... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health... Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or...
Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R
The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women "where they are"; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately assess the effectiveness of women-specific services on HIV
Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R
Introduction The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. Methods A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. Results and discussion The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women “where they are”; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. Conclusions This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately
... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1910.151 Section 1910.151..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Medical and First Aid § 1910.151 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for...
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1926.50 Section 1926.50... Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the availability... employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the...
Deevey, Sharon; Behring, Michael
Librarians in many venues may anticipate a wide range of reference questions related to HIV and AIDS. Information on HIV/ AIDS is now available in medical, academic, and public libraries and on the Internet, and ranges from the most complex science to the most private disclosures about personal behavior. In this article, the 913 reference questions asked between May 2002 and August 2004 in a special library in a mid-western community-based AIDS service organization are described and analyzed.
van Laren, Linda
In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.
... first aid. 50-204.6 Section 50-204.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.6 Medical services and first aid. (a) The... trained to render first aid. First aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall be readily...
Full Text Available Abstract Myanmar is experiencing an HIV epidemic documented since the late 1980s. The National AIDS Programme national surveillance ante-natal clinics had already estimated in 1993 that 1.4% of pregnant women were HIV positive, and UNAIDS estimates that at end 2005 1.3% (range 0.7–2.0% of the adult population was living with HIV. While a HIV surveillance system has been in place since 1992, the programmatic response to the epidemic has been slower to emerge although short- and medium-terms plans have been formulated since 1990. These early plans focused on the health sector, omitted key population groups at risk of HIV transmission and have not been adequately funded. The public health system more generally is severely under-funded. By the beginning of the new decade, a number of organisations had begun working on HIV and AIDS, though not yet in a formally coordinated manner. The Joint Programme on AIDS in Myanmar 2003–2005 was an attempt to deliver HIV services through a planned and agreed strategic framework. Donors established the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM, providing a pooled mechanism for funding and significantly increasing the resources available in Myanmar. By 2006 substantial advances had been made in terms of scope and diversity of service delivery, including outreach to most at risk populations to HIV. More organisations provided more services to an increased number of people. Services ranged from the provision of HIV prevention messages via mass media and through peers from high-risk groups, to the provision of care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. However, the data also show that this scaling up has not been sufficient to reach the vast majority of people in need of HIV and AIDS services. The operating environment constrains activities, but does not, in general, prohibit them. The slow rate of service expansion can be attributed to the burdens imposed by administrative measures, broader constraints on
... HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and... Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan... medical services, including antiretroviral drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible...
... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health... continue providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group...
Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda
Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.......Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking....
... HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County, Orlando..., 2010). The Orange County Health Department is known Statewide as an exceptional site for HIV/AIDS care...
Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Oladipo, Olabisi; Osita-Oleribe, Princess; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka; Nkwopara, Frank; Ekom, Ekei; Nwabuzor, Solomon; Iyalla, Grace; Onyewuchi, Kenneth; Olutola, Ayodotun; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter
With the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) identified in 1986, the management of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has evolved through the years. The emergency phase of the HIV/AIDS program, aimed at containing the HIV/AIDS epidemic within a short time frame, was carried out by international agencies that built structures separate from hospitals' programs. It is imperative that Nigeria shifts from the previous paradigm to the concept of Commonization of HIV to achieve sustainability. Commonization ensures that HIV/AIDS is seen as a health condition like others. It involves making HIV services available at all levels of healthcare. Excellence & Friends Management Consult (EFMC) undertook this process by conducting HIV tests in people's homes and work places, referring infected persons for treatment and follow up, establishing multiple HIV testing points and HIV services in private and public primary healthcare facilities. EFMC integrated HIV services within existing hospital care structures and trained all healthcare workers at all supported sites on HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment modalities. Commonization has improved the uptake of HIV testing and counseling and enrolment into HIV care as more people are aware that HIV services are available. It has integrated HIV services into general hospital services and minimized the cost of HIV programming as the existing structures and personnel in healthcare facilities are utilized for HIV services. Commonization of HIV services i.e. integrating HIV care into the existing fabric of the healthcare system, is highly recommended for a sustainable and efficient healthcare system as it makes HIV services acceptable by all.
Kosenko, Kami A; Rintamaki, Lance S
Research has indicated that HIV service providers commonly use humor to cope with work-related stress; however, little is known about the forms and functions of humor used by these professionals. In this study, 25 HIV service providers from five AIDS service organizations were interviewed about their use of humor. Participants described five primary types of humor as prevalent within AIDS service organizations and noted that humor served a variety of functions, which were either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive functions included boosting morale and reducing tension, whereas maladaptive functions ranged from masking emotions to alienating certain groups. Results emphasized the importance of context in the study of humor use and the need for continued investigations of the stress and coping of HIV service providers.
... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... Medical Center managed the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the...
... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Part C funds under The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care...
... materials available to individuals with hearing impairments; (2) Qualified readers, taped texts, audio recordings, Brailled materials, large print materials, or other effective methods of making visually...” includes— (1) Qualified interpreters, notetakers, computer-aided transcription services, written materials...
AIDS interventions typically fail to address the disjuncture between private behaviors and the social determinants of HIV infection. Data from a telephone survey of manufacturing companies and a postal survey of occupational health nurses in the Western Cape, South Africa, were used to explore the possible role of occupational health services in prevention and control of AIDS. The author found limited evidence of worker involvement in AIDS programs, particularly in companies with occupational health professionals. The management of sexually transmitted diseases was incomplete. Mandatory pre-employment testing of workers for HIV was not widespread. Respondents' opinions on priorities for AIDS prevention and control reflected a preoccupation with knowledge transfer. To ensure their effectiveness, workplace AIDS programs must improve worker participation and integrate AIDS prevention in general workplace health and safety programs. In addition, education programs must develop objectives within a critical theoretical understanding of the behavioral issues relevant to AIDS prevention, and must emphasize the empowerment of women in the workplace. In the context of the present restructuring of health services in South Africa, occupational health services, using the strategies outlined, can make a major contribution to national AIDS prevention and control.
Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states. Chinyere Mbachu, Obinna Onwujekwe, Nkoli Ezumah, Olayinka Ajayi, Olusola Sanwo, Benjamin Uzochukwu ...
Linda van Laren
Full Text Available Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little of this is translated into action. The impact of HIV & AIDS permeates the social, economic and political arenas in South Africa. Integration of HIV & AIDS education across disciplines can serve as a strategy to further the ideals of social justice. This paper focuses on how integration in the teaching and learning of Mathematics Education provides opportunities to take action for social justice. The inquiry explores the following question: How can the myth that there is 'nothing we can do' about HIV & AIDS, which is linked to social justice issues, be addressed through integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics pre-service teacher education? Drawing on self-study, the work of a Mathematics teacher educator who worked with pre-service teachers to integrate HIV & AIDS education at a higher education institution is described. By considering integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics Education and taking action it is possible to develop strategies which directly relate to social justice.
... Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.../AIDS Program, Part C funds for the Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, Viral Disease... HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental...
Cohen, L A; Grace, E G; Ward, M A
This project was conducted to examine the impact of Maryland residents' attitudes about AIDS on dental services utilization. A telephone survey of 1,477 households was conducted (response rate 68.9%). Less than 7 percent of the respondents volunteered a concern about contracting AIDS in the dental office. When asked directly, approximately 35 percent stated they would change dentists if their dentist were treating AIDS patients. Respondents who were most aware of the wide-spread treatment of AIDS patients by dentists were more likely to believe their dentist was treating AIDS patients. Also, they were less likely to report that they would leave the practice of dentists with AIDS or those who treated AIDS patients. It is critical for the public to be educated properly about the continued safety of the dental office and to receive accurate information about AIDS.
... HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY...: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award To... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS...
... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Funds for the Tutwiler Clinic. SUMMARY: HRSA will award non-competitively Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...
... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...
... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Part C...
... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...
... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early Intervention Services One-Time... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Part C...
Burkhalter, Jack E.; Cahill, Sean; Shuk, Elyse; Guidry, John; Corner, Geoffrey; Berk, Alexandra; Candelario, Norman; Kornegay, Mark; Lubetkin, Erica I.
Due to advances in treatment, persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are living longer, but with aging, immune deficits, and lifestyle factors, they are at increased risk for cancer. This challenges community-based AIDS service organizations (ASOs) to address the growing cancer needs of…
Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.
Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…
... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C funds award...
Andersen, Helle Elisabeth
Abstract This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person with dis......Abstract This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person...... with disabilities (PWDs) coming for HIV/AIDS testing or treatment. However, problems with discriminatory attitudes towards PWDs could not be confirmed from my fieldwork observations at five different HIV/AIDS clinics in Uganda. That observation was confirmed in my interviews with PWDs and health workers. Health...... workers said that PWDs were entitled to the same care and treatment as everybody else. However, I observed that only few PWDs seem to attend those HIV/AIDS services, and the question arose why that is so. Problems with access and confidence (for example lack of sign language interpreters) are often...
... HIV/AIDS Program Part D--Coordinated HIV Services and Access to Research for Women, Infants, Children... Orange County Health Department, Orlando, Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part D HIV/AIDS care and treatment services without disruption to HIV/ AIDS-infected women, infants and children in Orange...
Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg
Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.
2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK,. Tel: +251 ... HIV/AIDS related services in Ethiopia and other African ... finally to community health workers (1, 2). ... antiretroviral treatment delivery in sub-Saharan ... Benavides B, Caffrey M. Health Workforce.
Family-centred services in the context of HIV/AIDS acknowledge a broad view of a "family system" and ideally include comprehensive treatment and care, community agencies and coordinated case management. The importance of family-centred care for children affected by HIV/AIDS has been recognized for some time. There is a clear confluence of changing social realities and the needs of children in families affected by HIV and AIDS, but a change of paradigm in rendering services to children through families, in both high-prevalence and concentrated epidemic settings, has been slow to emerge.Despite a wide variety of model approaches, interventions, whether medical or psychosocial, still tend to target individuals rather than families. It has become clear that an individualistic approach to children affected by HIV and AIDS leads to confusion and misdirection of the global, national and local response. The almost exclusive focus on orphans, defined initially as a child who had lost one or both parents to AIDS, has occluded appreciation of the broader impact on children exposed to risk in other ways and the impact of the epidemic on families, communities and services for children. In addition, it led to narrowly focused, small-scale social welfare and case management approaches with little impact on government action, global and national policy, integration with health and education interventions, and increased funding.National social protection programmes that strengthen families are now established in several countries hard hit by AIDS, and large-scale pilots are underway in others. These efforts are supported by international and national development agencies, increasingly by governments and, more recently, by UNAIDS and the global AIDS community.There is no doubt that this is the beginning of a road and that there is still a long way to go, including basic research on families, family interventions, and effectiveness and costs of family-centred approaches. It is also
McKinnon, Norma M.
Dayspring AIDS support services (DASS), a New England-based health organization, like many service organizations that rely on part-time and volunteer help, lacked the funds needed to improve and/or renew part-time staff and volunteer knowledge and skills. This paper describes an innovative way in which the professional development needs of DASS's…
Linda van Laren
Dec 13, 2012 ... In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate ... in disciplines call for the development of new approaches – and ... be initiated when working with pre-service teachers who are regis- ... as 'personal development and social development areas of Life ..... Australia and New Zealand. 500.
Saharan Africa, that has the highest preva lenceof the disease, has been quite significant in recent years. Millions of people are now benefiting from the services rendered for people living with HIV/AIDS. Considering the state of health systems in ...
Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin
Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices.
Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela
The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.
Anderson, Stephen C.; And Others
Module 2 of a seven module package for child protective service workers explores various types of parent aide programs for abused and neglected children and their families. Four training activities address models of parent aide programs, organization analysis, and selection of the appropriate program model. Included are directions for using the…
Hoover, Ryan E.
Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids are often used to assist individuals confronted with a diagnosis of a serious illness to make decisions about treatment options. However, they are rarely utilised to help those with chronic or age related conditions to make decisions about care services. Decision aids should also be useful for carers of people with decreased decisional capacity. These carers' choices must balance health outcomes for themselves and for salient others with relational and value-based concerns, while relying on information from health professionals. This paper reports on a study that both developed and pilot tested a decision aid aimed at assisting carers to make evaluative judgements of community services, particularly respite care. Methods A mixed method sequential study, involving qualitative development and a pilot randomised controlled trial, was conducted in Tasmania, Australia. We undertook 13 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups to inform the development of the decision aid. For the randomised control trial we randomly assigned 31 carers of people with dementia to either receive the service decision aid at the start or end of the study. The primary outcome was measured by comparing the difference in carer burden between the two groups three months after the intervention group received the decision aid. Pilot data was collected from carers using interviewer-administered questionnaires at the commencement of the project, two weeks and 12 weeks later. Results The qualitative data strongly suggest that the intervention provides carers with needed decision support. Most carers felt that the decision aid was useful. The trial data demonstrated that, using the mean change between baseline and three month follow-up, the intervention group had less increase in burden, a decrease in decisional conflict and increased knowledge compared to control group participants. Conclusions While these results must be interpreted with
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of noncompetitive award of Part C funds for Saint Michael's Medical...
Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers. ... the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Omoto, A M; Snyder, M
A conceptual framework that identifies psychological and behavioral features associated with antecedents, experiences, and consequences of volunteerism is presented, and an inventory that measures 5 specific motivations for AIDS volunteerism is developed and cross-validated. Then a field study of 116 AIDS volunteers is presented in which a helping disposition, volunteer motivations, and social support (as antecedents), and personal satisfaction and organizational integration (as experiences) are used to predict duration of service over 2 1/2 years. Structural equation analyses indicate that dispositional helping influences satisfaction and integration but not duration of service, whereas greater motivation and less social support predict longer active volunteer service. The model is generalized to the prediction of perceived attitude change. Implications for conceptualizations of motivation, theoretical issues in helping, and practical concerns of volunteer organizations are discussed.
Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.; Ge, Yiqun; Khan, Javed I.
There exists tremendous opportunity in hospital-wide resource optimization based on system integration. This paper defines the resource planning and scheduling requirements integral to PACS, RIS and HIS integration. An multi-site case study is conducted to define the requirements. A well-tested planning and scheduling methodology, called Constrained Resource Planning model, has been applied to the chosen problem of radiological service optimization. This investigation focuses on resource optimization issues for minimizing the turnaround time to increase clinical efficiency and customer satisfaction, particularly in cases where the scheduling of multiple exams are required for a patient. How best to combine the information system efficiency and human intelligence in improving radiological services is described. Finally, an architecture for interfacing a computer-aided resource planning and scheduling tool with the existing PACS, HIS and RIS implementation is presented.
This article examines the effect of introducing a new HIV/AIDS service-prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT)-on overall quality of prenatal and postnatal care. My results suggest that local PMTCT introduction in Zambia may have actually increased all-cause child mortality in the short term. There is some evidence that vaccinations may have declined in the short term in association with local PMTCT introduction, suggesting that the new service may have partly crowded out existing pediatric health services.
Suthar, Amitabh B; Nagata, Jason M; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Bärnighausen, Till; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Doherty, Meg C
Although domestic HIV/AIDS financing is increasing, international HIV/AIDS financing has plateaued. Providing incentives for the health system (i.e. performance-based financing [PBF]) may help countries achieve more with available resources. We systematically reviewed effects of PBF on HIV/AIDS service delivery to inform WHO guidelines. PubMed, WHO Index Medicus, conference databases, and clinical trial registries were searched in April 2015 for randomised trials, comparative contemporaneous studies, or time-series studies. Studies evaluating PBF in people with HIV were included when they reported service quality, access, or cost. Meta-analyses were not possible due to limited data. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42015023207. Four studies, published from 2009 to 2015 and including 173,262 people, met the eligibility criteria. All studies were from Sub-Saharan Africa. PBF did not improve individual testing coverage (relative risk [RR], 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89 to 1.13), improved couples testing coverage (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20), and improved pregnant women testing coverage (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.28-1.30). PBF improved coverage of antiretrovirals in pregnant women (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.59), infants (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.84 to 2.01), and adults (RR 1.74, 1.64 to 1.85). PBF reduced attrition (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96) and treatment failure (odds ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.97). Potential harms were not reported. Although the limited data suggests PBF positively affected HIV service access and quality, critical health system and governance knowledge gaps remain. More research is needed to inform national policymaking.
Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou
The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be
Durand, Loriane; Favre, Eliane
Mon Travail de Bachelor a pour but premier de prendre connaissance de la situation de la violence dans les services d’aide contrainte du canton du Jura. La violence est-elle une réalité ? De quels types de violence s’agit-il ? Pourquoi cette violence, quelles en sont les raisons ? Cette violence augmente-t-elle le stress dans la profession d’assistant social ?
Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda; Boukef, Kamel; Boulton, Frank; Brandful, James; Dax, Elizabeth M.; El Ekiaby, Magdy; Farrugia, Albert; Gorlin, Jed; Hassall, Oliver; Lee, Helen; Loua, André; Maitland, Kathryn; Mbanya, Dora; Mukhtar, Zainab; Murphy, William; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Reesink, Henk; Roberts, David; Torres, Oscar; Totoe, Grace; Ullum, Henrik; Wendel, Silvano
Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking
Ala, Fereydoun; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Imelda; Boukef, Kamel; Boulton, Frank; Brandful, James; Dax, Elizabeth M.; El Ekiaby, Magdy; Farrugia, Albert; Gorlin, Jed; Hassall, Oliver; Lee, Helen; Loua, André; Maitland, Kathryn; Mbanya, Dora
Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.
Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.
President Obama has proposed a financial aid policy whereby students who complete 100 hours of community service would receive a tax credit of US$4,000 for college. After lawmakers cut this proposal from previous legislation, the administration was tasked with studying the feasibility of implementation. However, the implications of the policy for…
Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Allain and colleagues argue that, while unintended, the foreign aid provided for blood transfusion services in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in serious negative outcomes, which requires reflection and rethinking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater
Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with
Gunther, Margaret L.; Troftgruben, Judith A.
Designed to help school food service personnel, teachers, aides, and volunteers extend the benefits of the school meal program to handicapped children, this manual discusses eating problems resulting from such conditions as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, blindness, orthopedic handicaps, and other health impairments. Specific recommendations…
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Serván-Mori, Edson; Silverman-Retana, Omar; Contreras-Loya, David; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Lozano, Rafael
To document the association between supply-side determinants and AIDS mortality in Mexico between 2008 and 2013. We analyzed the SALVAR database (system for antiretroviral management, logistics and surveillance) as well as data collected through a nationally representative survey in health facilities. We used multivariate logit regression models to estimate the association between supply-side characteristics, namely management, training and experience of health care providers, and AIDS mortality, distinguishing early and non-early mortality and controlling for clinical indicators of the patients. Clinic status of the patients (initial CD4 and viral load) explain 44.4% of the variability of early mortality across clinics and 13.8% of the variability in non-early mortality. Supply-side characteristics increase explanatory power of the models by 16% in the case of early mortality, and 96% in the case of non-early mortality. Aspects of management and implementation of services contribute significantly to explain AIDS mortality in Mexico. Improving these aspects of the national program, can similarly improve its results.
Andersen, Helle Elisabeth
This project is based on five weeks’ ethnographically inspired fieldwork in May 2006 in the Republic of Uganda. The study started out with the hypothesis that there was some kind of discrimination going on in the interaction between health workers at HIV/AIDS clinics, and person with disabilities...... (PWDs) coming for HIV/AIDS testing or treatment. However, problems with discriminatory attitudes towards PWDs could not be confirmed from my fieldwork observations at five different HIV/AIDS clinics in Uganda. That observation was confirmed in my interviews with PWDs and health workers. Health workers...... said that PWDs were entitled to the same care and treatment as everybody else. However, I observed that only few PWDs seem to attend those HIV/AIDS services, and the question arose why that is so. Problems with access and confidence (for example lack of sign language interpreters) are often reported...
Petersen, Nadine; de Beer, Josef; Dunbar-Krige, Helen
The article describes the use of a simulation game in HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers in Johannesburg, South Africa. The use of a simulation game, as novel experiential pedagogy, was an attempt to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS and to demonstrate that anyone can be at risk of HIV infection. Using a generic qualitative research design, the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small group discussions afterwards, and via questionnaires and written reflections by the education students four weeks afterwards. Content analysis and discourse analysis led to the construction of three main themes. First, we found that the novelty factor of the simulation game for raising HIV/AIDS awareness was confirmed both during the game itself and after a period of time had elapsed. Second, in light of many education students' naivety about the intersection of biological, socio-cultural and economic issues at play in the spread of HIV, the game prompted more reflexivity about the disease and helped to broaden the participants' discussions. Lastly, the data revealed the disjuncture between theory and practice in HIV/AIDS education. We propose that in raising awareness of HIV and AIDS, educators should move towards more engaging and challenging pedagogies that address the learning needs of the 'new' generation of university students.
Humes, Larry E; Rogers, Sara E; Quigley, Tera M; Main, Anna K; Kinney, Dana L; Herring, Christine
The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of hearing aids in older adults using audiology best practices, to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative over-the-counter (OTC) intervention, and to examine the influence of purchase price on outcomes for both service-delivery models. The design of this study was a single-site, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with three parallel branches: (a) audiology best practices (AB), (b) consumer decides OTC model (CD), and (c) placebo devices (P). Outcome measures were obtained after a typical 6-week trial period with follow-up 4-week AB-based trial for those initially assigned to CD and P groups. Older adults from the general community were recruited via newspaper and community flyers to participate at a university research clinic. Participants were adults, ages 55-79 years, with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. There were 188 eligible participants: 163 enrolled as a volunteer sample, and 154 completed the intervention. All participants received the same high-end digital mini-behind-the-ear hearing aids fitted bilaterally. AB and P groups received best-practice services from audiologists; differing mainly in use of appropriate (AB) or placebo (P) hearing aid settings. CD participants self-selected their own pre-programmed hearing aids via an OTC model. Primary outcome measure was a 66-item self-report, Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (Cox & Gilmore, 1990). Secondary outcome measure was the Connected Speech Test (Cox, Alexander, & Gilmore, 1987) benefit. Additional measures of hearing-aid benefit, satisfaction, and usage were also obtained. Per-protocol analyses were performed. AB service-delivery model was found to be efficacious for most of the outcome measures, with moderate or large effect sizes (Cohen's d). CD service-delivery model was efficacious, with similar effect sizes. However, CD group had a significantly (p purchase hearing aids after the trial. Hearing aids are efficacious in
Adhikari, Radha; Smith, Pam; Sharma, Jeevan Raj; Chand, Obindra Bahadur
Nepal has been receiving foreign aid since the early 1950s. Currently, the country's health care system is heavily dependent on aid, even for the provision of basic health services to its people. Globally, the mechanism for the dispersal of foreign aid is becoming increasingly complex. Numerous stakeholders are involved at various levels: donors, intermediary organisations, project-implementing partners and the beneficiaries, engaging not only in Nepal but also globally. To illustrate how branding and bidding occurs, and to discuss how this process has become increasingly vital in securing foreign aid to run MCH activities in Nepal. This paper is based on a qualitative study. The data collection method includes Key Informant Interviews, the review of relevant policy documents and secondary data, and finally field observation visits to four maternal and child health (MCH) projects, currently funded by foreign aid. Through these methods we planned to gain a comprehensive understanding of the aid dispersing mechanism, and the aid-securing strategies, used by organisations seeking funds to provide MCH services in Nepal. Study findings suggest that foreign aid for the provision of MCH services in Nepal is channeled increasingly to its beneficiaries, not through the Government system, but rather via various intermediary organisations, employing branding and bidding processes. These organisations adapt commercial models, seeking to justify their 'cost-effectiveness'. They argue that they are 'yielding good value for money', with short-term target oriented projects. This ethos is evident throughout the aid dispersing chain. Organisations use innovative ideas and intervention packages, branded internationally and nationally, and employ the appropriate language of commerce in their bid to secure funds. The paper raises an important question as to whether the current mechanisms of channeling foreign aid in the MCH sector, via intermediary organisations, can actually be cost
The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text
With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents. First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments. First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.
Olaore, Israel B; Olaore, Augusta Y
A contemporary reading of Romans 1:27 was disguised as a saying by Paul Benjamin, AD 58 and administered to 275 randomly selected members of a private Christian university community in south western Nigeria in West Africa. Participants were asked to respond to a two-item questionnaire on their perception of the cause of HIV/AIDS either as a judgment from God or consequence of individual lifestyle choices. The apparent consensus drifted in the direction of God as the culprit handing down his judgment to perpetrators of evil who engage in the homosexual lifestyle. The goal of this paper was to examine the implications of a judgmental stance on addressing the psychosocial needs of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in religious environments. It also explores how service providers in faith-based environments can work around the Judgment versus Consequence tussle in providing non-discriminatory services to persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.
Xu, J; Han, J; Tang, H L; Li, J; Zang, C P; Mao, Y R
Objective: To determine the prevalence and relative factors on those who missed the follow-up service among newly reported HIV/AIDS cases that were infected by homosexual behavior. Methods: Data were extracted from both HIV/AIDS case-reporting and follow-up cards on HIV/AIDS in the Comprehensive Response Information Management System, between December 2008 and December 2015. Data was analyzed, using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore the relative factors of influence. Results: Among the newly reported HIV infection among MSM, the proportion of those who missed the follow-up services was 5.06% (6 037/119 358), and decreased dramatically, from 37.57% (1 261/3 356) to 0.84% (267/31 935) (trend χ (2)=103.43, P discovered MSM HIV cases declined dramatically. Among the MSM HIV cases, those having the following characteristics as: younger than 50-year old, with less school education, with unspecified occupation or unemployment, working in commercial service, being student, having history of incarceration, recruited from special investigation, and floating population were prone to miss the follow-up program, suggesting that the follow-up service should be targeting on these patients.
Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.
Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)
Kassile, Telemu; Anicetus, Honest; Kukula, Raphael; Mmbando, Bruno P
HIV is a major public health problem in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. It often leads to loss of productive labour and disruption of existing social support system which results in deterioration of population health. This poses a great challenge to infected people in meeting their essential goods and services. This paper examines health and social support services provided by employers to HIV/AIDS infected employees in Tanzania. This was a cross-sectional study, which employed qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to assess the health and social support services provision at employers and employees perspectives. The study participants were employees and employers from public and private organizations. A total of 181 employees and 23 employers from 23 workplaces aged between 18-68 years were involved. The results show that 23.8% (i.e., 20.4% males and 27.3% females) of the employees had at least one member of the family or close relatives living with HIV at the time of the study. Fifty six percent of the infected employees reported to have been receiving health or social support from their employers. Employees' responses were consistent with those reported by their employers. A total of 12(52.2%) and 11(47.8%) employers reported to have been providing health and social supports respectively. Female employees (58.3%) from the private sector (60.0%) were more likely to receive supports than male employees (52.6%) and than those from the public sector (46.2%). The most common health and social support received by the employees were treatment, and nutritional support and reduction of workload, respectively. HIV/AIDS infected employees named treatment and nutritional support, and soft loans and reduced workload respectively, as the most important health and social supports they needed from their employers. This study provides baseline information for further studies
Mookherji, Sangeeta; Ski, Samantha; Huntington, Dale
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria (GF) strives for high value for money, encouraging countries to integrate synergistic services and systems strengthening to maximize investments. The GF needs to show how, and how much, its grants support more than just HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) has been part of HIV/AIDS grants since 2007. Previous studies showed the GF PBF system does not allow resource tracking for SRH integration within HIV/AIDS grants. We present findings from a resource tracking case study using primary data collected at country level. Ethiopia was the study site. We reviewed data from four HIV/AIDS grants from January 2009-June 2011 and categorized SDAs and activities as directly, indirectly, or not related to SRH integration. Data included: GF PBF data; financial, performance, in-depth interview and facility observation data from Ethiopia. All HIV/AIDS grants in Ethiopia support SRH integration activities (12-100%). Using activities within SDAs, expenditures directly supporting SRH integration increased from 25% to 66% for the largest HIV/AIDS grant, and from 21% to 34% for the smaller PMTCT-focused grant. Using SDAs to categorize expenditures underestimated direct investments in SRH integration; activity-based categorization is more accurate. The important finding is that primary data collection could not resolve the limitations in using GF GPR data for resource tracking. The remedy is to require existing activity-based budgets and expenditure reports as part of PBF reporting requirements, and make them available in the grant portfolio database. The GF should do this quickly, as it is a serious shortfall in the GF guiding principle of transparency. Showing high value for money is important for maximizing impact and replenishments. The Global Fund should routinely track HIV/AIDs grant expenditures to disease control, service integration, and overall health systems strengthening. The current PBF system
Cheng, W B; Xu, H F; Zhong, F; Cai, Y S; Chen, X B; Meng, G; Lu, Y H; Han, Z G; Fan, L R; Zhao, Y T; Chen, X; Liang, C Y; Wu, H; Gao, K; Mai, H X; Tang, C
Objective: To introduce the development strategy of " Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services and its implementation results from 2010 to 2015 in Guangzhou, China. Methods: A gay men's health column was created for an active website aimed at men who have sex with men(MSM), in collaboration with local community organizations and the Guangzhou CDC. We designed intervention tools(including scenario-based applications and HIV risk self-assessment systems)and an online HIV testing service platform, integrated with applied psychology and behavioral theory as well as the " Internet Plus" concept, to intervene in HIV infection risk factors among MSM. Data of clients who accessed the " Internet Plus" AIDS services from 2010 to 2015 were used to evaluate service operation. Six-year consecutive surveys, conducted between April and July of each service year, were collected using a national AIDS sentinel surveillance questionnaire. For each year of surveillance, information on HIV prevalence, HIV interventions received during the past year, unprotected anal intercourse in the past 6 months, and HIV testing in the past year were compared using the chi-squared(χ 2 )test, to roughly reflect the effect of"Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services. Results: As of 31 December 2015, a total of 34 395 MSM had received " Internet Plus" services and HIV testing. The number of MSM tested increased from 2 338 in 2010 to 8 054 in 2015. From 2010 to 2015, newly identified HIV cases in each year were 59, 166, 312, 283, 291, and 270, which accounted for 25.0%, 32.8%, 38.8%, 35.1%, 30.5%, and 23.2% of MSM HIV cases of Guangzhou, respectively. Sentinel surveillance data showed that during the study period, 3 047 MSM were investigated, with 405, 400, 401, 633, 608, and 600 each year, respectively. The proportion of participants who had received any HIV intervention during the past year was 74.3%(301), 70.8%(283), 83.3%(334), 85.0%(538), 69.1%(420), and 83.8%(503)each year, respectively(trend χ 2
Li, Alan Tai-Wai; Wales, Joshua; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Owino, Maureen; Perreault, Yvette; Miao, Andrew; Maseko, Precious; Guiang, Charlie
As people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) achieve more stable health, many have taken on active peer support and professional roles within AIDS service organizations. Although the increased engagement has been associated with many improved health outcomes, emerging program and research evidence have identified new challenges associated with such transition. This paper reports on the results of a qualitative interpretive study that explored the effect of this role transition on PHA service providers' access to mental health support and self care. A total of 27 PHA service providers of diverse ethno-racial backgrounds took part in the study. Results show that while role transition often improves access to financial and health-care benefits, it also leads to new stress from workload demands, emotional triggers from client's narratives, feeling of burnout from over-immersion in HIV at both personal and professional levels, and diminished self care. Barriers to seeking support included: concerns regarding confidentiality; self-imposed and enacted stigma associated with accessing mental health services; and boundary issues resulting from changes in relationships with peers and other service providers. Evolving support mechanisms included: new formal and informal peer support networks amongst colleagues or other PHA service providers to address both personal and professional challenges, and having access to professional support offered through the workplace. The findings suggest the need for increased organizational recognition of HIV support work as a form of emotional labor that places complex demands on PHA service providers. Increased access to employer-provided mental health services, supportive workplace policies, and adequate job-specific training will contribute to reduced work-related stress. Community level strategies that support expansion of social networks amongst PHA service providers would reduce isolation. Systemic policies to increase access to insurance
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS...). ACTION: Notice of rescinded Policy Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB... Service (PHS) Act, Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program funds for housing referral services and short-term or...
Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers tool is a locator that helps people living with HIV/AIDS access medical care and related services. Users can...
Ph.-N. Pia is known as a philanathropist. In 1770, this apothecary is elected at the board of the city of Paris. Then, he wishes to create a first-aid service to rescue drowned people. In wooden boxes, he gathers together the drugs and devices used at that time, as a fumigating machine to inject tobacco smoke into the intestine, bottles of spirit of camphor, ammonia, a long shirt of wool, wood canulas and flexible pipes made of thin sheep leather. In each of the fiveteen guard houses standing along the river, are deposited a box and a stretcher. As far as Pia is at the head of the military police, he is especially innovating when he decids to train the guards to apply the drugs and the resuscitation processes. With such a regulated way of functioning associated to medical education and granting of awards, within fiveteen years hundreds of people are rescued and resuscitated. Yearly, he publishes the results obtained in Paris and in several places in France, with comments on the situation in the Netherlands, Germany and Britain. In 1780, the king nominates him in the royal order of Saint-Michel. The Révolution supresses the Etablissement en faveur des noyés, and Pia died in 1799 as completely forgotten. In Paris, the first-aid services come back to their former efficiency around 1835, when Marc proposes a special medical training to the fire-men and the military police to form first-aid groups. In this field, the pionneering work of Pia is still of great value and can abe kept in mind as a worldwide reference.
Aksakalli, Ayhan; Turgut, Umit; Salar, Riza
This research aims to investigate the ways in which pre-service physics teachers interact with computers, which, as an indispensable means of today's technology, are of major value in education and training, and to identify any misconceptions said teachers may have about computer-aided instruction. As part of the study, computer-based physics…
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...
Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José
People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behaviour of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. Only countries that tend to vote predominantly with the US in the UN General Assembly are not significantly discouraged from...... servicing their debt by inflows of foreign aid....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...
The passing of the Prevention of Industrial Risks Act, in force from 9 February 1996 has altered previous ideas on the subject, which is currently considered to be of utmost importance for national and community legislation. In this article we describe the preventive functions of the Mutual Aid Societies for Industrial Accidents and professional diseases of the National Health Service. We have analysed the current legislation so as to clarify the activities of the Mutual Aid Societies in the field of the prevention of industrial accidents, and have defined the actions which may be taken in this field according to the present laws. Two different types of preventive activities are considered: (1) Those which depend on contributions, included in the professional risks cover, and which are obliged to prepare an annual plan of the measures taken to prevent industrial accidents and professional illness, following the guidelines established by the Ministry of Labor and Social Services and according to certain priorities. (2) The functions corresponding to the services for third-party prevention exclusively for their associated companies when the Mutual Aid Society is approved as a service for third party cover. This requires a voluntary or professional contract and the financial cost is borne by the company which requests it. The objective of the current legislation is, amongst other things, to introduce the new preventive approach established by the Prevention of Industrial Risks Act in the workplace and through the Mutual Aid Societies as well as to foment a new culture of prevention.
Jones, Susan Robb; LePeau, Lucy A.; Robbins, Claire K.
This article reports the results of a study that explored the possibilities and limitations of service-learning by deconstructing the narratives about HIV/AIDS that emerged from five college students who participated in an alternative spring break program. Employing a critical (Rhoads, 1997) and anti-foundational (Butin, 2010) approach to inquiry,…
Full Text Available Uganda is among the first to use the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify persons with disabilities in its Demographic and Health Survey. In this paper, we review the HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour component of the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey, analysing a series of questions comparing those with and without disabilities in relation to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. We found comparable levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS for those with and those without disabilities in relation to HIV transmission during delivery (93.89%, 93.26% and through breastfeeding (89.91%, 90.63%, which may reflect increased attention to reaching the community of persons with disabilities. However, several gaps in the knowledge base of persons with disabilities stood out, including misconceptions of risk of HIV infection through mosquito bites and caring for a relative with HIV in own household (34.39%, 29.86%; p<0.001; 91.53%, 89.00%; p = 0.001, respectively. The issue is not just access to appropriate information but also equitable access to HIV/AIDS services and support. Here we found that persons with multiple disabilities were less likely than individuals without disabilities to return to receive results from their most recent HIV test (0.60[0.41-0.87], p<0.05. HIV testing means little if people do not return for follow-up to know their HIV status and, if necessary, to be connected to available services and supports. Additional findings of note were that persons with disabilities reported having a first sexual encounter at a slightly younger age than peers without disabilities; and persons with disabilities also reported having a sexually transmitted disease (STD within the last 12 months at significantly higher rates than peers without disabilities (1.38[1.18-1.63], p<0.01, despite reporting comparable knowledge of the need for safer sex practices. This analysis is among the first to use HIV/AIDS
Agarwal, Reshu; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan; Shastri, Suresh; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Rathore, Abhilakh Singh
Competing domestic health priorities and shrinking financial support from external agencies necessitates that India's National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) brings in cost efficiencies to sustain the programme. In addition, current plans to expand the criteria for eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India will have significant financial implications in the near future. ART centres in India provide comprehensive services to people living with HIV (PLHIV): those fulfilling national eligibility criteria and receiving ART and those on pre-ART care, i.e. not on ART. ART centres are financially supported (i) directly by the NACP; and (ii) indirectly by general health systems. This study was conducted to determine (i) the cost incurred per patient per year of pre-ART and ART services at ART centres; and (ii) the proportion of this cost incurred by the NACP and by general health systems. The study used national data from April 2013 to March 2014, on ART costs and non-ART costs (human resources, laboratory tests, training, prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, hospitalization, operational, and programme management). Data were extracted from procurement records and reports, statements of expenditure at national and state level, records and reports from ART centres, databases of the National AIDS Control Organisation, and reports on use of antiretroviral drugs. The analysis estimates the cost for ART services as US$ 133.89 (?8032) per patient per year, of which 66% (US$ 88.66, ?5320) is for antiretroviral drugs and 34% (US$ 45.23, ?2712) is for non-ART recurrent expenditure, while the cost for pre-ART care is US$ 33.05 (?1983) per patient per year. The low costs incurred for patients in ART and pre-ART care services can be attributed mainly to the low costs of generic drugs. However, further integration with general health systems may facilitate additional cost saving, such as in human resources.
Binagwaho, Agnes; Fuller, Arlan; Kerry, Vanessa; Dougherty, Sarah; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Wagner, Claire; Nzayizera, Rodrigue; Farmer, Paul
Under international, regional, and domestic law, adolescents are entitled to measures ensuring the highest attainable standard of health. For HIV/AIDS, this is essential as adolescents lack many social and economic protections and are disproportionately vulnerable to the effects of the disease. In many countries, legal protections do not always ensure access to health care for adolescents, including for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care. Using Rwanda as an example, this article identifies gaps, policy barriers, and inconsistencies in legal protection that can create age-related barriers to HIV/AIDS services and care. One of the most pressing challenges is defining an age of majority for access to prevention measures, such as condoms, testing and treatment, and social support. Occasionally drawing on examples of existing and proposed laws in other African countries, Rwanda and other countries may strengthen their commitment to adolescents' rights and eliminate barriers to prevention, family planning, testing and disclosure, treatment, and support. Among the improvements, Rwanda and other countries must align its age of consent with the actual behavior of adolescents and ensure privacy to adolescents regarding family planning, HIV testing, disclosure, care, and treatment.
Grace C. Huerta
Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.
... HIV/AIDS Program Solicitation of Comments AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... solicits comments on Parts A through F of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program. Comments are solicited to inform... Public Health Service Act (PHS), as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009...
This article reports the AIDS care response of industries to the rising AIDS epidemic in South Africa. It has been reported that during 1993-99 the rate of hospital bed occupancy doubled to over 8/1000 and that 50% of ill-health retirements in 1998 were due to AIDS. Important issues to be considered by industries are the medical separation due to ill health, poor health care services. The focus of HIV/AIDS care should be on the patient, family, care giver, community, and health services, and must be based on the principles of decentralization and integration of sustainable and cost-effective HIV/AIDS services. The development of a care package must be based on six dimensions; namely, appropriateness, acceptability, accessibility, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. On the other hand, identification of indicators in relation to the components of the care package must include support groups and networks of people living with HIV; the provision of home-based care; responsiveness of the health system; the existence and application of clinical guidelines; and the effectiveness of referrals. Any organization with a commitment in providing care should establish a Care Task Team to develop a care strategy. It should focus on who can have access to the care, what the care consists of, and who will cover the cost. In addition, a review of the existing HIV/AIDS services must be done to identify shortfalls and highlight priority gaps.
Onwujekwe, Obinna; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Mbachu, Chinyere; Chiegil, Robert; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin
The opinions of consumers in decentralization provide insights into possible levels of improvement in access and uptake of services. The study examined clients' perception and attitude towards decentralization of antiretroviral treatment services from central hospitals to primary health centres (PHCs). A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in three states in Nigeria. A total of 1265 exit interviews were conducted with HIV/AIDS clients in nine health facilities. About a third of all the respondents were not comfortable with receiving ART services in a PHC facility close to where they live. The reasons given by 385 respondents who would not want their treatment centres near were as follows: fear of disclosure, 299 (80.4%); fear of being discriminated against, 278 (74.3%); and satisfaction with care received at current facility, 278 (74.3%). However, more than 90% of respondents in all three states felt that decentralization of ART services to PHCs would be beneficial in controlling HIV/AIDS in Nigeria; the difference in respondents' perception across the three state was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The findings imply that scaling-up of treatment services to PHCs would be widely accepted, and probably result in increased uptake. However, this must be accompanied by targeted behaviour change interventions for clients who for the fear of disclosure and stigma would still not access care from proximate facilities. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). By 2005, 65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. To explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. THE METHODOLOGY: The qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your services care for nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. A qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV/AIDS affected nurses, but are doing so without any formal policy
Datta, Dipankar; Njuguna, James
Consequences of HIV and AIDS are exponential in Kenya, touching not only the health of those infected, but also depleting socioeconomic resources of entire families. Access to financial services is one of the important ways to protect and build economic resources. Unfortunately, the norm of financial viability discourages microfinance institutions from targeting people severely impacted by HIV and AIDS. Thus, HIV and AIDS service NGOs have been increasingly getting involved in microcredit activity in recent years for economic empowerment of their clients. Despite limited human resources and funding in the area of microcredit activity, these NGOs have demonstrated that nearly 50% of their microcredit beneficiaries invested money in income-generating activities, resulting in enhancement to their livelihood security. In the short term these NGOs need to improve their current practices. However, this does not mean launching microfinance initiatives within their AIDS-focused programmes, as financial services are best provided by specialised institutions. Longer-term cooperation between microfinance institutions and other AIDS service organisations and donors is necessary to master appropriate and rapid responses in areas experiencing severe impacts of HIV and AIDS.
Mazal, Jonathan; Lexa, Frank; Starikovsky, Anna; Jimenez, Pablo; Jain, Sanjay; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Nathan, Robert; Krebs, Elizabeth; Noble, Vicki; Marks, William; Hirsh, Richard N.; Short, Brad; Sydnor, Ryan; Timmreck-Jackson, Emily; Lungren, Matthew P.; Maxfield, Charles; Azene, Ezana M.; Garra, Brian S.; Choi, Brian G.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Mollura, Daniel J.
The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparity. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID Conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve planning, accessibility and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and healthcare disparities including: (1) economic development for radiology service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions. PMID:22748790
Elias, A M
In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.
Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Manager, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room...
In-service inspection has played an important role in non-nuclear pressure vessel technology, being a legal requirement in many countries. Evidence from surveys of reliability of non-nuclear plant has suggested that such inspections can be effective in reducing the risk of subsequent failures. Recent requirements of the ASME XI code which will be summarised have important implications on the techniques to be used for in-service inspection, and so on design and fabrication aspects. Moreover, in-service inspection can only be an effective procedure if its possible weaknesses are recognised. The first problem is to ensure that an ultrasonic technique is used which is capable of detecting defects of an order of magnitude smaller than the critical size for each particular situation, in whatever defect orientation is important. The potential of different ultrasonic techniques will be compared. Next it is necessary to ensure coverage of all the relevant material. In this respect machine operation is superior to manual scanning, so that manipulation and scanning devices have to be developed. Problems of local geometry and of deviations in geometry have to be discussed with designer and fabricator; plate and clad quality have to be controlled (with respect to surface contour, metallurgical condition and freedom from interfering defects) to ensure inspectability in depth. The reliability of the mechanical and electronic equipment has to be assessed and designed to meet high requirements. Some presentational aids to detection and interpretation will be discussed. Having located a potential defect, the application of fracture mechanics treatments requires knowledge of size, shape and orientation. Some of the problems will be discussed together with possible solutions. (author)
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and medical attention. 1926.23 Section 1926.23... Provisions § 1926.23 First aid and medical attention. First aid services and provisions for medical care... prescribing specific requirements for first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities are contained in...
It is estimated that 18–20% of South Africa\\'s more than 5 million HIV-positive individuals are formally employed. Disease management programmes for these employees vary in scope and sophistication, with services provided by the employer, or third-party specialist disease managers, or through medical aid schemes.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be conducted as a telephone conference call... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW., Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting to discuss the Ryan White Program. The meeting will be open..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW., Room 443H...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting will.../AIDS, Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue, SW., Room 443H, Hubert H...
Kumar, Anant; Kumar, Prakash
Training needs assessments are pivotal for any capacity building program. Building capacity of service providers and staff involved in HIV/AIDS intervention programs is crucial because of the distinct nature of such programs. It requires specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are of utmost importance, influencing the reach of the program and its impact in halting and reversing the epidemic. This study was conducted to identify the training needs assessment of personnel involved in targeted intervention for high risk populations vulnerable to HIV infection in Jharkhand, India. Through the study the authors critically examine the existing training needs and gaps and suggest strategies to address them.
It will critically examine how HIV/AIDS is affecting rural small-scale food production, ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all.
Full Text Available This paper presents the latest results of a newly developed visual aid system for direct teleoperation. This method is extended to visual control to make an efficient teleoperation system by combining direct teleoperation and automatic control. On the one hand, an operator can conduct direct teleoperation with 3D graphic prediction simulation established by the VR technique. In order to remove inconsistencies between the virtual and real environments, a practical model-matching method is investigated. On the other hand, to realize real-time visual servoing control, a particular object recognition and pose estimation algorithm based on polygonal approximation is investigated to ensure a low computational cost for image processing. To avoid undesired forces involved in contact operation, 3D visual servoing incorporating a compliant control based on impedance control is developed. Finally, in a representative laboratory environment, a typical satellite servicing experiment is carried out based on this combined system. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The South African National AIDS Council emphasises that success in tackling HIV/AIDS depends on leadership at every level of society, as well as mobilisation and co-operation in all sectors including government, health care workers and civil society (SANAC, 2006). This may be an acknowledgement that South Africa's ...
Wasunna, Beatrice; Zurovac, Dejan; Bruce, Jane; Jones, Caroline; Webster, Jayne; Snow, Robert W
Improving the way artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is provided to patients attending clinics is critical to maximize the benefit of this new medicine. In 2007, a new initiative was launched in one part of Kenya to improve malaria case-management through enhanced in-service training and provision of job aids. An evaluation of the intervention using pre- and post-intervention cross sectional health facility surveys was conducted in Bondo district. The surveys included: audit of government health facilities, health worker structured interviews and exit interviews with caretakers of sick children below five years of age. The outcome indicators were the proportions of febrile children who had AL prescribed, AL dispensed, and four different dispensing and counseling tasks performed. At baseline 33 government health facilities, 48 health workers and 386 febrile child consultations were evaluated. At follow-up the same health facilities were surveyed and 36 health workers and 390 febrile child consultations evaluated. The findings show: 1) no health facility or health worker was exposed to all components of the intervention; 2) the proportion of health workers who received the enhanced in-service training was 67%; 3) the proportion of febrile children with uncomplicated malaria treated with the first-line anti-malarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), at health facilities where AL was in stock increased from 76.9% (95%CI: 69.4, 83.1) to 87.6% (95% CI: 82.5, 91.5); 4) there were modest but non-significant improvements in dispensing and counseling practices; and 5) when the analyses were restricted to health workers who received the enhanced in-service training and/or had received new guidelines and job aids, no significant improvements in reported case-management tasks were observed compared to baseline. In-service training and provision of job aids alone may not be adequate to improve the prescribing, dispensing and counseling tasks necessary to change malaria case
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the way artemether-lumefantrine (AL is provided to patients attending clinics is critical to maximize the benefit of this new medicine. In 2007, a new initiative was launched in one part of Kenya to improve malaria case-management through enhanced in-service training and provision of job aids. Methods An evaluation of the intervention using pre- and post-intervention cross sectional health facility surveys was conducted in Bondo district. The surveys included: audit of government health facilities, health worker structured interviews and exit interviews with caretakers of sick children below five years of age. The outcome indicators were the proportions of febrile children who had AL prescribed, AL dispensed, and four different dispensing and counseling tasks performed. Results At baseline 33 government health facilities, 48 health workers and 386 febrile child consultations were evaluated. At follow-up the same health facilities were surveyed and 36 health workers and 390 febrile child consultations evaluated. The findings show: 1 no health facility or health worker was exposed to all components of the intervention; 2 the proportion of health workers who received the enhanced in-service training was 67%; 3 the proportion of febrile children with uncomplicated malaria treated with the first-line anti-malarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine (AL, at health facilities where AL was in stock increased from 76.9% (95%CI: 69.4, 83.1 to 87.6% (95% CI: 82.5, 91.5; 4 there were modest but non-significant improvements in dispensing and counseling practices; and 5 when the analyses were restricted to health workers who received the enhanced in-service training and/or had received new guidelines and job aids, no significant improvements in reported case-management tasks were observed compared to baseline. Conclusion In-service training and provision of job aids alone may not be adequate to improve the prescribing, dispensing and
Joe, J. Richelle; Foster, Victoria A.
People living with HIV/AIDS will likely require services from mental health professionals to address the complex psychosocial effects of the illness. In the United States, counseling students are not likely to be well prepared to serve clients affected by HIV/AIDS, and little is known about their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. The present…
Logan, Jennifer A; Beatty, Maile; Woliver, Renee; Rubinstein, Eric P; Averbach, Abigail R
Over time, improvements in HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data have increased their usefulness for planning programs, targeting resources, and otherwise informing HIV/AIDS policy. However, community planning groups, service providers, and health department staff often have difficulty in interpreting and applying the wide array of data now available. We describe the development of the Bridging Model, a technical assistance model for overcoming barriers to the use of data for program planning. Through the use of an iterative feedback loop in the model, HIV/AIDS data products constantly are evolving to better inform the decision-making tasks of their multiple users. Implementation of this model has led to improved data quality and data products and to a greater willingness and ability among stakeholders to use the data for planning purposes.
Nilo Jorge Piccoli
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to conduct an assessment of pharmaceutical services in HIV/AIDS in the city of Niteroi, Brazil, with emphasis on management. It was done a descriptive cross-sectional study, and the approach used was a normative assessment focused on quality. The indicators used were analyzed individually or grouped according to the components of pharmaceutical services. The assessment identified some good points, especially regarding the good availability of ARVs, and good guide patients in the use of these drugs, and also some problems such as low levels of compliance in relation to good dispensing practices criteria and storage and a high time for the distribution of medicines. The result was a degree of 50.3% compliance with the quality criteria, considered only regular in accordance with trial made. Proposals were suggested for actions and interventions, especially in relation to the improvement of structural conditions of pharmacies of health facilities in the city, and increased training of professionals involved in the services.
collaborative governance between stakeholders in a sustainable comprehensive service to cope with HIV/AIDS in Surakarta City. This study was an exploratory study. Informants were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data collection was conducted on 2 July – 2 September 2013 using in-depth interview, observation, focus group discussion, and documentation. Technique of data analysis was an interactive analysis model. Results showed that service provider and receiver had taken roles in HIV/AIDS coping based on their own duty and function. Prevention and outreach, healthcare service, harm reduction and empowerment programs had not been yet effective because of less optimal commitment to purpose and mutual trust between stakeholders, less professional fieldworkers, latent conflict occurred between stakeholders, less optimal coordination between AIDS Coping Commission of Surakarta City members, and low budget for HIV/AIDS coping as HIV/AIDS is not yet a priority issue in regional development. In brief, collaborative governance between stakeholders is not yet efffective. To improve the quality and the collaborative governance effectivity between stakeholders, there should be any clear norm, structure and process in coping with HIV/AIDS.
Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B
Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.
Destrebecq, A; Lusignani, M; Terzoni, S
not busy with activities that could be assigned to others. Our study sample included only of manager nurses, who were responsible of nursing offices in ASLs which included outpatients. facilities on the whole territory ofl Italy. We choose to make a convenience sampling, choosing a manager nurse for each regional chief town. Our study is an observational, non-experimental quantitative research. To collect our data we used an anonymous questionnaire, based on a reference model, which had already been used in older studies. The model allowed a classification of the tasks performed by nurses in three categories: Nursing activities without chances of delegation; Nursing activities that could be assigned to aids; Activities beyond the competence of nurses. The questionnaire was articulated in 7 categories (general situation, booking, acceptation, preparation of patients' units, nursing care, tasks usually performed in outpatients' services, rearrangement of patients' units). We made a comparison between our data and the reference model. In the studied outpatients' services, nurses take in charge a high percentage of tasks (39%) that should be performed by others. More precisely, there are activities that should be carried out by aids (17%) or employees (22%). For example, in the category "Rearrangement of the patient's units", nurses perform approximately 70% of the tasks. Our study revealed that not employing aids at their fullest affects the problem; overall, our data show that 45% of nurses' everyday working time could be regained, if it were possible to assign to aids and employees all the activities that are not nurses' competence. This would produce a series of positive consequences, such as bringing out of the competences acquired by nurses, a better qualification and a real identification of the contribution given by nurses to the citizenship, other than an adequate employment and usage of human resources.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...
Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter
and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....
Zammuto, Raymond F.; And Others
A study investigated the quality of services in four student enrollment services administrative sub-units (recruiting, admissions, records and registration, financial aid) at a public comprehensive university, using student and staff evaluations and program evaluations. Specific changes needed to improve service delivery are identified and…
Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah
To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual's perception and attitudes regarding dental services. One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients' HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.
Jesus Eduardo Elizondo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014. They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%; the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%; and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%.CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.
Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.
Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick
Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy.
... Indian health program HIV/AIDS activities is necessary to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the urban Indian communities by increasing access to HIV related services, reducing stigma, and making testing..., Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Health Resource and Services Administration, and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...
Full Text Available The study analyses the relationship between AIDS-related stigma and the processes of discrimination prior to diagnosis among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS. The fieldwork involved interviews about the life trajectories of 29 pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS, recruited at two AIDS services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis revealed that before HIV diagnosis, social and gender inequalities experienced by these women reduced their access to material and symbolic goods that could have enhanced educational and career prospects and their ability and autonomy to exercise sexual and reproductive rights. Being diagnosed with HIV triggered fear of moral judgment and of breakdown in social and family support networks. Given these fears, pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS opt for concealment of the diagnosis. It is necessary for health services, NGOs and government agencies to work together to face the factors that fuel stigma, such as socioeconomic and gender inequalities, taboos and prejudices related to sexuality, and also develop actions to enable women to redefine the meaning of the disease.
Full Text Available Perempuan terinfeksi human immunodeficiency virus dan acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS mempunyai permasalahan yang kompleks sehubungan dengan penyakit dan statusnya, sehingga mereka mempunyai kebutuhan yang khusus. Kebutuhan perawatan, dukungan dan pengobatan tersebut dapat diperoleh dengan mengakses pelayanan kesehatan yang tersedia untuk dapat mengoptimalkan kesehatan mereka sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas hidup. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis hubungan faktor predisposisi yang meliputi pengetahuan, sikap, stigma, faktor pemungkin yang meliputi jarak ke pelayanan kesehatan dan faktor penguat berupa dukungan sosial dengan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan pada perempuan terinfeksi HIV/AIDS. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan pendekatan potong lintang. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kelompok Dukungan Sebaya Female Plus Kota Bandung pada bulan Juni sampai Juli 2012. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 40 orang perempuan terinfeksi HIV/AIDS. Data di analisis secara univariat, bivariat, dan multivariat. Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang signifikan secara statistik yaitu usia, pendidikan, status perkawinan, status pekerjaan, faktor predisposisi (pengetahuan, sikap, stigma, faktor penguat (dukungan sosial, dan faktor pemungkin yaitu jarak ke pelayanan kesehatan tidak berhubungan dengan pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan. Pengetahuan merupakan faktor penentu dalam pemanfaatan pelayanan kesehatan berpeluang 60,1 kali untuk memanfaatkan pelayanan kesehatan. Women living with HIV/AIDS have a complex problems who connection with the disease and her status, because they have special needs, for care, support and treatment can be obtained by accessing the health services available to optimize their health so as to improve the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between three factors, predisposing factors (knowledge, attitudes, stigma, enabling factors (distance to health services, and
Based on these findings, it was recommended that the faith-based Christian organizations should collaborate with relevant agencies, community based workers and non-formal education providers to improve HIV/AIDS prevention service delivery in the study area. Keywords: Prevention, Activities, HIV/AIDS, Empowerment, ...
Lichtenstein, Bronwen; DeCoster, Jamie
Teaching about the sociology of HIV/AIDS involves teaching about the causes and effects of stigma. We describe a Sociology of HIV/AIDS course at the University of Alabama in which stigma reduction was assessed as a primary objective. The syllabus involved theory-based instruction, class visits, service learning, and student research on community…
Vanmeulebrouk, B.; Rivett, U.; Ricketts, M.L.; Loudon, M.
Background: Reliable access to basic services can improve a community's resilience to HIV/AIDS. Accordingly, work is being done to upgrade the physical infrastructure in affected areas, often employing a strategy of decentralised service provision. Spatial characteristics are one of the major
Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah
Previous literature suggests that increasing numbers of development aid donors can reduce aid effectiveness but this has not been tested in the health sector, which has experienced substantial recent growth in aid volume and number of donors. Based on annual data for 1995-2010 on 139 low- and middle-income countries that received health sector aid from donors reporting to the OECD's Creditor Reporting System, the study used two-step system generalized method of moments regression models to test whether the number of health aid donors and an index of health aid donor fragmentation affect health services (measured by DTP3 immunization rate) or health outcomes (measured by infant mortality rate) for three subsectors of health aid. For total health aid and for the general and basic health aid subsector, controlling for economic and political conditions, increases in the number of donors were associated with increases in DTP3 immunization rate and reductions in infant mortality while increases in the donor fragmentation index were associated with decreases in DTP3 immunization rate and increases in infant mortality, though none of these relationships were statistically significant. For the population and reproductive health aid subsector, a one percent increase in the number of donors was associated with a 0.23 percent decrease in DTP3 immunization ( P < 0.01) while a one percent increase in donor fragmentation was associated with a 0.54 percent increase in DTP3 immunization rate ( P < 0.01); associations with infant mortality rates for this subsector were similar to those for total health aid. The results do not provide clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that donor proliferation negatively impacts development results in the health sector. Aid effectiveness policy prescriptions should distinguish responses to donor proliferation versus donor fragmentation and be adapted to specific subsectors of health aid. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford
Andreev, E.; Mikhajlov, M.A.; Bliznakov, V.
A model scheme has been presented of medical aid organization in emergency cases of irradiation. The tasks of medical service have been pointed out in connection with evacuation stages, bulk of medical aid depending on the natur of radiation damages, first aid and some general principles of radiation sickness treatment. (author)
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO. By 2005,65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. The aim of the study: to explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. . The methodology: the qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your s e n ’ices care fo r nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. . The results: a qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV/AIDS
Olumide, Adesola O; Asuzu, Michael C; Kale, Oladele O
Prompt prehospital care is essential for improving outcomes of road crash victims; however, this service is sub-optimal in developing countries because Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are not readily available. Training of lay responders in first aid has been suggested as a means of filling this gap in settings with inadequate EMS. This study was conducted to determine the effect of first aid training on the first aid knowledge and skills of commercial drivers. A before-and-after study was conducted among 128 commercial drivers (62 intervention and 66 controls) selected by multi-stage sampling. Drivers' first aid knowledge and skills were assessed at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. The intervention involved a 2-day training session in first aid. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in respondents' pre- and post-intervention scores over the three assessment points. Mean first aid knowledge scores for intervention drivers were 48.9% (SD=12.0), 57.8% (SD=11.2), and 59.2% (SD=9.0) at baseline, immediate, and three months post-intervention. Corresponding scores for the controls were 48.3% (SD=12.8), 39.2% (SD=15.3), and 46.8% (SD=15.3). Mean first aid skill scores for intervention drivers were 17.5% (SD=3.8), 80.7% (SD=8.3), and 72.3% (SD=16.8). Scores for control drivers were 16.5% (SD=4.5), 16.3% (SD=4.7), and 20.4% (SD=9.1), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences in first aid knowledge and skills scores over the three phases. Independent t-test revealed significant differences in scores between the intervention and control groups post-intervention. The training led to significant improvement in first aid knowledge and skills of intervention drivers. This confirms that lay responders can be trained in provision of first aid. The slight drop in skills scores, which occurred three months post-intervention, highlights the need for periodic refresher trainings to be conducted for the drivers in
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…
Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp
This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behavior of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely debt repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. A set of conditional estimates suggest that the main findings generalize to the majority of developing countries...
Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio
To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.
Hung, V; Nguyen, S T; Tieu, V T T; Nguyen, T T T; Duong, T H; Lyss, S; Oeltmann, J E
Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014. We used a pre-post study design to compare service-related outcomes from routinely collected data at health facilities 6 months before and 6 months after integration. Results: The proportion of HIV-infected persons linked from VCT to OPCs was unchanged or increased following integration. A higher percentage of patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were started on ART. The proportion of ART patients lost to follow-up remained unchanged. The proportions of MMT patients who tested positive for heroin or other substances decreased or were unchanged. Conclusions: VCT, OPC and MMT service delivery quality remained the same or improved during the 6 months following the integration. Expansion of the integrated model should be considered for HIV-related services.
Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter
We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....
Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.
L'étude a commencé avec la recherche ethnographique dans 10 communautés choisies à l'aide d'un échantillon représentatif géographique et une attribution aléatoire à une des trois sections de recherche. A l'aide du modèle de la Communauté Compétente du SIDA (CCA), élaboré par Catherine Campbell, la recherche ...
Full Text Available In the U.S., the number of individuals aged 50 and older who are living with HIV has increased, leading to a phenomenon called the graying of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Advances in treating HIV have brought about a large growing population of seniors with HIV who are simultaneously facing social, psychological, and physical challenges correlated with the aging process. The stigma against HIV/AIDS has been linked to poor health, depression, and loneliness. In a recent study, about 39.1% of HIV/AIDS patients showed symptoms of major depression (C. Grov et al, 2010. Consequently, to reduce lasting effects of major depressive symptoms, there is a vital need for service providers to employ innovative efforts to confront the stigma and psychosocial and physical health problems that are characteristic of an older HIV/AIDS population. The new technological approaches to healthcare delivery have resulted in faster, more accurate diagnosis and monitoring, in more sophisticated coordination across regions and agencies, and in sophisticated risk-checking procedures. New healthcare technology that can help the AIDS/HIV patient is called Health Information Technology, a basic element of Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS, which is a new approach to healthcare. HRMS can assist individuals with HIV/AIDS in managing not only their physical, but also their mental health.
Fischer, Mary L.
Because of the integral relationship of student financial aid with student recruitment and retention, budgeting, program design and development, student services, and long-range institutional planning, it is useful to review organizational structure periodically to ensure visibility of the financial aid function within the institution. (MSE)
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible mobile handsets. 20.19... COMMERCIAL MOBILE RADIO SERVICES § 20.19 Hearing aid-compatible mobile handsets. (a) Scope of section..., consistent with its own marketing practices. However, if a manufacturer assigns different model device...
van Laren, Linda
Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little…
... health program HIV/AIDS activities is necessary to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS in the urban Indian communities by increasing access to HIV related services, reducing stigma, and making testing routine. Purpose..., Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Health Resource and Services Administration, and...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting to discuss implementation of the Patient Protection and... CONTACT: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids. Requests...
Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary
In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Luana Alves Figueiredo
Full Text Available Objective To analyse the provision of health care actions and services for people living with AIDS and receiving specialised care in Ribeirão Preto, SP. Method A descriptive, exploratory, survey-type study that consisted of interviews with structured questionnaires and data analysis using descriptive statistics. Results The provision of health care actions and services is perceived as fair. For the 301 subjects, routine care provided by the reference team, laboratory tests and the availability of antiretroviral drugs, vaccines and condoms obtained satisfactory evaluations. The provision of tests for the prevention and diagnosis of comorbidities was assessed as fair, whereas the provisions of specialised care by other professionals, psychosocial support groups and medicines for the prevention of antiretroviral side effects were assessed as unsatisfactory. Conclusion Shortcomings were observed in follow-up and care management along with a predominantly biological, doctor-centred focus in which clinical control and access to antiretroviral therapy comprise the essential focus of the care provided.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The meeting... CONTACT: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS...
Krieger, N; Margo, G
In one short decade, the politics of AIDS has become the politics of survival. In a world whose social order is changing before our eyes, AIDS insistently brings new meaning to the age-old question of what it is we must do to survive--as individuals, as families, as communities, as nations, as members of an interdependent world. The goal of this Special Section is to promote frank discussion, from an explicitly progressive perspective, of what it will take to stop the AIDS epidemic and deal with the devastation it has already wrought. Articles by AIDS researchers, service providers, and activists from around the world will address the numerous social, political, economic, and cultural factors that affect both the spread of AIDS and the social response to the epidemic. Topics to be considered in this and future issues of the Journal include: AIDS and community survival in the United States; women and AIDS, particularly in economically underdeveloped countries; the politics and economics of AIDS interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean; and the growing international AIDS industry.
Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.
The paper examines public libraries involvement in HIV/AIDS awareness campaign in South West Nigeria. These include the materials and services available on HIV/AIDS and challenges to their participation in the war against the epidemic. The study revealed that public libraries in South West Nigeria are not participating ...
Haeseler, Lisa Ann
Leadership styles of service professionals--including social workers and teachers--in the area of family abuse were investigated. Leadership characteristics of the professionals were measured by their responses to a survey. Results indicated that the interviewed service professionals demonstrated productive leadership traits. Study findings are congruent with leadership styles described in the research. Holistic and collaborative services are required to enhance care for women of abuse, as their needs are multifaceted and complex. Specific leadership styles promote better care for women; leaders need to collaboratively initiate and deliver more interdisciplinary and unified service.
Bigagli, L.; Santoro, M.; Roncella, R.; Mazzetti, P.
The identification of appropriate mechanisms for process reuse, chaining and composition is considered a key enabler for the effective uptake of a global Earth Observation infrastructure, currently pursued by the international geospatial research community. In the Earth and Space Sciences, such a facility could primarily enable integrated and interoperable modeling, for what several approaches have been proposed and developed, over the last years. In fact, GEOSS is specifically tasked with the development of the so-called "Model Web". At increasing levels of abstraction and generalization, the initial stove-pipe software tools have evolved to community-wide modeling frameworks, to Component-Based Architecture solution, and, more recently, started to embrace Service-Oriented Architectures technologies, such as the OGC WPS specification and the WS-* stack of W3C standards for service composition. However, so far, the level of abstraction seems too low for implementing the Model Web vision, and far too complex technological aspects must still be addressed by both providers and users, resulting in limited usability and, eventually, difficult uptake. As by the recent ICT trend of resource virtualization, it has been suggested that users in need of a particular processing capability, required by a given modeling workflow, may benefit from outsourcing the composition activities into an external first-class service, according to the Composition as a Service (CaaS) approach. A CaaS system provides the necessary interoperability service framework for adaptation, reuse and complementation of existing processing resources (including models and geospatial services in general) in the form of executable workflows. This work introduces the architecture of a CaaS system, as a distributed information system for creating, validating, editing, storing, publishing, and executing geospatial workflows. This way, the users can be freed from the need of a composition infrastructure and
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... Secretary for Health, Office of HIV/ AIDS Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As stipulated by the Federal... the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a meeting. The meeting will be open to...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) will hold a conference call. The call will be open to the public. DATES: The call...: Ms. Caroline Talev, Public Health Assistant, Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, Department of...
ART), many people in need of HIV/AIDS care in Uganda have not been reached. HIV testing and ART are not widely offered as routine medical services and data on HIV/AIDS in emergency settings in Sub-Saharan Africa is limited.We determined ...
Robinson, June Grube; And Others
This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…
Meylakhs, Peter; Rykov, Yuri; Koltsova, Olessia; Koltsov, Sergey
The rise of social media proved to be a fertile ground for the expansion of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-denialist movement (in the form of online communities). While there is substantial literature devoted to disproving AIDS-denialist views, there is a lack of studies exploring AIDS-denialists online communities that interact with an external environment. We explored three research areas: (1) reasons for newcomers to come to an AIDS-denialist community, (2) the patterns of interactions of the community with the newcomers, and (3) rhetorical strategies that denialists use for persuasion in the veracity of their views. We studied the largest AIDS-denialist community on one of the most popular social networking services in Russia. We used netnography as a method for collecting data for qualitative analysis and observed the community for 9 months (at least 2-3 times a week). While doing netnography, we periodically downloaded community discussions. In total, we downloaded 4821 posts and comments for analysis. Grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Most users came to the community for the following reasons: their stories did not fit the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression translated by popular medical discourse, health problems, concern about HIV-positive tests, and desire to dissuade community members from false AIDS beliefs. On the basis of strength in AIDS-denialist beliefs, we constructed a typology of the newcomers consisting of three ideal-typical groups: (1) convinced: those who already had become denialists before coming to the group, (2) doubters: those who were undecided about the truth of either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) science theory or AIDS-denialist theory, and (3) orthodox: those who openly held HIV science views. Reception of a newcomer mainly depended on the newcomer's belief status. Reception was very warm for the convinced, cold or slightly hostile for the doubters, and extremely hostile or derisive
M. L.S. Mataboge
Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.
Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.
Spaulding, Alicen B; Brieger, William R
This stakeholder assessment of HIV/AIDS service providing institutions in Argentina offers insights into the HIV/AIDS crisis in Spanish-speaking Latin America from an institutional level and makes recommendations for strengthening the work and functioning of these institutions. This stakeholder assessment was conducted to determine how HIV/AIDS prevention and management in Argentina affects and is affected by relevant HIV/AIDS institutions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 key leaders of organizations working in HIV/AIDS prevention in Buenos Aires including non-governmental, governmental, and academic institutions. Analyses of interviewee comments are presented according to four major themes: network connections, program resources, perceptions of success, and challenges. Key findings include the need for strengthening formal networks, increasing the involvement of other non-AIDS related social institutions in promoting HIV prevention, finding more sustainable funding options, working more effectively with the public sector to create policies and regulations favorable to the HIV/AIDS field, and addressing the lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS in Argentine culture. From leaders' comments, recommendations are made for strengthening the HIV/AIDS network among key institutions including adapting the UNAIDS "Three Ones" principal to create one crosssector office responsible for coordinating HIV/AIDS work, formalizing agreements with institutions outside of Buenos Aires, increasing the role of schools in HIV/AIDS awareness, and designing programs that address lack of perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS among Argentines.
Taylor, S A; Madrigal, C
The following study investigates the nature of the relationship between physicians and HIV/AIDS patients within the context of the rapidly evolving services/relationship marketing literatures. The emerging evidence suggests that service providers generally play a critical role in the development of positive consumer attitudes and behaviors, and that relationship marketing practices can contribute to the delivery of health services. However, to date, there appears little evidence supporting the efficacy of employing relationship marketing practices in relation to a target market of HIV/AIDS patients. This exploratory study contributes to the body of knowledge by more closely investigating the nature of the patient-physician relationship relative to HIV/AIDS patients' attitudes, marketing-related behaviors, and overall quality-of-life/life satisfaction judgments. The results of this study first suggest that HIV/AIDS patients use the expectancy disconfirmation model when evaluating the performance of their physician. A reliance on expectancy disconfirmation suggests the likely prevalent role of service quality perceptions and satisfaction judgments in evaluating their relationship with their physician. Second, the results appear to support the conclusion that the patient's evaluation of their physician relationship and subsequent behaviors (e.g., word-of-mouth) are directly related to the patient's general perception of received health services. Thus, the patient/physician relationship may play a particularly powerful role in determining patient (marketing related) outcomes relative to other health service settings. Third, a direct influence is supported between negative affective reactions by patients and subsequent outcome behaviors. This finding lends support for the potential efficacy of service recovery efforts when rendering treatment to HIV/AIDS patients. Finally, evidence is presented demonstrating the effect of positive perceptions of the patient
Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena
to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. analisar a oferta das ações e serviços de saúde para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento pelos Serviços de Atenção Especializada ao HIV/aids de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. estudo quantitativo, exploratório, do tipo inquérito. Participaram 253 pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento nos serviços, considerando os critérios de inclusão: indivíduos maiores de 18 anos, residentes no município e não pertencentes ao sistema prisional. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de janeiro/2012 a maio/2013, por meio de entrevistas com apoio de um instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados mediante indicadores e índice composto. a oferta de ações e serviços para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids
Penteado, Silvio Pires; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira
The treatment of sensorineural hearing loss is based on hearing aids, also known as individual sound amplification devices. The hearing aids purchased by the Brazilian Government, aiming at fulfilling public policies, are based on dedicated components, which bring about benefits, but also render them expensive and may impair repair services after manufacture's warranty expires. to design digital behind-the-ear hearing aids built from standardized components coming from the very supply chain of these manufacturers. experimental. to identify the supply chain of these manufacturers, request samples and set up hearing aids in the laboratory. The developed hearing aids did not show lesser electroacoustic characteristics when compared to those acquired by the Government, also being tested by the same reference international technical standard. It is possible to develop digital behind-the-ear hearing aids based on off-the-shelf components from hearing aid manufacturers' supply chain. Their advantages include low operational costs - for acquisition (with clear advantages for the Government) and service (advantage for the patient).
This podcast highlights the importance of integrating laboratory services to maximize service delivery to patients. Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 4/7/2011.
Cox, Robyn M; Alexander, Genevieve C; Gray, Ginger A
In hearing aid research, it is commonplace to combine data across subjects whose hearing aids were provided in different service delivery models. There is reason to question whether these types of patients are always similar enough to justify this practice. To explore this matter, this investigation evaluated similarities and differences in self-report data obtained from hearing aid patients derived from public health (Veterans Affairs, VA) and private practice (PP) settings. The study was a multisite, cross-sectional survey in which 230 hearing aid patients from VA and PP audiology clinic settings provided self-report data on a collection of questionnaires both before and after the hearing aid fitting. Subjects were all older adults with mild to moderately severe hearing loss. About half of them had previous experience wearing hearing aids. All subjects were fitted with wide-dynamic-range-compression instruments and received similar treatment protocols. Numerous statistically significant differences were observed between the VA and PP subject groups. Before the fitting, VA patients reported higher expectations from the hearing aids and more severe unaided problems compared with PP patients with similar audiograms. Three wks after the fitting, VA patients reported more satisfaction with their hearing aids. On some measures VA patients reported more benefit, but different measures of benefit did not give completely consistent results. Both groups reported using the hearing aids an average of approximately 8 hrs per day. VA patients reported age-normal physical and mental health, but PP patients tended to report better than typical health for their age group. These data indicate that hearing aid patients seen in the VA public health hearing services are systematically different in self-report domains from those seen in private practice services. It is therefore risky to casually combine data from these two types of subjects or to generalize research results from one
Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire
As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Braun, Rebecca; Lasway, Christine; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Layer, Erica; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa
The global rapid growth in mobile technology provides unique opportunities to support community health workers (CHWs) in providing family planning (FP) services. FHI 360, Pathfinder International and D-tree International developed an evidence-based mobile job aid to support CHW counseling, screening, service provision and referrals, with mobile forms for client and service data, and text-message reporting and reminders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and potential benefits to service quality from the perspective of CHWs and their clients. The mobile job aid was piloted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data collection tools included a demographic survey of all 25 CHWs trained to use the mobile job aid, in-depth interviews with 20 of the CHWs after 3 months and a survey of 176 clients who received FP services from a CHW using the mobile job aid after 6 months. Both CHWs and their clients reported that the mobile job aid was a highly acceptable FP support tool. CHWs perceived benefits to service quality, including timelier and more convenient care; better quality of information; increased method choice; and improved privacy, confidentiality and trust with clients. Most clients discussed multiple FP methods with CHWs; only 1 in 10 clients reported discussion of all 9 methods. This research suggests that mobile phones can be effective tools to support CHWs with FP counseling, screening and referrals, data collection and reporting, and communication. Challenges remain to support informed contraceptive choice. Future research should focus on implementation, including scale-up and sustainability. Mobile job aids can uniquely enhance FP service provision at the community level through adherence to standard protocols, real-time feedback and technical assistance, and provision of confidential care. This study can inform future efforts to support and expand the role of CHWs in increasing FP access and informed contraceptive choice. Copyright © 2016
Full Text Available Access to healthcare is an important public health concept and has been traditionally measured by using population level parameters, such as availability, distribution and proximity of the health facilities in relation to the population. However, client based factors such as their expectations, experiences and perceptions which impact their evaluations of health care access were not well studied and integrated into health policy frameworks and implementation programs.This study aimed to investigate factors associated with perceived access to HIV/AIDS Treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 492 people living with HIV, with 411 using ART and 81 using pre-ART services accessed at six public sector health facilities from November 2014 to March 2015. Data were analyzed using the ologit function of STATA. The variables explored consisted of socio-demographic and health characteristics, type of health facility, type of care, distance, waiting time, healthcare responsiveness, transportation convenience, satisfaction with service, quality of care, financial fairness, out of pocket expenses and HIV disclosure.Of the 492 participants, 294 (59.8% were females and 198 (40.2% were males, with a mean age of 38.8 years. 23.0% and 12.2% believed they had 'good' or 'very good' access respectively, and 64.8% indicated lower ratings. In the multivariate analysis, distance from the health facility, type of care, HIV clinical stage, out of pocket expenses, employment status, type of care, HIV disclosure and perceived transportation score were not associated with the perceived access (PA. With a unit increment in satisfaction, perceived quality of care, health system responsiveness, transportation convenience and perceived financial fairness scores, the odds of providing higher rating of PA increased by 29.0% (p<0.001, 6.0%(p<0.01, 100.0% (p<0.001, 9.0% (p<0.05 and 6.0% (p<0.05 respectively.Perceived quality of
Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…
The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…
Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah
OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma a...
Prandi, E; Cantoni, S; Mosconi, G
First aid at work organization and management represents a complex and critical aspect of the manifold problems of hygiene and security at work; nevertheless, even in relatively well organized productions, these themes are often neglected, if not completely ignored. In this work the authors analize the laws which regulate the correct first aid at work organization and management and an approach to the problem based on the preliminary risk assessment is suggested.
Etiaba, Enyi; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Torpey, Kwasi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Chiegil, Robert
A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services. An exit survey of adults (18+years) attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra). In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities' during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES) and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits) as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively. The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (ptravel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to eliminate the persisting inequitable and high cost burden of ART services. Full inclusion of ART services within the benefit package of the National Health Insurance Scheme should be considered.
Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Duffy, Stephen W; Tabar, Laszlo; Lin, Wen-Chou; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi
Population-based routine service screening has gained popularity following an era of randomized controlled trials. The evaluation of these service screening programs is subject to study design, data availability, and the precise data analysis for adjusting bias. We developed a computer-aided system that allows the evaluation of population-based service screening to unify these aspects and facilitate and guide the program assessor to efficiently perform an evaluation. This system underpins two experimental designs: the posttest-only non-equivalent design and the one-group pretest-posttest design and demonstrates the type of data required at both the population and individual levels. Three major analyses were developed that included a cumulative mortality analysis, survival analysis with lead-time adjustment, and self-selection bias adjustment. We used SAS AF software to develop a graphic interface system with a pull-down menu style. We demonstrate the application of this system with data obtained from a Swedish population-based service screen and a population-based randomized controlled trial for the screening of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and one service screening program for cervical cancer with Pap smears. The system provided automated descriptive results based on the various sources of available data and cumulative mortality curves corresponding to the study designs. The comparison of cumulative survival between clinically and screen-detected cases without a lead-time adjustment are also demonstrated. The intention-to-treat and noncompliance analysis with self-selection bias adjustments are also shown to assess the effectiveness of the population-based service screening program. Model validation was composed of a comparison between our adjusted self-selection bias estimates and the empirical results on effectiveness reported in the literature. We demonstrate a computer-aided system allowing the evaluation of population-based service screening
The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member) Marie-Luce Falipou Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.
Full Text Available A gap in knowledge exists regarding the economic burden on households of subsidized anti-retroviral treatment (ART programs in Nigeria. This is because patients also incur non-ART drug costs, which may constrain the delivery and utilisation of subsidized services.An exit survey of adults (18+years attending health facilities for HIV/AIDS treatment was conducted in three states in Nigeria (Adamawa, Akwa Ibom and Anambra. In the states, ART was fully subsidized but there were different payment modalities for other costs of treatment. Data was collected and analysed for direct and indirect costs of treatment of HIV/AIDS and co-morbidities' during out-and in-patient visits. The levels of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE were computed and disaggregated by state, socio-economic status (SES and urban-rural location of the respondents. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE in this study measures the number of respondents whose monthly ART-related household expenditure (for in-patient and out-patient visits as a proportion of monthly non-food expenditure was greater than 40% and 10% respectively.The average out-patient and in-patient direct costs were $5.49 and $122.10 respectively. Transportation cost was the highest non-medical cost and it was higher than most medical costs. The presence of co-morbidities contributed to household costs. All the costs were catastrophic to households at 10% and 40% thresholds in the three states, to varying degrees. The poorest SES quintile had the highest incidence of CHE for out-patient costs (p<0.0001. Rural dwellers incurred more CHE for all categories of costs compared to urban dwellers, but the costs were statistically significant for only outpatient costs.ART subsidization is not enough to eliminate economic burden of treatment on HIV patients. Service decentralization to reduce travel costs, and subsidy on other components of HIV treatment services should be introduced to eliminate the persisting inequitable
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS... Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS that will be held on Thursday, May 26, 2011, and Friday, May 27, 2011..., Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS; Phone: (202) 690-5560. More detailed information about PACHA can be...
Educational Psychology (5 BA senior essays and 8 MA theses) ... bi-annual International AIDS Conference and the annual conventions of the .... services are growing as the number of intervention ... Ethiopians and people of Ethiopian origin living abroad ..... HIV/AIDS among some senior secondary school students. BA.
Nevada System of Higher Education, 2010
The mission of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) is to provide higher education services to the citizens of the State at an excellent level of quality consistent with the state's resources. The information in this report is provided by the financial aid officers at each NSHE institution. Each fall, institutions submit a detailed…
This article examines the international response to AIDS from a fiscal perspective: first the financing of the international response to AIDS, especially the role of external financing, and second, a more comprehensive perspective on the costs of the national response to AIDS relevant for fiscal policy. The second half of the article focuses on the effectiveness of the response to AIDS. We find that there is little basis for concerns about macroeconomic constraints to scaling up, in light of the moderate scale of AIDS-related aid flows relative to overall aid. Regarding sectoral constraints, the picture is more differentiated. Many countries with high prevalence rates have also achieved high rates of access to treatment, but most of these are middle-income countries. Our econometric analysis credits external aid as a key factor that has enabled higher-prevalence countries to cope with the additional demands for health services. At the same time, gross domestic product per capita and health sector capacities are important determinants of access to treatment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.
... on HIV/ AIDS AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of HIV/ AIDS Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... on HIV/ AIDS (PACHA; the Council) has been renewed. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Melvin Joppy...
Vries, de B.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Achten, H.H.
CAAD Futures is a bi-annual conference that aims to promote the advancement of computer-aided architectural design in the service of those concerned with the quality of the built environment. The conferences are organized under the auspices of the CAAD Futures Foundation, which has its secretariat
Inchauspe Preussler, Gisele Maria; Rosaria Eidt, Olga
This qualitative-descriptive study aimed at identifying the problems that 10 women experienced when simultaneously facing pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. These women participated in the antenatal program of the Serviço de Assistência Especializada em DST/AIDS (Service of Specialized Care in STD/AIDS) of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were collected in 2004, through semi-structured interviews, and submitted to content analyses. The following topics emerged: experiencing the vulnerabilit...
Lu, Chunling; Cook, Benjamin; Desmond, Chris
Background Rural healthcare facilities in low-income countries play a major role in providing primary care to rural populations. We examined the link of foreign aid with government investments and medical service provision in rural health centres in Rwanda. Methods Using the District Health System Strengthening Tool, a web-based database built by the Ministry of Health in Rwanda, we constructed two composite indices representing provision of (1) child and maternal care and (2) HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria services in 330 rural health centres between 2009 and 2011. Financing variables in a healthcare centre included received funds from various sources, including foreign donors and government. We used multilevel random-effects model in regression analyses and examined the robustness of results to a range of alternative specification, including scale of dependent variables, estimation methods and timing of aid effects. Findings Both government and foreign donors increased their direct investments in the 330 rural healthcare centres during the period. Foreign aid was positively associated with government investments (0.13, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19) in rural health centres. Aid in the previous year was positively associated with service provision for child and maternal health (0.008, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.014) and service provision for HIV, TB and malaria (0.014, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.022) in the current year. The results are robust when using fixed-effects models. Conclusions These findings suggest that foreign aid did not crowd out government investments in the rural healthcare centres. Foreign aid programmes, conducted in addition to government investments, could benefit rural residents in low-income countries through increased service provision in rural healthcare facilities. PMID:29082015
This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.
Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Van Teijlingen, Edwin
This paper explores some of the key issues and challenges of government HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programme in Nepal. Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nepal is associated with a number of issues and challenges which are shaped mostly on cultural and managerial issues from grass root to policy level.\\ud Numerous efforts have been done and going on by Nepal government and non-government organization but still HIV\\ud prevention and treatment service is not able to ...
This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.
Sangita V Patel
Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.
The use of Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) for information exchange between the corporate information network and the field personnel of the CU Gas Group was described. CAD was described as two interconnected systems; a large mainframe software system which interfaces with the radio transmission system as well as the Customer Information System (CIS), and a mini computer system which consists of mobile data terminals (MDTs), the radio hardware and the software necessary to communicate with the MDTs. Further details were given on the functionality of both the mainframe, as well as the mini computer system. Some of the functions performed by the CAD include call taking, employee calendar, work assignment, filling work, dispatching, reporting, correcting errors, providing order status information, fleet monitoring, appointments, and many others. The implementation process, the challenges faced by the communications team and their interactions with the organization was also described. The most important benefit was claimed to be improved customer service. The significance of that to corporate strategy was stressed
Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Garcia, Vania Regina Salles; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena
The study evaluated the nutritional status of 629 people living with HIV/AIDS attended at 12 specialized services of São Paulo's Municipal Health Department, Brazil. Data were obtained from medical records and through interviews during nutritional consultation. We used the classification criteria established by World Health Organization to assess malnourished individuals, a BMI health care of individuals at nutritional risk.
Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri
First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52 Section 344.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains...
Cave, Julie; And Others
This instructor's manual consists of materials for use in presenting a course in the occupational area of pharmacy aide. Included in the first part of the guide are a program master sequence; a master listing of instructional materials, equipment, and supplies; an overview of the competency-based vocational education (CBVE) system; and guidelines…
Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with
Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Chapman, Glyn; Chitsike, Inam
and care of HIV/AIDS patients in health facilities is necessary in order to have an idea of the likely costs of the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, the present study estimated the costs per in-patient day as well as per in-patient stay for patients in government health facilities...... of the study indicate that hospital care for HIV/AIDS patients was considerably higher than for non-HIV/AIDS patients. In five of the seven hospitals visited, the average costs of an in-patient stay for an HIV/AIDS patient were found to be as much as twice as high as a non-HIV/AIDS patient. This difference...... could be attributed to higher direct costs per in-patient day (medication, laboratory tests and X-rays) as well as longer average lengths of stay in hospital for HIV/AIDS patients compared with non-infected patients. Therefore, the impact on hospital services of increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients...
Jones, Rodney H.
A study explored the issues of cultural identity and interaction in public health discourse concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Hong Kong's multilingual, multicultural social context. Twenty public service announcements (PSAs) concerning AIDS awareness televised in both English and Cantonese in Hong Kong from 1987 to 1994 were…
M Y H Moosa
Currently available antidepressant medications are equally effective in treating HIV/AIDS patients and the general population. Furthermore, intervention studies have shown that psychotherapy reduces depressive symptoms and is well tolerated. Interpersonal psychotherapy is more successful than supportive psychotherapy in lessening depression, and patients experience improved functioning physically and emotionally. Untreated depression may be associated with reduced adherence to ART, immunosuppression, and more rapid HIV illness progression. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS patients may be at greater risk for psychiatric disorder given the potentially stressful living conditions including high rates of unemployment and poverty, poor and unstable housing, inadequate social services, and high rates of crime and domestic violence. A lack of data on depression in South Africa underscores the need for further research.
Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors.
Welling, Rodney D.; Azene, Ezana M.; Kalia, Vivek; Pongpirul, Krit; Starikovsky, Anna; Sydnor, Ryan; Lungren, Matthew P.; Johnson, Benjamin; Kimble, Cary; Wiktorek, Sarah; Drum, Tom; Short, Brad; Cooper, Justin; Khouri, Nagi F.; Mayo-Smith, William W.; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Goldberg, Barry B.; Garra, Brian S.; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Mollura, Daniel J.
The 2010 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries was a multidisciplinary meeting to discuss data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services reduce health care quality. The theme of this year’s conference was sustainability, with a focus on establishing and maintaining imaging services in resource-limited regions. Conference presenters and participants identified 4 important components of sustainability: (1) sustainable financing models for radiology development, (2) integration of radiology and public health, (3) sustainable clinical models and technology solutions for resource-limited regions, and (4) education and training of both developing and developed world health care personnel. PMID:21807349
Luciane Ferreira do Val
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify programmatic vulnerability to STDs/HIV/AIDS in primary health centers (PHCs. This is a descrip - tive and quantitative study carried out in the city of São Paulo. An online survey was applied (FormSUS platform, involving administrators from 442 PHCs in the city, with responses received from 328 of them (74.2%, of which 53.6% were nurses. At - tention was raised in relation to program - matic vulnerability in the PHCs regarding certain items of infrastructure, prevention, treatment, prenatal care and integration among services on STDs/HIV/AIDS care. It was concluded that in order to reach comprehensiveness of actions for HIV/ AIDS in primary health care, it is necessary to consider programmatic vulnerability, in addition to more investment and reor - ganization of services in a dialogue with the stakeholders (users, multidisciplinary teams, and managers, among others.
Aug 24, 2009 ... health care delivery in the developing countries that are worst affected by the ... definite cure is currently available, the disease is currently competing for .... within the hospital setting to nurse terminally ill AIDS patients, or the ...
Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Khitdee, Chiraporn; Thaichinda, Chompoonut; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Jumriangrit, Pensom; Topothai, Thitikorn; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Putthasri, Weerasak
Introduction HIV/AIDS has been one of the world’s most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low-and middle-income countries. Methods A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in Asia and Latin America. Barriers of access to HIV/AIDS services comprised inadequate management of guidelines and referral systems, discriminatory attitudes, language differences, unstable legal status, and financial hardship. Though health systems management varied across countries, international partners consistently played a critical role in providing support for HIV/AIDS services to uninsured migrants and refugees. Conclusion It was evident that HIV/AIDS health care problems for migrants were a major concern in many developing nations. However, there was little evidence suggesting if the current
Full Text Available The article discusses the necessity of adoption of professional responsibility insurance act into the public health service. It is considered as the basic mechanism of compensation in case of damage to a patient at medical aid rendering
Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke
Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women's subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men's dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women's legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls' access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defense service. 120.9 Section 120.9 Foreign... Defense service. (a) Defense service means: (1) The furnishing of assistance (including training) to..., educational, or information publications and media of all kinds, training aid, orientation, training exercise...
Njuki, Rebecca; Okal, Jerry; Warren, Charlotte E; Obare, Francis; Abuya, Timothy; Kanya, Lucy; Undie, Chi-Chi; Bellows, Ben; Askew, Ian
Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA) voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR) services. A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i) in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA) managers and (ii) focus group discussions (FGDs) with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.
Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses program collaboration and service integration, a strategy that promotes better collaboration between public health programs and supports appropriate service integration at the point-of-care. Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Date Released: 9/15/2010.
AIDS in a single decade has affected life and assumptions on the societal and individual level more than any other illness or epidemic in history. The most important aspect of the HIV pandemic is that it is still in an early stage of development. The pandemic will continue to be volatile and dynamic; its greatest impact has not yet been felt. There is still great potential to influence its future course. HIV infection is spreading rapidly in some already affected populations in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and is penetrating deeply into new areas such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Thailand and India are symbols of its rapid spread. The more than 100 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases diagnosed in the world each year demonstrate the potential for sexual transmission of HIV. On the global level, the foundations have been laid for preventing the spread of HIV infection. But in many countries information is still inadequate or incorrect, needed social and health services are nonexistent, and punitive and discriminatory attitudes persist toward the infected. The gap between rich and poor within and between countries is widening. 2/3 of AIDS cases and 3/4 of seropositive individuals are in developing countries. The cost of drugs and treatment implies that "early intervention" is a meaningless concept for developing countries. The developed world contributes $200 million or less to combat AIDS in developing countries. Some of the revolutionary ideas prompted by the advent of AIDS included the immediate attention given to behavior as a preventive measure, the eradication of complacency about the condition of health and social services, the insistence of AIDS patients and the HIV infected on being included in the total process of prevention, treatment, and research, and the unexpected flowering of a dialogue on dignity, human rights, and social justice. AIDS is now leading to a new vision of health promotion in which
van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.
Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.
Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... relevant content and format for the decision aid for breast cancer screening. Feedback from women was sought for the draft documents. RESULTS: A decision aid attached to the invitation letter for screening was considered the best way to ensure access to information. In addition, tailored letter templates...... information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the formulation...
WHO and the Swedish Government hosted the expert group meeting on women and HIV/AIDS in Vienna, August in 1990. Attendees concentrated their discussions on government recognized entities (national machinery) responsible for women's advancement and how they can assist in forming national policies to better women's status and limit the effect of HIV/AIDS. A very important issue came out of this meeting that had not yet been addressed in AIDS prevention strategies--the fundamental problem of women's subordination as a component of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In addition, even though national groups for women's advancement have worked hard to rectify subordination, they have not yet addressed AIDS as a barrier to equality. Subordination of women varies from country to country, nevertheless they are all vulnerable to HIV/AIDS worldwide. They do not have equal access to education, information, and health services. They cannot demand that sexual partners practice safe sex. Despite being ill, they are expected to continue caring for their families. The national machinery must be able to assemble needed resources and assure implementation of these policies. It should encourage government policies to improve maternal and child health and family planning services, to control sexually transmitted diseases, and to provide adequate counseling and research. National AIDS committees and national machinery should communicate and form linkages to advance the status of women. Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS cannot occur, however, if men and women do not cooperate. WHO estimated that at least 500,000 women and children acquired AIDS in the 1980s. It expects an additional 3 million in the 1990s. In the early 1990s, 8-10 million people are infected with HIV.
Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food services. 15b.40 Section 15b.40 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.40 Food services. (a) Recipients which provide food services shall serve special meals, at no extra charge, to persons whose...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i in-depth interviews (IDIs with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA managers and (ii focus group discussions (FGDs with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.
Katia Cristina Bassichetto
Full Text Available The study evaluated the nutritional status of 629 people living with HIV/AIDS attended at 12 specialized services of São Paulo's Municipal Health Department, Brazil. Data were obtained from medical records and through interviews during nutritional consultation. We used the classification criteria established by World Health Organization to assess malnourished individuals, a BMI < 18.5kg/m2. The prevalence of malnutrition in people with AIDS is 3.12 times that observed among people with HIV, and among people with co-infection it is 3.41 times that obtained among people without co-infection. This indicates how these conditions can harm the maintenance of the nutritional status, and shows that they demand a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, as well as the development of strategies to improve the health care of individuals at nutritional risk.
Coates, Mitchell; Lamb, Janeen; Bartlett, Brendan; Datta, Poulomee
The content and structure of pre-service and teacher-aide programs has major implications for training, management, support and deployment of teachers and teacher-aides in mainstream schools working with students who have ASD. Data pertaining to course content and structure were collected from university and teacher-aide training websites, program…
Tomruk, Onder; Soysal, Suna; Gunay, Turkan; Cimrin, Arif H
Bystanders who are able to provide immediate first aid to patients who require emergency care can make a big difference in the outcome. Thus, first-aid training should be made available to as many people as possible. The aims of this study were to assess the level of first-aid knowledge among bystanders in emergency situations and to identify factors that affected this level of knowledge. At Dokuz Eylul University Emergency Service between February 1 and February 15, 2002, 318 bystanders were given a questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was concerned with demographic characteristics and factors that would affect first-aid knowledge level. The second part consisted of 16 multiple choice questions about first aid. Bystanders answered an average of 7.16+/-3.14 questions correctly. Bystanders who had graduated from a university, were health care personnel, had taken a first-aid course, had a first-aid certificate, or had a driver's license were considered to be more successful.
The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.
The present work deals with the existence of State aid in the Austrian electricity industry and focuses on three selected areas of the Austrian legal system, which are examined for their compatibility with Community law. Subject of the first part of this work is a representation of the article 87 ff Treaty of Rome and its impact on Austrian provisions on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies or on the promotion of cogeneration energy. In this context, the first principles of the European state aid law and in particular the European Court are presented regarding the existence of State aid. Here, the Rsp of the Court in connection with the use of State resources in the Rs PreussenElektra Stardust Marine and Pearle is paid in connection with para-fiscal levies special attention. The evaluation of the Austrian support model is based on PreussenElektra, Stardust Marine and Pearle. Then the system of green electricity production in Austria represented. In addition to the Community law principles (green power directive, frameworks and guidelines for environmental aid) is here in particular the 'Oekostromgesetz' and treated it's novellas. It is an intensive discussion with the Commission's decisions on the compatibility of the green power and CHP funding and the funding of the countries with state aid rules. As part of this analysis is to attempt a classification of the Commission's practice in the Community legal system. The second part of the work deals with the determination of absorbed. System utilization rates and their distribution to the network operator. After a presentation of the Community legislation (EC regulations, the internal electricity market directives) and Rsp of the European Court of Justice (Case ADBHu, Ferring, Altmark Trans) to services of general economic interest is first attempted to determine the presence of these services in the 216 Austrian legislation. Here, the question will be, entrusted with services of general economic
Satisfaction of People Living with HIV/AIDS Helena G. et al. 17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ... RESULTS: Women had a mean age of 30.5 years while men 35.2 years. ... The hospital management should work to strengthen the .... married, 144 (50.3%) Orthodox Christian and 137. (47.9%) were ... Currently unmarried. 142. 144.
Song Alice Tung Wan
Full Text Available Considering the relevance of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity worldwide, especially in Brazil, this study was developed to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the comorbid cases identified from 1989 to 1997 by the epidemiology service of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Databases containing information on all identified AIDS/tuberculosis cases cared for at the hospital were used to gather information on comorbid cases. RESULTS: During the period, 559 patients were identified as presenting with AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity. Risk behavior for AIDS was primarily heterosexual contact (38.9%, followed by intravenous drug use (29.3% and homosexual/bisexual contact (23.2%. Regarding clinical features, there were higher rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis when compared to tuberculosis without comorbidity. There was an increase in reporting of AIDS by ambulatory units during the period. Epidemiologically, there was a decrease in the male/female ratio, a predominance in the 20 to 39 year-old age group, and a majority of individuals who had less than 8 years of schooling and had low professional qualifications. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of AIDS/tuberculosis cases at our hospital indicate the need for better attention towards early detection of tuberculosis, especially in its extrapulmonary form. Since the population that attends this hospital tends to be of a lower socioeconomic status, better management of AIDS and tuberculosis is required to increase the rates of treatment adherence and thus lower the social costs.
Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don
South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS orphanhood in urban township areas of Cape Town, South Africa, compared to control groups of children and adolescents orphaned by other causes, and non-orphans. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents (aged 10-19) were interviewed using socio-demographic questionnaires and standardised scales for assessing depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency and conduct problems. Controlling for socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, formal/informal dwelling and age at orphanhood, children orphaned by AIDS were more likely to report symptoms of depression, peer relationship problems, post-traumatic stress, delinquency and conduct problems than both children orphaned by other causes and non-orphaned children. Anxiety showed no differences. AIDS-orphaned children were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Compared to Western norms, AIDS-orphaned children showed higher levels of internalising problems and delinquency, but lower levels of conduct problems. Children orphaned by AIDS may be a particularly vulnerable group in terms of emotional and, to a lesser extent, behavioural problems. Intervention programs are necessary to ameliorate the psychological sequelae of losing a parent to AIDS.
The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic.
Meehan, S T
In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving
The Tanzania HIV Care and Treatment Plan was launched in October 2004 aiming at providing 440,000 AIDS patients with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and track disease progression in 1.2 million HIV+ persons by the end of the 2008. This paper is intended to provide information to stake holders of the achievements and ...
Key words: HIV/AIDS, poverty, burden-of-disease, cost-analysis, Tanzania. Background ..... However, several statements were quoted verbatim as they were given by the ... of proper financial recording system at most of the. HFs made it ...
Merithew, M A; Davis-Satterla, L
The purpose of the qualitative evaluation study discussed in this article was to examine the AIDS case management model under which five nonprofit AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Midcity were operating. The study was organized around 40 qualitative interviews with executive directors, directors, and case managers. The finding was that AIDS case management is evolving to accommodate the changing environmental/contextual conditions that have resulted from combination drug therapies (protease inhibitors) introduced in 1996. The agencies are responding to the changes individually rather than as a network, and responses vary among the agencies. Institutional theory, an examination of the interconnectedness of clients, the ASOs, and their environmental context guided the analysis of the findings.
The study illustrates advantages of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy, a new service started at St. Luke’s General Hospital in patient care since April 2014. Retrospective review of Bronchoscopies and referrals to Tertiary care unit for Bronchoscopy, prior and after initiation of service at St. Luke’s Hospital were studied. In total, 106 procedures were performed out of which 103(98%) were for diagnostic purpose. Common indications for bronchoscopy were functional airway assessment in 38 cases (35%) of chronic cough, 26 cases (24.8%) of suspected malignancy. The average time taken for procedure was 15 + 1 minute with overall rate of complication recorded in 1 case (0.95%). 32(30%) inpatients were referred before bronchoscopy services were started locally. Fifteen (14%) patients were referred for Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) after diagnostic procedure performed at St. Luke’s Hospital. To conclude, Bronchoscopy is a safe procedure used for diagnosis of various Lung conditions. The services offered locally reduced the time and cost involved in referrals. The diagnostic bronchoscopies performed for malignancy at St. Luke’s Hospital have rightly increased references for EBUS at Tertiary care Unit
Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne
in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...
The Region of the Americas took part in World AIDS DAy 1991, whose theme, "Sharing the Challenge," urged all sectors of society to support AIDS-related education, services, and advocacy. The day of observance was intended to encourage the participation of public, private, nongovernmental, and religious leaders in promoting AIDS-related activities. Although World AIDS Day took place on December 1, activities in the Region of the Americans began from the last week of November and into the first week of December. Most of these activities were designed to educate the public on how to avoid infection, as well as inform and sensitize audiences on the health and social needs of those infected. These activities took the form of press conferences, exhibitions, lectures, public concerts, television adds, etc. One such activity, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., focused on the AIDS crisis and the need for educational activities. The program opened with a speech by Dr. Carlyle Guerra de Macedo, PAHO's director, who warned against complacency in confronting the disease. US Surgeon General Antonia Novello also spoke at the occasion, addressing the growing threat of AIDS among women. Already, 12% of AIDS victims in the US are women, and heterosexual transmissions of AIDS will likely continued to increase. Pointing out that a vaccine is not expected in the short term, PAHO's Dr. David Brandling-Bennet stressed that the fight against AIDS depends on disseminating information. The PAHO meeting also featured a panel discussion composed of educators and health professionals, who discussed the educational responsibility of television in transmitting the AIDS-prevention message to the public.
Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun
Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.
Feingold, S. Norman
Approximately 95 percent of affiliated Jewish youth attend college. Much is happening in student aid today that will probably affect parents and their children. Issues of importance include: (1) legal considerations; (2) sources of financial aid; (3) applying for financial aid; (4) state and federal programs of financial aid; (5) sources of…
Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R
Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...
Full Text Available The study investigated the impacts of HIV/AIDS on human resources in the tourism sector in Zimbabwe’s capital city, Harare. Harare Hotels were used as a case study establishing how HIV/AIDS affects the workforce in the tourism sector and the consequent effects on service delivery. Visitors’ inflows into Zimbabwe have declined since the year 2000. To understand the reasons and related aspects, data was collected by way of questionnaires which were administered to 9 human resources managers and 9 marketing managers from hotels in Harare during the period of 2008 and 2009. These questionnaires were individually distributed and collected which resulted in 100% return rate. Human resources managers were used because they are involved directly with the social welfare of employees and marketing managers were used because they work in customer care and analyse service delivery. The findings of the study were that HIV/AIDS impact negatively to the hotel sector through deaths of skilled members. This was said to consequently leading to the reduction in service delivery and inconsistence in service delivery. Besides losing skilled members through death it was also discovered that the hotels were now moving HIV/AIDS effected victims to the back of the house to minimise their contact with guests. It was also discovered that hotels were using lot of funds to implement mitigation measures.
Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A
Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.
Full Text Available Background Hearing loss is developing when age is rising. Initiation and progression rates of hearing loss vary among different individuals and groups. Objectives The current study aimed to determine satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids in different types of hearing loss and comorbidities. Patients and Methods The study was conducted on 40 elderly subjects suffering from hearing loss and using hearing aids. The data collection method included assessment of hearing loss in addition to using a questionnaire to estimate respondents' satisfaction with their hearing aids in daily life. The Persian version of the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL questionnaire was administered. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS software version19. Results The mean satisfaction scores of the elderly were 4.83 ± 0.51 and 5.36 ± 0.30 in the sensorineural loss groups. There was no significant difference between different comorbidities. There was a significant difference between satisfaction level of cost and services subscales in the symmetrical styles of hearing loss (P value = 0.04. Conclusions The findings of the study indicated a high satisfaction of the elderly with their hearing aids, considering the type of hearing loss. Despite all the efforts to improve the audiologic services during verification process, the elderly should be consulted specifically in order to fit their hearing aid as well as their expectations from aid.
Even though the workplace is ideal for promoting HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) prevention to benefit workers and employers, many workplaces are not convinced that they should be involved in HIV/AIDS and STD education, prevention, and support. They do not realize that time and money spent on health programs save them money. Perhaps they do not feel obligated to protect the health of their employees. The AIDS epidemic adversely affects society and the economy at both the macro and micro level. AIDS tends to strike the productive age group, thereby seriously affecting the workplace. In many Sub-Saharan African countries, at least 20% of the urban workforce may be infected with HIV. Persons living with HIV include top management, skilled professionals, general hands, and farm laborers. HIV/AIDS costs for formal employment are assumed through reduced productivity; increased costs of occupational benefits and social security measures; loss of skilled labor, professionals, and managerial expertise as well as the experience among workers; increased costs of training and recruitment; and low morale from stigmatization, discrimination, and subsequent industrial relation problems. Needed are comprehensive HIV/AIDS and STD workplace programs that ensure the rights of persons with HIV and compassionate treatment of these persons. Trade union or other labor representatives, management, and appropriate government departments should work together and build on existing health legislation and policy to bring about effective negotiation and policy development concerning AIDS and employment. Training of peer educators, support services (counseling, STD referral and/or treatment), community action, management commitment, monitoring and evaluation, and supportive workplace conditions make for effective comprehensive workplace programs. Successful programs operate in fishing villages in Tanzania, tea plantations in India, the University of Papua New Guinea, and Ugandan army
Wirtz, S; Eich, C; Becke, K; Brenner, S; Callies, A; Harding, U; Höhne, C; Hoffmann, F; Kaufmann, J; Landsleitner, B; Marung, H; Nicolai, T; Reifferscheid, F; Trappe, U; Jung, P
Preclinical pediatric emergencies are rare events and are therefore often associated with stress and uncertainty for emergency medical service personnel. To ensure adequate treatment of pediatric patients a variety of different cognitive aids exist (e.g. books, apps, rulers, weight-adapted bag systems). Especially the size specifications of the medical equipment and the dosage of emergency medication are individually very different in children and are dependent on parameters, such as body height and weight. Therefore, cognitive aids often enable length measurement whereby it is possible to draw conclusions on body weight for calculating the child's medication dosage. These aids may help to avoid the wrong medication dose or the wrong therapy of children but uncritical and untrained usage of these aids carries a potential risk of mistakes. This recommendation gives an overview of the general requirements and different problems of cognitive aids and should help improve the general framework and the rational basis for the use and further development of cognitive aids in emergency medicine.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...
... Review Resources AT Education Blind Rehab Chiropractic Service Polytrauma/TBI Prosthetics & Sensory Aids Recreation Therapy More Health ... Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues ...
Elias Asfaw Zegeye
Full Text Available Economic analyses of patients’ costs are pertinent to improve effective healthcare services including the prevention of mother-to-child HIV/AIDS transmission (PMTCT. This study assessed the direct and non-direct medical costs borne by pregnant women attending PMTCT services in urban (high-HIV prevalence and rural (low-HIV prevalence settings, in Ethiopia. Patient-level direct medical costs and direct non-medical data were collected from HIV-positive pregnant women in six regions. The cost estimation was classified as direct medical (service fee, drugs and laboratory and direct non-medical (food, transportation and accommodation. The mean direct medical expense per patient per year was Ethiopian birr (ETB 746 (US$ 38 in the urban settings, as compared to ETB 368 (US$ 19 in the rural settings. On average, a pregnant woman from urban and rural catchments incurred direct non-medical costs of ETB 6,435 (US$ 327 and ETB 2,154 (US$ 110 per year, respectively. On average, non-medical costs of friend/relative/guardian were ETB 2,595 (US$ 132 and ETB 2,919 (US$ 148.39 in the urban and rural settings, respectively. Although the PMTCT service is provided free of charge, HIV-positive pregnant women and infant pairs still face a substantial amount of out-of-pocket spending due to direct medical and non-medical costs.
VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A
Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.
Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described
Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.
Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.
Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...
The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.
João Baptista dos Reis-Filho
Full Text Available Até a década de 80, antes do surgimento da AIDS, a criptococose era relativamente rara. Verificou-se que esta doença afeta muito frequentemente os pacientes com AIDS e pode ser a primeira manifestação desta síndrome. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de comparar o resultado dos exames das amostras do LCR inicial na meningencefalite por criptococo entre pacientes com e sem AIDS. Este trabalho é baseado no estudo de 41 pacientes com neurocriptococose sem AIDS e de 23 pacientes com neurocriptococose e AIDS. Este estudo permitiu verificar que a reação inflamatória, no sistema nervoso, quando presente, foi de menor intensidade nos pacientes com AIDS; a reação inflamatória esteve presente em todos os pacientes sem AIDS e ausente em 21,7% dos pacientes com AIDS; o quadro inflamatório crônico, semelhante ao da meningencefalite tuberculosa, clássico nas meningencefalites por criptococo, ocorreu raramente nos pacientes com AIDS; em média, o número de criptococos no LCR foi maior nos pacientes com AIDS; pode ser feito diagnóstico presuntivo da AIDS quando o criptococo estiver presente no LCR que não apresenta alterações citológicas e bioquímicas.Neurocryptococcosis was a rare nervous system infection. With the rising number of patients with AIDS it became a very frequent disease. This infection is supposed to infect patients with some kind of immunodeficiency and the CSF alterations often simulate tuberculous meningitis. The purpose of this research was to compare the CSF changes in AIDS and non-AIDS patients with meningoencephalitis caused by Cr. neoformans. There were analysed 41 CSF samples from non-AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis and 23 CSF samples from AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis. The results of this research allowed to conclude that the inflammatory changes in the CSF from AIDS patients showed a lower intensity compared to those non-AIDS patients. These results showed as well, that the CSF samples from non-AIDS
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....
Kennedy, Brianna; Oliverez, Paz M.; Tierney, William G.
Financial aid-related information and services are provided to students and families in a variety of ways. The timing of when information is shared with these groups also varies. Financial aid information is typically provided through events sponsored by high schools, colleges and universities, and multiple community and government-sponsored…
... Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99- 02) AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.../AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... and short-term or emergency housing needs. Amendment 1 to Policy Notice 99-02, effective March 27...
In late 1988, Midland College in Texas implemented a desktop publishing service to produce instructional aids and reduce and complement the workload of the campus print shop. The desktop service was placed in the Media Services Department of the Learning Resource Center (LRC) for three reasons: the LRC was already established as a campus-wide…
HIV and AIDS affect all South Africans, irrespective of gender, race, age and economic status. Teachers should therefore be able to meaningfully integrate HIV content into the school curriculum. However, pre-service teacher education programmes still do not pay adequate attention to HIV education, particularly in ...
The introduction of Antiretroviral Drugs (ARTs) services in Nigeria has significantly impacted positively on the overall well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). However, there is little understanding of their satisfaction and perception of quality of care provided. Objective: This study comparatively assessed ...
... reported to an aide's supervisor. (vi) Maintenance of a clean, safe, and healthy environment. (vii..., emotional, and developmental needs of and ways to work with the populations served by the hospice, including... techniques and ambulation. (xi) Normal range of motion and positioning. (xii) Adequate nutrition and fluid...
Full Text Available Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA. Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females, with a mean age of 69.7 years. Results revealed that the majority of respondents experienced favourable outcomes in all domains of the inventory comprising of: daily use of hearing aids, benefits provided by hearing aids, residual activity limitation, satisfaction with hearing aids, residual participation restriction, impact of hearing difficulties on others, and changes in quality of life. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between the daily use of hearing aids, the degree of hearing loss, and the type of hearing aids fitted, as well as the benefits received from hearing aids in difficult listening environments (p < 0.05. Despite challenges of developing contexts, the mean scores distribution compared positively to similar reports from developed countries. Outcomes of improved quality of life emphasize the importance of providing affordable hearing aids and services to all hearing impaired individuals in South Africa.
Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen
It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper highlights the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on women. It argues that the socio-cultural beliefs that value the male and female lives differently lead to differential access to health care services. The position of women is exacerbated by their low financial base especially in the rural community where their main source of livelihood, agricultural production does not pay much. But even their active involvement in agricultural production or any other income ventures is hindered when they have to give care to the sick and bedridden friends and relatives. This in itself is a threat to household food security. The paper proposes that gender sensitive policies and programming of intervention at community level would lessen the burden on women who bear the brunt of AIDS as caregivers and livelihood generators at household level. Improvement of medical facilities and quality of services at local dispensaries is seen as feasible since they are in the rural areas. Other interventions should target freeing women's and girls' time for education and involvement in income generating ventures. Two separate data sets from Western Kenya, one being quantitative and another qualitative data have been used.
Bloom, D E; Rosenfield, A
Business has transformed the planet. But this gives it new responsibilities. People now expect business leaders to lead--and not just respond when things go wrong. HIV/AIDS is a global problem, with over 16.3 million people now thought to have died of the disease (Global Summary of HIV/AIDS Epidemic, UNAIDS, December 1999). Without action now, the pandemic will worsen, health services will come under relentless pressure and the number of people dying will increase exponentially. So why should business sit up and take notice? First: money. AIDS is slowly strangling many businesses and economies--and in a global market, everyone eventually suffers. Without profit, there is no business--so the business community needs to act to protect its bottom line. Second: people. Over 80% of those dying are in their 20s, 30s, and 40s. Businesses are losing workers and customers, and human networks that have taken decades to build. Third: imagination. Business is inventive, creative and fast-moving. It has the opportunity to use these strengths for the benefit of the wider community. It's time to pit business ideas (and some money, too) against the threat of AIDS. The course of the AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. The world's businesses have the skills and intensity to make a measurable difference, especially if they find public sector and NGO partners with whom they share a vision. A focused, coordinated, results-driven effort will hit AIDS hard. The HIV virus moves fast (and is mutating all the time). Business has the opportunity to make a difference. It must grasp this opportunity. And grasp if fast.
Cox, R M; Alexander, G C; Gray, G
Relatively little is known about the influence of patients' personality features on the responses they make to self-assessment items used to measure the outcome of a hearing aid fitting. If the personality of the hearing aid wearer has a significant influence on self-report outcome data, it would be important to explore the relevant personality variables and to be cognizant of their effects when using subjective outcome data to justify decisions about clinical services or other matters. This investigation explored the relationship between several personality attributes and responses to the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB). It found that more extroverted patients tend to report more hearing aid benefit in all speech communication situations. In addition, patients with a more external locus of control tend to have more negative reactions to loud environmental sounds, both with and without amplification. Anxiety also played a small additional role in determining APHAB responses. Although personality variables were found to explain a relatively small amount of the variance in APHAB responses (usually around 10%), these outcomes should alert practitioners and researchers to the potential effects of personality variables in all self-report data.
Full Text Available Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,2 Angkana Sommanustweechai,1 Chiraporn Khitdee,1 Chompoonut Thaichinda,1 Kanang Kantamaturapoj,3 Pattara Leelahavarong,4 Pensom Jumriangrit,1 Thitikorn Topothai,1 Thunthita Wisaijohn,1 Weerasak Putthasri1 1International Health Policy Program (IHPP, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Banphai Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand; 4Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand Introduction: HIV/AIDS has been one of the world's most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results: Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in
Graciela Dutra Sehnem
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To know the sources of information of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS that define learning about sexuality. Methods: A qualitative study was performed in a Specialized Care Service of a city in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, with 15 adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. A semi-structured interview and thematic analysis were used. Results: Adolescents have built up their knowledge about sexuality, especially through relationships with friends and older family members, or through access to media sources. Schools and health services were spaces for sharing information about biological aspects of sexuality. Conclusion: Nurses need to address adolescent sexuality beyond the biological dimension and support it through critical and dialogical health education.
Widmer, Geraldine; And Others
Findings from a study of home care services in one New York district document the value and relatively modest costs of home health care for the chronically ill and dependent elderly. Professional nurses coordinated the care, but most of the direct services were provided by home health aides and housekeepers. (MF)
Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa
The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries.
This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have be...
Roper, W L; Winkenwerder, W
An estimated 40 percent of the nation's 55,000 persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have received care under the Medicaid Program, which is administered by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and funded jointly by the Federal Government and the States. In fiscal year 1988, Medicaid will spend between $700 and $750 million for AIDS care and treatment. Medicaid spending on AIDS is likely to reach $2.4 billion by fiscal year 1992, an estimate that does not include costs of treatment with zidovudine (AZT). Four policy principles are proposed for meeting this new cost burden in a way that is fair, responsive, efficient, and in harmony with our current joint public-private system of health care financing. The four guidelines are to (a) treat AIDS as any other serious disease, without the creation of a disease-specific entitlement program; (b) bring AIDS treatment financing into the mainstream of the health care financing system, making it a shared responsibility and promoting initiatives such as high-risk insurance pools: (c) give States the flexibility to meet local needs, including Medicaid home care and community-based care services waivers; (d) encourage health care professionals to meet their obligation to care for AIDS patients. PMID:3131823
Logic models from an evaluability assessment of pharmaceutical services for people living with HIV/AIDS Modelos lógicos provenientes de estudo de avaliabilidade da assistência farmacêutica para pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids
Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA with comprehensive, universal, free access to antiretroviral medicines (ARV. Pharmaceutical services are considered a strategic action that has the goal of providing access to rational use of quality medicines while also promoting user satisfaction. User satisfaction is a complex concept, and evaluation models for pharmaceutical services for PLWA were not found in the literature. Therefore, an evaluation approach to help assess this issue had to be developed. This article seeks to describe a theoretical evaluation model of user satisfaction with the dispensing of ARV, developed as part of an Evaluability Assessment (EA. It presents a brief review of the EA and user satisfaction and describes the development of models created during the EA. The lessons learned in the process are presented as a conclusion.O Brasil foi o primeiro país em desenvolvimento a fornecer medicamentos antiretrovirais (ARV de forma integral, universal e gratuita às pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA. A Assistência Farmacêutica é considerada uma ação estratégica e busca prover acesso a medicamentos de qualidade, com uso racional, promovendo a satisfação dos usuários. Satisfação do usuá-rio é um conceito complexo e modelos para avaliarem serviços farmacêuticos para PVHA não são encontrados na literatura. Este artigo objetiva descrever o desenvolvimento de três modelos criados em um Estudo de Avaliabilidade (EA. É apresentada uma breve revisão dos conceitos de EA e de Satisfação do Usuário. As lições apreendidas no processo são apresentadas como conclusão.
Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv
Muenchberger, Heidi; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Parekh, Sanjoti; Crozier, Michelle
To investigate the role of philanthropic micro-grants (maximum of $10,000) in the provision of aids and equipment for adults (aged 18-65 years of age) with complex disabilities and examine key trends in aids and equipment requests. This study examined, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, aids and equipment requests (n = 371 individual applications as represented by 136 service organisations in three Australian states) received by a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation across five consecutive years of an innovative micro-grants scheme. Findings highlight that living situation (living with family or living independently) significantly influences the nature of requests for respite, aids, equipment and home modifications. Specifically, people with complex disabilities living with their families require greater combined service provision (higher equipment need, respite support, home modifications) than those living independently (equipment need only). Type of disability did not influence request type. Qualitative data further indicated the "last resort" nature of respite requests, particularly for younger applicants (under 45 years of age) indicating critical unmet needs in the community. Results demonstrate the vital role of NFP organisations and philanthropic funds in supporting daily lifestyle aids and equipment (including respite) that might otherwise not be funded for people with complex disabilities. Although preliminary in its scope and prior to implementation of a National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) in Australia, findings suggest both opportunity and risk to the uptake of community-based micro-grant funding: opportunity for users through the provision of essential aids and lifestyle supports, and risk through over-subscription and devolving of responsibility for critical support resources from public sector. The aids and equipment needs of adults under the age of 65 appear to have been underestimated, poorly defined and under-serviced
This study surveyed the counselling needs of HIV/AIDS-infected adolescents and young adults. Participants were 260 service providers (health care providers and Non-Governmental Organizations), age range 25-60, mean age 46.4, SD 9.9, 130 males, 130 females from five South Eastern States of Nigeria. They responded ...
The objectives of the research were to explore perceptions of HIV, AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) among individuals enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) at two municipal clinics in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, and to assess the implications of these perceptions on the provision of HIV and TB care services. Data were collected ...
Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against
Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu
Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.
Lawmakers and a handful of government employees have objected to the Federal government's programs to educate its employees about AIDS. At the June 22, 1995 hearing of the civil service subcommittee of the House Government Reform and Oversight Committee, protests were raised on religious or moral grounds. Thomas Herron, a supervisory logistics manager at the Naval Air Technical Services Facility in Philadelphia found the training to be against the principles of his faith. Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-Calif) said his office was flooded with calls and letters from employees who raised concern that the training is being used to advance a redefinition of the family and is a blatant pro-homosexual agenda. Robert L. Maginnis, policy analyst for the conservative Family Research Council, faulted the training, saying it does little to change behavior that puts people at risk for HIV infection. Clinton administration officials testified at the meeting that the program is necessary to ensure both the safety of the workforce and employees' freedom from discrimination and harassment. Individual departments and agencies are responsible for developing their own AIDS training programs. According to Alan Heuerman, associate director for human resource systems service with the Office of Personnel Management, relatively few objections have been raised about the training.
This paper situates the findings of the diverse studies reported in this journal supplement in a global context that both fuels the epidemic through inequality and poverty and also provides new opportunities for global commitments, solidarity and resources. The studies in this issue signal that, while information and awareness about HIV and AIDS is now high, there is still poor access to services for people to know their own risk and a deeper need to address the asymmetries of power and access to resources that influence the control people have over their sexual relationships and lives. The studies in this supplement describe, in very different contexts, responses to the impact of AIDS that are grounded within the actions of individuals, households and extended families, against a background of existing disadvantage in assets, endowment and access to state and private sector resources. Community networks reduce social isolation and provide solidarity to households struggling to respond to AIDS. The extra work involved is often done by women, particularly where the weakening of the state has left communities disadvantaged. The paper argues that connections across communities to support survival need vertical links to national and global resources, services and markets to support, sustain and transform lives. The studies demonstrate the positive effect of this through primary healthcare systems, non-government organisation support and the social movements of people living with HIV and AIDS. If the first wave of the global response to AIDS built awareness and an emergency response to prevention, treatment and care, there is now need for a 'second wave' that provides strong measures to connect communities to social, national and global resources. Elements of this 'second wave' include people's--especially women and young people's--access to services to know their individual risk, measures that enhance their autonomy and the need for a massive increase in investment in
Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.
Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities
Ebrahimi, Alireza Pour; Toloui Ashlaghi, Abbas; Mahdavy Rad, Maryam
The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel intelligent model for AIDS/HIV data based on expert system and using it for developing an intelligent medical consulting system for AIDS/HIV. In this descriptive research, 752 frequently asked questions (FAQs) about AIDS/HIV are gathered from numerous websites about this disease. To perform the data mining and extracting the intelligent model, the 6 stages of Crisp method has been completed for FAQs. The 6 stages include: Business understanding, data understanding, data preparation, modelling, evaluation and deployment. C5.0 Tree classification algorithm is used for modelling. Also, rational unified process (RUP) is used to develop the web-based medical consulting software. Stages of RUP are as follows: Inception, elaboration, construction and transition. The intelligent developed model has been used in the infrastructure of the software and based on client's inquiry and keywords related FAQs are displayed to the client, according to the rank. FAQs' ranks are gradually determined considering clients reading it. Based on displayed FAQs, test and entertainment links are also displayed. The accuracy of the AIDS/HIV intelligent web-based medical consulting system is estimated to be 78.76%. AIDS/HIV medical consulting systems have been developed using intelligent infrastructure. Being equipped with an intelligent model, providing consulting services on systematic textual data and providing side services based on client's activities causes the implemented system to be unique. The research has been approved by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for being practical.
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...
Babasile D. Osunyomi
Objective: The key aim of this article is to explore the status quo of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in selected intervention programmes in the South African HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. The contribution of this article is the mapping of key intervention activities along an HIV care value chain and to suggest a roadmap towards the integration of ICTs in service delivery programmes. Method: 20 managers of HIV/AIDS intervention programmes were surveyed, followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews with these respondents. A further five in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in the ICT area for exploring the uses of and barriers to integrating ICTs in the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. Results: The researchers mapped the barriers to implementation and ICT tools utilised within the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain, which proves to be a useful tool to explore the status quo of technology in such service delivery programmes. The researchers then considered the wider policy environment and provided a roadmap based on the analysis and the South Africa eHealth strategy for driving development in this sector. Conclusion: The authors found that South Africa’s eHealth environment is still nascent and that the South African eHealth strategy does not place enough emphasis on systems integration and stakeholder engagement or the planning and process of uptake of ICTs by target audiences.
A study has been performed on the possibility of efficient utilization of research resources by summarizing the resource information for research and development by the industrial, governmental and academic areas and by providing research organizations with the information through the Internet. As a result of the survey on research aiding cases that apply the network used by the public organizations and corporations inside and outside the country, it was found that Japan often utilizes research facilities and holds seminars having selected regional research organizations, while the U.S. provides large-size aids in wide area, such as technological information service, patent service, and human resource service. A questionnaire survey was conducted on interests toward the necessity of research aids, specific needs for aids, and provided services. As a result, it was revealed that interest toward the research aiding net is considerably high, and strong demands are present in structuring database for the research human resource information, needs information, and information on researchers in different fields. Discussions were given on structuring the research aiding net, wherein the system contents, structuring expense, and the development schedule were presented. (NEDO)
Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn
This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...
Full Text Available The concepts, targets, tools, institutions and modes of operation of official development assistance have been overtaken by the pace of change in a world marked by the combined momentum of demography, technology and economic growth.Aid can however recover, as social consequences of the globalization call for new forms of regulation. It will then be necessary to modify and diversify our target-setting processes, to update operating procedures, and to find better ways of measuring policy implementation. Aid volumes will certainly continue to grow, and we must transform the way aid is financed. Public and private aid stakeholders must recognize the importance of these transformations and be ready to support them, by questioning the methods as well as the objectives of the policies they are implementing. Otherwise, they will severely impede the emergence of the policies we need if we are to build a better world.
LeBlanc, A J; Hurley, R E
Recent reports document that US hospitals vary considerably, notably by ownership, in the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients they treat. Still, little is known about other types of hospital response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS and the relative strength of ownership as a determining factor. With annual survey data from the American Hospital Association the authors examine the formal adoption of HIV-related services among urban US hospitals at the turn of the decade. Descriptive analyses of 2 years of data (1988 and 1991) are presented. A multivariate logistic regression analysis, conducted on the 1991 data, tests for unique ownership effects on the likelihood that hospitals are heavy investors in HIV-related care. Patterns of service adoption for 1991 strongly resemble those for 1988. Nearly three fourths of urban US hospitals offer general inpatient AIDS care, and over half provide HIV testing. Few urban hospitals offer outpatient services; even fewer operate AIDS units. A substantial minority report no formal adoption of HIV-related services. For-profit hospitals stand out as least likely to formally adopt these HIV-related services. Those adopting a comprehensive set of HIV-related services typically are public or secular, not-for-profit in ownership, large, affiliated with a medical school, and high volume users of Medicaid funding. The logistic regression analysis suggests that public ownership is a key determinant of greater service investment, even after controlling for other explanatory factors. This study appears to mirror a familiar pattern of hospital response to undercompensated care in the United States.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
The US government, ignoring the almost unanimous recommendation of medical and public health experts throughout the world, continues to ban both immigration and travel by people with HIV. Following recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Health and Human Services indicated its intention to reduce the list of dangerous and contagious diseases for excluding entry to the US to include only active tuberculosis. That decision would have removed HIV/AIDS from the list. However, due to the subsequent 35,000 letters and postcards, mostly generated by conservative religious broadcasters and mailing houses opposed to lifting the ban, AIDS remained on the list. Opposition to lifting the ban came from the US Justice Department, as well as in the form of a signed statement to that end from 67 Republican members of the US Congress. US AIDS activists have organized their own letter campaign to support the removal of HIV/AIDS from the list. The June 1990 Sixth International Conference on AIDS was disrupted because of the travel ban. More than 70 AIDS, medical, and governmental organizations, including the International Red Cross, the British Medical Association, and the European Parliament boycotted the conferences. Planning for the 8th International Conference on AIDS, scheduled to be held in Boston in May 1992, is already being disputed and may not be held.
This podcast describes how PCSI strengthens collaborative work across disease areas and integrates services that are provided by related programs, especially prevention activities related to HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) at the client level. Created: 12/7/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 12/7/2009.
Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Overton, Parisa; Benton, Claire; Daniel, Matija
ENT surgeons may refer children with otitis media with effusion (OME) to audiology for consideration of hearing aids. They are an option for the treatment of OME, but are only effective if the child actually wears them. Our study investigated what proportion of children referred for hearing aids actually receive them, and whether children use them. Retrospective study of children referred to audiology from November 2013 to August 2014, including 70 children referred by ENT for hearing aids for OME, plus a further 5 children with OME given hearing aids through direct access audiology service. During the study period, there were 202 referrals of children to audiology, of which 70 (34.7%) were for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Of these 70 referred children, 37 (52.9%) were not fitted with hearing aids due to normal audiometry (23), asymptomatic mild hearing loss (7), nonattendance (3), clinical decision to just monitor hearing (1), parental decline (2), and unrecorded reason (1). A total of 38 children (including direct access patients) were fitted with hearing aids for OME. Majority (36/38) of children issued aids used them, 16 all day, 7 only at school, 1 only at home, 3 only when needed, and 9 used them for an unspecified duration; 1 child's use of hearing aids was unrecorded, and 1 child refused to use it. 21 were fitted bilaterally and 17 unilaterally. 37 were behind the ear aids and 1 a BAHA softband. A third of referrals to paediatric audiology by ENT are for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Only about half of children referred to audiology for hearing aids for OME actually receive them, as by the time they see audiology the hearing loss has frequently resolved or is asymptomatic so that aiding is unwarranted. Once fitted, they appear to be well accepted. Hearing aids have fair utilization in children fitted with them for OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses program collaboration and service integration, a strategy that promotes better collaboration between public health programs and supports appropriate service integration at the point-of-care.
Moon Troy D
Full Text Available Abstract Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.
Seyed Naser Emadi
Full Text Available The most recent studies have explained almost 2.3 million children are affected with HIV up to the end of 2009. Sub-Saharan Africa is the main region affected by AIDS compare to other parts of the world. Despite providing competent healthcare services to prevent mother-to-child transmission as a main way of infection to a newborn, an estimated 370,000 children were newly infected to HIV in 2009. Skin disorders are common and may even be the first manifestation of HIV in children.The most common skin illnesses are classified in four categories; infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and drug related (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. In addition, unusual anatomical sites, disseminated skin lesions, increased frequency and severity, unexplained clinical presentation, rapid onset, and finally treatment failure may be the other specified skin conditions in HIV/AIDS children. CD4 count and viral load are two basic factors playing an important role in terms of type and severity of skin illness. The aim of this review was to show the common and crucial cutaneous findings among HIV/AIDS children via published articles with the same subject.
Currie-Mueller, Jenna L.; Littlefield, Robert S.
Educators are aware of the benefits of service learning such as retention or application of course concepts. Students enrolled in courses with a service learning assignment may not be aware of the benefits or may not view the assignment as beneficiary. This study examined student perceptions of service learning to determine if students'…
Himakalasa, Woraluck; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Phuangsaichai, Sasipen
The objective of this study is to investigate the access to antiretroviral treatment among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Access to antiretroviral treatment is defined in terms of availability, affordability, and acceptability. The data for the study were collected during the period of April 1, 2012-May 31, 2012 from a sample of 380 HIV/AIDS patients in eight hospitals who had received antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months at the time of data collection. The results of the study show that for most patients, the average traveling time to access health care was acceptable, but the nearly half day waiting time caused them to be absent from their work. In particular, it took longer for patients in the rural and lower income groups to access the treatment than the other groups. Their travel times and food costs relating to the treatment were found to be relatively high and therefore these patients had a higher tendency to borrow or seek financial assistance from their relatives. However, due to improvements in the access to treatment, most patients were satisfied with the services they received. The results imply that policy should be implemented to raise the potential of subdistrict hospitals where access to antiretroviral treatment is available, with participating HIV/AIDS patients acting as volunteers in providing services and other forms of health promotion to new patients. Privacy issues could be reduced if the antiretroviral treatment was isolated from other health services. Additionally, efforts to educate HIV/AIDS patients and society at large should be made.
Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ro fAutomatic Barometric Updates US Department from of Transportation Ground-Based Federal Aviation Administration Navigational Aids Office of Safety...tighter vertical spacing controls , particularly for operations near Terminal Control Areas (TCAs), Airport Radar Service Areas (ARSAs), military climb and...E.F., Ruth, J.C., and Williges, B.H. (1987). Speech Controls and Displays. In Salvendy, G., E. Handbook of Human Factors/Ergonomics, New York, John
Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.
The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation
Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B
The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions.
Stella R. Taquette
Full Text Available In order to analyze the Aids epidemic in France and Brazil, particularly among adolescents, a critical review of literature, official documents and on-site verification of services for sexual and reproductive health for adolescents was held. The concept of vulnerability and its categories were used as theoretical basics of analysis. In comparison to France, Brazil has three times the number of Aids cases in proportion to its population. In France there was a continuous decline in the incidence of this disease from 1998 onwards; in Brazil, the decline started in 2002, but there was a rise in cases in 2008. Both countries offer universal access to ARV treatment and the epidemic shows a trend of impoverishment, feminization and heterossexualization. Among Brazilian adolescents, the number of cases is proportionally 3.5 times higher; they have an earlier sexual initiation, use condoms less frequently and schooling is shorter. In France schools are obliged by law to offer regular educational activities on sexuality, the notification of Aids and HIV are mandatory; the access of adolescents to health services with confidentiality is facilitated, there is availability of tests for STDs and of voluntary interruption of pregnancy, which offer conditions for prevention and treatment of sexual disorders.
Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio
Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...
Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi
This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes
Mar 5, 2018 ... #Department of Computer Applications, National Institute of ... *5Department of Computer Science, Winona State University, MN, USA ..... Further, it has aided in service .... Software: A Research Roadmap”, Workshop on the Future of ... and A. Solberg, “Model-driven service engineering with SoaML”, in.
Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.
The American Hospital Association (AHA) has taken a leadership role in assisting health care providers in dealing effectively with the challenges of AIDS. Early work focused on preventing infection in the health care setting with the use of the Centers for Disease Control's recommended precautions concerning blood and body fluids. Supporting this effort were a number of live teleconferences, videotapes, and publications that addressed the use of precautions with AIDS patients, community issues associated with the disease, and the development of employee policies. In July 1987, a Special Committee on AIDS/HIV Infection Policy was formed by the AHA Board of Trustees and charged with developing recommendations on the issues that needed to be addressed if hospitals were to continue to meet the challenge of AIDS effectively. The committee's first set of recommendations, approved in November 1987, reaffirmed the use of universal precautions, provided guidance on the appropriate uses and application of HIV testing, and stated that the delivery of care should not be conditioned on the willingness of a patient to undergo testing. The second set of recommendations, which were approved in January 1988, focused on the need to distribute the responsibility for AIDS care among a wide variety of health care providers, to seek creative financing approaches that involve both the private and public sectors, and called on hospitals to provide leadership in ensuring that a continuum of services is available to AIDS patients. Continuing efforts to assist hospitals in the care delivery issues associated with AIDS are described.
Jürgens, Ralf; Csete, Joanne; Lim, Hyeyoung; Timberlake, Susan; Smith, Matthew
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund's core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons. Basic human rights elements were written into Global Fund grant agreements, and various technical support measures encouraged the inclusion in funding requests of programs to reduce human rights-related barriers. A five-year initiative to provide intensive technical and financial support for the scaling up of programs to reduce these barriers in 20 countries is ongoing.
Chinsembu, Kazhila C; Shimwooshili-Shaimemanya, Cornelia N; Kasanda, Choshi D; Zealand, Donovan
The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease), katjumba (a young child), kakithi (disease), and shinangele (very thin person) were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog), esingahogo (pretender), ekifi (disease), and shinyakwi noyana (useless person) were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse), fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball), and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters), desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization). Typical (body wasting) and non-typical (big head, red eyes) symptoms of HIV were also revealed. The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board. © 2011 Chinsembu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Methods Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. Results People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease,katjumba (a young child,kakithi (disease, andshinangele (very thin person were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog, esingahogo (pretender, ekifi (disease, and shinyakwi noyana (useless person were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse, fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball, and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters, desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization. Typical (body wasting and non-typical (big head, red eyes symptoms of HIV were also revealed. Conclusions The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board.
Full Text Available This paper deals with public service obligation, a form of state aid that applies to air services. The paper first provides general information on the European legislation applying to this form of state aid, and elaborates the legal framework and general principles. The second part is dedicated to a comparison of a similar subsidizing programme in the USA and Australia. An examination of current imposed public service obligation routes in Europe is provided in the following section. The coefficients defining the number of imposed PSO routes per various geo-economic variables have been defined.
de Waal, Alex
This paper draws upon the findings of the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI) to reach conclusions about the relationship between HIV/AIDS, security, conflict and governance, in the areas of HIV/AIDS and state fragility, the reciprocal interactions between armed conflicts (including post-conflict transitions) and HIV/AIDS, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on uniformed services and their operational effectiveness. Gender issues cut across all elements of the research agenda. ASCI commissioned 29 research projects across regions, disciplines and communities of practice. Over the last decade, approaches to HIV/AIDS as a security threat have altered dramatically, from the early anticipation that the epidemic posed a threat to the basic functioning of states and security institutions, to a more sanguine assessment that the impacts will be less severe than feared. ASCI finds that governance outcomes have been shaped as much by the perception of HIV/AIDS as a security threat, as the actual impacts of the epidemic. ASCI research found that the current indices of fragility at country level did not demonstrate any significant association with HIV, calling into question the models used for asserting such linkages. However at local government level, appreciable impacts can be seen. Evidence from ASCI and elsewhere indicates that conventional indicators of conflict, including the definition of when it ends, fail to capture the social traumas associated with violent disruption and their implications for HIV. Policy frameworks adopted for political and security reasons translate poorly into social and public health policies. Fears of much-elevated HIV rates among soldiers with disastrous impacts on armies as institutions, have been overstated. In mature epidemics, rates of infection among the military resemble those of the peer groups within the general population. Military HIV/AIDS control policies follow a different and parallel paradigm to national (civilian) policies, in
Kanyamurwa, J M; Ampek, G T
AIDS has been reported in Africa to push households into poverty and chronic food insecurity. At the same time there are reports of significant household resilience to AIDS. This study explored how a mature epidemic in rural Uganda has affected rural farming households. It focused on gender differences in the experience of AIDS and, in particular, household capabilities to sustain livelihoods. The study compared the vulnerability of male- and female-headed households in relation to their ability to mitigate human resource losses, as well as their access to natural and physical resources, to social networks and to finance capital for production. The findings suggest that when rural households are affected by AIDS, depleting productive resources and directing resources towards immediate needs, there are gender differences in responses to, and in impacts of, the epidemic due to the different resources available to male- and female- headed households. Female-headed households were found to be more vulnerable to AIDS than male-headed counterparts. Women's remarriage opportunities were lower than men's, they faced greater risk of losing control over land and livestock and they accessed less state and private sector support. Women-headed households were more dependent on livelihood support from non-governmental organizations, which were found to provide both welfare and credit support to female-headed households affected by AIDS. Women were found to play an important role in social networks and resources at community level but themselves received little support from many formal community networks and services.
Margaret K. Danilovich, PT, DPT, PhD
Full Text Available Background: A growing number of older adults use in-home Medicaid Waiver Home and Community Based services (HCBS to facilitate aging-in-place. A primary service of this program is Home Care Aide assistance with activities of daily living and homemaker needs. Despite the known benefits of exercise, exercise programs are currently not offered to clients in the Medicaid Waiver system. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a six-month Home Care Aide-led resistance exercise intervention protocol for frail older adults receiving Medicaid waiver services. Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will be used. We will enroll 126 Home Care Aide-client dyads for a 6-month exercise intervention. The intervention will consist of training phases to promote muscle strength, power, and endurance. We will use an intention to treat principle using mixed effects models for the quantitative outcomes. To analyze qualitative outcomes, we will use conventional content analysis to examine themes from participant program evaluations. Discussion: As greater numbers of adults age in place with frailty and employ Home Care Aides to help manage functional limitations, interventions embedded within usual care services play a critical role in bringing exercise into the home setting. The research described in this protocol will provide important knowledge about the impact of a Home Care Aide-led exercise intervention in reducing frailty in older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02942992; Keywords: Frailty, Dyad, Formal caregivers, Resistance exercise
Maria Inês Batistella Nemes
Full Text Available A adesão à terapia antirretroviral (TARV é crucial para a efetividade e o impacto do tratamento da Aids. Este artigo discute as relações entre adesão e qualidade dos serviços de assistência a pessoas vivendo com Aids (PVA, evidenciando a qualidade como elo central entre adesão e acesso. Está baseado nos resultados de pesquisas que conduzimos sobre a atenção a PVA no Brasil. Nossos estudos apontam que os grupos de pacientes acompanhados em serviços com número inferior a 100 pacientes apresentam risco estimado de não adesão maior do que os grupos acompanhados em serviços com mais de 500 pacientes. Apontam também que serviços com menos de 100 pacientes têm risco estimado maior de pertencer a grupos de má qualidade. Isto está relacionado à baixa complexidade observada nos serviços de menor porte caracterizada por: dificuldades em manter uma estrutura mínima de recursos humanos e materiais, simplificação da organização dos processos de trabalho, centramento no trabalho autônomo do profissional médico e gerenciamento sem projeto técnico. Há necessidade de pautar novos estudos sobre adesão e qualidade. As evidências existentes já apontam, porém, a necessidade de revisão na alocação dos serviços de assistência a PVA, bem como a de homogeneizar a qualificação destes serviços, condições necessárias para a manutenção de taxas aceitáveis de adesão à TARV no país.The patient adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is a crucial matter to AIDS treatment effectiveness and its' impact. This article aims to discuss the association between adherence and quality of health service providing care to people living with AIDS (PLWA, highlighting quality of the services as a central point to adherence and access. It is based on results of our previous studies about the health care to PLWA in Brazil. Our studies point out that the groups of patients who are followed-up in health services providing care
This study investigated the effects of a HIV/AIDS module on teachers' sense of self-efficacy regarding their ability to bring about behaviours in their learners which contribute to responsible living and a reduction of the spread of HIV in their communities. The sample was 128 in-service teachers studying in nine different ...
May 30, 2013 ... proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused ... seeking behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited .... the provision of adequate care, support and treatment services ..... Fear appeals and persuasion: The differentiation of.
Spicuzza, Frank J.; De Voe, Marianne W.
Offers some insight and understanding of the stress-producing components of counseling practice. Discusses some of the physical symptoms of burnout and examines why the syndrome is prevalent in the human services. Proposes the development of mutual aid groups as one solution to prevent or minimize burnout. (Author/RC)
First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...
First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...
Curran, James R.
As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682
Atun, Rifat; Bataringaya, Jacqueline
The remarkable rise in investments for HIV control programs in 2003-2010 enabled an unprecedented expansion of access to HIV services in low-income and middle-income countries. By the end of 2010, more than 5.2 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which transformed HIV infection, once a death sentence, into a long-term illness. The rapid expansion in the number of persons receiving ART means that health systems must continue to provide acute life-saving care for those with advanced HIV/AIDS although also providing chronic care services to expanding cohorts of more stable patients who are doing well on ART. This expansion also means a transition from an emergency response to the epidemic, characterized by a public health approach, to a more integrated and durable approach to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services that fosters individualized care for those requiring long-term antiretroviral treatment. Yet most low-income and middle-income countries, which have weak health systems, are poorly prepared to make this transition. In this article, we highlight the challenges health systems face in developing a sustained and durable response to HIV/AIDS. The article analyses the readiness of health systems to combine rapid expansion of ART access with long-term treatment and continuity of care for a growing cohort of patients. We argue that effective management of a transition from an emergency AIDS response to long-term programatic strategies will require a paradigm shift that enables leveraging investments in HIV to build sustainable health systems for managing large cohorts of patients receiving ART although meeting the immediate needs of those who remain without access to HIV treatment and care.
First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...
First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...
First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...
Social representations about aids in people over 50, infected by HIV Representaciones sociales sobre aids de personas arriba de los 50 años, infectadas por el HIV Representações sociais sobre aids de pessoas acima de 50 anos de idade, infectadas pelo HIV
Full Text Available This study analyzes representations about AIDS in nine persons older than 50, infected by HIV. The analysis revealed representations: ‘AIDS is a constant death threat’. These were categorized and named by means of the interviewers’ statements: ‘No doctor thinks, at first, that we can have aids’; ‘AIDS isn’t cancer’; ‘to be old and have AIDS is to be discriminated twice’. The results show the importance of integral care delivery by health services to decrease the psychosocial suffering of these people.Este trabajo analiza las representaciones sobre AIDS de 9 personas arriba de los 50 años, infectadas por el HIV. Del análisis surgieron representaciones: ‘AIDS es una amenaza constante de muerte’. Estas fueron categorizadas y normalizadas por las palabras de los entrevistados: ‘Médico ningún piensa, primero, que nosotros podemos tener aids’; ‘AIDS no es cáncer’; ‘Ser viejo y estar con AIDS es ser doblemente discriminado’. El análisis mostró la importancia de la integralidad de los cuidados por los servicios de la salud para disminuir el sufrimiento psicosocial de las personas.Neste trabalho, analisa-se as representações sobre AIDSde 9 pessoas acima de 50 anos, infectadas pelo HIV. Da análise, surgiram representações: ‘AIDSé uma ameaça constante de morte’. Essas foram categorizadas e nomeadas pelas falas dos entrevistados: ‘médico nenhum pensa, primeiro, que a gente pode ter AIDS’; ‘AIDS não é câncer’; ‘ser velho e estar com AIDS é ser duplamente discriminado’. Os resultados mostram a importância da integralidade dos cuidados pelos serviços de saúde para diminuir o sofrimento psicossocial dessas pessoas.
The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.
Andréa Fachel Leal
Full Text Available ABSTRACTHeterosexual men have been a forgotten group for HIV/AIDS interventions and research. Our goal was to identify the different elements that interfere in the prevention of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual men, covering both traditional methods of prevention (especially safe sex practices and testing and new strategies for prevention (pre- and post-sexual exposure prophylaxis, prevention treatment, and circumcision in this population. This exploratory article consists of a nonsystematic review of the literature. We discuss the invisibility of heterosexual men in policies, in programs, and in health services. The several interventions analyzed are still poorly monitored and evaluated, so there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the impact of prevention strategies in this population. Different masculinities, including hegemonic conceptions of masculinity, must be the foundation for interventions targeting men. Men must not be seen merely as a "bridge" in the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but also as victims of gender patterns that make them vulnerable.
Jun 3, 2013 ... K B Rebe,1 MB ChB, FCP (SA), DTM&H, Dip HIV Man (SA); G De Swardt,1 BA, MW; H Struthers,1 MBA; ... the country's previous National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS,. STIs and ..... Marketing MSM-appropriate services is.
Quinn, Margaret M; Markkanen, Pia K; Galligan, Catherine J; Sama, Susan R; Kriebel, David; Gore, Rebecca J; Brouillette, Natalie M; Okyere, Daniel; Sun, Chuan; Punnett, Laura; Laramie, Angela K; Davis, Letitia
Objectives In countries with ageing populations, home care (HC) aides are among the fastest growing jobs. There are few quantitative studies of HC occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess quantitatively the OSH hazards and benefits for a wide range of HC working conditions, and (2) compare OSH experiences of HC aides who are employed via different medical and social services systems in Massachusetts, USA. Methods HC aides were recruited for a survey via agencies that employ aides and schedule their visits with clients, and through a labour union of aides employed directly by clients or their families. The questionnaire included detailed questions about the most recent HC visits, as well as about individual aides’ OSH experiences. Results The study population included 1249 HC aides (634 agency-employed, 615 client-employed) contributing information on 3484 HC visits. Hazards occurring most frequently related to musculoskeletal strain, exposure to potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals for infection prevention and experience of violence. Client-hired and agency-hired aides had similar OSH experiences with a few exceptions, including use of sharps and experience of verbal violence. Conclusions The OSH experience of HC aides is similar to that of aides in institutional healthcare settings. Despite OSH challenges, HC aides enjoy caring for others and the benefits of HC work should be enhanced. Quantification of HC hazards and benefits is useful to prioritise resources for the development of preventive interventions and to provide an evidence base for policy-setting. PMID:26209318
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Service of criminal process outside the United... AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.11 Service of... status of forces agreements, govern the service of criminal process of foreign courts and the surrender...
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Service of civil process outside the United... AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.12 Service of civil process outside the United States. (a) Process of foreign courts. In foreign countries service of process...
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...
... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...
Borges, Maria Jucineide Lopes; Sampaio, Aletheia Soares; Gurgel, Idê Gomes Dantas
The complexity of providing healthcare to people with HIV/Aids requires investment in comprehensive action and care, constituting a challenge for the multidisciplinary work teams to build an interdisciplinary practice. This study sought to analyze comprehensive healthcare in the Specialized Assistance Services for HIV/Aids (SAE-HIV/Aids) in Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, starting with the process and organization of team work. This is a case study developed in three SAE-HIV/Aids units, based on a qualitative approach using different research techniques. The results show that SAE-HIV/Aids have complied with most of the Brazilian Health Ministry recommendations in terms of basic infrastructure, though none of them had a team of appropriate size. These services have shown signs of fragmentation and difficulty in establishing a systematic intersectorial and interdisciplinary practice, with failings in ensuring the reference and counter-reference flow. It was seen that there was little appreciation of the role of the manager as team leader. The need to perceive the user as a whole was identified, as well as for the team to work in a coordinated manner in order to ensure communicative and relational activities.
Fenolland, J.L.; Laporte, E.
After some disappointments when the first French nuclear units were started, it became clear that all the aspects linked to radio-protection needed to be taken into account in the context of emergency aid in the case of an industrial accident in radiological controlled area. In the case of an accident involving people, on-site first aid is provided by permanent services of the power plant. These teams are trained in first aid and fire-fighting. They are well trained in radioprotection. The specificity of an industrial event in controlled zone is that the victims' conventional injuries, whether it be a wound, a burn or a fracture, can be complicated by radioactive contamination. If it is justified, the exterior emergency services (firemen and medical teams) sire immediately called in. These teams are not necessarily trained in radioprotection. (authors)
This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008–2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple ...
Ferguson, Melanie; Maidment, David; Russell, Naomi; Gregory, Melanie; Nicholson, Richard
To assess (1) the feasibility of incorporating the Ida Institute's Motivation Tools into a UK audiology service, (2) the potential benefits of motivational engagement in first-time hearing aid users, and (3) predictors of hearing aid and general health outcome measures. A feasibility study using a single-centre, prospective, quasi-randomized controlled design with two arms. The Ida Institute's Motivation Tools formed the basis for motivational engagement. First-time hearing aid users were recruited at the initial hearing assessment appointment. The intervention arm underwent motivational engagement (M+, n = 32), and a control arm (M-, n = 36) received standard care only. The M+ group showed greater self-efficacy, reduced anxiety, and greater engagement with the audiologist at assessment and fitting appointments. However, there were no significant between-group differences 10-weeks post-fitting. Hearing-related communication scores predicted anxiety, and social isolation scores predicted depression for the M+ group. Readiness to address hearing difficulties predicted hearing aid outcomes for the M- group. Hearing sensitivity was not a predictor of outcomes. There were some positive results from motivational engagement early in the patient journey. Future research should consider using qualitative methods to explore whether there are longer-term benefits of motivational engagement in hearing aid users.
Wood, Terence; Burkot, Camilla; Howes, Stephen
In this article, we use data from the 2013 and 2015 Australian Aid Stakeholder Surveys to gauge the extent of the changes to the Australian Government Aid Program since the 2013 federal election. The two surveys targeted the same set of stakeholders of the aid program, and both gathered data on a wide range of aspects of its functioning. As we assess the findings that emerged from the surveys, we situate our work amongst recent academic studies that have looked at the post-2013 aid changes in Australia. Our key findings are that the post-2013 changes to Australian aid have had wide-ranging impacts and have led to deteriorating overall aid quality. However, changes have not affected all aspects of the aid program equally, and some changes are starting to be reversed. In discussion, we examine what these developments mean for the future of Australian aid.
... reflect the most current information available, i.e., 100% implementation of ACS 2009- 2011 poverty... Jersey Legal Services, NJ-16 1,149,705 Inc.. New Mexico DNA-Peoples Legal Services, NM-1 174,328 Inc.. DNA-Peoples Legal Services, NNM-2 20,981 Inc.. New Mexico Legal Aid MNM 80,485 New Mexico Legal Aid NM...
Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen
The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transmission of HIV-AIDS from mothers to their children are of increasingly concern and it remains an iceberg phenomenon. West Java is one of five provinces in Indonesia with highest cases of HIV-AIDS as well as maternal and infant mortality rates. Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT program has been implemented in Indonesia since 2004. Ministry of Health has appointed several hospitals as centers of referral of PMTCT in the same area, however, its implementation has not been known yet. The aim of this research is to find out the preparedness of PMTCT services in four referral hospitals in West Java Province, namely HS Hospital, KBd Hospital, KBk Hospital, and MM Hospital. The preparedness of PMTCT services can be assessed from preparedness of medical staff and supporting staff in providing such services, the preparedness of facilities and infrastructures, and constraints of service as well. The study carried out in 2014 with qualitative approach. The result shows that there are some differences of preparedness amongst four hospitals in PMTCT service implementation, mostly because of unpreparedness in terms of facilities and infrastuctures (reagents, medicines, medical equipment, rooms, laboratories, lack of training, stigma from medical staff, and there is no guarantee for occupational safety and health of medical staff in providing PMTCT services. The conclusion of the results is that HS Hospital is the most well-prepared in PMTCT service implementation, whereas KBd Hospital needs medicine equipment and laboratories for HIV-AIDS examination. Similarly, KBk Hospital needs awareness campaign and training to reduce negative stigma from medical staff. Lastly, MM Hospital needs awareness campaign, training, completeness of personal protective equipment, leadership commitment and other supports for birth delivery services for HIV positive mothers. Keywords: HIV-AIDS, PMTCT, Hospital, West Java ABSTRAK Penularan HIV-AIDS
Anthony D. Harries
Full Text Available The international community has committed to ending the epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical infections by 2030, and this bold stance deserves universal support. In this paper, we discuss whether this ambitious goal is achievable for HIV/AIDS and what is needed to further accelerate progress. The joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and the related strategy are built upon currently available health technologies that can diagnose HIV infection and suppress viral replication in all people with HIV. Nonetheless, there is much work to be done in ensuring equitable access to these HIV services for key populations and those who remain outside the rims of the traditional health services. Identifying a cure and a preventive vaccine would further help accelerate progress in ending the epidemic. Other disease control programmes could learn from the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Mollura, Daniel J; Azene, Ezana M; Starikovsky, Anna; Thelwell, Aduke; Iosifescu, Sarah; Kimble, Cary; Polin, Ann; Garra, Brian S; DeStigter, Kristen K; Short, Brad; Johnson, Benjamin; Welch, Christian; Walker, Ivy; White, David M; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Lungren, Matthew P; Zaheer, Atif; Goldberg, Barry B; Lewin, Jonathan S
The RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries was an assembly of individuals and organizations interested in improving access to medical imaging services in developing countries where the availability of radiology has been inadequate for both patient care and public health programs. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world and to evaluate potential opportunities for future collaboration. Conference participants included radiologists, technologists, faculty members of academic medical institutions, and leadership of nongovernmental organizations involved in international health care and social entrepreneurship. Four main themes from the conference are presented in this white paper as important factors for the implementation and optimization of radiology in the developing world: (1) ensuring the economic sustainability of radiologic services through financial and administrative training support of health care personnel; (2) designing, testing, and deploying clinical strategies adapted for regions with limited resources; (3) structuring and improving the role of American radiology residents interested in global health service projects; and (4) implementing information technology models to support digital imaging in the developing world. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard
foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....
Tarantola, D; Mann, J
HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No contexto de acesso universal à terapia antiretroviral, os resultados do Programa de Aids dependem da qualidade do cuidado prestado. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a qualidade do cuidado dos serviços ambulatoriais que assistem pacientes de Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado em sete Estados brasileiros, em 2001 e 2002. Foi avaliada a qualidade do atendimento a pacientes com Aids quanto à disponibilidade de recursos e a organização do trabalho de assistência. Um questionário com 112 questões estruturadas abordando esses aspectos, foi enviado a 336 serviços. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 95,8% (322. Os indicadores de disponibilidade de recursos mostram uma adequação maior do que os indicadores de organização do trabalho. Não faltam antiretrovirais em 95,5% dos serviços, os exames de CD4 e Carga Viral estão disponíveis em quantidade adequada em 59 e 41% dos serviços, respectivamente. Em 90,4% dos serviços há pelo menos um profissional não médico (psicólogo, enfermeiro ou assistente social. Quanto à organização, 80% não agendavam consulta médica com hora marcada; 40,4% agendavam mais que 10 consultas médicas por período; 17% não possuíam gerentes exclusivos na assistência e 68,6% não realizavam reuniões sistemáticas de trabalho com a equipe. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados apontam que além de garantir a distribuição mais homogênea de recursos, o programa precisa investir no treinamento e disseminação do manejo do cuidado, conforme evidenciado nos resultados da organização de trabalho.OBJECTIVE: In the context of universal access to antiretroviral treatment, the results of the Brazilian AIDS Program will depend on the quality of the care provided. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the healthcare provided by outpatient services for the treatment of AIDS patients. METHODS: The present study was carried out in seven Brazilian States between 2001 and 2002. We evaluated the quality of
Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...
Nielsen, T.L.; Gani, Rafiqul
based on mathematical programming. This paper describes the development of a computer aided system for the systematic derivation of appropriate property models to be used in the service role for a specified problem. As a first step, a library of well-known property models ha's been developed...
Altinay Gazi, Zehra; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye
This research aims to investigate the impact of the visual aided learning on pre-service teachers' co-construction of subject matter knowledge in teaching practice. The study revealed the examination of film as an active cognizing and learning tool in classroom management course within teacher education programme. Within the framework of action…
This paper investigates whether aid flows to developing countries fit well with their development priorities. In particular, we examine aid allocation across sectors in a given recipient country by using sectoral data on aid and indicators that measure the recipient's need for aid in each sector. The data show that inter-recipient aid allocation reflects the recipient's need. However, we found no evidence that inter-sectoral allocation fits with national priorities except in high- and middle-...
Wu, Feng; Zhang, Kong-lai; Shan, Guang-liang
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project. In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms, but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.
Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob
This study describes the views of various stakeholders on the importance of different criteria for priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions in Indonesia. Based on a general list of criteria and a focus group discussion with stakeholders (n = 6), a list was developed of thirty-two criteria that play a role in priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java province. Criteria were categorized according to the World Health Organization's health system goals and building block frameworks. People living with HIV/AIDS (n = 49), healthcare workers (HCW) (n = 41), the general population (n = 43), and policy makers (n = 22) rated the importance of thirty-two criteria on a 5-point Likert-scale. Thereafter, respondents ranked the highest rated criteria to express more detailed preferences. Stakeholders valued the following criteria as most important for the priority setting of HIV/AIDS interventions: an intervention's impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic, reduction of stigma, quality of care, effectiveness on individual level, and feasibility in terms of current capacity of the health system (i.e., HCW, product, information, and service requirements), financial sustainability, and acceptance by donors. Overall, stakeholders' preferences for the importance of criteria are similar. Our study design outlines an approach for other settings to identify which criteria are important for priority setting of health interventions. For Indonesia, these study results may be used in priority setting processes for HIV/AIDS control and may contribute to more transparent and systematic allocation of resources.
Diah Astuti Saputri Retnaningsih
Full Text Available The Study aims to know further about the implementation of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT to people with the possibility of being infected by HIV/AIDS. It is governmental service program starting from counseling, testing, and post testing in order to minimize the contagious risk of HIV/AIDS. Through the qualitative-descriptive approach, this study showed that the implementation of VCT program is very important because the process emphasizes the acceptance of client, building relationship, exploring, identifying, giving information, planning activity, determining decision, testing, up to developing the readiness of client, making planning, reading off the tests result, explaining result of the test, giving support and motivation. All of these are purposed to minimize the contagious risk, and make the infected one more optimistic in experiencing life.
Some countries (e.g. Brazil) have good reputations on AIDS policy, whereas others, (notably South Africa) have been criticized for inadequate leadership. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that these 'poster children' for AIDS leadership have indeed performed better or worse than expected given their economic and institutional constraints and the demographic and health challenges facing them. Regressions were run on HAART coverage (number on highly active antiretroviral therapy as percentage of total need) and MTCTP coverage (pregnant HIV+ women accessing mother-to-child-transmission prevention services as percentage of total need). Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand and Uganda (all of whom have established reputations for good leadership on AIDS performed consistently better than expected-as did Burkina-Faso, Suriname, Paraguay Costa Rica, Mali and Namibia. South Africa, which has the worst reputation for AIDS leadership, performed significantly below expectations-as did Uruguay and Trinidad and Tobago. The paper thus confirms much of the conventional wisdom on AIDS leadership at country level and suggests new areas for research.
... veterans diagnosed with mental health conditions. Upon the completion of the study and analysis of its...), this proposed rule is exempt from the initial and final regulatory flexibility analysis requirements of..., SENSORY, AND REHABILITATIVE AIDS'', to read as follows: Sec. 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the...
Koto, Masebeo Veronica; Maharaj, Pranitha
Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by the AIDS pandemic and Lesotho is no exception. In many countries, healthcare workers are at the forefront of the fight against AIDS. This study explores the difficulties facing healthcare workers in Lesotho using a combination of qualitative methods--focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that healthcare workers are afraid of contracting HIV from their patients and this affects their delivery of services. In addition, the results revealed that poor infrastructure and shortage of supplies at the facilities hinder healthcare workers from performing their duties effectively. The other concern was the heavy workload and severe time constraints which puts enormous stress on healthcare workers. Stigma and discrimination emerged as major problems for healthcare workers. Addressing the challenges facing healthcare workers is essential in effectively managing the AIDS pandemic facing the continent.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...
Prisons often lack the basic health services required by HIV/AIDS patients. As with many other chronic illnesses, the treatment of HIV is expensive in terms of medication, hygiene, testing and staff training. Strategies to combat the disease have been thoroughly developed, particularly in Europe (WHO/UNAIDS, 2006).
Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others
Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…
three medical aid schemes in which providers are paid on a fee-far-service basis. ... The majority of health care providers in the private sector in. South Mrica are ... hospital, which bills the HMO for all services and accommo- dation expenses.
Curley, John R.
In New York State there is an uneven distribution of wealth and an unequal tax burden among the small city school districts. Because of the tax limits and rising costs for goods and services, many of these school districts have found it difficult to support their educational programs without emergency aid from the state. Such aid is frequently…
Wolf, R. Cameron; Bicego, George; Marconi, Katherine; Bessinger, Ruth; van Praag, Eric; Noriega-Minichiello, Shanti; Pappas, Gregory; Fronczak, Nancy; Peersman, Greet; Fiorentino, Renee K.; Rugg, Deborah; Novak, John
The sharp rise in the HIV/AIDS burden worldwide has elicited calls for increased efforts to combat the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS. Efforts must continue with the aim to decrease new infections. At the same time, care and treatment services for those already infected can lead to longer, productive lives, thereby minimizing negative effects on…
Andersen, Elizabeth A; Spiers, Jude
residents. 2. Describe how nursing home managers can empower care aides to provide care. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The current study was a qualitative focused ethnography aimed at exploring the complexities of care; working environments; and knowledge, skills, and efforts of care aides who work in nursing homes. Over the past decade, dramatic shifts in staffing patterns in Canadian nursing homes have transformed care aides' assistive and caring roles. Care aides are now the central and most accessible service providers to nursing home residents. In the current article, the authors (a) conceptualize care aide work as caring rather than caring activities, (b) explore relational care as a foundational and significant component of care aide work, (c) interpret care aides' relational care practices through the lens of Swanson's Middle Range Theory of Caring, and (d) describe how nursing home managers can empower care aides to do this work. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(11), 24-30.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Amlani, Amyn M
Since 1980, hearing aid adoption rates have remained essentially the same, increasing at a rate equal to the organic growth of the population. Researchers have used theoretical models from psychology and sociology to determine those factors or constructs that lead to the adoption of hearing aids by first-time impaired listeners entering the market. In this article, a theoretical model, the Consumer Decision-Making Model (CDM), premised on the neobehavioral approach that considers an individual's psychological and cognitive emphasis toward a product or service, is described. Three theoretical models (i.e., transtheoretical, social model of disability, Health Belief Model), and their relevant findings to the hearing aid market, are initially described. The CDM is then presented, along with supporting evidence of the model's various factors from the hearing aid literature. Future applications of the CDM to hearing health care also are discussed.
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....
Rúbia Aguiar Alencar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify vulnerabilities of elderly people with HIV/AIDS and the trajectory that they follow until reaching the diagnosis of the disease. METHOD Qualitative research conducted in specialized clinics in the state of São Paulo, from January to June 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 elderly people who were found to be infected with the virus at the age of 60 years or older. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS In this process four categories emerged, then analyzed with reference to the theoretical framework of vulnerability. CONCLUSION Late diagnosis of HIV infection or AIDS among the elderly happens in the secondary or tertiary service. Issues related to sexual life of the elderly are only questioned by health professionals after the diagnosis, also the time that condom use becomes absolute. It is believed that the investigation of the vulnerability of the elderly to HIV/AIDS allows for carrying out appropriate interventions for this population.
Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel
inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...
Avetisov, G.M.; Goncharov, S.F.; Grachev, M.I.
Theoretical base to establish the All-Russian service for disaster medicine (ARSDM) is elaborated. The arrangement system for medical aid for the population of the Chernobyl NPP (including the aspects of planning and management) is proved in action. COnclusion is made about the necessity to introduce special structure of measures aimed at provision of medical aid of accident victims, of their evacuation and treatment under elimination of radiation accidents. This structure requires to unify all abilities and means of health service into the single system for Medical Provision of population under the emergencies. 4 figs., 2 tabs
Lee, Jung-Sook; Davie, William R.
Shows that audience recall of AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) is related to message appeal types, cultural identity, and gender. Finds that strong emotional appeals are better remembered than rational ones; U.S. viewers recalled more than international participants; and college women recalled more than college men in general, and…
Roberts, M; Wangombe, J
A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were--or were suspected to be--HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to healthcare is an essential element of health development and a fundamental human right. While access to and acceptability of healthcare are complex concepts that interact with different socio-ecological factors (individual, community, institutional and policy, it is not known how these factors affect HIV care. This study investigated the impact of socio-ecological factors on access to and acceptability of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services (HATCS in Wolaita Zone of Ethiopia. Method Qualitative case study research was conducted in six woredas (districts. Focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with 68 participants in 11 groups (six with people using antiretroviral therapy (ART and five with general community members. Key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with 28 people involved in HIV care, support services and health administration at different levels. Individual in-depth interviews (IDIs were conducted with eight traditional healers and seven defaulters from (ART. NVIVO 10 was used to assist qualitative content data analysis. Results A total of 111 people participated in the study, of which 51 (45.9 % were male and 60 (54.1 % were female, while 58 (53.3 % and 53 (47.7 % were urban and rural residents, respectively. The factors that affect access to and acceptability of HATCS were categorized in four socio-ecological units of analysis: client-based factors (awareness, experiences, expectations, income, employment, family, HIV disclosure and food availability; community-based factors (care and support, stigma and discrimination and traditional healing; health facility-based factors (interactions with care providers, availability of care, quality of care, distance, affordability, logistics availability, follow up and service administration; and policy and standards (healthcare financing, service standards, implementation manuals and policy documents. Conclusions A socio-ecological perspective
Bardhan, Nilanjana R
This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.
NACP National AIDS Control Program NGO Non Governmental Organization NLTP National Leprosy and TB Program NS National Service OIS...have an ongoing DOT-TB program monitored by the Regional Medical Officer, in line with the guidelines of the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy ...and treatment, according to the guidelines of the NACP TB Unit and the National TB and Leprosy Programme (NTLP). 48 48 C Train medical officers
Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...
Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Ambat, Rajan
the susceptibility of these systems to galvanic corrosion. In this study, traditional behind the ear (BTE) hearing aid systems, which failed during service were analysed. Failure analysis was performed on the dome type battery-spring contact systems. The morphology of the contact areas was observed using scanning......Reliability of low power electrical contacts such as those in hearing aid battery-spring systems is a very critical aspect for the overall performance of the device. These systems are exposed to certain harsh environments like high humidity and elevated temperatures, and often in combination...... electron microscopy, and the compositional analysis of the corrosion products and contaminants was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Wear track morphology was observed on the contact points, and the top coating on the dome was worn out exposing the substrate spring material...
National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.
This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…
Franzosa, Emily; Tsui, Emma K; Baron, Sherry
Home care payment models, quality measures, and care plans are based on physical tasks workers perform, ignoring relational care that supports clients' cognitive, emotional, and social well-being. As states seek to rein in costs and improve the efficiency and quality of care, they will need to consider how to measure and support relational care. In four focus groups ( n = 27) of unionized, agency-based New York City home health aides, workers reported aide-client relationships were a cornerstone of high-quality care, and building them required communication, respect, and going the extra mile. Since much of this care was invisible outside the worker-client relationship, aides received little supervisory support and felt excluded from the formal care team. Aligning payment models with quality requires understanding the full scope of services aides provide and a quality work environment that offers support and supervision, engages aides in patient care, and gives them a voice in policy decisions.
Haines, John R.
According to the director of Higher Education Management Services for the New York State Education Department, the offices of admissions and student financial aid have long been excluded from the institutional planning process. In an era of projected enrollment declines and increased competition, these offices need to assume a critical new role.…
Lee, Haewon; Ahn, Deborah Y; Choi, Soyoung; Kim, Youngchan; Choi, Hyunju; Park, Sang Min
We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.
Myer, L; Seedat, S; Stein, D J; Moomal, H; Williams, D R
Background Few data exist on how the HIV/AIDS epidemic may influence population mental health. The associations were examined between knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS and common mental disorders among South African adults. Methods Between 2002 and 2004, a nationally representative sample of 4351 adults were interviewed about personally knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS, and the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to generate psychiatric diagnoses for depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders during the preceding 12 months based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Results Overall, 42.2% of the sample knew someone who died of HIV/AIDS, and 16.5% met the criteria for at least one DSM-IV diagnosis. Individuals who knew someone who died of HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have any DSM-IV defined disorder, including any depressive, anxiety or substance-related disorder (pdrug dependence or abuse. Based on these results, it is estimated that up to 15% of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the South African adult population may be related to knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion These novel data suggest that AIDS-related mortality may contribute substantially to the burden of mental disorders in settings of high HIV prevalence. While this finding requires further investigation, these data suggest the need to strengthen mental health services in communities where HIV/AIDS is prevalent. PMID:19074926
Zhilyaev, E.G.; Goncharov, S.F.; Vorontsov, I.V.; Legeza, V.I.; Berzin, I.A.
The paper presented calculations of manpower and money funds for rendering aid to the injured persons in case of radiation accident. The authors offered a scheme of using medical anti-radial aids on various stages of radiation accident; immediately after the accident in case of non-predicted and controlled radiation exposure. Army Medical Service is capable of solving promptly the tasks of medical aid with the help of highly mobile specialized medical units, the use of which is stipulated in the system of the Russian Service of disaster medicine. 10 refs.; 1 tab
This podcast describes how PCSI strengthens collaborative work across disease areas and integrates services that are provided by related programs, especially prevention activities related to HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) at the client level.
Buonaguro, Franco M.
The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...
First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...
Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.
An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible
Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile
positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only...... positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion...
Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Garcia, João Victor de Sousa; Guimarães, Helaine Dias; Arcos, Gelson Farias; Santos, Augusto Viana Arouche; Paixão, Pedro Viana da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Galvão, Carolina de Souza
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. We conducted an observational and analytical study of patients with VL followed in a Reference Service in the State of Maranhão, Brazil from 2007-2013. In total 126 patients were enrolled, of which 61 (48.4%) were co-infected with HIV/AIDS. There were more males among those with HIV/AIDS (85.2%, P>0.05) or with VL only (81.5%, P>0.05). These findings significantly differed based on age group (PHIV/AIDS co-infection, respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and splenomegaly significantly differed between the two groups (P=0.0014 and P=0.019, respectively). The myelogram parasitic examination was used most frequently among those with HIV/AIDS (91.8%), followed by those with VL only (69.2%). VL recurrences and mortality were significantly higher in the HIV/AIDS co-infected patients (PHIV/AIDS co-infection were mostly adult men. Diarrhea was more frequent in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, whereas splenomegaly was more common in patients with VL only. In the group of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, there was a higher rate of VL recurrence and mortality.
Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sara M. K. Madsen
Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.
Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H
The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African
... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...
... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...
... the aids? Start using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking hours. Keep a diary to help you remember your ...
Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H Y; Cole, Donald
Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were 'HIV' or 'AIDS' and 'community-based care' or 'CBC'. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.
Bekele, Tsegaye; Globerman, Jason; Watson, James; Jose-Boebridge, Murray; Kennedy, Richard; Hambly, Keith; Anema, Aranka; Hogg, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B
Up to half of people living with HIV in resource-rich settings experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Food insecurity, in turn, has been linked to adverse health outcomes including poor antiretroviral adherence, poor HIV viral suppression, frailty, and mortality. We estimated the prevalence of food insecurity among 649 adults living with HIV and recruited from community-based AIDS service organizations in Ontario, Canada. Food security was assessed using the Canadian Household Food Security module. We used logistic regression modeling to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors independently associated with food insecurity. Almost three-fourths of participants (70.3%) were food insecure and a third (31%) reported experiencing hunger. The prevalence of food insecurity in this sample is approximately six times higher than that of the general population. Factors independently associated with food insecurity were: having dependent children at home, residing in large urban areas, low annual household income (<$40,000), difficulty meeting housing-related expenses, cigarette smoking, harmful drug use, and depression. Broad, multisector interventions that address income, housing affordability, substance use and mental health issues are needed and could offset future public health expenditures.
Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)
de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros
This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.
Agnes Ebotabe Arrey
Full Text Available Spirituality/religion serves important roles in coping, survival and maintaining overall wellbeing within African cultures and communities, especially when diagnosed with a chronic disease like HIV/AIDS that can have a profound effect on physical and mental health. However, spirituality/religion can be problematic to some patients and cause caregiving difficulties. The objective of this paper was to examine the role of spirituality/religion as a source of strength, resilience and wellbeing among sub-Saharan African (SSA migrant women with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative study of SSA migrant women was conducted between April 2013 and December 2014. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball techniques from AIDS Reference Centres and AIDS workshops in Belgium, if they were 18 years and older, French or English speaking, and diagnosed HIV positive more than 3 months beforehand. We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and did observations during consultations and support groups attendances. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. 44 women were interviewed, of whom 42 were Christians and 2 Muslims. None reported religious/spiritual alienation, though at some point in time many had felt the need to question their relationship with God by asking "why me?" A majority reported being more spiritual/religious since being diagnosed HIV positive. Participants believed that prayer, meditation, regular church services and religious activities were the main spiritual/religious resources for achieving connectedness with God. They strongly believed in the power of God in their HIV/AIDS treatment and wellbeing. Spiritual/religious resources including prayer, meditation, church services, religious activities and believing in the power of God helped them cope with HIV/AIDS. These findings highlight the importance of spirituality in physical and mental health and wellbeing among SSA women with HIV/AIDS that should be taken into
Varley, Alice; Sarginson, Julia; Young, Amber
Burn and scald injuries are common in children. First aid advice for paediatric burns is offered by a range of health organisations and charities in the UK. Despite this, children still present to emergency departments and burn services having received little or inadequate first aid. A survey was undertaken regarding the content and consistency of the advice given by a cross-section of UK health organisations involved in first aid prevention and education. The advice was subsequently examined to determine if it was evidence-based. Our study has demonstrated inconsistencies in the content of the first aid advice provided by the 21 organisations included in the study. Seventy-one percent of the information was only available online. The temperature, method and duration of cooling varied substantially, as did the advice recommended for the removal of clothing and jewellery and methods for covering the burn immediately after injury. Results from the literature review concluded the following based on available evidence; cool the burn with running tap water for 20min, remove clothing and jewellery and cover the burn with cling film or a clean non-adhesive dressing. This study highlights the lack of consistency between first aid guidance provided by health organisations and charities in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)
The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.
... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...
... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...
First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...
Fortenberry, J Dennis; Koenig, Linda J; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Jeffries, Carrie L; Ellen, Jonathan M; Wilson, Craig M
Youths aged 13 to 24 years old living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are less likely than adults to receive the health and prevention benefits of HIV treatments, with only a small proportion having achieved sustained viral suppression. These age-related disparities in HIV continuum of care are owing in part to the unique developmental issues of adolescents and young adults as well as the complexity and fragmentation of HIV care and related services. This article summarizes a national, multiagency, and multilevel approach to HIV care for newly diagnosed youths designed to bridge some of these fragmentations by addressing National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals for people living with HIV. Three federal agencies developed memoranda of understanding to sequentially implement 3 protocols addressing key National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals. The goals were addressed in the Adolescent Trials Network, with protocols implemented in 12 to 15 sites across the United States. Outcome data were collected from recently diagnosed youth referred to the program. Cross-agency collaboration, youth-friendly linkage to care services, community mobilization to address structural barriers to care, cooperation among services, proportion of all men who have sex with men who tested, and rates of linkage to prevention services. The program addressed National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals 2 through 4 including steps within each goal. A total of 3986 HIV-positive youths were referred for care, with more than 75% linked to care within 6 weeks of referral, with almost 90% of those youths engaged in subsequent HIV care. Community mobilization efforts implemented and completed structural change objectives to address local barriers to care. Age and racial/ethnic group disparities were addressed through targeted training for culturally competent, youth-friendly care, and intensive motivational interviewing training. A national program to address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy specifically for youths can
This podcast provides a description of Program Collaboration and Service Integration (PCSI). Created: 12/7/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 12/7/2009.
Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather
Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. Design: The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO−, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). Results: RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO− group. Conclusions: The RLOs
Ferguson, Melanie; Brandreth, Marian; Brassington, William; Leighton, Paul; Wharrad, Heather
The aims of this study were to (1) develop a series of short interactive videos (or reusable learning objects [RLOs]) covering a broad range of practical and psychosocial issues relevant to the auditory rehabilitation for first-time hearing aid users; (2) establish the accessibility, take-up, acceptability and adherence of the RLOs; and (3) assess the benefits and cost-effectiveness of the RLOs. The study was a single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial with two arms. The intervention group (RLO+, n = 103) received the RLOs plus standard clinical service including hearing aid(s) and counseling, and the waitlist control group (RLO-, n = 100) received standard clinical service only. The effectiveness of the RLOs was assessed 6-weeks posthearing aid fitting. Seven RLOs (total duration 1 hr) were developed using a participatory, community of practice approach involving hearing aid users and audiologists. RLOs included video clips, illustrations, animations, photos, sounds and testimonials, and all were subtitled. RLOs were delivered through DVD for TV (50.6%) and PC (15.2%), or via the internet (32.9%). RLO take-up was 78%. Adherence overall was at least 67%, and 97% in those who attended the 6-week follow-up. Half the participants watched the RLOs two or more times, suggesting self-management of their hearing loss, hearing aids, and communication. The RLOs were rated as highly useful and the majority of participants agreed the RLOs were enjoyable, improved their confidence and were preferable to written information. Postfitting, there was no significant between-group difference in the primary outcome measure, overall hearing aid use. However, there was significantly greater hearing aid use in the RLO+ group for suboptimal users. Furthermore, the RLO+ group had significantly better knowledge of practical and psychosocial issues, and significantly better practical hearing aid skills than the RLO- group. The RLOs were shown to be beneficial to first
Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...
Sep 14, 2015 ... Keywords: PLHIVs, ART Services, Preferences for ART, Ghana .... In September 2005, a second National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework for .... and traditional leaders, migrant workers (e.g. long distance drivers and their assistants, ..... However, some HIV-positive patients still travel long distances.
Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva
Full Text Available Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN’s basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and second, by assessing HIV/AIDS strategies and policy framework the University has put in place. An interpretative epistemological stance was used for this study, and a qualitative research involving focus group discussion (FGD and analysis of secondary data was carried out. Results showed that NOUN has identified the impact the epidemic has on the university, although it has yet to institutionalize an HIV/AIDS policy. NOUN’s Draft Service Charter, however, has identified the fight against HIV/AIDS as a core mandate of the University, and the introduction of HIV/AIDS certification programs can be viewed as proactive policies in response to the epidemic. Results of this study are discussed in terms of their relevance to future research and the impact such policy frameworks may have on combating the epidemic, both within the University and the wider community.
Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, has been central to life, war, and peace in the country for almost two decades. Its urban characteristics, though, have been put to one side for the most part. In recent years, Mogadishu-related issues have been merged mostly into a global agenda for South and Central Somalia, resulting in the technical and coordination approaches employed in the city largely being reproductions of solutions utilised in refugee camps and rural areas. Unfortunately, urban problems require urban solutions. The aid system is just starting to discover how specific aid in cities at war should be, both from an organisational and a technical standpoint. The enhancement of aid practices in an urban setting implies, among other things, a more strategic approach to the specific spatial characteristics of the city, a more fine-tuned analysis of the technical requirements of the urban service delivery systems, and a better understanding of the role of urban institutions. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Full Text Available India has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world. The UNAIDS Gap report has identified twelve risk groups that are especially vulnerable and have been left behind from the national AIDS response. Of these twelve, one is persons with disabilities. Disability is both a public health issue and a human rights issue; persons with disabilities are the world’s largest minority. Low awareness, sexual abuse, and lack of access to health services are the major reasons for people with disabilities being vulnerable. While the gap report is a landmark report, in that it compartmentalizes the risk groups, disability cannot be looked at in isolation. Since any of the other risk groups may include persons with disabilities, the issue is a complex one meriting greater attention. The National AIDS Control Organization has completely ignored this group of persons. To efficiently close the gap, an integrated and disability-inclusive HIV response is needed so that people with different types of disabilities, their caretakers, healthcare professionals and society are empowered to fight the collective battle against HIV/AIDS.
Forsythe, S; Hasbún, J; Butler de Lister, M
This study summarizes results from six data collection instruments administered to tourists, hotel workers, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the Dominican Republic (D.R.). The objective of this study was to assess: 1. how HIV/AIDS may affect tourism; 2. how tourists are likely to react to prevention campaigns; and 3. how tourism may affect the spread of HIV/AIDS. It was found that an overwhelming proportion of tourists did not consider the prevalence of HIV to be a factor when making their travel plans, and that most did not consider themselves at greater risk of becoming infected while on holiday than when they were at home. This study determined that the spread of HIV/AIDS was unlikely to affect the demand for tourism services in the D.R. The study also found that most tourists would respond positively to an HIV/AIDS prevention campaign and would not be discouraged from visiting the D.R. because of such campaigns. Those most receptive to prevention efforts were also those who felt they were at highest risk, according to study data. Finally, it was determined that while most tourists probably do not engage in high risk activities, there were some male and female tourists who do engage in sexual encounters with multiple Dominican CSWs and hotel employees. These encounters represent a risk to the health and economic development of the D.R., as well as to tourists and their other sexual partners. Based on these findings, it is recommended that in order to minimize the potential social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS in the D.R., prevention messages need to reach a number of groups which have not yet been adequately targeted. These groups include tourists, with a special emphasis on 'sex tourists', and hotel employees, with a special emphasis on entertainment staff.
Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Abera, Solomon; Mekonnen, Medhanit G.; Melesse, Wondiber N.
Background: HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic. Although unpublished studies showed that the number of AIDS related deaths has fallen by 39% between 2005 and 2013 in sub-Saharan Africa, the region still accounted for 74% of all the people dying from AIDS-related causes. While the community conversation
Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster randomized ..... process evaluation data from several studies on facility-based ... PEPFAR blueprint: Creating an AIDS-free generation.
Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.
Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice.
Genrich Gillian L
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support
Rubio, Encarnación; Comín, Magdalena; Montón, Gema; Martínez, Tomás; Magallón, Rosa
To describe the use of health and social services, and to analyze the influence of functional capacity for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and other factors in their use. Cross-sectional study in a non-institutionalized population older than 64 years old in a basic rural health area of Zaragoza. use of different health and social services. Main independent variable: functional capacity for IADL according to the Lawton-Brody. Confounding variables: sociodemographic, physical exercise, comorbidity, self-perceived health, walking aids, social resources and economic resources (OARS-MAFQ). The relationship between the use of services and functional capacity for IADL was assessed using crude OR (ORC) and adjusted (adjusted OR) with CI95% by means of multivariate logistic regression models. The use of social and health services increased with age and worse functional capacity for IADL. The increased use of health services was related with bad stage of health, limited social and economic resources, physical inactivity and female. The increased use of home help services was related with limited social resources, low education level and male. Regular physical activity and using walking aids were associated with greater participation in recreational activities. The probability of using social and health services increased in older people with impaired functional capacity for IADL. The specific use of them changed according to differences in health, demographic and contextual features. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
The recommendations for controlling HIV/AIDS, whether prescriptive or descriptive, underscore the value of information: its translation into knowledge, and knowledge into behaviour. Thus, accessing, evaluating, disseminating and applying authoritative, credible and scholarly information on HIV/AIDS are critical elements in the control of this pandemic in the Web 2.0 era. The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona libraries have embraced this information role. This article provides insights into three of the information initiatives implemented by the UWI Mona libraries in this important capacity. In this regard, it also provides ideas for other West Indian information units and enhances communication on access to information products and services, albeit incrementally, in an important area of health services for the West Indies.
This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.
Service oriented architectures have become very popular the last few years. The abstraction of computer systems into a service paradigm bring many new solutions, both for cross business processes to aid interoperability and the reuse of existing legacy systems in a new network centric world. In the wake of this, service modelling has become a part of OMGs Model Driven Architecture and new modelling languages that are based on past experience for the new paradigm are emerging. BPMN 2.0 and...
Simbayi, Leickness C.; Strebel, Anna; Cloete, Allanise; Henda, Nomvo; Mqeketo, Ayanda
AIDS stigmas interfere with HIV prevention, diagnosis and treatment and can become internalized by people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the effects of internalized AIDS stigmas have not been investigated in Africa, home to two-thirds of the more than 40 million people living with AIDS in the world. The current study examined the prevalence of discrimination experiences and internalized stigmas among 420 HIV positive men and 643 HIV positive women recruited from AIDS services in Cape Town, So...
Jefferis, Keith; Kinghorn, Anthony; Siphambe, Happy; Thurlow, James
To measure the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth and poverty in Botswana and estimate how providing treatment can mitigate its effects. Demographic and financial projections were combined with economic simulation models, including a macroeconomic growth model and a macro-microeconomic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model. HIV/AIDS significantly reduces economic growth and increases household poverty. The impact is now severe enough to be affecting the economy as a whole, and threatens to pull some of the uninfected population into poverty. Providing antiretroviral therapy can partly offset this negative effect. Treatment increases health's share of government expenditure only marginally, because it increases economic growth and because withholding treatment raises the cost of other health services. Botswana's treatment programme is appropriate from a macroeconomic perspective. Conducting macroeconomic impact assessments is important in countries where prevalence rates are particularly high.
Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.
Barcelos, Natane Barbosa; Silva, Lorena de Freitas E; Dias, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães; Menezes Filho, Hélio Ranes de; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria
Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters. A total of 270 stool samples were analyzed by the Lutz technique, Rugai's method, Agar Plate Culture, Ritchie's method and specific staining, Ziehl-Neelsen modified technique, Kinyoun's method and the rapid safranin method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 28.88% including 3.8% of S. stercoralis, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora belli. There was a significant positive correlation between intestinal parasites and the clinical status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), smoking, CD4+ lymphocyte counts and sexual orientation. In conclusion, the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and health assistance contributed to the low prevalence of S. stercoralis and coccidiosis in patients with HIV/ AIDS who were followed up at the SAE.
Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS epidemic has continued to pose significant challenges to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of African children and youth have lost parents to HIV/AIDS leaving a generation of orphans to be cared for within extended family systems and communities. The experiences of youth who have lost parents to the HIV/AIDS epidemic provide an important ingress into this complex, evolving, multi-dimensional phenomenon. A fundamental qualitative descriptive study was conducted to develop a culturally relevant and comprehensive description of the experiences of orphanhood from the perspectives of Ugandan youth. A purposeful sample of 13 youth who had lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS and who were affiliated with a non-governmental organization providing support to orphans were interviewed. Youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS described the experience of orphanhood beginning with parental illness, not death. Several losses were associated with the death of a parent including lost social capitol, educational opportunities and monetary assets. Unique findings revealed that youth experienced culturally specific stigma and conflict which was distinctly related to their HIV/AIDS orphan status. Exploitation within extended cultural family systems was also reported. Results from this study suggest that there is a pressing need to identify and provide culturally appropriate services for these Ugandan youth prior to and after the loss of a parent(s.
Czerwiec, M K
Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" . With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Tri Rini Puji Lestari
Full Text Available Secara nasional, Indonesia telah mengantisipasi epidemi HIV/AIDS, tetapi jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Provinsi Bali dari tahun ke tahun memperlihatkan peningkatan yang semakin mengkhawatirkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan jumlah kasus dan kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS di Denpasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang dilakukan di Denpasar pada tanggal 11-17 September 2011. Sampel penelitian ini menggunakan informan terpilih yaitu kepala bappeda, pejabat Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Denpasar, direktur rumah sakit, puskesmas, ketua komisi penanggulangan AIDS di kabupaten/kota dan pemerhati HIV/AIDS termasuk ODHA. Penelitian menemukan jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Kota Denpasar yang tertinggi dan penularan terbesarnya melalui hubungan seks. Namun, dukungan pemerintah daerah dalam upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS terlihat belum maksimal. Padahal kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS sangat ditentukan oleh cara pandang pemerintah terhadap penyakit HIV/AIDS. Untuk itu, perlu peningkatan pemahaman tentang HIV/AIDS serta pencegahan dan penanganan semua pihak terkait sehingga penanggulangan HIV/AIDS dapat lebih efektif, efisien, dan tepat sasaran. Nationally, Indonesia anticipated HIV/AIDS epidemic, but the number of cases of HIV/AIDS in Bali province from year to year showed an increase in the increasingly alarming. This study aimed to determine the number of cases and the development of policies on HIV / AIDS in Denpasar. This research was conducted using qualitative methods in Denpasar on 11-17 September 2011. The study sample was selected using the informant is head of planning, Denpasar District health officers, the director of the hospital, health center, chairman of the commission on AIDS in the district/city and observer of HIV / AIDS, including people living with HIV. The study found the number of cases of HIV / AIDS in the city of Denpasar is the highest and greatest transmission through sexual intercourse
... compatibility standards are already being met for handsets that operate on a variety of 2G and 3G air interfaces... the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid- Compatible Mobile Handsets AGENCY: Federal... to extend the scope of the rules beyond the current category of Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS...
The Medical Service wishes to remind all those responsible for first-aid boxes that: all the medication and materials in the boxes must be checked at least once a month to make sure that they are always ready for use when needed; they must notify the Medical Service when their CERN contract comes to an end and designate someone to replace them. NB. The medication and materials supplied are for OCCASIONAL USE only and must not be used to treat personal medical conditions on a regular basis. For further information please contact the Infirmary (Building 57 R.004 - Tel 73802).
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Atkinson, Scott C; Jupiter, Stacy D; Adams, Vanessa M; Ingram, J Carter; Narayan, Siddharth; Klein, Carissa J; Possingham, Hugh P
Incorporating the values of the services that ecosystems provide into decision making is becoming increasingly common in nature conservation and resource management policies, both locally and globally. Yet with limited funds for conservation of threatened species and ecosystems there is a desire to identify priority areas where investment efficiently conserves multiple ecosystem services. We mapped four mangrove ecosystems services (coastal protection, fisheries, biodiversity, and carbon storage) across Fiji. Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, we prioritised mangrove areas for each service, where the effectiveness was a function of the benefits provided to the local communities, and the costs were associated with restricting specific uses of mangroves. We demonstrate that, although priority mangrove areas (top 20%) for each service can be managed at relatively low opportunity costs (ranging from 4.5 to 11.3% of overall opportunity costs), prioritising for a single service yields relatively low co-benefits due to limited geographical overlap with priority areas for other services. None-the-less, prioritisation of mangrove areas provides greater overlap of benefits than if sites were selected randomly for most ecosystem services. We discuss deficiencies in the mapping of ecosystems services in data poor regions and how this may impact upon the equity of managing mangroves for particular services across the urban-rural divide in developing countries. Finally we discuss how our maps may aid decision-makers to direct funding for mangrove management from various sources to localities that best meet funding objectives, as well as how this knowledge can aid in creating a national mangrove zoning scheme.
Scott C Atkinson
Full Text Available Incorporating the values of the services that ecosystems provide into decision making is becoming increasingly common in nature conservation and resource management policies, both locally and globally. Yet with limited funds for conservation of threatened species and ecosystems there is a desire to identify priority areas where investment efficiently conserves multiple ecosystem services. We mapped four mangrove ecosystems services (coastal protection, fisheries, biodiversity, and carbon storage across Fiji. Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, we prioritised mangrove areas for each service, where the effectiveness was a function of the benefits provided to the local communities, and the costs were associated with restricting specific uses of mangroves. We demonstrate that, although priority mangrove areas (top 20% for each service can be managed at relatively low opportunity costs (ranging from 4.5 to 11.3% of overall opportunity costs, prioritising for a single service yields relatively low co-benefits due to limited geographical overlap with priority areas for other services. None-the-less, prioritisation of mangrove areas provides greater overlap of benefits than if sites were selected randomly for most ecosystem services. We discuss deficiencies in the mapping of ecosystems services in data poor regions and how this may impact upon the equity of managing mangroves for particular services across the urban-rural divide in developing countries. Finally we discuss how our maps may aid decision-makers to direct funding for mangrove management from various sources to localities that best meet funding objectives, as well as how this knowledge can aid in creating a national mangrove zoning scheme.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...
Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Osaka, Hiromichi
The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City. Twenty-one ambulance service parties participated in this training. They first evaluated the mass casualty situation, performed the appropriate services at the scene during the initial period, and then provided START triage for mock wounded patients. Throughout the training, 5 examiners evaluated their performance. Regarding the difference in first aid activity based on MCLS course attendance among the ambulance service members, the cooperative management (scored on a scale of 1 to 5) among the members who had taken the MCLS course was significantly better than that among those who had not taken the course (median [interquartile range]: 5 [0.5] vs. 4 [1.75], P<0.05). Attending an MCLS course may help to improve outcomes in the face of an actual mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...
Odindo, Margaret A; Mwanthi, Mutuku A
This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced
Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…
Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.
Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.
From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that
... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...
Thygerson, Alton L.
This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58 and assistant nurses (n = 79 replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1 and work ability (model 2 for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p 2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001. Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides, and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in
Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)
This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.
Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
Farabee, D; Leukefeld, C G
This study examined the likelihood that drug users would receive HIV/ AIDS prevention information and supplies (e.g., condoms and bleach) in the rural state of Kentucky. Despite evidence of high HIV risk among criminal justice and substance-using populations, incarceration and substance-user treatment were only minimally associated with prior HIV prevention exposure or HIV testing. These data strongly support the use of criminal justice and treatment settings to provide AIDS prevention interventions for the high-risk drug-using populations they serve, and to target HIV prevention services in rural as well as urban areas.
19 Feb 1983 ... deal with immunological changes in haemophiliacs similar to those in AIDS and indicate that a number of these patients may be at special risk, a finding supported by a report> of 3 ca es of AIDS identified in heterosexual haemophiliacs. An even more baffling finding is that AIDS is more prevalent in ...
Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren
BACKGROUND: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies...... between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. METHODS: We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess...... the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 first aid books...
Tanigawa, Koichi; Tanaka, Keiichi
Emergency medical services are provided by the fire defense headquarter of the local government in Japan. We have a one-tiered EMS system. The ambulance is staffed by three crews trained in rescue, stabilization, transportation, and advanced care of traumatic and medical emergencies. There are three levels of care provided by ambulance personnel including a basic-level ambulance crew (First Aid Class one, FAC-1), a second level (Standard First Aid Class, SFAC), and the highest level (Emergenc...
Hoffman, Kim A; Beltrán, Jessica; Ponce, Javier; García-Fernandez, Lisset; Calderón, María; Muench, John; Benites, Carlos; Soto, Leslie; McCarty, Dennis; Fiestas, Fabián
Screening and treatment for substance use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is highly recommended. Nevertheless, in Peru healthcare for PLWHA does not include a standardized or systematic assessment to identify substance use. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in healthcare settings attending people living with PLWHA. After providing training in SBIRT for PLWHA's healthcare personnel (including nurses and physicians) focus groups were conducted to explore knowledge, beliefs and perceived barriers to implementation and interviews were conducted to assess the barriers and facilitators of two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. focus groups and interviews' thematic coding revealed three dimensions: 1) the unknown extent of substance use within PLWHA, 2) space and time limitations hinder completion of brief interventions during routine visits, and 3) insufficient access to substance use treatment appropriate for HIV patients. Multiple barriers, including lack of awareness of substance use problems, limited space and time of providers, and lack of specialized services to refer patients for treatment make it difficult to implement SBIRT in the Peruvian healthcare system.
Trepka, Mary Jo; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer
Purpose To compare demographic characteristics and predictors of survival of rural residents diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with those of urban residents. Methods Florida surveillance data for people diagnosed with AIDS during 1993–2007 were merged with 2000 Census data using ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA). Rural status was classified based on the ZCTA’s rural-urban commuting area classification. Survival rates were compared between rural and urban areas using survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic, clinical, and area-level socioeconomic and health care access factors. Findings Of the 73,590 people diagnosed with AIDS, 1,991 (2.7%) resided in rural areas. People in the most recent rural cohorts were more likely than those in earlier cohorts to be female, non-Hispanic black, older, and have a reported transmission mode of heterosexual sex. There were no statistically significant differences in the 3-, 5-, or 10-year survival rates between rural and urban residents. Older age at the time of diagnosis, diagnosis during the 1993–1995 period, other/unknown transmission mode, and lower CD4 count/percent categories were associated with lower survival in both rural and urban areas. In urban areas only, being non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, being US born, more poverty, less community social support, and lower physician density were also associated with lower survival. Conclusions In rural Florida, the demographic characteristics of people diagnosed with AIDS have been changing, which may necessitate modifications in the delivery of AIDS-related services. Rural residents diagnosed with AIDS did not have a significant survival disadvantage relative to urban residents. PMID:23802929
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the relation between user involvement in the provision of assistive technology and outcomes of assistive technology use is a prerequisite for the development of efficient service delivery strategies. However, current knowledge is limited, particularly from low-income countries where affordability is an issue. The objective was therefore to explore the relation between outcomes of assistive technology use and user involvement in the service delivery process in Bangladesh. Methods Using structured interviews, data from 136 users of hearing aids and 149 users of manual wheelchairs were collected. Outcomes were measured using the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA, which was adapted for wheelchair users. Predictors of user involvement included preference, measurement and training. Results Users reported outcomes comparable to those found in other high- and low-income countries. User involvement increased the likelihood for reporting better outcomes except for measurement among hearing aid users. Conclusions The findings support the provision of assistive technology as a strategy to improve the participation of people with disabilities in society. They also support current policies and guidelines for user-involvement in the service delivery process. Simplified strategies for provision of hearing aids may be explored.
Aug 31, 2016 ... that they do not test because formal health services (where HCT is provided) are often not youth friendly. .... among young women aged 15–19 and 20–24 years old, respect- ... AIDS (UNAIDS) (1997) recommendations, one of the ways that .... In Table 1, the gender, age, and job title of the service providers.
Malawi has for a long time relied on agriculture for the generation of foreign exchange. Due to varied reasons like climate change, the Malawi government has, therefore, identified tourism as one way of boosting foreign exchange earnings and is already in the process of developing the sector especially in the area of ecotourism. However, tourism is associated with increasing prostitution, drug abuse and a whole range of other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems such as teenage pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This paper examines the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviour as well as risk perceptions associated with HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among staff in the tourism industry and communities around tourist facilities in Malawi. The study was descriptive in nature and used both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The qualitative methods involved in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The quantitative technique employed a survey of 205 purposively selected subjects from the tourism sector. The study concludes that people in the tourism sector are at high risk of HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies and should be considered as a vulnerable group. The study further observes that this group of people has not adopted behaviours that can protect them from HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies although there is high demand for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) which offers a very good entry point for HIV prevention and treatment in the tourism sector. The study recommends that a comprehensive tourism policy covering tourists, employees and communities around tourist facilities is required. Such a policy should address the rights of HIV infected employees and the provision of prevention and treatment services for HIV/AIDS and STIs as well as a broad range of SRH and family planning services especially
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren; Roland, Jens; Pedersen, Thomas Egesborg; Lippert, Freddy K
The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. We evaluated 10 first aid books used for first aid courses and published between 2009 and 2015. The content of the books complied with the new in 38% of the answers. In 12 of the 26 items, there was less than 50% consistency. These items include proximal pressure points and elevation of extremities for the control of bleeding, use of cervical collars, treatment for an open chest wound, burn dressing, dental avulsion, passive leg raising, administration of bronchodilators, adrenaline, and aspirin. Danish course material showed significant inconsistencies with the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. The new knowledge from the evidence-based guidelines should be incorporated into revised and updated first aid course material.
Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh
Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.
Elizabete Franco Cruz
Full Text Available A epidemia da AIDS atinge crianças e adolescentes, demandando da sociedade a busca de respostas para seu cuidado, educação e saúde. Inúmeras ações, instituições e discursos começaram a emergir em nossa cultura, produzindo "verdades" sobre essa população. Utilizando o referencial teórico de Michael Foucault e dos estudos culturais, realizei um estudo com o objetivo de problematizar discursos sobre infância, adolescência e AIDS. Os resultados indicam que, nas práticas discursivas e não discursivas relativas às casas de apoio, sexualidade e revelação do diagnóstico, emergem modos de conceber a infância, a adolescência e a AIDS que vão "inventando" as crianças e adolescentes vivendo com HIV/AIDS. E que estes passam a narrar-se, a construir uma experiência de si mesmos através desses dispositivos que produzem subjetividades e que funcionam como uma tecnologia do eu. As discussões deste trabalho sinalizam para a necessidade de reflexão e revisão das práticas nessa área.The AIDS epidemic reaches children and adolescents, demanding from the society the search for answers to their care, education and health. Innumerable actions, institutions and discourses had started to emerge in our culture, producing "truths" about this population. Using the theoretical referential of Michael Foucault and the cultural studies I carried through a study with the objective of debate the discourses about childhood, adolescence and AIDS. The results indicate that, from the discourse practices and other ones related to support homes, sexuality and diagnosis' revelation, ways to conceive childhood, adolescence and AIDS emerge, "inventing" the children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. Also, these children and adolescents start to narrate themselves, and construct an experience of themselves through these devices that produce subjectivities, which function as a technology of the self. The discussions in this work point to the necessity of
... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...
... if desired. What questions should I ask before buying hearing aids? Before you buy a hearing aid, ... the period of warranty? Does the warranty cover future maintenance and repairs? Will loaner aids be provided ...
Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd
Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth
School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.
This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the
Polk, Jessica Beth
Is it possible to prepare and plan for emergent and changing objects of research? Members of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study have been investigating AIDS for over 30 years, and in that time, the disease has been repeatedly transformed. Over the years and across many changes, members have continued to study HIV disease while in the process regenerating an adaptable research organization. The key to sustaining this technoscientific flexibility has been what we call the kernel of a research infrastructure: ongoing efforts to maintain the availability of resources and services that may be brought to bear in the investigation of new objects. In the case of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, these resources are as follows: specimens and data, calibrated instruments, heterogeneous experts, and participating cohorts of gay and bisexual men. We track three ontological transformations, examining how members prepared for and responded to changes: the discovery of a novel retroviral agent (HIV), the ability to test for that agent, and the transition of the disease from fatal to chronic through pharmaceutical intervention. Respectively, we call the work, ‘technologies’, and techniques of adapting to these changes, ‘repurposing’, ‘elaborating’, and ‘extending the kernel’. PMID:26477206
Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran
The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F.
The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs
Martinez-Steele, Euridice; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Corrah, Tumani; Sabally, Saihou; van der Sande, Marianne; Jaye, Assan; Togun, Toyin; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; McConkey, Samuel J.; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.
Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections. To compare the pattern of AIDS-defining events, CD4 cell count at the time of AIDS diagnosis, survival from time of AIDS, and
Chiprianov, Vanea; Kermarrec, Yvon; Alff, Patrick D.
Present day Telecommunications market imposes a short concept-to-market time for service providers. To reduce it, we propose a computer-aided, model-driven, service-specific tool, with support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models. We started by defining a prototype of the Meta-model (MM) of the service domain. Using this prototype, we defined a simple graphical modeling language specific for service designers. We are currently enlarging the MM of the domain using model transformations from Network Abstractions Layers (NALs). In the future, we will investigate approaches to ensure the support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models.
The primary objective of this research study was to investigate the relationship between Computer-Aided and Artificial Intelligence Technologies and customer satisfaction in the context of businesses in Russia. The research focuses on methods of Artificial Intelligence technology application in business and its effect on customer satisfaction. The researcher introduces Artificial Intelligence and studies the forecasting approaches in relation to business operations. The rese...
Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.
Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.
A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de
Chuang, Deng-Min; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley
Community engagement was developed as a global principle in the provision of HIV/AIDS services, yet evidence-based research of implementation of the principle is lacking in Taiwan. This short report aims to understand factors associated with engagement in two types of activities with varying levels of visibility: HIV-related community events and HIV-related community action, in Taiwanese men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to a purposive sample of participants recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Among participants (n = 178), 63.6% were involved in HIV-related community events, while less than half (47.7%) were involved in HIV-related community action. In multivariable analysis, age, involvement in ASOs, and AIDS knowledge were positively associated with engagement in community events, and living in the north of Taiwan, years of infection, and self-stigma were negatively associated with this type of engagement. Few factors, with the exception of involvement in ASOs, were positively associated with engagement in HIV-related community action. To this end, ASOs appear to play a strong role in improving and organizing both types of community engagement in Taiwan. Future studies should evaluate tailored programs delivered through ASOs for strengthening community connectedness among younger, stigmatized, and longer diagnosed MSM living with HIV.
Webel, Allison R; Higgins, Patricia A
The social roles that women perform can be complicated and may affect their health. While there is some evidence describing traditional social roles of women, there is little evidence exploring the impact of those roles on how a woman manages a chronic condition. The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine the main social roles of 48 HIV infected women, and to explore how these roles relate to their self-management of HIV/AIDS. Forty-eight HIV infected, adult women were recruited from HIV clinics and AIDS service organizations in Northeast Ohio. All participants participated in one of 12 digitially recorded focus groups. All data were analyzed using qualitative description methodology. The participants were predominantly middle-aged (mean = 42 years), African American (69%), and single (58%). Analysis revealed six social roles that these women experience and which affect their self-management. These social roles are: Mother/Grandmother, Believer, Advocate, Stigmatized Patient, Pet Owner, and Employee. These roles had both a positive and negative effect on a woman's self-management of her HIV disease and varied by age and time living with HIV. Women living with HIV/AIDS struggle to manage the many daily tasks required to live well with this disease. The social context in which this self-management happens is important, and the various social roles that women perform can facilitate or hinder them from completing these tasks. Healthcare and social service providers should learn about these roles in their individual patients, particularly how these roles can be developed to increase HIV/AIDS self-management. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
While making extensive use of the possibilities dynamic programming as an optimization method has to offer, a planning method for the common operation and the extension of a nuclear park and a high-voltage network for a service area of a large size is worked out in a system-analytical manner in this thesis. With the aid of the computer programmes developed, those decisions concerning construction and operation of power plant and network are looked for which result within appr. 10 years of planning in a minimum of overall generating and transmission costs. (orig./LN) [de
For Pacific Islands' peoples, relationships are of enduring importance. Yet, in spite of decades of aid giving and receiving, relationships in Pacific aid communities have predominantly been indifferent. In an era of global challenges, a new Oceania Education aid community is called to journey together to the common good through relational…
... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...
Pourshaikhian, Majid; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davood; Barati, Ahmad
Context In spite of the high prevalence and consequences of much workplace violence against emergency medical services personnel, this phenomenon has been given insufficient attention. A systematic review can aid the development of guidelines to reduce violence. Objectives The research question addressed by this paper is, “What are the characteristics and findings of studies on workplace violence against emergency medical services...
The advent of the new millennium has witnessed the embracing of a different perspective on global health aid. New and innovative mechanisms in health-aid financing are leading to new opportunities, focused on greater innovation, risk taking and speed. However, these opportunities might not fully materialize if the traditional approaches of channeling and using funds are followed. To maximize global aid effectiveness and to have a realistic chance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the implementation of a holistic approach to the global architecture of health aid will be essential.
Techniques and approaches from population and community ecology, along with theoretical viewpoints from criminology and the 'social support hypothesis' of health maintenance, are used to examine recent patterns of rising homicide and suicide, intensified substance abuse, low birth weight and AIDS deaths in the Bronx section of New York City. Empirical and theoretical analyses strongly imply present sharply rising levels of violent death, intensification of deviant behaviors implicated in the spread of AIDS, and the pattern of the AIDS outbreak itself, have been gravely affected, and even strongly determined, by the outcomes of a program of 'planned shrinkage' directed against African-American and Hispanic communities, and implemented through systematic and continuing denial of municipal services--particularly fire extinguishment resources--essential for maintaining urban levels of population density and ensuring community stability. This work complements a recent study by McCord and Freeman [1. New Engl. J. Med. 332, 173, 1990] on Harlem, and suggests the present overburdening of New York's criminal justice system arises from almost exactly the same causes as its accelerating inability to meet demands for acute medical service, so-called 'medical gridlock', in that both are expressions of the increasing social disorganization of poor communities initiated and continued in considerable part by government policy. The critical role played by improper policy in triggering the syndrome suggests ecologically informed interventions, particularly essential service restoration, may hold the potential for great positive impact.
Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan
Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between
Full Text Available Community-based care (CBC can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.
Zhao, Fei; Manchaiah, Vinaya; St Claire, Lindsay; Danermark, Berth; Jones, Lesley; Brandreth, Marian; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Goodwin, Robin
The purpose of this paper was to highlight the importance of cultural influence in understanding hearing-help seeking and hearing-aid uptake. Information on audiological services in different countries and 'theories related to cross-culture' is presented, followed by a general discussion. Twenty-seven relevant literature reviews on hearing impairment, cross-cultural studies, and the health psychology model and others as secondary resources. Despite the adverse consequences of hearing impairment and the significant potential benefits of audiological rehabilitation, only a small number of those with hearing impairment seek professional help and take up appropriate rehabilitation. Therefore, hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake has recently become the hot topic for clinicians and researchers. Previous research has identified many contributing factors for hearing help-seeking with self-reported hearing disability being one of the main factors. Although significant differences in help-seeking and hearing-aid adoption rates have been reported across countries in population studies, limited literature on the influence of cross-cultural factors in this area calls for an immediate need for research. This paper highlights the importance of psychological models and cross-cultural research in the area of hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake, and consequently some directions for future research are proposed.