three categories of federal student aid: grants, workstudy, and loans. Federal student aid covers expenses such as tuition and fees, room and board, books…

  13. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  14. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  15. Differential GNSS and Vision-Based Tracking to Improve Navigation Performance in Cooperative Multi-UAV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Rodi Vetrella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous navigation of micro-UAVs is typically based on the integration of low cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS-based inertial and magnetic sensors to stabilize and control the flight. The resulting navigation performance in terms of position and attitude accuracy may not suffice for other mission needs, such as the ones relevant to fine sensor pointing. In this framework, this paper presents a cooperative UAV navigation algorithm that allows a chief vehicle, equipped with inertial and magnetic sensors, a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, and a vision system, to improve its navigation performance (in real time or in the post processing phase exploiting formation flying deputy vehicles equipped with GPS receivers. The focus is set on outdoor environments and the key concept is to exploit differential GPS among vehicles and vision-based tracking (DGPS/Vision to build a virtual additional navigation sensor whose information is then integrated in a sensor fusion algorithm based on an Extended Kalman Filter. The developed concept and processing architecture are described, with a focus on DGPS/Vision attitude determination algorithm. Performance assessment is carried out on the basis of both numerical simulations and flight tests. In the latter ones, navigation estimates derived from the DGPS/Vision approach are compared with those provided by the onboard autopilot system of a customized quadrotor. The analysis shows the potential of the developed approach, mainly deriving from the possibility to exploit magnetic- and inertial-independent accurate attitude information.

  16. Real-time Implementation of Vision, Inertial, and GPS Sensors to Navigate in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    errors from a GPS outage , and provide a better navigation solution than which would be available if the system operated on GPS and IMU solutions...t is the change in time. The discretized noise power matrix Qd(tk) will be determined by using the Van Loan method [22]. The three step Van Loan...be rotated into the navigation frame defined at the time of the final image. The reason for not rotating the translation into the navigation frame at

  17. Conceptual Model of Providing Traffic Navigation Services to Visually Impaired Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Periša

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to include people of reduced mobility in the traffic system it is necessary to provide accessibility and information of the users to all the facilities surrounding them. By analysing the currently available information and communication technologies a new conceptual model of providing navigation services to the visually impaired persons has been proposed. This model is based on Cloud Computing platform, and this research describes the method of navigating the users based on accurate and updated data. The users’ requirements have been analysed according to the needs of the movement of visually impaired persons along the traffic network. The information and communication solutions with the function of informing these groups of users have to provide accurate and updated data, which is made possible by the proposed model. This research was conducted on the most frequent routes in the city of Zagreb. With the review of model efficiency user’s sense of security is increased in the amount of 87%.

  18. Navigating the adaptive cycle: an approach to managing the resilience of social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Fath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience continues to crescendo since the 1990s, touching on multiple fields with multiple interpretations and uses. Here, we start from its origins in systems ecology, framing the resilience concept explicitly in the adaptive cycle with the observation that resilient systems are ones that successfully navigate all stages of growth, development, collapse, and reorientation of this cycle. The model is explored in terms of the traps and pathologies that hinder this successful navigation, particularly when applied to socioeconomic organizations and decision-management situations. For example, for continuous function over the adaptive life cycle, a system needs activation energy or resources to grow, followed by adequate structure and complexity to maintain maturity. Implementation of crisis plans may avert collapse, but during catastrophe, the ability to improvise and re-orient will allow the system to emerge along a new cycle. We review the capacities, competencies, and cultures needed by these organizations, specifically, identifying that the needed resources are often cultivated in earlier stages, thus requiring consideration of the entire life cycle for success.

  19. Dissociable contributions of the prefrontal cortex to hippocampus- and caudate nucleus-dependent virtual navigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Louisa; Bohbot, Véronique D

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and the caudate nucleus are critical to spatial- and stimulus-response-based navigation strategies, respectively. The hippocampus and caudate nucleus are also known to be anatomically connected to various areas of the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in these processes. In the current study, we sought to identify the prefrontal areas involved in spatial and response learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry to compare the neural activity and grey matter density of spatial and response strategy users. Twenty-three healthy young adults were scanned in a 1.5 T MRI scanner while they engaged in the Concurrent Spatial Discrimination Learning Task, a virtual navigation task in which either a spatial or response strategy can be used. In addition to increased BOLD activity in the hippocampus, spatial strategy users showed increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the ventral area of the medial prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal cortex. On the other hand, response strategy users exhibited increased BOLD activity and grey matter density in the dorsal area of the medial prefrontal cortex. Given the prefrontal cortex's role in reward-guided decision-making, we discuss the possibility that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the orbitofrontal cortex, supports spatial learning by encoding stimulus-reward associations, while the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex supports response learning by encoding action-reward associations.

  20. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  1. Navigation Upgrades to the National Deep Submergence Facility Vehicles D.S.V. Alvin, Jason 2, and the DSL-120A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Taylor, C. L.; Bowen, A. D.; Walden, B. B.; Fornari, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    We report on recently completed enhancements to the navigation systems employed on the 4500m submersible Alvin and the 6500m ROV Jason 2 and DSL-120A sonar system of the UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Over the last two years we have significantly improved the accuracy and update rate of the six degree-of-freedom vehicle position and velocity navigation data available for these vehicles, thus improving the quantitative accuracy of acoustic surveys, optical surveys, and sampling operations. The navigation upgrades have also enabled improvements in the closed-loop dynamic positioning accuracy of the Jason 2 ROV, thus improving the vehicle tracking precision during survey and sampling operations. We have sought to employ more a uniform suite of navigation instruments, navigation data processing software systems, and data logging format standards for NDSF vehicles to improve the utility and ease-of-use of data by science users. Improved navigation instruments deployed on each of these vehicles in 2001 and 2002 include the following: (a) A 1200 KHz Bottom Lock Doppler Sonar (RDInstruments Inc.) providing three dimensional vehicle velocity information with respect to the ocean floor and the water column at an update rate of up to 10 Hz, providing a single-ping beam-velocity error standard deviation of 0.3% for a nominal advance velocity of 1 meter/sec. (b) A north-seeking fiber-optic gyroscope (IXSEA Inc.) providing true-north heading, pitch, and roll with a rated accuracy of 0.1 degree. Improved navigation data processing software systems deployed on these vehicles in 2001 and 2002 includes Dvlnav, an interactive navigation program developed at JHU for precision navigation of underwater vehicles and submersibles. DVLNAV employs a variety of sensors including bottom lock Doppler sonar, long baseline (LBL) acoustic navigation, gyro compasses, magnetic compasses, depth sensors, altimeters, and (when

  2. Navigating the massive world of reddit: using backbone networks to map user interests in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal S. Olson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the massive online worlds of social media, users frequently rely on organizing themselves around specific topics of interest to find and engage with like-minded people. However, navigating these massive worlds and finding topics of specific interest often proves difficult because the worlds are mostly organized haphazardly, leaving users to find relevant interests by word of mouth or using a basic search feature. Here, we report on a method using the backbone of a network to create a map of the primary topics of interest in any social network. To demonstrate the method, we build an interest map for the social news web site reddit and show how such a map could be used to navigate a social media world. Moreover, we analyze the network properties of the reddit social network and find that it has a scale-free, small-world, and modular community structure, much like other online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. We suggest that the integration of interest maps into popular social media platforms will assist users in organizing themselves into more specific interest groups, which will help alleviate the overcrowding effect often observed in large online communities.

  3. Electromagnetic Interference Assessment of CDMA and GSM Wireless Phones to Aircraft Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, M. Theresa

    2002-01-01

    To address the concern for cellular phone electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft radios, a radiated emission measurement process for CDMA (IS-95) and GSM (ETSI GSM 11.22) wireless handsets was developed. Spurious radiated emissions were efficiently characterized from devices tested in either a semi-anechoic or reverberation chamber, in terms of effective isotropic radiated power. Eight representative handsets (4 GSM, 4 CDMA) were commanded to operate while varying their radio transmitter parameters (power, modulation, etc.). This report provides a detailed description of the measurement process and resulting data, which may subsequently be used by others as a basis of consistent evaluation for cellular/PCS phones, Bluetooth, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11a, FRS/GMRS radios, and other portable transmitters. Aircraft interference path loss (IPL) and navigation radio interference threshold data from numerous reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships were compiled. Using this data, a preliminary risk assessment is provided for CDMA and GSM wireless phone interference to aircraft localizer, Glideslope, VOR, and GPS radio receivers on typical transport airplanes. The report identifies where existing data for device emissions, IPL, and navigation radio interference thresholds needs to be extended for an accurate risk assessment for wireless transmitters in aircraft.

  4. A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.

    2011-10-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  5. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  6. Knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS: development of the HIV/AIDS and the law scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, F A; Black, S A; O'Boyle, M; Jones, P

    1999-06-01

    42 middle-aged and older adults, ranging in age from 51 to 85 years, completed 10 items dealing with the assessment of knowledge regarding laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Participants also completed 40 items involving knowledge of risks for HIV infection. The Cronbach coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability coefficient on the HIV/AIDS and the Law Scale were .74 and .83, respectively. Over-all, the grand mean for correct answers was 46.9%, whereas the grand means for incorrect answers and "don't know" responses were 13.6% and 39.5%, suggesting substantial lack of knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Women (50%) and younger participants (51 to 66 years old; 48.2%) showed more of this knowledge (50%) than men (43.0%) and older participants (46.2%). The sample reported a substantial amount of knowledge regarding HIV transmission assessed with factual (92.2% correct) and misconception (87.5% correct) items. The correlation between this knowledge and knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS was .42 (p young adults as well as the utility of the scale in areas of clinical, legal, and policy development are discussed.

  7. Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    the entire navigation portfolio of projects , both inland and coastal. The Coastal Structures Management , Analysis, and Ranking Tool (CSMART) is a...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management 5a. CONTRACT...CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management The Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management work unit

  8. Are physiotherapy graduates adequately prepared to to manage hiv/aids patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Puckree

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy learners treat patients with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. There is no available published research on physiotherapy learners' opinions about how the South Afican physiotherapy undergraduate program is  helping them cope with HIV/AIDS patients. This study determines whether the physiotherapy degree offered at South African Universities, adequately prepares learners to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Differences in knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy learners regarding HIV/AIDS, amongst  universities is also explored. Two hundred and two senior physiotherapy learners from eight South African universities returned their  questionnaires and 55% of these were viable for analysis. A large portion (79% of learners indicated that the physiotherapy undergraduate degree did not adequately prepare them to cope with HIV/AIDS patients. Learners' knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS differed significantly (41% to 73%  amongst universities. Formal lectures on HIV/AIDS significantly affected knowledge (0% -100% but not attitude towards patients. The role of the physiotherapist, precautions, transmission modes, syndrome stages, counseling and clinical skills were considered critical in the management of HIV/AIDS patients.

  9. Development of Navigation Schemes for Grouped Mobile Robots Leading to Biomimetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic autonomous group manipulation of mobile robots has great potential in artificial intelligence, smart life, and automation related applications. In addition, it is also possible to use it as a tool for exploring the behavior of biological group motion in groups such as geese and fish. In order to fulfill these goals, fundamental capabilities of identification, navigation, and communication between robots must be established. In this work, key schemes are proposed for carrying out subsequent navigation tasks. By integrating omni-wheel mobile robots with X-Bee communication protocols, Arduino controls, IR range finders, and CMOS cameras, as well as with wiimote multi-zone localization, tasks such as obstacle and collision avoidance, object following, autonomous movement, and the indoor localization of group robots are implemented as the first step toward the autonomous control of group robots for subsequent biomimetic and smart life applications. With the resolution of these key issues, more realistic scenarios can be designed to achieve real group robot applications for indoor service in the future.

  10. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  11. LIDAR-based relative navigation with respect to non-cooperative objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, John O.; Christian, John A.

    2016-09-01

    Most navigation solutions which make use of LIDAR for proximity operations with respect to non-cooperative objects rely on the iterative closest point, or ICP, algorithm. For correct convergence, ICP requires a good initial guess as to the 6 degree-of-freedom relative pose of a client object. Some solutions require manual pose initialization; and template matching - refined by ICP - was recently demonstrated as an automated solution for initialization. Additionally, some have used the output of one ICP iteration as the initial guess for the next, which is inherently dangerous (since bad ICP poses are propagated forward in time by the filter, by ICP, or by both; and because it introduces measurement errors that are correlated with the a priori state errors). We demonstrate the use of a method borrowed from personal robotics, OUR-CVFH (for Oriented, Unique, and Repeatable Clustered Viewpoint Feature Histograms), for rendezvous with a tumbling object in low earth orbit as well as an asteroid in a heliocentric orbit. Our strategy requires no initial pose estimate, and refines OUR-CVFH results with ICP; we demonstrate its utility as part of a full navigation solution with a dual-state inertial extended Kalman filter.

  12. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may apply again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31 January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265)  who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name: ................................................................. Department: .................................... Tel.: ..............................

  13. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31st January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  14. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  15. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Fonds d'Entraide

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name Department Tel  

  16. mpact of ice conditions to the navigation in the Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen region in XVI–XVII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Derzhavin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 16th–17th centuries, West European navigators made numerous but mostly unsuccessful efforts to open a new way, i.e. the North-East Passage, to China and India. Among three possible routes of that time the basic one ran through straits of the Vaigach Island but it was almost impassable due to heavy ice situation. At the same time Russian merchants regularly went on their ships from Pomorie to Siberian river mouths, and in the opposite direction, though they did also meet complicated ice situations. Russian navigator and geographer F.P. Litke (1797–1882 noticed that the ice situation in one or another region of the Barents Sea seriously changed from year to year. Russian navigation started in the Russian Pomorie (littoral region of the Russian Arctic not earlier than at end of June – beginning of July but Europeans knew nothing about this. Because of this, their ships came to the Vaigach region either earlier or later of the time when it was possible to go through the straits. Most often, they came here in the first half- and mid-August. Thus, western sailors could not get this quite narrow navigation «window» of pomors (Russian navigators. And if sometimes (rather rarely they could catch the right time and go through the strait Yugorski Shar they met extremely heavy ice situation in the Kara Sea. Perhaps for this reason, almost all European expeditions of that time failed.

  17. Three Tools to Aid Visualisation of FITS Files for Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P; Klapaukh, R; Johnston-Hollitt, M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly there is a need to develop astronomical visualisation and manipulations tools which allow viewers to interact with displayed data directly, in real time and across a range of platforms. In addition, increases in dynamic range available for astronomical images with next generation telescopes have led to a desire to develop enhanced visualisations capable of presenting information across a wide range of intensities. This paper describes three new tools for astronomical visualisation and image manipulation that are the result of a collaboration between software engineers and radio astronomers. The first tool, FITS3D, is a fast, interactive 3D data cube viewer designed to allow real-time interactive comparisons of multiple spectral line data cubes simultaneously. It features region specific selection manipulation including smoothing. The second tool, FITS2D, aids the visualisation and manipulation of 2D fits images. The tool supports the interactive creation of free-form masks which allow the user to...

  18. Application of navigation template to fixation of sacral fracture using three-dimensional reconstruction and re-verse engineering technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-zhi; LU Sheng; XU Yong-qing; SHI Ji-hong; LI Yan-bing; FENG Zi-liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To provide a new method in the fixation of sacral fracture by means of three-dimensional reconstruc-tion and reverse engineering technique.Methods: Pelvis image data were obtained from three-dimensional CT scan in patients with sacral fracture. The data were transferred into a computer workstation. The three-dimensional models of pelvis were reconstructed using Amira 3.1 software and saved in STL format. Then the three-dimensional fracture models were imported into Imageware 9.0 software. Different situations of reduction (total reduction, half reduction and non-reduction) were simulated using Imageware 9.0 software. The best direction and loca-tion of extract iliosacral lag screws were defined using re-verse engineering according to these three situations and navigation templates were designed according to the ana-tomic features of the postero-iliac part and the channel. The exact navigational template was made by rapid prototyping.Drill guides were sterilized and used intraoperatively to as-sist in surgical navigation and the placement of iliosacral lag screws.Results: Accurate screw placement was confirmed with postoperative X-ray and CT scanning. The navigation template was found to be highly accurate. Conclusion: The navigation template may be a useful method in minimal-invasive fixation of sacroiliac joint fracture.

  19. An optical flow-based integrated navigation system inspired by insect vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao; Deng, He; Yin, Xiao Fang; Liu, Jian Guo

    2011-10-01

    Some insects use optic flow (OF) to perform their navigational tasks perfectly. Learning from insects' OF navigation strategies, this article proposes a bio-inspired integrated navigation system based on OF. The integrated navigation system is composed of an OF navigation system (OFNS) and an OF aided navigation system (OFAN). The OFNS uses a simple OF method to measure motion at each step along a path. The position information is then obtained by path integration. However, path integration leads to cumulative position errors which increase rapidly with time. To overcome this problem, the OFAN is employed to assist the OFNS in estimating and correcting these cumulative errors. The OFAN adopts an OF-based Kalman filter (KF) to continuously estimate the position errors. Moreover, based on the OF technique used in the OFNS, we develop a new OF method employed by the OFAN to generate the measurement input of the OF-based KF. As a result, both the OFNS and the OFAN in our integrated navigation system are derived from the same OF method so that they share input signals and some operations. The proposed integrated navigation system can provide accurate position information without interference from cumulative errors yet doing so with low computational effort. Simulations and comparisons have demonstrated its efficiency.

  20. Decision theory as an aid to private choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex V. Brown

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A wise decider D uses the contents of his mind fully, accurately and efficiently. D's ideal decisions, i.e., those that best serve his interests, would be embedded in a comprehensive set of totally coherent judgments lodged in his mind. They would conform to the norms of statistical decision theory, which extracts quantitative judgments of fact and value from D's mind contents and checks them for coherence. However, the most practical way for D to approximate his ideal may not be with models that embody those norms, i.e., with applied decision theory (ADT. In practice, ADT can represent only some of D's judgments and those imperfectly. Quite different decision aid, including intuition, pattern recognition and cognitive vigilance (especially combined, typically outperform feasible ADT models---with some notable exceptions. However, decision theory training benefits D's informal decisions. ADT, both formal and informal, should become increasingly useful and widespread, as technical, cultural and institutional impediments are overcome.

  1. An Evaluation of Navigational Ability Comparing Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors to Walking-in-Place and Joystick Locomotion Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Tabitha C; Fuchs, Henry; Whitton, Mary C

    2011-03-19

    We report on a user study evaluating Redirected Free Exploration with Distractors (RFED), a large-scale, real-walking, locomotion interface, by comparing it to Walking-in-Place (WIP) and Joystick (JS), two common locomotion interfaces. The between-subjects study compared navigation ability in RFED, WIP, and JS interfaces in VEs that are more than two times the dimensions of the tracked space. The interfaces were evaluated based on navigation and wayfinding metrics and results suggest that participants using RFED were significantly better at navigating and wayfinding through virtual mazes than participants using walking-in-place and joystick interfaces. Participants traveled shorter distances, made fewer wrong turns, pointed to hidden targets more accurately and more quickly, and were able to place and label targets on maps more accurately. Moreover, RFED participants were able to more accurately estimate VE size.

  2. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  3. A software radio approach to global navigation satellite system receiver design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akos, Dennis Matthew

    1997-12-01

    The software radio has been described as the most significant evolution in receiver design since the development of the superheterodyne concept in 1918. The software radio design philosophy is to position an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) as close to the antenna as possible and then process the samples using a combination of software and a programmable microprocessor. There are a number of important advantages to be gained through full exploitation of the software radio concept. The most notable include: (1) The removal of analog signal processing components and their associated nonlinear, temperature-based, and age-based performance characteristics. (2) A single antenna/front-end configuration can be used to receive and demodulate a variety of radio frequency (RF) transmissions. (3) The software radio provides the ultimate simulation/testing environment. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) are the latest and most complex radionavigation systems in widespread use. The United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) and, to a lesser extent, the Russian Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) are being targeted for use as next generation aviation navigation systems. As a result, it is critical that a GNSS achieve the reliability and integrity necessary for use within the aerospace system. The receiver design is a key element in achieving the high standards required. This work presents the complete development of a GNSS software radio. A GNSS receiver front end has been constructed, based on the software radio design goals, and has been evaluated against the traditional design. Trade-offs associated with each implementation are presented along with experimental results. Novel bandpass sampling front end designs have been proposed, implemented and tested for the processing of multiple GNSS transmissions. Finally, every aspect of GNSS signal processing has been implemented in software from the necessary spread spectrum acquisition algorithms to

  4. Automated dental identification system: An aid to forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated dental identification system is computer-aided software for the postmortem identification of deceased individuals based on dental characteristics specifically radiographs. This system is receiving increased attention because of the large number of victims encountered in the mass disasters and it is 90% more time saving and accurate than the conventional radiographic methods. This technique is based on the intensity of the overall region of tooth image and therefore it does not necessitate the presence of sharp boundary between the teeth. It provides automated search and matching capabilities for digitized radiographs and photographic dental images and compares the teeth present in multiple digitized dental records in order to access their similarity. This paper highlights the functionality of its components and techniques used in realizing these components.

  5. Navigation in endoscopic soft tissue surgery: perspectives and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhauer, Matthias; Feuerstein, Marco; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Rassweiler, J

    2008-04-01

    Despite rapid developments in the research areas of medical imaging, medical image processing, and robotics, the use of computer assistance in surgical routine is still limited to diagnostics, surgical planning, and interventions on mostly rigid structures. In order to establish a computer-aided workflow from diagnosis to surgical treatment and follow-up, several proposals for computer-assisted soft tissue interventions have been made in recent years. By means of different pre- and intraoperative information sources, such as surgical planning, intraoperative imaging, and tracking devices, surgical navigation systems aim to support surgeons in localizing anatomical targets, observing critical structures, and sparing healthy tissue. Current research in particular addresses the problem of organ shift and tissue deformation, and obstacles in communication between navigation system and surgeon. In this paper, we review computer-assisted navigation systems for soft tissue surgery. We concentrate on approaches that can be applied in endoscopic thoracic and abdominal surgery, because endoscopic surgery has special needs for image guidance due to limitations in perception. Furthermore, this paper informs the reader about new trends and technologies in the area of computer-assisted surgery. Finally, a balancing of the key challenges and possible benefits of endoscopic navigation refines the perspectives of this increasingly important discipline of computer-aided medical procedures.

  6. Perceiving the Social: A Multi-Agent System to Support Human Navigation in Foreign Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Kryssanov, Victor V; Goncharenko, Igor; Ogawa, Hitoshi; 10.4018/jssci.2010101902

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a system developed to help people explore local communities by providing navigation services in social spaces created by the community members via communication and knowledge sharing. The proposed system utilizes data of a community's social network to reconstruct the social space, which is otherwise not physically perceptible but imaginary, experiential, yet learnable. The social space is modeled with an agent network, where each agent stands for a member of the community and has knowledge about expertise and personal characteristics of some other members. An agent can gather information, using its social "connections", to find community members most suitable to communicate to in a specific situation defined by the system's user. The system then deploys its multimodal interface, which "maps" the social space onto a representation of the relevant physical space, to locate the potential interlocutors and advise the user on an efficient communication strategy for the given community.

  7. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  8. Application of local Lyapunov exponents to maneuver design and navigation in the three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Lo, Martin W.; Born, George H.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical systems theory has recently been employed to design trajectories within the three-body problem for several missions. This research has applied one stability technique, the calculation of local Lyapunov exponents, to such trajectories. Local Lyapunov exponents give an indication of the effects that perturbations or maneuvers will have on trajectories over a specified time. A numerical comparison of local Lyapunov exponents was first made with the distance random perturbations traveled from a nominal trajectory, and the local Lyapunov exponents were found to correspond well with the perturbations that caused the greatest deviation from the nominal. This would allow them to be used as an indicator of the points where it would be important to reduce navigation uncertainties.

  9. Environmental Impact Research Program. A Workshop to Investigate Techniques to Analyze Physical and Biological Effects of Commercial Navigation Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    complex system of waterways supporting com- mercial navigation. It is linked to the Gulf of Mexico via the Tennessee- Tombigbee Waterway, and is...Rock Island, IL. McMahon, R. F. and Payne, B. S. 1980. "Variation of Thermal Tolerance Limits in Populations of Physa virgata Gould ( Mollusca : Pulmonata...In general, fecundity is pro- portional to mass in freshwater mollusca (Calow (1983) and references within). Thus, the reproductive value of small but

  10. A randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a glaucoma patient navigator to improve appointment adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Hark, Lisa A.; Johnson, Deiana M; Berardi,Giuliana; Patel, Neal S.; Zeng, Lichuan; Dai, Yang; Mayro, Eileen L; Waisbourd, Michael; Katz, L Jay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with glaucoma who do not keep their follow-up eye care appointments are at risk for developing more severe ocular disease. The primary aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the use of a patient navigator altered adherence to follow-up eye care appointments in community-versus office-based settings. Patients and methods Patients diagnosed with a glaucoma-related condition following a comprehensive eye examination at 43 community sites in Philadelphia, PA, USA, were ...

  11. A randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a glaucoma patient navigator to improve appointment adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Lichuan; Hark, Lisa A.; Johnson,Deiana; Berardi,Giuliana; Patel, Neal; Dai, Yang; Mayro,Eileen; Waisbourd, Michael; Katz, L Jay

    2016-01-01

    Lisa A Hark, Deiana M Johnson, Giuliana Berardi, Neal S Patel, Lichuan Zeng, Yang Dai, Eileen L Mayro, Michael Waisbourd, L Jay Katz On behalf of the Glaucoma Research Group Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: Patients with glaucoma who do not keep their follow-up eye care appointments are at risk for developing more severe ocular disease. The primary aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the use of a patient navigator altered adherence to...

  12. Adding memory processing behaviors to the fuzzy behaviorist-based navigation of mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Bender, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Most fuzzy logic-based reasoning schemes developed for robot control are fully reactive, i.e., the reasoning modules consist of fuzzy rule bases that represent direct mappings from the stimuli provided by the perception systems to the responses implemented by the motion controllers. Due to their totally reactive nature, such reasoning systems can encounter problems such as infinite loops and limit cycles. In this paper, we proposed an approach to remedy these problems by adding a memory and memory-related behaviors to basic reactive systems. Three major types of memory behaviors are addressed: memory creation, memory management, and memory utilization. These are first presented, and examples of their implementation for the recognition of limit cycles during the navigation of an autonomous robot in a priori unknown environments are then discussed.

  13. Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2013-06-01

    Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

  14. So you Really Want to Interview Me?: Navigating “Sensitive” Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winsome Chunnu Brayda PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the qualitative interviewing techniques that the authors used to conduct their respective dissertation research in Jamaica and South Carolina. (The research in Jamaica examined the implementation of primary education policies. The research in South Carolina delved into the life history of Benner C. Turner, a controversial college president. Most of the literature about interviewing focuses on asking the right questions; in contrast, this article discusses the challenges of interviewing. In this article, selected interviews are used from both studies to examine the difficulties these researchers encountered when conducting “sensitive” interviews, the risks female researchers face in unfamiliar places, and the challenges of working in international settings (which requires interpersonal skills and cultural competency. While the task of research interviewing is complex, the authors provide ideas that can be used to navigate such moments.

  15. Learning for autonomous navigation : extrapolating from underfoot to the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Larry; Turmon, Michael; Howard, Andrew; Angelova, Anelia; Tang, Benyang; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter. Enabling robots to learn from experience may alleviate both of these problems. We define two paradigms for this, learning from 3-D geometry and learning from proprioception, and describe initial instantiations of them we have developed under DARPA and NASA programs. Field test results show promise for learning traversability of vegetated terrain, learning to extend the lookahead range of the vision system, and learning how slip varies with slope.

  16. [Hypertext and expertext: how to navigate on an ocean of information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, J L

    1996-01-01

    Computers have made possible an explosive increase of information flow. In this ocean of information it becomes more and more easy to get lost. Computers again may provide answers to this problem. This article describes principles of small-volume hypertext, large-volume hypertext and expertext as up-to-date navigation tools for the beginning as well as the advanced skipper. In addition, it is argued that the orthodontist should take responsibility in guiding these developments on his or her domain. He can do this by getting acquainted with the possibilities and choosing the right software. Ultimately, technology should not be developed for its own sake, but for the benefit of orthodontists and their patients.

  17. Operation and Maintenance. 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 1. Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    Missouri 64106 L .... " iii Miss Madonna F. McGrath Staff Assistant to the Secretary Office of the Secretary North Central Region U.S. Department of the...Company, Mr. W. J. Barta, President, St. Louis, Missouri . The Valley Line Company, Mr. Lynn Childs , Chicago, Illinois Western Railroad Association

  18. Sensitivity analysis of helicopter IMC decelerating steep approach and landing performance to navigation system parameters. [Instrument Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, M. S.; Phatak, A. V.; Bull, J. S.; Peach, L. L.; Demko, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a sensitivity analysis of the Decelerated Steep Approach and Landing (DSAL) maneuver to on-board and ground-based navigation system parameters. The Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) DSAL maneuver involves decelerating to zero range rate while tracking the localizer and glideslope. The considered study investigated the performance of the navigation systems using Constant Deceleration Profile (CDP) guidance and a six degrees glideslope trajectory. A closed-loop computer simulation of the UH1H helicopter DSAL system was developed for the sensitivity analysis. Conclusions on system performance parameter sensitivity are discussed.

  19. Ionospheric error contribution to GNSS single-frequency navigation at the 2014 solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orus Perez, Raul

    2016-11-01

    For single-frequency users of the global satellite navigation system (GNSS), one of the main error contributors is the ionospheric delay, which impacts the received signals. As is well-known, GPS and Galileo transmit global models to correct the ionospheric delay, while the international GNSS service (IGS) computes precise post-process global ionospheric maps (GIM) that are considered reference ionospheres. Moreover, accurate ionospheric maps have been recently introduced, which allow for the fast convergence of the real-time precise point position (PPP) globally. Therefore, testing of the ionospheric models is a key issue for code-based single-frequency users, which constitute the main user segment. Therefore, the testing proposed in this paper is straightforward and uses the PPP modeling applied to single- and dual-frequency code observations worldwide for 2014. The usage of PPP modeling allows us to quantify—for dual-frequency users—the degradation of the navigation solutions caused by noise and multipath with respect to the different ionospheric modeling solutions, and allows us, in turn, to obtain an independent assessment of the ionospheric models. Compared to the dual-frequency solutions, the GPS and Galileo ionospheric models present worse global performance, with horizontal root mean square (RMS) differences of 1.04 and 0.49 m and vertical RMS differences of 0.83 and 0.40 m, respectively. While very precise global ionospheric models can improve the dual-frequency solution globally, resulting in a horizontal RMS difference of 0.60 m and a vertical RMS difference of 0.74 m, they exhibit a strong dependence on the geographical location and ionospheric activity.

  20. Newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS in China from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Fu, Hua; Lin, Lavinia; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y; Zheng, Pinpin

    2013-01-01

    Mass media in China play a significant role in the dissemination of HIV/AIDS knowledge to the general public. Previous studies have described how the Chinese mass media portray HIV/AIDS in general, but no study has yet to examine changes in patterns of HIV/AIDS reporting over time. This study aims to describe and examine newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS in China from 2000 to 2010. A systematic search of the China Core Newspapers Database was conducted to identify HIV/AIDS-focused news articles; we found 3648 articles. Results show that coverage rates of HIV/AIDS in newspapers remained low, with only about three articles published per newspaper per year between 2000 and 2010. The sources focused primarily on prevention methods (23.7%), development of a cure or vaccine (21.2%), and education and awareness (17.2%). The HIV/AIDS-related topic covered in an article varied significantly depending on scope (national vs. local) of the newspaper (χ(2)=130.37, particle type (χ(2)=455.72, particles were classified as positive than negative from 2002 to 2010. Findings indicate that the HIV/AIDS news-reporting pattern has shifted in the past decade, with more news stories disclosing information about prevention or treatment. However, coverage of HIV/AIDS remains insufficient. Enhancing collaboration between health educators and media sources can be an important strategy in disseminating HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  1. Electronic aids to daily living: be able to do what you want.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Verdonck, Michèle Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of Irish people with high cervical spinal cord injuries living with electronic aids to daily living (EADL) and the meaning attributed to such systems in the context of participation in everyday life.

  2. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  3. Assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil Health care to HIV/AIDS patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Crisóstomo Portela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a assistência à população com Aids no Brasil e a capacidade do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS de prover intervenções para enfrentamento da epidemia e discutir a sustentabilidade da iniciativa brasileira de distribuição universal e gratuita dos anti-retrovirais. O trabalho considerou dados originais de uma pesquisa sobre a capacidade potencial de distribuição de uma futura vacina anti-HIV no Brasil, envolvendo 119 entrevistados. Nas abordagens da assistência hospitalar e da assistência farmacêutica foram utilizados dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do SUS e do Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos do Programa Nacional de DST/Aids. Os resultados mostraram bom desempenho da política de distribuição de anti-retrovirais. Entretanto, o acesso ao tratamento de doenças oportunistas foi deficitário. Os valores pagos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde pelas internações por Aids mantiveram-se muito baixos, com valor médio em torno de R$700,00, em 2004. A assistência a pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil tem sido tratada como um direito do cidadão, com o respaldo de uma articulação efetiva entre as esferas de governo e a sociedade civil. Os desafios que se colocam atualmente dizem respeito ao monitoramento mais fino dos processos e resultados obtidos e à sustentabilidade da distribuição universal e gratuita de anti-retrovirais.This study was intended to assess care provided to those living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil and the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS capacity of delivering interventions to cope with the epidemic as well as to discuss the sustainability of the Brazilian initiative of providing universal free access to antiretrovirals (ARVs. Original data from a study comprising 119 respondents on the potential capacity of delivering a prospective HIV vaccine in Brazil was used. Inpatient and pharmaceutical care was based on data from the SUS Hospital Information System and

  4. The splicing regulator PTBP2 interacts with the cytidine deaminase AID and promotes binding of AID to switch-region DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Urszula; Matthews, Allysia J; Zheng, Simin; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2011-02-01

    During immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR), the cytidine deaminase AID induces double-strand breaks into transcribed, repetitive DNA elements called switch sequences. The mechanism that promotes the binding of AID specifically to switch regions remains to be elucidated. Here we used a proteomic screen with in vivo biotinylation of AID to identify the splicing regulator PTBP2 as a protein that interacts with AID. Knockdown of PTBP2 mediated by short hairpin RNA in B cells led to a decrease in binding of AID to transcribed switch regions, which resulted in considerable impairment of CSR. PTBP2 is thus an effector of CSR that promotes the binding of AID to switch-region DNA.

  5. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  6. 76 FR 52569 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... channel, require the relocation of lateral aids to navigation, and create a reduction in the width of the.... If you think that your business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction qualifies as a small... ADDRESSES) explaining why you think it qualifies and how and to what degree this rule would...

  7. Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Villasnor, John; Lee, Dong-U; Vales, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    A method of utilizing information available in the constraints imposed by a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has been proposed as a means of aiding the recovery of symbol timing in the reception of a binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signal representing such a code in the presence of noise, timing error, and/or Doppler shift between the transmitter and the receiver. This method and the receiver architecture in which it would be implemented belong to a class of timing-recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. Acquisition and tracking of a signal of the type described above have traditionally been performed upstream of, and independently of, decoding and have typically involved utilization of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, the LDPC decoding process, which is iterative, provides information that can be fed back to the timing-recovery receiver circuits to improve performance significantly over that attainable in the absence of such feedback. Prior methods of coupling LDPC decoding with timing recovery had focused on the use of output code words produced as the iterations progress. In contrast, in the present method, one exploits the information available from the metrics computed for the constraint nodes of an LDPC code during the decoding process. In addition, the method involves the use of a waveform model that captures, better than do the waveform models of the prior methods, distortions introduced by receiver timing errors and transmitter/ receiver motions. An LDPC code is commonly represented by use of a bipartite graph containing two sets of nodes. In the graph corresponding to an (n,k) code, the n variable nodes correspond to the code word symbols and the n-k constraint nodes represent the constraints that the code places on the variable nodes in order for them to form a valid code word. The decoding procedure involves iterative computation

  8. Close proximity to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro P; Micsinai, Mariann; Kim, JungHyun Rachel; Hewitt, Susannah L; Souza, Patricia P; Trimarchi, Thomas; Strino, Francesco; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Skok, Jane A

    2012-09-28

    Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous, oncogenic chromosomal translocations it is important to identify the elements that determine which genes are at risk of being "hit" and could be involved in aberrant rearrangements. Here we have investigated the influence of nuclear organization in determining "off-target" activity and the choice of fusion partners. Our studies indicate that the vast majority of known AID-mediated Igh translocation partners are found in chromosomal domains that contact this locus during class switching. Further, these interaction domains can be used to identify other genes that are hit by AID.

  9. Evaluating adherence to ocular hypotensives using the Travatan dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dell L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leslie O'Dell1, Amy L Hennessy2,3, Alan L Robin2–41May Eye Care Center, Hanover, PA, USA; 2Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Glaucoma Specialists, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: The Travatan™ Dosing Aid (TDA is the first commercially available device designed to aid in patients' adherence to their glaucoma therapies and to record patients' eyedrop administration, so that doctors can better assess adherence. No prior studies have objectively evaluated adherence to glaucoma medications and its relationship to the severity of glaucoma or the use of multiple systemic medications.Methods: We enrolled 100 consecutive subjects from a private glaucoma practice, all currently using topical travoprost 0.004%. Each subject was issued a TDA to record the time and date of each drop instilled. Informed consents were signed and the subjects were aware that their medication use was being monitored. Patients returned for follow-up 30–60 days after their initial exam.Results: 89 subjects completed the study: 44 were male, with a mean age of 67 years, and 69.7% were Caucasian. Overall, patient adherence was 74.8% (range 22%–100% improving to 85.4% on the day prior to follow-up. The mean number of missed doses per month was 6.24 ± 5.9. Only 7.9% of the study population never missed a dose and 23.6% ± 4.3% missed more than ten drops per month. No marked association was observed between the severity of glaucoma, race, or the number of systemic medications and adherence. A marked improvement in adherence was noted in patients using travoprost 0.004% as monocular therapy rather than binocular therapy, 84.0% ± 17.1% vs 67.4% ± 23.5% (P < 0.005.Conclusion: Patient adherence to glaucoma medical therapy is a major barrier in the management and treatment of glaucoma patients given the chronic nature and asymptomatic course of the disease. Until recently

  10. Ser mãe e estar com AIDS: revivescimento do pecado original To be mother and to have AIDS: the original evil reviviscency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Duarte Pereira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou compreender o significado de estar com AIDS para mães portadoras do HIV/AIDS, identificar as emoções e os modos de enfrentamento decorrentes da relação mãe-filho sadio. Realizado à luz da teoria das representações sociais, teve como resultante "ser mãe" e "estar com AIDS" representado como um processo que não se esgota na doença, mas mostra-se vinculado à polaridade do bem e do mal. Traz ainda a sexualidade como algo que contém essas polaridades e a AIDS, vinculada ao aspecto mal. As mulheres deste estudo mostraram se julgar culpadas de algo e merecem o castigo imposto pela doença.This study aimed to understand the meaning of being with AIDS among HIV/AIDS mothers. It looks for to identify the emotions and the way of cope with the situation as a mother has a healthy son. This study was conducted based on the Social Representations Theory. The findings showed "to be mother" and "to have AIDS" represented as a process that does not finish in the disease itself Also it was found that there is a polarize link between the good and the evil. Indeed, this study brought the sexuality likewise the polarized link, being AIDS linked to evil aspect. These women from this study had perceived themselves as guilty of something, as a result, they deserved the punishment that the AIDS imposed on them.

  11. A brief history of South Africa's response to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelela, N P; Venter, W D F

    2014-03-01

    The story of the AIDS response in South Africa over the past 4 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united the world and civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today the country can boast > 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy, far and away the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results. The estimated number of annual new HIV infections declined by 79 000 between 2011 and 2012. New HIV infections among adults aged 15-49 years are projected to decline by 48% by 2016, from 414,000 (2010) to -215,000 (2016). The national incidence rate has reached its lowest level since the disease was first declared an epidemic in 1992, translating into reductions in both infant and under-5 mortality and an increase in life expectancy from 56 to 60 years over the period 2009-2011 alone. This is largely thanks to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial, and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians working in a hostile system to bring about change.

  12. A Functional Description of a Digital Flight Test System for Navigation and Guidance Research in the Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance, navigation, and control system, the Simulated Shuttle Flight Test System (SS-FTS), when interfaced with existing aircraft systems, provides a research facility for studying concepts for landing the space shuttle orbiter and conventional jet aircraft. The SS-FTS, which includes a general-purpose computer, performs all computations for precisely following a prescribed approach trajectory while properly managing the vehicle energy to allow safe arrival at the runway and landing within prescribed dispersions. The system contains hardware and software provisions for navigation with several combinations of possible navigation aids that have been suggested for the shuttle. The SS-FTS can be reconfigured to study different guidance and navigation concepts by changing only the computer software, and adapted to receive different radio navigation information through minimum hardware changes. All control laws, logic, and mode interlocks reside solely in the computer software.

  13. First aid to Cultural Heritage. Training initiatives on rapid documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.

  14. Off the Beaten tracks: Exploring Three Aspects of Web Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, H.; Obendorf, H.; Herder, E.; Mayer, M.; Edmonds, H.; Hawkey, K.; Kellar, M.; Turnbull, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results of a long-term client-side Web usage study, updating previous studies that range in age from five to ten years. We focus on three aspects of Web navigation: changes in the distribution of navigation actions, speed of navigation and within-page navigation. “Navigation acti

  15. A New Time Measurement Method Using a High-End Global Navigation Satellite System to Analyze Alpine Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2011-01-01

    Accurate time measurement is essential to temporal analysis in sport. This study aimed to (a) develop a new method for time computation from surveyed trajectories using a high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS), (b) validate its precision by comparing GNSS with photocells, and (c) examine whether gate-to-gate times can provide more…

  16. Barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity and threaten societal collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Matsuo, Tadasu; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that promote, disrupt, or shape the nature of cooperation is one of the main tasks of evolutionary biology. Here, we focus on attitudes and beliefs supportive of in-group favoritism and strict adherence to moral consensus, collectively known as ideological rigidity, that have been linked with both ends of the political spectrum. The presence among the political right and the left is likely to make ideological rigidity a major determinant of the political discourse with an important social function. To better understand this function, we equip the indirect reciprocity framework--widely used to explain evaluation-mediated social cooperation--with multiple stylized value systems, each corresponding to the different degree of ideological rigidity. By running game theoretical simulations, we observe the competitive evolution of these systems, map conditions that lead to more ideologically rigid societies, and identify potentially disastrous outcomes. In particular, we uncover that barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity. The society may even polarize to the extent where social parasites overrun the population and cause the complete collapse of the social structure. These results have implications for lawmakers globally, warning against restrictive or protectionist policies.

  17. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-associated multigene signature to assess impact of AID in etiology of diseases with inflammatory component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mechtcheriakova

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is expressed in B cells within germinal centers and is critically involved in class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin loci. Functionally active AID can additionally be detected within ectopic follicular structures developed at sites of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, AID may target non-Ig genes in B- and non-B-cell background. Therefore, AID-associated effects are of increasing interest in disease areas such as allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.Pathway- or disease-relevant multigene signatures have attracted substantial attention for therapeutic target proposal, diagnostic tools, and monitoring of therapy response. To delineate the impact of AID in etiology of multifactorial diseases, we designed the AID-associated 25-gene signature. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps was used as an inflammation-driven airway disease model; high levels of IgE have been previously shown to be present within polyp tissue. Expression levels of 16 genes were found to be modulated in polyps including AID, IgG and IgE mature transcripts which reflect AID activity; clustering algorithm revealed an AID-specific gene signature for the disease state with nasal polyp. Complementary, AID-positive ectopic lymphoid structures were detected within polyp tissues by in situ immunostaining. Our data demonstrate the class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation events likely taking place locally in the airways and in addition to the previously highlighted markers and/or targets as IL5 and IgE suggest novel candidate genes to be considered for treatment of nasal polyposis including among others IL13 and CD23. Thus, the algorithm presented herein including the multigene signature approach, analysis of co-regularities and creation of AID-associated functional network gives an integrated view of biological processes and might be further applied to assess role of altered AID

  18. A NEW SURVEY ON SELF-TUNING INTEGRATED LOW-COST GPS/INS VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEM IN HARSH ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Navidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS receivers are aided by some complementary radio navigation systems and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS to obtain more accuracy and robustness in land vehicular navigation. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is an acceptable conventional method to estimate the position, the velocity, and the attitude of the navigation system when INS measurements are fused with GPS data. However, the usage of the low-cost Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs based on the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS, for the land navigation systems, reduces the precision and stability of the navigation system due to their inherent errors. The main goal of this paper is to provide a new model for fusing low-cost IMU and GPS measurements. The proposed model is based on EKF aided by Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS as a promising method to solve the mentioned problems. This model considers the parameters of the measurement noise to adjust the measurement and noise process covariance. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method to reduce the navigation system errors compared with EKF.

  19. a New Survey on Self-Tuning Integrated Low-Cost Gps/ins Vehicle Navigation System in Harsh Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, N.; Landry, R., Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are aided by some complementary radio navigation systems and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) to obtain more accuracy and robustness in land vehicular navigation. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is an acceptable conventional method to estimate the position, the velocity, and the attitude of the navigation system when INS measurements are fused with GPS data. However, the usage of the low-cost Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) based on the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), for the land navigation systems, reduces the precision and stability of the navigation system due to their inherent errors. The main goal of this paper is to provide a new model for fusing low-cost IMU and GPS measurements. The proposed model is based on EKF aided by Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) as a promising method to solve the mentioned problems. This model considers the parameters of the measurement noise to adjust the measurement and noise process covariance. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed method to reduce the navigation system errors compared with EKF.

  20. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The global business response to AIDS: what is a "business-like" response, and is business responding enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 40 businesses were represented at a 2-day meeting held immediately before the main Vancouver conference on the Global Business Response to AIDS. Only three companies were from the developing world, with the overwhelming majority being from Canada and the US. Companies in countries where many people are infected with HIV and where the number of AIDS cases is rapidly growing must be concerned about HIV/AIDS. However, in countries of low-level HIV prevalence and infection incidence, businesses may have less concern about HIV/AIDS unless their own employees are infected. Even then, the priority a company gives to coping with the HIV/AIDS pandemic will be determined largely by the importance of the positions of the infected employees. Businesses discussed whether HIV/AIDS merits special attention, the undesirability of screening prospective employees for HIV infection, company size and the ability to respond to the needs of sick employees, the roles of business in society, the general failure of businesses to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues into the mainstream of company operations, how businesses are coping with the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the need for governments to form a regulatory framework in which businesses can work. Conference participants discussed which steps should be taken next and prepared a declaration for conference organizers, including a mission statement for the global business response to AIDS.

  1. [Navigation-supported surgery in the head and neck region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdani, O; Leinung, M; Lenarz, T; Heermann, R

    2003-09-01

    Few of the pioneering manufacturers who attempted to develop navigation systems have been able to establish themselves within the market long-term. The same applies to the technological basis of these systems which aid intraoperative anatomical orientation. The first few systems registered the mechanical displacement of the navigational instrument's axes. Optoelectronic and electromagnetic methods are now prevalent. In contrast to electromagnetic systems, the "line of sight" between the camera system, the reference markers placed on the patient's head and the navigation instruments must remain unobstructed during the navigation process when using electrooptical navigation systems. Whereas, in the past, only preoperative CT scans were used for navigation, the integration of MRI and sonography--whose images can now be fused with each other and with those provided by other intraoperative imaging techniques such as fluoroscopy and endosonography--has become increasingly popular. Navigation systems require input of information about spatial conditions. This is carried out via procedures of registration and referencing, by means of which the relative position of reference markers at the head of the patient is correlated with the image data. The equipment is calibrated in the same way. Headsets, headbands and bone-anchored adapters are available for the fixation of the markers in the patient's head. Whereas the use of a headband or headset requires considerably less time, bone-anchored referencing increases the precision of the navigation system. The surgeon must be able to manage the different methods. In order to reduce the time required for preoperative preparation and to enhance the handling of the navigation processor for the surgeon, it is essential to have a clear menu. The surgeon is able to plan the steps involved in the surgery using the processor, define the access to the surgical site and control the surgery intraoperatively. Preoperative segmentation of

  2. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  3. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  4. Xerostomia related to HIV infection /AIDS: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fuzer Grael TINÓS

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oral manifestations in HIV positive individuals is quite common. Xerostomia appears as one of the most frequent problems and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life of this population. Objective: This study was a critical review of the relationship between xerostomia and HIV infection, to attract the attention of dentists on the importance of dental care to these patients. Material and method: We included articles published between 2000 and 2009, indexed in PUBMED database. The descriptors used were "HIV" and "xerostomia", the exclusion criteria adopted were: the absence of these descriptors associated, non-location of the full-text, articles based on case studies or case series and the absence of the abstract in the database. Result: Based on studies in the review, it can be said that the xerostomia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, predisposing the patient to several other oral problems. Among the risk factors for its occurrence it was reported: low counts of CD4+ T cells, high plasma viral load, the use of some medications and antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS can change the salivary glands, and were considered important risk factors for the occurrence of xerostomia the presence of didanosine and the drug class which corresponds to protease inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Forcing functions governing salt transport processes in coastal navigation canals and connectivity to surrounding marshes in South Louisiana using Houma Navigation Canal as a surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how circulation and mixing processes in coastal navigation canals influence the exchange of salt between marshes and coastal ocean, and how those processes are modulated by external physical processes, is critical to anticipating effects of future actions and circumstance. Examples of such circumstances include deepening the channel, placement of locks in the channel, changes in freshwater discharge down the channel, changes in outer continental shelf (OCS) vessel traffic volume, and sea level rise. The study builds on previous BOEM-funded studies by investigating salt flux variability through the Houma Navigation Canal (HNC). It examines how external physical factors, such as buoyancy forcing and mixing from tidal stirring and OCS vessel wakes, influence dispersive and advective fluxes through the HNC and the impact of this salt flux on salinity in nearby marshes. This study quantifies salt transport processes and salinity variability in the HNC and surrounding Terrebonne marshes. Data collected for this study include time-series data of salinity and velocity in the HNC, monthly salinity-depth profiles along the length of the channel, hourly vertical profiles of velocity and salinity over multiple tidal cycles, and salinity time series data at three locations in the surrounding marshes along a transect of increasing distance from the HNC. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified. The first mode, making up 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the longitudinal salinity gradients along the channel’s length. Diffusive process were dominant drivers of upestuary salt transport, except during periods of minimal tidal stirring when gravitational circulation became more important. Salinity in the

  6. The role of major donors in health aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

  7. Development of an audio-based virtual gaming environment to assist with navigation skills in the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Erin C; Yazzolino, Lindsay A; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2013-03-27

    Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind. Using only audio based cues and set within the context of a video game metaphor, users gather relevant spatial information regarding a building's layout. This allows the user to develop an accurate spatial cognitive map of a large-scale three-dimensional space that can be manipulated for the purposes of a real indoor navigation task. After game play, participants are then assessed on their ability to navigate within the target physical building represented in the game. Preliminary results suggest that early blind users were able to acquire relevant information regarding the spatial layout of a previously unfamiliar building as indexed by their performance on a series of navigation tasks. These tasks included path finding through the virtual and physical building, as well as a series of drop off tasks. We find that the immersive and highly interactive nature of the AbES software appears to greatly engage the blind user to actively explore the virtual environment. Applications of this approach may extend to larger populations of visually impaired individuals.

  8. Navigating Distributed Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beute, Berco

    2002-01-01

    , to a situation where they are distributedacross the Internet. The second trend is the shift from a virtual environment that solelyconsists of distributed documents to a virtual environment that consists of bothdistributed documents and distributed services. The third and final trend is theincreasing diversity...... of devices used to access information on the Internet.The focal point of the thesis is an initial exploration of the effects of the trends onusers as they navigate the virtual environment of distributed documents and services.To begin the thesis uses scenarios as a heuristic device to identify and analyse...... themain effects of the trends. This is followed by an exploration of theory of navigationInformation Spaces, which is in turn followed by an overview of theories, and the stateof the art in navigating distributed services. These explorations of both theory andpractice resulted in a large number of topics...

  9. Systematic review of barriers and facilitators to hearing aid uptake in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jenstad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A key element to success in the implementation of any screening for a health condition is that an effective treatment is available, accessible, and complied with. As the main treatment for adult-onset hearing loss is hearing aids, but only about 25% of those who could benefit from hearing aids actually use them (e.g., Kochkin, 2000; Meister, et al., 2008, it is necessary to identify the factors that affect compliance with this treatment recommendation. Several investigators have explored the barriers that may prevent those with hearing loss from choosing to purchase and use hearing aids to assist with their communication needs (e.g., Meister, et al., 2008. Among some of the barriers to hearing aid use are stigmatization, underestimation of hearing loss by the individual, coping strategies, personality factors, low trust in hearing aid benefit, cognitive and functional restrictions, cost, false expectations (Meister, et al., 2008, and communication styles (Helvik, et al., 2008. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify the main barriers and facilitators to hearing aid (HA uptake in healthy elderly (age 65+ non-users of hearing aids who have hearing loss (i.e., have been diagnosed as having hearing loss and had hearing aids recommended, but did not purchase aids.

  10. Transformações da "aids aguda" para a "aids crônica": percepção corporal e intervenções cirúrgicas entre pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids From "acute AIDS" to "chronic AIDS": body perception and surgical interventions in people living with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após dez anos de uso da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência, um novo problema surge: a síndrome lipodistrófica do HIV, uma distribuição irregular de gordura no corpo, decorrente do uso das medicações anti-retrovirais. Se no início da epidemia, a aids era caracterizada, sobretudo, pela magreza, hoje - tempos de "aids crônica"- estamos, uma vez mais, diante do estigma sobre o corpo, só que, paradoxalmente, com sinal trocado - o acúmulo "desordenado" de gordura no corpo. Este artigo apresenta e compara as mudanças corporais percebidas por pessoas que vivem com HIV e aids, ocorridas nos últimos anos da epidemia, com a utilização dos anti-retrovirais. Foram analisadas 32 entrevistas qualitativas com pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids, realizadas nos anos de 1999 e 2005. Ao nos depararmos com as novas questões emergentes e analisarmos sua interação com a crescente disponibilidade e utilização de tecnologias, fica a forte sensação de ressurgimento, sob nova forma, dos mesmos paradoxos previamente existentes nos tempos da aids aguda: o impacto dos sinais e um certo tipo de ressurgimento da desesperança quanto ao futuro de vida dessas pessoas.The Brazilian government has been providing free and universal access to the HAART therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS for ten years. Since then, many epidemiological characteristics have changed, and AIDS passed scientifically and medically to be classified as a chronic condition. This qualitative study aims to comprehend the challenges posed by self-perception of body changes experienced by people living with AIDS during recent years, as a result of prolonged use of antiretroviral medication.With this purpose, in 1999 and 2005, 32 semi-structured interviews with HIV positive individuals were held in the State of Sao Paulo to capture the challenges occurred during this period, in particular with regard to the lipodystrophy syndrome. The analysis of the data indicates that even with

  11. The use of virtual surgical planning and navigation in the treatment of orbital trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Scott Herford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual surgical planning (VSP has recently been introduced in craniomaxillofacial surgery with the goal of improving efficiency and precision for complex surgical operations. Among many indications, VSP can also be applied for the treatment of congenital and acquired craniofacial defects, including orbital fractures. VSP permits the surgeon to visualize the complex anatomy of craniofacial region, showing the relationship between bone and neurovascular structures. It can be used to design and print using three-dimensional (3D printing technology and customized surgical models. Additionally, intraoperative navigation may be useful as an aid in performing the surgery. Navigation is useful for both the surgical dissection as well as to confirm the placement of the implant. Navigation has been found to be especially useful for orbit and sinus surgery. The present paper reports a case describing the use of VSP and computerized navigation for the reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant.

  12. Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation Using Geo-Referenced Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Conte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the possibility of augmenting an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation system with a passive video camera in order to cope with long-term GPS outages. The paper proposes a vision-based navigation architecture which combines inertial sensors, visual odometry, and registration of the on-board video to a geo-referenced aerial image. The vision-aided navigation system developed is capable of providing high-rate and drift-free state estimation for UAV autonomous navigation without the GPS system. Due to the use of image-to-map registration for absolute position calculation, drift-free position performance depends on the structural characteristics of the terrain. Experimental evaluation of the approach based on offline flight data is provided. In addition the architecture proposed has been implemented on-board an experimental UAV helicopter platform and tested during vision-based autonomous flights.

  13. Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation Using Geo-Referenced Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Gianpaolo; Doherty, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of augmenting an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system with a passive video camera in order to cope with long-term GPS outages. The paper proposes a vision-based navigation architecture which combines inertial sensors, visual odometry, and registration of the on-board video to a geo-referenced aerial image. The vision-aided navigation system developed is capable of providing high-rate and drift-free state estimation for UAV autonomous navigation without the GPS system. Due to the use of image-to-map registration for absolute position calculation, drift-free position performance depends on the structural characteristics of the terrain. Experimental evaluation of the approach based on offline flight data is provided. In addition the architecture proposed has been implemented on-board an experimental UAV helicopter platform and tested during vision-based autonomous flights.

  14. Time to act: crossing borders in global AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convisser, J; Thuermer, K

    1993-01-01

    After 9 months of market research and collaboration among local health officials, businesses, politicians, and teenagers, Population Services International (PSI) launched Project ACTION in Portland, Oregon on December 1, 1992. It is the first PSI project in the United States concerned with prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in American youth. PSI has conducted 23 projects worldwide over the last 20 years that were based on social marketing (the utilization of commercial marketing techniques to promote healthy behavior). The objective of the project is promotion of safe sex practices, especially the use of condoms, among sexually active youth, aged 12-21. The Mass Media and Condom Social Marketing project of PSI in Zaire was used as a model for Project ACTION. Techniques used include mass marketing campaigns, point of purchase promotion, improvement of access to key products among target populations, and adjustment of purchase price to create a market. The target populations include adolescents who use drugs, are involved with the juvenile justice system, are pregnant, have a problem home environment, are homeless or live on the street, are chronically absent from school, or have a history of sexually transmitted disease.

  15. Mental "Space" Travel: Damage to Posterior Parietal Cortex Prevents Egocentric Navigation and Reexperiencing of Remote Spatial Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramelli, Elisa; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Solcz, Stephanie; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2010-01-01

    The ability to navigate in a familiar environment depends on both an intact mental representation of allocentric spatial information and the integrity of systems supporting complementary egocentric representations. Although the hippocampus has been implicated in learning new allocentric spatial information, converging evidence suggests that the…

  16. The feasibility and safety of applying the magnetic navigation system to manage chronically occluded vessels: A single centre experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ramcharitar (Steve); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); M. van der Ent (Martin); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: Applying the Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) to manage chronic total occlusions (CTOs). The MNS precisely directs a magnetised guidewire in vivo through two permanent external magnets. Methods and results: The first 43 consecutive MNS treated CTOs were retrospectively evaluated. C

  17. The development of a SAR dedicated navigation system: from scratch to the first test flight: 2004BU1-RE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorga, J.F.M.; Rossum, W.L. van; Halsema, D. van; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose to describe the development process of a navigation system, concerning Syntectic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications, starting from the motivation for the sensor selection and finalizing with the first flight-test results. Sensors selection was one of the first steps

  18. Using Frames and JavaScript To Automate Teacher-Side Web Page Navigation for Classroom Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    HTML provides a platform-independent way of creating and making multimedia presentations for classroom instruction and making that content available on the Internet. However, time in class is very valuable, so that any way to automate or otherwise assist the presenter in Web page navigation during class can save valuable seconds. This paper…

  19. Evaluating the 1996 EU food aid reform: Did it really lead to better targeting?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the 1996 EU food aid reform and addresses the question of its impact on improving EU food aid allocation in terms of reaching those countries which are most vulnerable to food insecurity. Using a two-stage regression model the analysis finds that EU food aid in kind is increasingly targeted towards developing countries affected by food insecurity. Most importantly, characteristics such as low calorie supply and balance-of-payments difficulties gained in importance in EU foo...

  20. Navigational Planning in Orienteering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Shin

    Navigation is a human activity with the aim being to arrive at a predetermined destination. In order to find the way to the destination, the use of current input from the actual environment while travelling is needed as well as stored and organized knowledge of the local geography. Although the knowledge requirement has been studied extensively in the form of cognitive maps or other spatial representation, few studies deal with how the knowledge is used together with the input from the actual environment while navigating.

  1. Barriers to healthcare contribute to delays in follow-up among women with abnormal cancer screening: data from the Patient Navigation Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ambili; Snyder, Frederick; Katz, Mira L.; Darnell, Julie; Dudley, Donald; Patierno, Steven R.; Sanders, Mechelle R; Valverde, Patricia A; Simon, Melissa A; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Battaglia, Tracy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited understanding of the association between barriers to care and clinical outcomes within patient navigation programs. Methods Secondary analyses of data from the intervention arms of the Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP), including navigated participants with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening tests from 2007 to 2010. Independent variables were (a) number of unique barriers to care (0, 1, 2, or 3+) documented during patient navigation encounters and (b) presence of socio-legal barriers originating from social policy (yes/no). Median time to diagnostic resolution of index screening abnormalities was estimated using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression examined the impact of barriers on time to resolution, controlling for socio-demographics and stratifying by study center. Results Among 2600 breast participants, three-quarters had barriers to care (25% 1 barrier, 16% 2 barriers and 34% 3+ barriers). Among 1387 cervical participants, more than half had barriers (31% 1 barrier, 11% 2 barriers, and 13% 3+ barriers). Among breast participants, the presence of barriers was associated with less timely resolution for any number of barriers compared to no barriers. Among cervical participants, only the presence of 2 or more barriers was associated with less timely resolution. Both types of barriers, socio-legal and other barriers, were associated with delay among breast and cervical participants. Conclusions Navigated women with barriers resolve cancer screening abnormalities at a slower rate compared to navigated women with no barriers. Further innovations in navigation care are necessary to maximize the impact of patient navigation programs nationwide. PMID:26385420

  2. Projections of HIV infections and AIDS cases to the year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J; Sato, P A; Mann, J M

    1990-01-01

    After the recognition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the early 1980s, uncertainty about the present and future dimensions of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection led to the development of many models to estimate current and future numbers of HIV infections and AIDS cases. The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an AIDS projection model which relies on available HIV seroprevalence data and on the annual rate of progression from HIV infection to AIDS for use in areas where reporting of AIDS cases is incomplete, and where scant data are available to quantify biological and human behavioural variables. Virtually all models, including the WHO model, have projected large increases in the number of AIDS cases by the early 1990s. Such short-term projections are considered relatively reliable since most of the new AIDS cases will develop in persons already infected with HIV. Longer-term prediction (10 years or longer) is less reliable because HIV prevalence and future trends are determined by many variables, most of which are still not well understood. WHO has now applied the Delphi method to project HIV prevalence from the year 1988 to mid-2000. This method attempts to improve the quality of the judgements and estimates for relatively uncertain issues by the systematic use of knowledgeable "experts". The mean value of the Delphi projections for HIV prevalence in the year 2000 is between 3 and 4 times the 1988 base estimate of 5.1 million; these projections have been used to obtain annual estimates of adult AIDS cases up to the year 2000. Coordinated HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are considered by the Delphi participants to be potentially capable of preventing almost half of the new HIV infections that would otherwise occur between 1988 and the year 2000. However, more than half of the approximately 5 million AIDS cases which are projected for the next decade will occur despite the most

  3. 75 FR 42749 - Fidelity National Financial, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Fidelity National Financial, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment... or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the.... Comments should refer to ``Fidelity National Financial, File No. 091 0032'' to facilitate the...

  4. Inertial Navigation System Aiding Using Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    abp a + Cba d dt ( pa ) + d dt ( rbba ) (2.11) vb = d dt ( rbba ) + Cba (Ω a... abp a + va) (2.12) where ddt (r b ba) accounts for the relative velocity betwwen the a-frame and b-frame, CbaΩaabp a is the instantaneous velocity of p...frame. Taking another time derivative of Eq. 2.12 results in: d dt ( vb ) , ab = d2 dt2 rbba + d dt [ Cba (Ω a abp a + va) ] (2.13) = r̈bba + dCba

  5. Navigation towards a goal position: from reactive to generalised learned control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire da Silva, Valdinei [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil); Selvatici, Antonio Henrique [Universidade Nove de Julho, Rua Vergueiro, 235, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Reali Costa, Anna Helena, E-mail: valdinei.freire@gmail.com, E-mail: antoniohps@uninove.br, E-mail: anna.reali@poli.usp.br [Laboratorio de Tecnicas Inteligentes - LTI, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav.3, n.158, Cidade Universitaria Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    The task of navigating to a target position in space is a fairly common task for a mobile robot. It is desirable that this task is performed even in previously unknown environments. One reactive architecture explored before addresses this challenge by denning a hand-coded coordination of primitive behaviours, encoded by the Potential Fields method. Our first approach to improve the performance of this architecture adds a learning step to autonomously find the best way to coordinate primitive behaviours with respect to an arbitrary performance criterion. Because of the limitations presented by the Potential Fields method, especially in relation to non-convex obstacles, we are investigating the use of Relational Reinforcement Learning as a method to not only learn to act in the current environment, but also to generalise prior knowledge to the current environment in order to achieve the goal more quickly in a non-convex structured environment. We show the results of our previous efforts in reaching goal positions along with our current research on generalised approaches.

  6. An incremental-learning-by-navigation approach to vision-based autonomous land vehicle guidance in indoor environments using vertical line information and multiweighted generalized Hough transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G Y; Tsai, W H

    1998-01-01

    An incremental learning by navigation approach to vision based autonomous land vehicle (ALV) guidance in indoor environments is proposed. The approach consists of three stages: initial learning, navigation, and model updating. In the initial learning stage, the ALV is driven manually, and environment images and other status data are recorded automatically. Then, an offline procedure is performed to build an initial environment model. In the navigation stage, the ALV moves along the learned environment automatically, locates itself by model matching, and records necessary information for model updating. In the model updating stage, an offline procedure is performed to refine the learned model. A more precise model is obtained after each navigation-and-update iteration. Used environment features are vertical straight lines in camera views. A multiweighted generalized Hough transform is proposed for model matching. A real ALV was used as the testbed, and successful navigation experiments show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D

    2001-01-01

    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  8. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  9. Foundations Begin to Address the AIDS Crisis; 'Tremendous Growth' in Grants Is Predicted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1987-01-01

    In the last 6 months many private and corporate foundations have urged on colleges and universities to develop proposals to address problems posed by AIDS. Other philanthropies are helping colleges form citizens' commissions that will develop plans to prevent the spread of AIDS in their communities. Some programs are discussed. (MLW)

  10. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  11. ToGouR: Tour Guide Robot Visualization using Shape Recognition Pattern for Automatic Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The invention of autonomous robots with an increasing demand for industrial used has been caught attention from researchers and inventors. In this new sophisticated era, various types of robotsand systems have been developed and bring significant contribution to the industries, economy, and infrastructure. Thus in this project, we have develop an application for PIC based Tour Guide Robot (ToGouR where the PIC16F877A has been chosen as the main microcontroller. The application has a Graphical User Interface (GUI has allows the user to interact in interactive ways between ToGouR and the images for navigation systems. The application also has an ability to perform shape recognition for path planning and automatically make alternative ways when various shapes that have been recognized are put in the way. Various alternatives have been used to make sure this project is successful carried out. This tour guide robot is suitable to be commercialized with numerous robotics companies that would likecollaborate in delivering this project as a product and can be used for military or during any unexpected catastrophe such as one that occurred in Japan.

  12. Effectiveness of computer-navigated minimally invasive total hip surgery compared to conventional total hip arthroplasty: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulstra Sjoerd K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate to severe osteoarthrosis is the most common indication for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA. Minimally Invasive Total Hip Surgery (MIS and computer-navigated surgery were introduced several years ago. However, the literature lacks well-designed studies that provide evidence of superiority of computer-navigated MIS over a conventional THA technique. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare (costeffectiveness of computer-navigated MIS with a conventional technique for THA. It is our hypothesis that computer-navigated MIS will lead to a quicker recovery during the early postoperative period (3 months, and to an outcome at least as good 6 months postoperatively. We also hypothesize that computer-navigated MIS leads to fewer perioperative complications and better prosthesis positioning. Furthermore, cost advantages of computer-navigated MIS over conventional THA technique are expected. Methods/design A cluster randomized controlled trial will be executed. Patients between the ages of 18 and 75 admitted for primary cementless unilateral THA will be included. Patients will be stratified using the Charnley classification. They will be randomly allocated to have computer-navigated MIS or conventional THA technique. Measurements take place preoperatively, perioperatively, and 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Degree of limping (gait analysis, self-reported functional status and health-related quality of life (questionnaires will be assessed preoperatively as well as postoperatively. Perioperative complications will be registered. Radiographic evaluation of prosthesis positioning will take place 6 weeks postoperatively. An evaluation of costs within and outside the healthcare sector will focus on differences in costs between computer-navigated MIS and conventional THA technique. Discussion Based on studies performed so far, few objective data quantifying the risks and benefits of computer-navigated MIS are available

  13. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  14. 76 FR 15313 - Chitika, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... their individual Web browsing activity. Chitika offers an online behavioral advertising service in which... Chitika, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  15. 75 FR 53968 - Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... proposed order. This matter involves the public relations, marketing, and sales services that respondents... Reverb Communications, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal... methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in...

  16. Help for AIDS Education: Using Technology to Address a Critical Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the questions of if, what, when, and how to teach about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Describes a pilot project in AIDS education conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada), which used interactive video as the method of addressing those questions. Warns of several issues that need to be considered in such a program.…

  17. Persuading Students to Use Safer Sex Practices Proves Difficult, Even with the Danger of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    The most apparent roadblock to reaching the college-age population is the widespread belief that AIDS is a homosexual disease. College students don't know how to translate what they learn about AIDS into the way they live. Counseling is advocated. (MLW)

  18. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  19. A HEURISTIC CASCADING FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO REACTIVE NAVIGATION FOR UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew-Chung Chak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The capability of navigating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs safely in unknown terrain offers huge potential for wider applications in non-segregated airspace. Flying in non-segregated airspace present a risk of collision with static obstacles (e.g., towers, power lines and moving obstacles (e.g., aircraft, balloons. In this work, we propose a heuristic cascading fuzzy logic control strategy to solve for the Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R problem, in which the control strategy is comprised of two cascading modules. The first one is Obstacle Avoidance control and the latter is Path Tracking control. Simulation results show that the proposed architecture effectively resolves the conflicts and achieve rapid movement towards the target waypoint.ABSTRAK: Keupayaan mengemudi Kenderaan Udara Tanpa Pemandu (UAV dengan selamat di kawasan yang tidak diketahui menawarkan potensi yang besar untuk aplikasi yang lebih luas dalam ruang udara yang tidak terasing. Terbang di ruang udara yang tidak terasing menimbulkan risiko perlanggaran dengan halangan statik (contohnya, menara, talian kuasa dan halangan bergerak (contohnya, pesawat udara, belon. Dalam kajian ini, kami mencadangkan satu strategi heuristik kawalan logik kabur yang melata untuk menyelesaikan masalah Pengesanan Konflik dan Penyelesaian (CD&R, di mana strategi kawalan yang terdiri daripada dua modul melata. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahawa seni bina yang dicadangkan berjaya menyelesaikan konflik dan mencapai penerbangan pesat ke arah titik laluan sasaran.KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic; motion planning; obstacle avoidance; path tracking; reactive navigation; UAV Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso

  20. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."