WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids patients exhibiting

  1. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts

  2. Abdominal ultrasound in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the ultrasonography findings in abdomen in the AIDS patients in our hospital, as well as the indications for this exploration, assessing the role of abdominal ultrasound (AU). The ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 527 patients who underwent a total of 715 explorations between 1992 and 1996 were studied. Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, usually homogeneous, were observed in nearly half of the studies (45%); one third of the patients with marked splenomegaly presented visceral leishmaniasis. Focal lesions in liver and/or spleen, corresponding to angiomas, abscesses, lymphomatous lesions and metastasis, were detected in 5.7% of the explorations. Thirty-five percent of the AU revealed the presence of lymphadenopathy; nodes measuring over 2.5 cm were usually related to potential treatable infection or neoplasm. Thickening of the gallbladder wall did not usually indicate the presence of acute cholecystitis unless Murphy''s sign was also detected. Bile duct dilation and wall thickening was related to opportunistic cholangitis, and the increase in the echogenicity of the renal parenchyma was linked to AIDS-related nephropathy. Despite the fact that many of findings with AU are nonspecific, we consider that this approach should be the principal diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with suspected abdominal pathology or fever of unknown origin. (Author) 43 refs,

  3. Do patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant salience?

    OpenAIRE

    Roiser, J. P.; Stephan, K E; den Ouden, H. E. M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that some psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’, related to dysfunctional reward learning. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia showed impaired learning of task-relevant stimulusreinforcement associations in the presence of distracting task-irrelevant cues. METHODS: We tested 20 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 17 controls on a reaction time game, the Salience Attribution Test. In this game, ...

  4. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Pers, C; Aschow, C;

    1991-01-01

    We estimate the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis in Danish AIDS patients and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy using the following criteria for acceptance of the diagnosis: either (1) the demonstration of Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue or (2) one or more hypodense or ring......-enhancing lesions on computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan and a neurologic and CAT scan improvement in response to 2 weeks of treatment. From 1981 until July 1990 266 patients were diagnosed with AIDS at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen and 29 (11%) were treated, suspected for CNS toxoplasmosis. 17 patients had...... was 83% (10/12 patients) while among patients diagnosed in 1987 or earlier the accuracy was 41% (7/17 patients). Four patients were diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prior to the diagnosis of CNS toxoplasmosis, while among patients with toxoplasmosis as the AIDS-defining diagnosis, 3...

  5. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P;

    1991-01-01

    admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. MAIN OUTCOME...... out ice for cold drinks. The mean incubation time was at least 13 days-that is, twice that in HIV-negative patients. Of the 18 patients with AIDS who developed cryptosporidiosis, five recovered, two were symptomless carriers, three died of unrelated causes, and eight died after prolonged diarrhoea...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  7. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A;

    1996-01-01

    . Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...... intravenous drug users than for homosexual men (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence limits 0.22-0.54) and for women compared with men (RR 0.43 (0.21-0.87)). The risk was higher in North Europe than in South and Central Europe. In a multivariate analysis only transmission category remained a significant...

  8. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, T W; Doran, R. M.; Rowlands, P L; Curry, A.; Lacey, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A male patient is described with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis and chronic sinusitis due to infection with the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of conjunctival epithelial cells and nasal polypectomy specimens. Treatment with propamidine isethionate 0.1% (Brolene) eye drops six times daily led to a prompt resolution of the keratoconjunctivitis.

  9. [Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, W; Helm, E B; Hopp, G; Stille, W; Fischer, P A

    1985-01-18

    Toxoplasmosis encephalitis developed in three male homosexuals with AIDS. Clinical symptoms of encephalitis began with a nonspecific organic mental syndrome. In two cases there developed late focal symptoms. There were light to moderately severe generalized EEG changes with additional focal signs. CSF findings and toxoplasmosis titres were not diagnostically altered. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple areas of decreased density in cortex and cerebellum. Administration of pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxydiazine to the three patients brought about clinical improvement within a few days and regression of abnormal CT changes within a few weeks of onset of treatment. One patient died after an encephalitis recurrence: autopsy demonstrated toxoplasma pseudocysts in immediate proximity to small necrotic foci in the brain. The possibility of toxoplasma encephalitis should be considered in AIDS patients who develop an organic mental syndrome. Often the diagnosis can only be made after response to a trial of toxoplasmosis treatment. PMID:3967592

  10. Socio-economic status of AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, E; Larsen, L

    1995-01-01

    The charts of 187 patients diagnosed at Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen from 1981 through 1989 as having AIDS were reviewed retrospectively in order to examine the extent of their employment and alternative sources of income during the first 2 years after diagnosis. At the time of...... diagnosis. After 2 years, only 6% still worked, while 22% had a pension. Sixty-seven percent had died. The major source of income during these first 2 years after diagnosis was a pension, most often a disability pension. During this period the total average disbursement of public allowances per patient...... amounted to US$16,150. As shown here, the work capacity of AIDS patients is quite low, and alternative sources of income must be provided....

  11. Cambodia seeks help for AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambodia's National AIDS Program (NAP) appealed for help to fight the spread of HIV. The appeal followed figures issued by the NAP that an estimated 120,000 Cambodians have been infected with HIV, according to Hor Bun Leng, NAP. In August 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) revised the estimate of Cambodian HIV cases to 30,000 from the previous figure of 5000. The figure was revised upwards again in November 1995 to between 50,000 and 90,000. "The estimated figure for HIV-infected persons in 1996 is 120,000 cases and for people suffering from [advanced] AIDS ... we [have] estimate[d] a least 1000 cases," Hor Bun Leng said. "It's a very, very serious problem. We know how to handle it, how to get the information out to the people, and how to get success, but we need more money--we need funding from any donor agency which could help," he said. The NAP believes that 40,000 people or more could be AIDS patients by the turn of the century. "The WHO says we should spend at least $1 per person for the anti-AIDS campaign. In Thailand the government spent $80 million for a population of about 65 million people. But I have 10 million people and only between $200,000 and $300,000," Hor Bun Leng said. "[In 1995] we only heard about AIDS cases in Phnom Penh, but now we get reports from the provincial level throughout the country," he said. He said most provincial hospitals report new AIDS cases every month. "We don't know how to curb the HIV/AIDS problem. We need money for educational material, but we don't have enough financial resources." PMID:12320253

  12. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS Patients, Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Sudha; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Larsen, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus isolates from AIDS patients in southern California were characterized by molecular analyses. Pheromone MFα1 and MF a 1 gene fragments were polymerase chain reaction–amplified with fluorescently labeled primers and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on DNA analyzer. CE–fragment-length analyses (CE-FLAs) and CE–single-strand conformation polymorphisms (CE-SSCPs) were used to determine Cryptococcus gattii (Cg), C. neoformans (Cn) varieties neoformans (CnVN) and grubii (CnVG)...

  13. Addressing health literacy in patient decision aids

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffery, K; Holmes-Rovner, M.; S. Smith; Rovner, D.; Nutbeam, Don; Clayman, M.L.; Kelly-Blake, K.; Wolf, M.(University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, USA); Stacey, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) can be affected by the user’s health literacy and the PtDA’s characteristics. Systematic reviews of the relevant literature can guide PtDA developers to attend to the health literacy needs of patients. The reviews reported here aimed to assess: 1. a) the effects of health literacy / numeracy on selected decision-making outcomes, and b) the effects of interventions designed to mitigate the influence of lower health literacy on decision-...

  14. Radiographic manifestations of arthritis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to familiarize the radiologist with a newly discovered association between arthritis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic findings in 31 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred to their rheumatology clinic with musculoskeletal complaints. The patients carried a wide range of clinical diagnosis including Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated seronegative arthritis, isolated enthesopathies, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis. Radiographs were available in 24 of the 31 patients, and in 20 they showed radiographic features of arthritis, which included soft-tissue swelling periarticular osteoporosis, synovial effusions, sacroiliitis, periosteal reaction, joint space narrowing, marginal erosions, and osteonecrosis. Although the radiographic abnormalities were frequently mild, they were significant, given the short duration of disease in many of their patients (weeks to months) at the time radiographs were obtained. The range of radiographic findings in their series was varied and paralleled the wide range of clinical diagnoses. No findings were pathognomonic for HIV-associated arthritis. Nevertheless, HIV infection needs to be considered in any patient belonging to a recognized risk group who presents with musculoskeletal disease. This is particularly important since immunosupressive drugs used for the treatment of arthritis can be detrimental to patients with HIV infection

  15. [Why are AIDS patients frequently visually impaired?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, E M

    1996-01-01

    Patients with HIV infection and, above all, patients with full-blown AIDS can get a variety of ocular diseases as well as some cerebral maladies which have an influence on ocular functions. First there are hematogenous opportunistic infections of the retina or the choroid. The cytomegalovirus [CMV] retinitis was found in nearly 20% of all AIDS patients. Without treatment this disease destroys the retina completely, and the involved eye becomes blind. This can be prevented by modern therapeutic strategies in most of the cases. Other infections affecting the retina are toxoplasmosis, systemic varizella zoster or herpes simplex virus infections, syphilis or, seldom, fungal or bacterial pathogens. The choroid mainly can be infested by mycobacteria, cryptococci and pneumocystis carinii. Early detection and treatment of all inflammations are necessary. The anterior eye can be affected by a sicca syndrome and various superficial infections but also noninfectious inflammation. The anterior uvea can be involved in various opportunistic infections of the posterior eye segment. An HIV-associated isolated anterior uveitis has been described in earlier stages of the HIV infection. Treatment of mycobacterial infections with rifabutin can cause an anterior uveitis as well. 1 to 2% of HIV-infected persons suffer from a zoster ophthalmicus with more severe keratitis than it occurs in immunocompetent persons. Last but not least, there are various cerebral affections which can cause visual disturbances. So the optic nerve can be involved in various forms of retinitic or meningoencephalitic processes, of ischemic mechanisms or elevated intracranial pressure. Neuroophthalmological symptoms also include homonymous hemianopsia caused by foci of cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leucencephalopathy or primary intracerebral malignant lymphoma situated in the central neuron of the afferent visual pathway. A variety of oculomotor abnormalities can be caused by a great variety of

  16. Cystic pneumocystosis in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 34-year-old man was hospitalized on February 14, 2005, with fever of up to 39 deg C with several peaks over the course of the day. He also reported a persistent cough with slight production of yellowish sputum. He had sought the health services in his hometown and had been medicated for three days with amikacin, ceftriaxone and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Because there was no clinical improvement, he was referred to the teaching hospital of Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro. He had had AIDS since July 1998, and had already presented clinical episodes of pneumocystosis, secondary syphilis and, as a comorbidity, moderate asthma. The CD4+T lymphocyte count in February 2005 was 381 cells/mm3 (51.1%). He had given up treatment for HIV infection two months earlier. On physical examination, he presented diffuse wheezing and rales in the lower third of both lungs. His respiratory rate was 24; his heart rate was 76; and his arterial blood pressure was 130/80mmHg. A chest x-ray showed condensations in the base of the right lung (Figure A). Computed tomography of the chest showed tenuous ground-glass opacity in both lung fields and multiple bilateral well-defined thin-walled cystic lesions in subpleural and medullary locations (Figure B - in a lateral view, a large, well defined cyst is demonstrated by CT scan - arrow). He was treated for pneumocystosis using SMX-TMP. Bronchofibroscopy with alveolar lavage was performed, from which the anatomopathological examination showed structures compatible with Pneumocystis jiroveci. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) using the AZT/3TC/NFV scheme was administered and a good clinical response to treatment was observed. Cyst formation in the pulmonary parenchyma is unusual in patients with pneumocystosis. We have reported on the case of an AIDS patient who presented cystic lesions attributed to pneumocystosis. (author)

  17. Neuroimage of the toxoplasmosis in the patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a review of literature on CNS involvement in AIDS patients. Besides several cases seen in the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Bogota, Colombia, are illustrated with tomographic images. We propose an algorithmic decision tree in the patient with AIDS and neurological symptoms

  18. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion of...... patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS, and...

  19. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and bony

  20. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare but...... should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  1. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion of...

  2. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  3. EEG and dementia indicators in AIDS patients' Rorschach test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fernandes do Prado

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the EEG and Rorschach test (RT of nineteen AIDS patients and eight normal people in the same age group. Eight patients presented slow alpha rhythms (8 to 9 Hz; three, not-slow alpha rhythms (>9 to 13Hz; and eight, beta rhythms in background activity. Paroxystic activity, characterized by diffuse theta or delta waves, was present in eleven patients. We observed Oberholzer syndrome (organic dementia diagnosed by RT in ten patients and Piotrowski syndrome (organic dementia diagnosed by RT in eleven patients; six presented both. When considering only the group of AIDS patients, we did not observe a significant relation among slow alpha rhythm, not-slow alpha rhythm and the presence of paroxystic activity with the above-mentioned syndromes. AIDS patients with slow alpha rhythms showed a significantly greater number of Piotrowski syndrome dementia indicators when compared to normal individuals or those with slow alpha rhythms. We did not observe the same with Oberholzer syndrome.

  4. [Aids for Patients with Glaucoma and Visual Impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, N; Erb, C

    2016-02-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the existing medical aids and appliances for patients suffering from glaucoma and/or visual impairment. Furthermore, instructions for proper handling of eye drop therapy are given. There are many different public services to support patients with visual impairment and that aim to restore their mobility and autonomy in daily life. About 20,000 medical aids and tools are currently listed as refundable by insurances. The available supply ranges from magnifying reading aids to electronic aids and appliances to train patients' orientation, mobility and skills of every day life. Qualified professionals may be employed by organisations such as the DBSV e. V. and can accompany, support and counsel patients and their families with their specialised knowledge. PMID:26878729

  5. Radiological characterization of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Feng

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS affects multiple sites, and the most commonly affected region is lungs, followed by lymph nodes, spleen and liver, CNS, and others. The radiological features include miliary pattern in lung, spleen, and liver, with dominant distribution of lymphadenopathy and rim enhancement. The focal lesions with rim enhancement at multiple sites highly suggest the diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis in patients with AIDS.

  6. Radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicky, S; Cartei, F; Mayor, B; Frija, J; Gevenois, P A; Giron, J; Laurent, F; Perri, G; Schnyder, P

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infections have been incidentally reported as a cause of pulmonary infection in severely immunocompromised hosts, including AIDS patients. Our purpose is to describe the radiological findings in nine AIDS patients with R. equi pneumonia assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), biopsies, cultures of sputum, and hemocultures. All patients were examined by chest radiographs and contrast-medium-enhanced chest CT. Dense pulmonary consolidations with or without cavitations accounted for the most striking radiological patterns. Chest CT also revealed six mediastinal involvements, strongly mimicking a lymphoma. Two of them had multiple bilateral pulmonary nodular opacities. Pleural effusion was not identified. Although intensive therapies were administered, seven among nine patients died within few months. In an AIDS patient living in a rural area or exposed to horses and presenting these radiological patterns, the possibility of R. equi pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis along with other infectious diseases or lymphomas. PMID:8972317

  7. Spinal muscular atrophy patient-derived motor neurons exhibit hyperexcitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huisheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Chen, Hong; Du, Zhongwei; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) presents severe muscle weakness with limited motor neuron (MN) loss at an early stage, suggesting potential functional alterations in MNs that contribute to SMA symptom presentation. Using SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we found that SMA MNs displayed hyperexcitability with increased membrane input resistance, hyperpolarized threshold, and larger action potential amplitude, which was mimicked by knocking down full length survival motor neuron (SMN) in non-SMA MNs. We further discovered that SMA MNs exhibit enhanced sodium channel activities with increased current amplitude and facilitated recovery, which was corrected by restoration of SMN1 in SMA MNs. Together we propose that SMN reduction results in MN hyperexcitability and impaired neurotransmission, the latter of which exacerbate each other via a feedback loop, thus contributing to severe symptoms at an early stage of SMA. PMID:26190808

  8. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corti Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is one of the most frequent systemic and endemic mycoses of Latin America caused by a dimorphic fungus. In AIDS patients, paracoccidioidomycosis appears as a severe and disseminated disease with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. The CD4 counts are usually less than 200 cell/mu L. We present a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis and subcutaneous abscesses on the chest wall as initial manifestation of AIDS. In endemic countries, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.

  9. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis in an AIDS patient

    OpenAIRE

    Corti Marcelo; Villafañe María F.; Negroni Ricardo; Palmieri Omar

    2004-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is one of the most frequent systemic and endemic mycoses of Latin America caused by a dimorphic fungus. In AIDS patients, paracoccidioidomycosis appears as a severe and disseminated disease with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. The CD4 counts are usually less than 200 cell/mu L. We present a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis and subcutaneous abscesses on the chest wall as initial manifestation of AIDS. In endemic countries, paracoccidio...

  10. Gallium-67 scintiscanning of the lungs of AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients suffering from AIDS have been examined in this study. The stage of infection of the patients was defined according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control, so that the study covered 22 patients with manifest AIDS, and 8 patients with AIDS-related complex. The lung scans have been made in all patients 48 and 72 hours after i.v. injection of 185 MBq of 67Ga citrate, taking ventral and dorsal images with the gamma camera. In the scans recorded after 72 hours, ROI technique has been used to quantify the lung uptake and to put it in relation to uptake data of the soft neck tissue. The results show that gallium scintiscanning is far more sensitive in detecting opportunistic pneumonia in AIDS patients than is conventional chest radiography. If the latter detected any signs at all, the gallium scan did so about one to two weeks earlier in about one third of the patients. Pathologic accumulation in the scintiscan exceeding the range shown by the correlated radiograph indicate that in single cases extension of pneumonia can be underestimated when assessed by the radiograph alone. (orig./MG)

  11. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  12. Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, D. M.; McCarty, M.; Fleming, J.; Moss, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common secondary neoplasm to complicate HIV infection and may cause pulmonary disease. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in 140 consecutive patients who were HIV seropositive and required bronchoscopy for new respiratory symptoms of at least two weeks' duration, with either a chest radiographic abnormality or abnormality of pulmonary function. The patients were classified into those with single local endobronchial lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma...

  13. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS

  14. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  15. [Diseases of digestive system in patients with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brbmolić, B; Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are common and may relate to opportunistic inections and tumors, diseases which are usual in the anti-HIV negative population also, and disease of unknown aethiology, such as wasting syndrome and recurrent diarrhoeal illness. Diarrhoea and weight loss are found in more than 50% of patients with AIDS. Gastrointestinal manifestations range in severity from the discomfort of oral and perianal infections, through life threatening diarrhoea due to intestinal cryptosporidiosis. The approach to the patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal or hepatobiliary disorders is oriented toward diagnosing treatable aethiologies and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures. Although the final prognosis of full developed AIDS is poor, management of gastrointestinal disease may be improved by accurate diagnosis. PMID:18170973

  16. [Histological orchiepididymitis discovery in a patient with AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, P; Demey, A; Vandenbos, F; Colomb, F; Michiels, J-F; Amiel, J

    2009-06-01

    Incidences of opportunistic infections of the epididymus and the testicule have already been reported in patients suffering from AIDS for over 10 years. Here we have reported the first description of microsporadic orchiepididymitis diagnosed at the university hospital (CHU) of Nice in 2005. We look at the epidemiology, the physiology and the treatment of this extremely rare infection. PMID:19467466

  17. Posterior segment ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chiotan, C; Radu, L; Serban, R; Cornăcel, C; Cioboată, M; Anghelie, A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has the ability to affect any organ in the body. In 70% of HIV -infected patients ocular manifestations were observed, these, in the vast majority reflect the systemic disease and may be the first signs of disseminated infections. Aim: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of posterior segment ocular manifestations in HIV / AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) patients. Method: The study is retrospective, conducted in the Cab...

  18. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N; Gatell, J M; Johnson, A M; Ledergerber, B; Vella, S; Phillips, A; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    from 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Survival after the time of diagnosis. RESULTS--The median survival after diagnosis was 17 months, with an estimated survival at three years of 16% (95% confidence interval 15% to 17%). Patients diagnosed in southern Europe had a shorter...... carinii pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term...

  19. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  20. Scurvy in a patient with AIDS: case report

    OpenAIRE

    André Luiz Maltos; Luciana Ligia da Silva; Aderbal Garcia Bernardes Junior; Guilherme Vannucchi Portari; Daniel Ferreira da Cunha

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 35-year-old homeless alcoholic and illicit drug user, with AIDS, who was admitted to the emergency unit complaining of asthenia and a weight loss of 30kg over the preceding three months. Clinical and laboratory data confirmed a diagnosis of marasmus, bacterial pneumonia, chorioretinitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and oral Candida infection. The patient also presented loss of tongue papillae, gingival hypertrophy, perifollicular hyperkeratosis and hemorrhage, coiled, c...

  1. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Aubri S; Volk, Robert J.; Saarimaki, Anton; Stirling, Christine; Li, Linda C; Härter, Martin; Kamath, Geetanjali R.; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evid...

  2. Scurvy in a patient with AIDS: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Maltos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 35-year-old homeless alcoholic and illicit drug user, with AIDS, who was admitted to the emergency unit complaining of asthenia and a weight loss of 30kg over the preceding three months. Clinical and laboratory data confirmed a diagnosis of marasmus, bacterial pneumonia, chorioretinitis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and oral Candida infection. The patient also presented loss of tongue papillae, gingival hypertrophy, perifollicular hyperkeratosis and hemorrhage, coiled, corkscrew-like hair, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, increased C-reactive protein levels and low serum vitamin C levels. The patient developed severe gastric hemorrhage, with hemodynamic instability and terminal disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with lipodystrophy in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunara Basqueroto Della Justina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The published literature shows an increased occurrence of adverse events, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome, that are associated with the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with lipodystrophy in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 2012 and February 2013. The sample consisted of patients with AIDS who attended the Outpatient Treatment Center for Infectious Diseases at Nereu Ramos Hospital, Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We collected information on demographics, lifestyle, HIV infection, and clinical aspects of the disease. Self-reported signs of lipodystrophy and body measurements were used for lipodystrophy diagnosis. Results: We studied 74 patients (mean age 44.3±9.2 years; 60.8% men. Among the patients, 45.9% were smokers, 31.1% consumed alcoholic beverages, and 55.4% were sedentary. The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%, and sedentary subjects had a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy compared with physically active individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of lipodystrophy was 32.4%. Physical activity was considered an independent protective factor against the onset of HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

  4. Abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the major target of the HIV-virus is the immune system, the frequency of abdominal disorders in HIV/AIDS patients has been reported to be second only to pulmonary disease. These abdominal manifestations may be on the increase as the use of antiretroviral therapy has increased life expectancy and improved quality of life. Ultrasonography is an easy to perform, non invasive, inexpensive and safe imaging technique that is invaluable in Africa where AIDS is most prevalent and where sophisticated diagnostic tools are not readily available. Purpose: To describe the findings and evaluate the clinical utility of abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in Ibadan, Nigeria A Prospective evaluation of the abdominal ultrasonography of 391 HIV-positive patients as well as 391 age and sex-matched HIV-negative patients were carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Of the 391 cases studied, 260 (66.5%) were females; the mean age was 38.02 years, (range 15–66 years). The disease was most prevalent in the 4th decade with an incidence of 40.4%. Compared with the HIV-negative individuals, the HIV+ group of patients had a significantly higher proportion of splenomegaly (13.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.01), lymphadenopathy (2.0% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.70), and renal abnormalities (8.4% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.02). There were no differences in hepatic and pancreatic abnormalities between the HIV+ and HIV- groups. There were significantly fewer gallstones in the HIV+ group (1.4% vs. 5.1%; p < 0.01). AIDS is a multi-systemic disease and its demographic and clinical pattern remains the same globally. Ultrasonography is optimally suited for its clinical management especially in Africa. Its accuracy and sensitivity may be much improved with clinico-pathologic correlation which may not be readily available in developing countries; further studies may provide this much needed diagnostic algorithms

  5. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mônica; Vilasboas, Virginia; Mendes, Luciana; Talhari, Carolina; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few indolent lesions to an aggressive diffuse disease. Advanced Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, typically those on the lower extremities, are often associated with lymphedema. In this paper, we report a case of a patient with a rare form of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma called lymphangiectatic Kaposis's sarcoma. PMID:23739700

  6. Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celia Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Methods Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. Results Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.

  7. Role of Gallium and labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in AIDS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because AIDS patients frequently present with minimal symptomatology, radionuclide imaging with its ability to survey the entire body, is especially valuable. Gallium-67 citrate, the most commonly performed radionuclide study for localizing infection in these patients, is most useful for detecting opportunistic infections, especially in the thorax. A negative gallium scan, particularly when the chest X-ray is unremarkable, rules strongly against pulmonary disease. A negative gallium scan in a patient with an abnormal chest X-ray and Kaposi's sarcoma, suggests that the patient's respiratory distress is related to the neoplasm. Diffuse pulmonary parenchymal uptake of gallium in the HIV (+) patient is most often associated with PCP. While there are other causes of diffuse pulmonary uptake, the more intense or heterogeneous the uptake, the more likely the patient is to have PCP. Focal pulmonary uptake is usually associated with bacterial pneumonia although PCP may occasionally present in this fashion. Lymph node uptake of gallium is usually associated with Mycob acterium avium complex, tuberculosis, or Iymphoma. When corresponding abnormalities are present on thallium scintigraphy lymphoma is likely. Gallium positive, thallium negative, studies suggest mycobacterial disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for detecting opportunistic infections probably because of the inflammatory response incited by these organisms. Leukocyte imaging is, however, more sensitive for detecting bacterial pneumonia. In the abdomen, gallium imaging is most useful for identifying lymphadenopathy, while labeled leukocyte imaging is superior for detecting AlDS-associated colitides. In summary, radionuclide studies are valuable diagnostic modalities in AIDS. Their success can be maximized by tailoring the study to the individual's needs

  8. [Colorectal diseases in AIDS patients and endoscopic findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, M; Cutait, R; Corrêa, P; Duarte, M I; Leite, K; Borges, J L

    1998-01-01

    In order to establish which are the most frequent endoscopic detectable colorectal disorders in AIDS patients with intestinal complaints we analysed 236 colonoscopies in a series of 186 patients. The colonoscopic procedure was always followed by biopsies, even in the absence of macroscopic lesions. The most frequent diagnosis was colitis due to citomegalovirus infection observed in 64 exams (27.1%) and presented with an inflammatory pattern with ulcers, followed by Cryptosporidium sp., found in 31 exams (13.1%). This infection, conversely, presented as an inflammatory non-ulcerative lesion. Others pathogens found in lower frequency were: Mycobacterium sp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Herpes simplex, Isospora sp., Giardia sp., Candida sp. and Campilobacter sp.. Neoplastic lesions, mostly Kaposy's sarcoma, were detected in 10 of the colonoscopies (4.2%). The most frequent colorectal disorders in AIDS patients detected by endoscopic procedures are citomegalovirus and Cryptosporidium infection. Biopsies are always necessary to confirm the endoscopic diagnosis and to identify the presence of associated pathogens. PMID:9814375

  9. Leptospirosis patient with AIDS the first case reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Souza Neves

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of renal icterohaemorrhagic leptospirosis involving a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is reported. Despite the low levels of CD4+ Tlymphocytes, the clinical course of leptospirosis was similar to that observed in non-immunodepressed patients, and no worsening of AIDS occurred due to the infebtion by the spirochete. Serologic conversion was observed in the microscopic agglutination test, with maximum titer of1:3,200. The patient had positive urine cultures for Leptospira interrogans for two months, whereas blood cultures were negative.Os autores relatam um caso de forma íctero- hemorrágica de leptospirose ocorrida em paciente com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA. A evolução clínica da leptospirose se deu de modo semelhante ao observado em pacientes sem imunodepressão, apesar dos níveis muito baixos de linfócitos TCD4+. Tampouco houve agravamento da SIDA em decorrência da infecção pelo espiroqueta. Observou-se conversão sorológica na prova de aglutinaçãomicroscópica com títulos máximos de 1:3.200. O paciente permaneceu por dois meses com urinocultura positiva para Leptospira interrogans, sendo as hemoculturas negativas.

  10. Comparison of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare strains from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and animal sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, S K; Geddes, G L; Isaac-Renton, J. L.; Black, W A

    1990-01-01

    Difloxacin, A-56620, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, cephapirin, SK&F 88070, and spectinomycin were used to compare the in vitro susceptibilities of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellular isolates from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), patients without AIDS, and diseased animals. Against the isolates from humans without AIDS, the quinolone compounds difloxacin and A-56620 were found to be the most effective, each inhibiting 50% of strains at a concentration of 2 micro...

  11. Anti-HIV-1 integrase activity of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Supinya Tewtrakul; Sanan Subhadhirasakul

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) using the multiplate integration assay (MIA). Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml), the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 =...

  12. What are the public obligations to AIDS patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2002-01-01

    The operating assumption in most discussions of health policy is that government has some responsibility for the health of its citizens and that it may legitimately tax, subsidize, and regulate its citizens in the exercise of that responsibility. On this assumption, public obligations to HIV/AIDS patients are a function of their needs in relationship to other health needs. This paper challenges the operating assumption by arguing that it cannot be grounded in the obligations that individuals have to each other. The paper rests on its own assumption: the moral theory of individualism. On this theory, individuals are ends in themselves who have the right to choose their own actions and uses of their resources; they do not have unchosen obligations to help others. In regard to HIV/AIDS patients, consequently, individuals have no duty to help, nor any other obligation beyond that of respecting their rights; and there is no valid basis for government regulations or subsidies on their behalf. The paper argues against the two approaches commonly used to defend a more expansive view of individual obligations and the role of government. The first is the assumption of welfare rights to goods and services; the second is the assumption that distributive justice requires some redistribution of health care resources. PMID:15971567

  13. Specialized home care for patients with AIDS: an experiment in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, M.; Kerkstra, A.; Biewenga, T.

    1994-01-01

    Patients with AIDs are permanently dependent on medical and technical nursing care. During a certain phase of the disease some of the patients have to visit the out-patient clinic of the hospital for regular treatment. It was noticed that AIDS patients find these visits a severe burden. Therefore in

  14. Sepsis in AIDS patients: clinical, etiological and inflammatory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manoel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care mortality of HIV-positive patients has progressively decreased. However, critically ill HIV-positive patients with sepsis present a worse prognosis. To better understand this condition, we propose a study comparing clinical, etiological and inflammatory data, and the hospital course of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods: A prospective observational study enrolling patients with severe sepsis or septic shock associated or not with HIV infection, and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU. Clinical, microbiological and inflammatory parameters were assessed, including C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and TNF-α. Outcome measures were in-hospital and six-month mortality. Results: The study included 58 patients with severe sepsis/septic shock admitted to ICU, 36 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative. All HIV-positive patients met the criteria for AIDS (CDC/2008. The main foci of infection in HIV-positive patients were pulmonary and abdominal (p=0.001. Fungi and mycobacteria were identified in 44.4% and 16.7% of HIV-positive patients, respectively. In contrast, the main etiologies for sepsis in HIV-negative patients were Gram-negative bacilli (36.4% and Gram-positive cocci (36.4% (p=0.001. CRP and PCT admission concentrations were lower in HIV-positive patients (130 vs. 168 mg/dL p=0.005, and 1.19 vs. 4.06 ng/mL p=0.04, respectively, with a progressive decrease in surviving patients. Initial IL-10 concentrations were higher in HIV-positive patients (4.4 pg/mL vs. 1.0 pg/mL, p=0.005, with moderate accuracy for predicting death (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve =0.74. In-hospital and six-month mortality were higher in HIV-positive patients (55.6 vs. 27.3% p=0.03, and 58.3 vs. 27.3% p=0.02, respectively. Conclusions: The course of sepsis was more severe in HIV-positive patients, with distinct clinical, etiological and

  15. Survey of mycotic infection in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi A

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the fungous infections of AIDS stricken patients, a study which lasted 1.5 years was conducted, in which 21 patients were examined. The subjects were 20 males and a female. One of the male patients was from Uganda, another was an intravenous drug addict, and one had been abroad for sometimes and had received blood there. All other patients had also blood transfusion instances before 1984. To do the research, 414 laboratory specimens were gathered and examined regarding fungus involvement. The result showed 104 negative and 310 positive cases. Based on these findings and also clinical examination, all patients suffered from one or more fungous infections in the forms of oral candidiasis, perleche, candidal onychomycosis, perianal candidiasis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, tinea versicolor, pityrosporosis and rhodotrulosis. The latter caused skin lesion with scaling and is being reported for the first time. Candida parapsilosis and trichosporon pololans were also isolated specimens. However, concerning the diagnostic value of trichosporon pololans more investigation is needed.

  16. Osteosarcoma in Adult Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Leonard C.; Ferreira, Nando

    2013-01-01

    Background. HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, with an estimated prevalence of 21.5% in adults living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Several malignancies have been identified as part of the spectrum of immunosuppression-related manifestations of HIV infection. Very few reports, however, exist regarding the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining sarcomas in the extremities or limb girdles. Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients, between the ages of 30 and 60 years, with histologically confirmed osteosarcomas of the appendicular skeleton referred to a tertiary-level orthopaedic oncology unit. Results. Five out of the nine patients (62.5%) included in the study were found to be HIV positive. The average CD4 count of these patients was 278 (237–301) cells/mm3, indicating advanced immunological compromise. Three of the malignancies in HIV-positive patients occurred in preexisting benign or low-grade tumours. Conclusion. A heightened index of suspicion is required in HIV patients presenting with unexplained bone and joint pain or swelling. Judicious use of appropriate radiological investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of suspicious lesions and timely referral to an appropriate specialized orthopaedic oncology unit, is recommended. PMID:23762607

  17. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients' knowledge on antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Flávia de Castro Almeida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of information on antiretroviral drugs or the misunderstanding of available information can facilitate incorrect use of such drugs. This can result in non-adherence to the prescribed regimen, leading to a great possibility of a therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to know which information HIV/AIDS patients, who receive their medicines at the pharmacy of a reference hospital in the northeast Brazil, have on the drugs they use, the source of this information and whether there is a need for additional information. A total of 195 HIV/AIDS patients, who were using either zidovudina + lamivudina 300+150mg (AZT+3TC, efavirenz 600mg (EFZ or lopinavir/ritonavir 133.33/33mg (LPV/r, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 years (SD = 9.55 and 70.8% were males. Of the total, 55.4% didn't know the effect of the drug in the organism; 35.9% were unaware of the necessity of taking antiretroviral drugs for the rest of their lives; only 14.4% knew how to proceed when a dosage was missed; 22.1% said they could die and the same number of individuals believed in aggravation of the disease in case of treatment interruption. The majority, 68.2%, considered it very necessary to receive drug information. The results show that there is an apparent lack of general information among users of antiretroviral drugs, and at the same time a need for it. It is necessary that all professionals involved in the health care of the patients agree that an efficient supply of information on prescribed drugs is an ethical component of the treatment that favors and fosters its adherence.

  18. General Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Patients in Ditan Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦春; 徐克沂; 张福杰; 赵红心; 李兴旺; 李秀兰; 闫会文

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate general characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients seeking care at Ditan Hospital in an attempt to guide early diagnosis in routine medical care. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 185 HIV/AIDS cases from January 1990 to June 2002 was completed using SPSS statistical analysis. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.8:1. Subjects ranged in age from 1 year old to 64 years old. 16 cases were younger than 20 years old with the median age among the younger subset at 7.7 years. 169 cases were older than 20 years old with a median age of 36 years old. 29% of the subjects were peasants. The remaining 71%, were of other unspecifiedoccupations. 90.8% of individuals were of Han descent while 3.7% of individuals were of a minority heritage. 50.3% of subjects were married; 23.8% have never married; 8.1% were divorced; and the remaining 17.8% were of unknown marital status. Of those represented in this study, 36.8% came from the Henan province; 17.8% were from Beijing; 8.6% were from Shanxi; 31.4% from the other 20 provinces of China; and 5.4% from outside of China. Mode of transmission: 40.0% (74/185) contracted HIV through unprotected sexual contact; 29.2% (54/185) through receiving blood or plasma transfusions; 21.1%(39/185) through donating plasma; 7 cases were intravenous drug users; 7 cases were vertically transmitted. Mode of transmission was unknown in 4 cases. Clinical categories: An included 45 cases; B included 85 cases: C consisted of 76 cases. 12 cases were deceased. Initial presentation: 39 cases presented with_fever ,cough and diarrhea. 37 cases had fever and cough only-38 cases presented with chronic diarrhea. 16 cases were discovered incidentally at time of operation. 8 cases presented with fungal infection of the oral cavity or in esophagus. The common HIV associated symptoms and opportunistic infections were: weight loss and diarrhea, respiratory diseases, dermatologic diseases, anemia, neutropenia. Diseases of other organ

  19. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  20. Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Noriko; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Nanba, Hiroaki

    2002-06-01

    Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) MD-fraction containing beta-1,6 glucan with beta-1,3 branched chains has previously exhibited strong anticancer activity by increasing immune-competent cell activity.1,2 In this non-random case series, a combination of MD-fraction and whole maitake powder was investigated to determine its effectiveness for 22- to 57-year-old cancer patients in stages II-IV. Cancer regression or significant symptom improvement was observed in 58.3 percent of liver cancer patients, 68.8 percent of breast cancer patients, and 62.5 percent of lung cancer patients. The trial found a less than 10-20 percent improvement for leukemia, stomach cancer, and brain cancer patients. Furthermore, when maitake was taken in addition to chemotherapy, immune-competent cell activities were enhanced 1.2-1.4 times, compared with chemotherapy alone. Animal studies have supported the use of maitake MD-fraction for cancer. PMID:12126464

  1. Ten years of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration: evolution of the core dimensions for assessing the quality of patient decision aids

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Robert J; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Stacey, Dawn; Elwyn, Glyn

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration was established to enhance the quality and effectiveness of patient decision aids by establishing an evidence-informed framework for improving their content, development, implementation, and evaluation. Over this 10 year period, the Collaboration has established: a) the background document on 12 core dimensions to inform the original modified Delphi process to establish the IPDAS checklist (74 items); b) the valid...

  2. Localized oral Fusarium infection in an AIDS patient with malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, A; Baixench, M T; Frank, N; Bossi, P; de Pinieux, G; Tourte-Schaefer, C; Dupouy-Camet, J

    1999-09-01

    We report here a case of localized oral Fusarium infection in an AIDS patient who developed an ulceration in the soft palate. Fusarium solani was identified by histopathology and culture. We believe this to be the second reported case of oral Fusarium infection in a patient with haematological malignancy and the first reported association of oral Fusarium infection with AIDS. PMID:10609534

  3. Comparison of long-term prognosis of patients with AIDS treated and not treated with zidovudine. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Phillips, A N; Pedersen, C;

    1994-01-01

    zidovudine, the death rate was approximately constant for the first 5 years after AIDS diagnosis. For patients treated with zidovudine, the death rate within the first year since starting zidovudine was markedly lower than for untreated patients who had developed AIDS at the same time (relative rate, 0......OBJECTIVE--To determine the association between elapsed time since starting zidovudine and survival in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). DESIGN--Inception cohort and observational study of patients treated and not treated with zidovudine. SETTING--Fifty-one centers in 17...... European countries. PATIENTS--A total of 4484 patients diagnosed as having AIDS from 1979 to 1989 who survived their initial AIDS-defining event and who had not started zidovudine before AIDS diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Use of zidovudine and mortality. RESULTS--Among patients who did not receive...

  4. Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS Linfoma de Burkitt do duodeno em um paciente com AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Corti; María Florencia Villafañe; Liliana Souto; Ricardo Schtirbu; Marina Narbaitz; Marcela de Dios Soler

    2007-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma, among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system. We report a case of primary lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed pseudopolypoid masses found in the sec...

  5. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrive, L.; Frija, J.; Couderc, L.J.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1986-03-01

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients.

  6. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients

  7. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease exhibit dysregulated responses to microbial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi S C Hotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A critical role for the gut epithelium lies in its ability to discriminate between pathogens and commensals and respond appropriately. Dysfunctional interactions between microbes and epithelia are believed to have a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. In this study, we analyzed microbiota and gene expression in IBD patients and examined responses of mucosal biopsies to bacterial DNA. METHODS: Biopsies were taken from non-inflamed areas of the colon in healthy controls (HC and Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC patients in remission. Biopsies were snap-frozen or cultured with DNA from Lactobacillus plantarum (LP or Salmonella dublin (SD. Gene expression was analyzed under basal conditions and in response to DNA. Gene networks were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Mucosal-associated microbiota was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms in NOD2 and TLR9 was assessed. RESULTS: Patients with IBD had altered microbiota, enhanced expression of inflammatory genes, and increased correlations between specific gene expression and microbes. Principle component analysis showed CD and UC patients to cluster independently from healthy controls in both gene expression and microbial analysis. DNA from LP stimulated anti-inflammatory pathways in controls and UC patients, but induced an upregulation of IL17A in CD patients. There were no differences in SNP frequencies of TLR9 or NOD2 in the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Crohn's disease exhibit altered responses to bacterial DNA. These findings suggest that the gut response to bacterial DNA may depend not only on the specific type of bacterial DNA, but also on the host.

  8. Scintiscanning with aerosols of 99Tcm DTPA in the diagnostic strategy for pneumocystosis in aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary clearance of an aerosol of 99Tcm DTPA was measured in 21 non-smoking AIDS and pneumocystosis patients. The results were compared with those of pulmonary scintiscanning with gallium. All the patients exhibited increased clearance, evidence of a considerable alteration in alveolar permeability. This increase was also observed in patients with normal chest X-rays and normal blood gases. The average clearance in these patients was 6 ± 2% min-1 as compared with a normal 1.1 ± 0.3% min-1. Conversely, only four out of eight patients with normal chest X-rays had abnormal gallium scans. Clearance returned to normal after recovery. Measurement of DTPA clearance appears to be a very sensitive indicator for the detection and follow-up of pneumocystosis. However, it is not very specific since it can be increased by tobacco poisoning, drug abuse and the presence of lymphocytic alveolitis. An examination with normal findings can therefore exclude the possibility of opportunistic pneumopathy and make bronchial lavage unnecessary. An examination with abnormal findings should show whether lavage is indicated, even if the chest X-rays, blood gases and gallium scans are normal. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Hemodynamic effects of high intensity interval training in COPD patients exhibiting exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasis, I; Kortianou, E; Vasilopoulou, Μ; Spetsioti, S; Louvaris, Z; Kaltsakas, G; Davos, C H; Zakynthinos, S; Koulouris, N G; Vogiatzis, I

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) has a significant adverse effect on cardiovascular function during exercise in COPD patients. COPD patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 11) exercise-induced DH undertook an incremental (IET) and a constant-load exercise test (CLET) sustained at 75% peak work (WRpeak) prior to and following an interval cycling exercise training regime (set at 100% WRpeak with 30-s work/30-s rest intervals) lasting for 12 weeks. Cardiac output (Q) was assessed by cardio-bio-impedance (PhysioFlow, enduro, PF-O7) to determine Q mean response time (QMRT) at onset (QMRT(ON)) and offset (QMRT(OFF)) of CLET. Post-rehabilitation only those patients exhibiting exercise-induced DH demonstrated significant reductions in QMRT(ON) (from 82.2 ± 4.3 to 61.7 ± 4.2 s) and QMRT(OFF) (from 80.5 ± 3.8 to 57.2 ± 4.9 s ). These post-rehabilitation adaptations were associated with improvements in inspiratory capacity, thereby suggesting that mitigation of the degree of exercise-induced DH improves central hemodynamic responses in COPD patients. PMID:26112284

  10. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz-Telles Flávio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and followed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%, but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84% by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%, and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%. Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

  11. The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is broad and comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and neoplasms. It is estimated that approximately one-third of all patients with AIDS develop neurological complications. The organisms responsible for AIDS are human retroviruses: primarily the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). In this review we shall focus on the neurological complications of HIV and AIDS which are applicable to the more frequently occurring intracranial infective organisms. Attention will be paid specifically to those CNS manifestations occurring in the adult HIV and AIDS population as infection in the paediatric HIV and AIDS group, although bearing some similarities, demonstrates some important differences

  12. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS. PMID:27208456

  13. Data mining of audiology patient records: factors influencing the choice of hearing aid type

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Muhammad N; Oakes Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes the analysis of a database of over 180,000 patient records, collected from over 23,000 patients, by the hearing aid clinic at James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough, UK. These records consist of audiograms (graphs of the faintest sounds audible to the patient at six different pitches), categorical data (such as age, gender, diagnosis and hearing aid type) and brief free text notes made by the technicians. This data is mined to determine which ...

  14. The Innovative of Anxiety Disorder Healing: Nutri Moringa Pudding for HIV/AIDS-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ingga Yonico Martatino; Rizki Habibie; Alimatus Sahrah; Adhitya Angga Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorder is a common psychologically symptom in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. These disorders include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving medical care, 20.3% have been found to have an anxiety disorder, with 12.3% meeting the criteria for panic disorder, 10.4% for PTSD, and 2.8% having generalized anxiety disorder. Patients with other psychiatric disorders, such...

  15. Social support and quality of life in patients with hiv / aids, Monteria residents. Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Massa Elizabeth; Amador-Ahumada Concepción; Alvis-Estrada Luis

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To determine the association between social support and quality of life of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: We performed a quantitative study of analytic type. The population consisted of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Monteria, Colombia. A total of 77 patients was choosed using a simple random sampling and were assessed for quality of life through the instrument QLI-SP and perceived social support scale. To determ...

  16. Dose administration aids: Pharmacists’ role in improving patient care

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood A; Llewelyn V; Robertson S.; Mylrea M; Glass B.

    2011-01-01

    Dose administration aid (DAA) usage has become increasinglyprevalent among populations worldwide and as such hasbecome an important part of pharmacy practice. The evidencefor the use of these aids has been favourable in Australiaresulting in 2006 in a community based DAA program beingconsidered by the Australian Government Department ofHealth and Ageing PPSAC (Professional Programs and ServicesAdvisory Committee) and the first phase of this programimplemented in October 2007. The program was ...

  17. Computed tomography in predicting smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Feng; SHI Yu-xin; XIA Gan-lin; ZHU Ying; LU Hong-zhou; ZHANG Zhi-yong

    2013-01-01

    Background The correct diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients is very important to their therapy.We aimed to assess the value of the computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings in predicting smearnegative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.Methods A total of 121 AIDS patients suspected of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis by clinical and radiographic findings were recruited.Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 57 (47.1%) patients.The CT and clinical predictors were selected to diagnose AIDS-related pulmonary tuberculosis through univariate and multivariate Logistic analysis.Results Multivariate analysis showed that five variables,including weight loss,presence of miliary nodules,necrotic lymph node,Iobular consolidation,tree-in-bud sign,were independent predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.Predicted scores based on the five variables were used to identify pulmonary tuberculosis.If the predicted score of 3 was taken as the ideal cut-off point in the diagnosis of AIDS-related smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis,the sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value,negative predictive value,and accuracy were 84.2%,81.2%,80.0%,85.2%,and 82.6%,respectively.Conclusion The prediction method based on five key factors of clinical and CT findings are useful in guiding the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients.

  18. Collective AIDS Activism and Individuals' Perceived Self-Advocacy in Physician-Patient Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashers, Dale E.; Haas, Stephen M.; Klingle, Renee S.; Neidig, Judith L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes parallel persuasive processes between social or political activism and personal self-advocacy in a study of AIDS activism and communication patterns between people with HIV or AIDS and health care personnel. Encourages greater patient education about the illness and treatment options. Promotes a more assertive stance toward health care,…

  19. Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient ...

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Inflatable Penile Prosthesis (IPP) and Male Sling Placement: Aiding in a Faster Return to Patient Quality-of-Life Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and ...

  20. Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; O'Connor, A.; Stacey, D.; Volk, R.; Edwards, A.; Coulter, A.; Thomson, R.; Barratt, A.; Barry, M.; Bernstein, S.; Butow, P.; Clarke, A.; Entwistle, V.A.; Feldman-Stewart, D.; Holmes-Rovner, M.; Llewellyn-Thomas, H.; Moumjid, N.; Mulley, A.; Ruland, C.; Sepucha, K.; Sykes, A.; Whelan, T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). DESIGN AND SETTING: Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, pr

  1. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in a patient with AIDS and the Ramsay-Hunt syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrast-enhanced MRI is very sensitive to disease in the internal auditory meatus, but lacks specificity. This report illustrates the MRI findings in the Ramsay-Hunt syndrome caused by herpes zoster infection in a patient with AIDS. (orig.)

  2. Factors associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5,025 European patients with AIDS. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Barton, S E; Lazzarin, A;

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with the development of a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 5,025 patients with AIDS, including 1,976 patients with primary PCP at the time of AIDS diagnosis and 635 with primary PCP occurring subsequently. Compared with untreated...... patients, patients treated with zidovudine were at similar risk of developing PCP during the first year of therapy but were at greater risk after longer intervals of treatment. The following factors were associated with an increased risk of PCP (either at the time of AIDS diagnosis or thereafter): lack of...... primary PCP prophylaxis, male homosexuality/bisexuality, diagnosis of AIDS in northern Europe, and CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(6)/L at the time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients with severe weight loss had a 60% higher risk of developing PCP during follow-up than those without such weight loss. Thus, the...

  3. Incremental Cost Effectiveness of Prophylaxis for Cytomegalovirus Disease in Patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, John H.; Frick, Kevin D.; Jabs, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, an opportunistic complication in patients with AIDS, causes substantial morbidity and has high treatment costs. Although prevention of this disease is highly desirable, incremental cost-effectiveness estimates for proposed prophylactic strategies in the era prior to the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were unfavourable relative to other specific antimicrobial prophylactic strategies in patients with AIDS. With the availability of HAA...

  4. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in an AIDS Patient without Concurrent Pulmonary Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Allen T; Miedzinski, Lil J.; Eric Vallieres; Rayner, David C; Lien, Dale C

    1995-01-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are potentially at increased risk for developing secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis because of underlying immunosuppression and frequent opportunistic lung infections. This condition. however, has been diagnosed uncommonly in these patients and, with the exception of one previously reported case. only in the presence of concurrent pulmonary infection. The case of a 35-year-old male with AIDS who was found on open lung biopsy to hav...

  5. Prevalence of hearing problems, and use of hearing aids among a sample of elderly patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Liston, R.; Solomon, S.; Banerjee, A K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Deterioration of hearing with advancing age is well documented. However, the proportion of elderly people with hearing problems who wear hearing aids is low. AIM. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hearing disability in a group of elderly patients in hospital and to determine their attitudes to hearing difficulties and the wearing of hearing aids. METHOD. A random sample of patients who were convalescing were interviewed. A detailed questionnaire was administere...

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PATIENTS' SATISFACTION LEVEL BY MEDICAL AID QUALITY IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE AND PLASTIC SURGERY SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganshin Igor Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction of patient is one of main parts of medical aid quality declared by WHO. Questionnaire of patients can elucidate mechanism of satisfaction from medical aid quality formed during treatment communication. Estimation of received information permits to compare different hospital activities and know image of medical aid created by patient's mention. Science results can be used to support management decision for choice of activities providing the higher quality signs of medical aid.

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PATIENTS' SATISFACTION LEVEL BY MEDICAL AID QUALITY IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE AND PLASTIC SURGERY SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Ganshin Igor Borisovich

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction of patient is one of main parts of medical aid quality declared by WHO. Questionnaire of patients can elucidate mechanism of satisfaction from medical aid quality formed during treatment communication. Estimation of received information permits to compare different hospital activities and know image of medical aid created by patient's mention. Science results can be used to support management decision for choice of activities providing the higher quality signs of medical aid.

  8. The Role of Spirituality in Quality of Life Patients with AIDS/HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Z Nikmanesh; A Pirasteh Motlagh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: AIDS will change route of life people with disease and to be cause loss of self – esteem, increased vulnerability feeling and confusion thoughts in their. The purpose of this study is investigating the role of spirituality in quality of life of patients with AIDS/HIV. Methods: This study was conducted with a sample of 43 patients with AIDS/HIV in Sistan & Baluchestan province in 1390 that had been selected via method of available sampling. Spirituality was measured using the Spi...

  9. High levels of Zinc-α-2-Glycoprotein among Omani AIDS patients on combined antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidgi; Syed; Anwer; Hasson; Mohammed; Saeed; Al-Balushi; Muzna; Hamed; Al; Yahmadi; Juma; Zaid; Al-Busaidi; Elias; Antony; Said; Mohammed; Shafeeq; Othman; Talal; Abdullah; Sallam; Mohammed; Ahmad; Idris; Ali; Abdullah; Al-Jabri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the levels of zinc-α-2-glycoprotein(ZAG) among Omani AIDS patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy(cART).Methods:A total of 80 Omani AIDS patients(45 males and 33 females),average age of 36 vears.who were receiving cART at the Saltan Qaboos University Hospital(SQUH).Muscat,Oman,were tested for the levels of ZAG.In addition,SO healthy blood donors(46 males and 34 females),average age of 26 years,attending the SOUH Blood Bank,were tested in parallel as a control group.Measurement of the ZAG levels was performed using a competitive enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:The ZAG levels were found to he significantly higher among AIDS patients compared to the healthy individuals(P=0.033).A total of 56(70%) of the AIDS patients were found to have higher levels of ZAG and 16(20%) AIDS patients were found to have high ZAG levels,which are significantly(P>0.031) associated with weight loss.Conclusions:ZAG levels are high among Omani AIDS patients on cART and this necessitales the measurement of ZAG on routine basis,as it is associated with weight loss.

  10. High levels of Zinc-α-2-Glycoprotein among Omani AIDS patients on combined antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidgi Syed Anwer Hasson; Mohammed Saeed Al-Balushi; Muzna Hamed Al Yahmadi; Juma Zaid Al-Busaidi; Elias Antony Said; Mohammed Shafeeq Othman; Talal Abdullah Sallam; Mohammed Ahmad Idris; Ali Abdullah Al-Jabri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the levels of zinc-α-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) among Omani AIDS patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods:A total of 80 Omani AIDS patients (45 males and 35 females), average age of 36 years, who were receiving cART at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, were tested for the levels of ZAG. In addition, 80 healthy blood donors (46 males and 34 females), average age of 26 years, attending the SQUH Blood Bank, were tested in parallel as a control group. Measurement of the ZAG levels was performed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Results:The ZAG levels were found to be significantly higher among AIDS patients compared to the healthy individuals (P=0.033). A total of 56 (70%) of the AIDS patients were found to have higher levels of ZAG and 16 (20%) AIDS patients were found to have high ZAG levels, which are significantly (P>0.031) associated with weight loss. Conclusions:ZAG levels are high among Omani AIDS patients on cART and this necessitates the measurement of ZAG on routine basis, as it is associated with weight loss.

  11. At-home options. Enhancing care for AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, M R

    1993-05-01

    Mark is a 45-year-old man with advanced AIDS. His care partner, Gary, has a full-time job in the design industry. A home care aide visits Mark five days a week for 10 hours at a time to provide personal care while Gary is at work. A visiting nurse sees Mark weekly and has taught Gary how to prepare Mark's ganciclovir infusion. Every six weeks Mark meets with a nutritionist, who evaluates his dietary status and advises Gary on purchasing high-calorie foods for Mark. In May Gary must attend a conference out of town and he is worried:who will care for Mark for those three days? Gary calls the At Home Options (AHOP) nurse and explains the situation. She arranges for nighttime nursing coverage for those three days, and ensures that Mark's home care aide can stay for the weekend. Gary is able to attend his conference and concentrate on his work, secure in the knowledge that Mark will be well cared for and that scheduled respite care, although not a benefit with traditional insurance, is covered through the AHOP program. PMID:10125243

  12. Tuberculous cerebritis and tuberculoma in a patient with AIDS: Literature review and case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abrishamkar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous brain cerebritis, abscess and tuberculoma in AIDS patients are considered as rare conditions and only few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case is a 28-year-old man with AIDS and previous systemic tuberculosis, denied by him and his family. He was admitted to our department due to headache, hemiparesis and seizures. A brain computed tomography (CT scan disclosed a frontal hypodense lesion with a non-homogenous contrast enhancement that was reported as a high grade glioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a diffuse hypointense lesion in right frontal area on T1-weighted, and hyperintense on T2-weighted and flair view, but there was a small paraventricular region with hypointensity on both T1, T2 and flair series, which was also reported to be a high grade glioma. Because of clinical course and imaging findings, the patient was a candidate for operation. After operation, the results of pathology and laboratory examination confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculous brain cerebritis and tuberculoma with positive Acquired Immune Virus (HIV serology. Thus, tuberculous cerebritis, tuberculoma and abscesses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS patients, but AIDS should also be considered in every patient with an uncommon cerebral lesion who is not cooperative with medical healthcare providers. Surgical excision or biopsy and anti-tuberculous treatment are the mainstay in management of these lesions in patients with AIDS. KEY WORDS: AIDS, tuberculoma, tuberculosis cerebritis.

  13. Perception of Patients With HIV/AIDS From Stigma and Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Stigma and discrimination among patients with HIV/AIDS cause various problems for the patients and their health systems. Objectives The purpose of this study was to explain the perceived experiences of the patients from stigma and discrimination and their roles on health-seeking services among patients. Patients and Methods This was a qualitative research using content analysis approach and semi-structured interviews, conducted on patients living with HIV/ADS, during 2013 - 2014 in Iran. Sampling started purposefully and continued in a snowball. Results The experiences of patients with HIV/AIDS from stigma and discrimination led to exploring three main themes and nine subthemes. The main themes were multidimensional stigma, rejection, and insult and discrimination in receiving health services. Conclusions Stigma and discrimination play an important role in patients' lives and hinder them from accessing the treatment. The patients' responses to this event by secrecy strategy can be an important factor in the disease prevalence.

  14. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ann; Chan Carusone, Soo; To, Kent; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Halman, Mark; Grimes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients. PMID:22666562

  15. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients.

  16. PP65 antigenemia in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Capela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. PP65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. The present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the Botucatu region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the Department of Tropical Diseases of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, and divided into three groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. The control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. Fourteen AIDS patients with low CD4+ cell counts tested positive for PP65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.

  17. Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the larynx in an AIDS patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, R; Hartley, C; Malik, T; Wilson, G E; Taylor, P H; Mandal, B K

    1998-01-01

    A case of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the larynx in an AIDS patient is presented with a review of the literature. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in AIDS patients are common but the primary laryngeal presentation is very rare. The symptoms usually include dysphonia and progressive airway obstruction requiring tracheostomy. As with laryngeal non-Hodgkin's laryngeal lymphomas in non-HIV positive patients the majority are of B cell lineage and respond well to radiotherapy. Our patient had a high grade lymphoma of B cell lineage which showed a good response to radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy and surgery is not yet established. We suggest that the diagnosis of AIDS should not influence the management of these patients unless the individual is in the terminal disease stage. PMID:9538453

  18. The value of recombinant human TSH-aided 131I treatment in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human TSH(rhTSH)-aided 131I treatment for DTC. Methods: A total of 144 patients with DTC who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The rhTSH-aided 131I treatment of 3.7 GBq was performed in 72 cases (Group Ⅰ: euthyroid). Another 72 cases received radioiodine ablation treatment of 3.7 GBq after 4 to 6 weeks of thyroxine withdrawal (Group Ⅱ: hypothyroidism). Serum endogenous TSH, FT3, FT4 and Tg were measured. The life qualities of both groups were observed, such as intolerance to cold, weight gain, constipation, motor retardation, skin dryness, periorbital edema and bone pain. Absence of visible uptake or uptake rate less than 1% was taken as complete ablation. The efficacy of 131I treatment was evaluated. The life quality of both groups was evaluated by χ2 test, and the effect of 131I treatment was analyzed by t test. Results: Serum TSH was effectively improved in both groups before 131I treatment. In group Ⅰ, TSH was higher than that of group Ⅱ ((141.26 ± 27.30) mU/L vs (70.57 ± 51.13) mU/L; t=2.435, P<0.05), and FT3, FT4 were not significantly different before or after the injection of rhTSH. Tg was well stimulated in both groups with no statistical difference. Group Ⅱ exhibited more side effects, which included intolerance to cold 80.56% (58/72), weight gain 86.11% (62/72), constipation 15.28% (11/72), motor retardation 22.22% (16/72), skin dryness 56.94% (41/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and no periorbital edema was found. Group Ⅰ had a higher quality of life than group Ⅱ, only few side effects were observed including dizziness and nausea 2.78% (2/72), bone pain 2.78% (2/72), and transient tachycardia 1.39% (1/72). The effect of 131I treatment was evaluated by whole body scans with a diagnostic dose of 131I. The complete ablation rate was 70.83% (51/72) in group Ⅰ and 66.67% (48/72) in group Ⅱ (χ2=0.58, P>0.05). Conclusion: The rhTSH-aided 131

  19. Primary aspergilloma and subacute invasive aspergillosis in two AIDS patients Aspergiloma primário e aspergilose invasiva subaguda em dois pacientes com AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Martinez; Gleusa de Castro; Alcyone A. Machado; Maria Janete Moya

    2009-01-01

    Although uncommon, invasive aspergillosis in the setting of AIDS is important because of its peculiar clinical presentation and high lethality. This report examines two AIDS patients with a history of severe cellular immunosuppression and previous neutropenia, who developed subacute invasive aspergillosis. One female patient developed primary lung aspergilloma, with dissemination to the mediastinum, vertebrae, and spine, which was fatal despite antifungal treatment. The second patient, who ha...

  20. Assessing physician/patient relationships in the presence of HIV/AIDS: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S A; Madrigal, C

    1998-01-01

    The following study investigates the nature of the relationship between physicians and HIV/AIDS patients within the context of the rapidly evolving services/relationship marketing literatures. The emerging evidence suggests that service providers generally play a critical role in the development of positive consumer attitudes and behaviors, and that relationship marketing practices can contribute to the delivery of health services. However, to date, there appears little evidence supporting the efficacy of employing relationship marketing practices in relation to a target market of HIV/AIDS patients. This exploratory study contributes to the body of knowledge by more closely investigating the nature of the patient-physician relationship relative to HIV/AIDS patients' attitudes, marketing-related behaviors, and overall quality-of-life/life satisfaction judgments. The results of this study first suggest that HIV/AIDS patients use the expectancy disconfirmation model when evaluating the performance of their physician. A reliance on expectancy disconfirmation suggests the likely prevalent role of service quality perceptions and satisfaction judgments in evaluating their relationship with their physician. Second, the results appear to support the conclusion that the patient's evaluation of their physician relationship and subsequent behaviors (e.g., word-of-mouth) are directly related to the patient's general perception of received health services. Thus, the patient/physician relationship may play a particularly powerful role in determining patient (marketing related) outcomes relative to other health service settings. Third, a direct influence is supported between negative affective reactions by patients and subsequent outcome behaviors. This finding lends support for the potential efficacy of service recovery efforts when rendering treatment to HIV/AIDS patients. Finally, evidence is presented demonstrating the effect of positive perceptions of the patient

  1. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Abdi-Liae; Pardis Moradnejad; Neda Alijani; Hamide Khazraiyan; Sedigeh Mansoori; Naseh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of the...

  2. Factors associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5,025 European patients with AIDS. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Barton, S E; Lazzarin, A;

    1995-01-01

    primary PCP prophylaxis, male homosexuality/bisexuality, diagnosis of AIDS in northern Europe, and CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(6)/L at the time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients with severe weight loss had a 60% higher risk of developing PCP during follow-up than those without such weight loss. Thus, the...... occurrence of PCP depended on geographic location, mode of acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS, degree of immunodeficiency, and use of various treatment regimens....

  3. EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER cART: CLINICAL AND LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF PATIENTS WITH AIDS AFTER 48 WEEKS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esther Carvalho Gomes Fukumoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART aims to inhibit viral replication, delay immunodeficiency progression and improve survival in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to compare two different schemes of cART, based on plasma viral load (VL and CD4+ T lymphocyte count, during 48 weeks of treatment. For this purpose, 472 medical charts of a Specialized Outpatient Service were reviewed from 1998 to 2005. Out of these, 58 AIDS patients who had received a triple drug scheme as the initial treatment were included in the study and two groups were formed: Group 1 (G1: 47 individuals treated with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor; Group 2 (G2: 11 patients treated with two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. In G1 and G2, 53.2% and 81.8% respectively were patients with an AIDS-defining disease. The T CD4+ lymphocyte count increased progressively up until the 24th week of treatment in all patients, while VL became undetectable in 68.1% of G1 and in 63.6% of G2. The study concluded that the evolutions of laboratory tests were similar in the two treatment groups and that both presented a favorable clinical evolution.

  4. The outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Danish patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, T;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive patients with AIDS were evaluated for efficacy and safety of treatment and secondary prophylaxis directed against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). 89 episodes of PCP were recorded in 75 patients. 63 of the 75 patients (84%) with a first episode of PCP were discharged....... Of 72 patients with a first episode of PCP who were initially treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. 76% completed therapy successfully. Side effects were common, but generally mild and tolerated during continued treatment. 7/11 patients (64%) with a first episode of PCP who required mechanical....../16 (69%) patients who were not receiving prophylaxis (p less than 0.00001). No patients discontinued prophylaxis because of side effects. It is concluded that for most patients with AIDS and PCP, treatment and secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMZ is safe and effective....

  5. Immuno-virological discordance and the risk of non-AIDS and AIDS events in a large observational cohort of HIV-patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoufaly, Alexander; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Reekie, Joanne;

    2014-01-01

    CD4<350 cells/µl and viral load (VL)>500 copies/mL were followed-up from the first day of VL< = 50 copies/ml until a new fatal/non-fatal non-AIDS/AIDS event. Considered non-AIDS events included non-AIDS malignancies, pancreatitis, severe liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy (>grade 3), cardio......BACKGROUND: The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with......,913 patients contributed 11,491 person-years for the analysis of non-AIDS. 241 pre-specified non-AIDS events (including 84 deaths) and 89 AIDS events (including 10 deaths) occurred. The RR of developing pre-specified non-AIDS events for ID vs. non-ID was 1.96 (95% CI 1.37-2.81, p<0.001) in unadjusted analysis...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the brain in adult HIV and AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) includes not only the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection itself but also opportunistic infections and tumors secondary to AIDS. Despite progress in antiretroviral therapy and the subsequent decrease in the incidence of associated diseases, opportunistic infections and tumors secondary to the HIV infection continue to be the limiting factor in terms of survival with AIDS. Therefore, the therapeutic aim is permanent antiretroviral therapy as well as early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections. Magnetic resonance imaging is often the diagnostic method of choice in suspected CNS pathology of HIV patients. In the following, the typical clinical and radiological features of several AIDS-related pathologies are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  7. The patients' written word: a simple communication aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Thomas; Falk, Stephen; Dieppe, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Effective doctor-patient communication is an essential part of good medical practice. Question asking is one way for patients to have greater participation. In this feasibility study, patients were given the opportunity to list questions or discussion topics on a proforma before seeing the doctor in an oncology outpatient clinic. The items listed were reviewed by the clinic doctor. Eighty-eight of 100 patients approached agreed to participate. Biomedical questions (mean 2.0 per patient) predominated over psychosocial ones (mean 0.1 per patient). Possible reasons for this are the study researcher being a doctor, patients attending for test results or that patients consider the format of listing questions on a proforma inappropriate for psychosocial issues. The listing of questions and discussion topics by patients gave the doctor valuable information about the patients' understanding and use of language. While the importance of doctors being adequately trained in communication skills should not be ignored, this simple intervention has potential for improving the outcome of clinic consultations. PMID:15288914

  8. Plasmablastic Lymphoma in a Previously Undiagnosed Aids Patient: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Francisco O.; El Gandour, Omar; Buadi, Francis K.; Williams, Glenn B.; Shires, Courtney B.; Zafar, Nadeem

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an unusual non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) most commonly found in the head and neck region. The majority of cases are seen in adult HIV-positive patients, although PBL has been reported in HIV-negative patients. The diagnosis of PBL serves as an AIDS-defining illness. Methods We report a case of PBL localized to the oral cavity in a previously undiagnosed AIDS patient. The lesion manifested as solitary, ulcerated, and markedly tender. PBL was confirmed by...

  9. Salvage trial of trimetrexate-leucovorin for the treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masur, H; Polis, M A; Tuazon, C U;

    1993-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of trimetrexate, a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor with potent in vitro antitoxoplasma activity, was assessed in 9 sulfonamide-intolerant patients with AIDS and biopsy-proven cerebral toxoplasmosis. The 9 patients were treated for 28-149 days with trimetrexate (30-280 mg/m2...... doses for extended periods was not associated with serious toxicity. Trimetrexate alone had dramatic but transient activity in sulfonamide-intolerant patients and thus is not adequate as single-agent therapy for AIDS-associated toxoplasmosis....

  10. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Gook Huh; Myoung-Don Oh; You-Sun Kim; Jong-Sung Lee; Tae-Yeob Jeong; Soo-Hyung Ryu; Jung-Hwan Lee; Jeong-Seop Moon; Yun-Kyung Kang; Myung-Shup Shim

    2008-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients.Among the NTM,Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients.However,NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet.We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.

  11. Antiretrovirall drugs accessibility to HIV/AIDS patients in Bamako, Mali (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THESIS ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUG ACCESSIBILITY TO HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN BAMAKO, MALI (West Africa) Background The republic of Mali is a landlocked country located in West Africa. The national HIV infection prevalence rate was 1.7% in 2001 and still below 2% in 2004. In Mali, ARV drugs are free of charge for HIV/AIDS patients. By the end of 2005 there were 6 000 HIV-infected patients receiving ART out of 22 000 in need (32% coverage). By 2006, it was 37% of coverage. Do these pa...

  12. Immuno-virological discordance and the risk of non-AIDS and AIDS events in a large observational cohort of HIV-patients in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoufaly, A.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Reekie, J.; Kirk, O.; Lundgren, J.; Reiss, P.; Jevtovic, D.; Machala, L.; Zangerle, R.; Mocroft, A.; Lunzen, J. van; Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with

  13. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis in an AIDS patient Paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada con peripleuritis en paciente con SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Corti; María F. Villafañe; Ricardo Negroni; Omar Palmieri

    2004-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is one of the most frequent systemic and endemic mycoses of Latin America caused by a dimorphic fungus. In AIDS patients, paracoccidioidomycosis appears as a severe and disseminated disease with a wide spectrum of clinical findings. The CD4 counts are usually less than 200 cell/mu L. We present a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with peripleuritis and subcutaneous abscesses on the chest wall as initial manifestation of AIDS. In endemic countries, paracoccidio...

  14. Tuberculous cerebritis and tuberculoma in a patient with AIDS: Literature review and case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abrishamkar

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculous brain cerebritis, abscess and tuberculoma in AIDS patients are considered as rare conditions and only few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case is a 28-year-old man with AIDS and previous systemic tuberculosis, denied by him and his family. He was admitted to our department due to headache, hemiparesis and seizures. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan disclosed a frontal hypodense lesion with a non-homogenous contrast enhancement that was reported as ...

  15. Clinical and radiological deterioration in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradoxical clinical deterioration of miliary tuberculosis, characterized by pulmonary and abdominal manifestations, is reported in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, after initiation of treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Paradoxical reaction was attributed to partial restoration of cell-mediated immunity related to highly effective antiretroviral therapy. Because tuberculosis has a high prevalence in HIV patients and tuberculosis is often characterized by miliary spreading of disease in these patients, it is important to recognize this phenomenon. (orig.)

  16. Assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids no Brasil Health care to HIV/AIDS patients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Crisóstomo Portela

    2006-04-01

    Drug Logistics Management Systems of the National Program for STD/AIDS. The study results indicate good performance of the Brazilian ARV Access Program but access to treatment of opportunistic infections was, however, unsatisfactory. The rates covered by SUS for AIDS hospital admissions remained very low, on average around R$700 in 2004. Health care to HIV/AIDS patients has been considered a citizen's right strongly supported by an effective joint action of the Brazilian government and civil society. The current challenges are fine monitoring of processes and program results and ensuring sustainability of universal free ARV access.

  17. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  18. The Role of Spirituality in Quality of Life Patients with AIDS/HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nikmanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: AIDS will change route of life people with disease and to be cause loss of self – esteem, increased vulnerability feeling and confusion thoughts in their. The purpose of this study is investigating the role of spirituality in quality of life of patients with AIDS/HIV. Methods: This study was conducted with a sample of 43 patients with AIDS/HIV in Sistan & Baluchestan province in 1390 that had been selected via method of available sampling. Spirituality was measured using the Spirituality Questionnaire (Parsian and Dunning, 2009 and quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient,s stepwise multiple regression, t Test and ANOVA. Results: The study results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between spirituality and quality of life, but there is no significant relationship between demographic variables (gender, marital status, age, and disease duration and quality of life. Results of regression analyses indicated that component of self-awareness is best predictor of physical health, psychological health and social relationships. Also, there was a significant difference among male and female patients in quality of life. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be deduced that spirituality has an impact on quality of life in patients with AIDS/HIV, and it can be used as a coping method for improving mental health and increasing quality of patients' life with AIDS/HIV

  19. Variation in chromosome copy number influences the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans and occurs in isolates from AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guanggan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptation of pathogenic fungi to the host environment via large-scale genomic changes is a poorly characterized phenomenon. Cryptococcus neoformans is the leading cause of fungal meningoencephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients, and we recently discovered clinical strains of the fungus that are disomic for chromosome 13. Here, we examined the genome plasticity and phenotypes of monosomic and disomic strains, and compared their virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis Results In an initial set of strains, melanin production was correlated with monosomy at chromosome 13, and disomic variants were less melanized and attenuated for virulence in mice. After growth in culture or passage through mice, subsequent strains were identified that varied in melanin formation and exhibited copy number changes for other chromosomes. The correlation between melanin and disomy at chromosome 13 was observed for some but not all strains. A survey of environmental and clinical isolates maintained in culture revealed few occurrences of disomic chromosomes. However, an examination of isolates that were freshly collected from the cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients and minimally cultured provided evidence for infections with multiple strains and copy number variation. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that the genome of C. neoformans exhibits a greater degree of plasticity than previously appreciated. Furthermore, the expression of an essential virulence factor and the severity of disease are associated with genome variation. The occurrence of chromosomal variation in isolates from AIDS patients, combined with the observed influence of disomy on virulence, indicates that genome plasticity may have clinical relevance.

  20. A Comparative Study of HIV/AIDS: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behaviors of Schizophrenic and Diabetic Patients in Regard to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunsemi Olawale O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophrenic patients and diabetic patients. Methods Ninety-eight consecutive schizophrenic patients attending the outpatient clinics of a psychiatric hospital over a period of 8 weeks completed an interviewer's administered questionnaire. The interview covered demographics, risk behaviors, knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and patients' attitudes toward people infected with HIV/AIDS. Their responses were compared with those of 56 diabetic patients who were similarly interviewed in a teaching hospital. Results Compared with the diabetic patients, the schizophrenic patients were significantly less sexually active in the previous 12 months (P Conclusion Mental health providers rarely educate psychiatric patients about HIV/AIDS and should be more involved in doing so. Despite being less sexually active, patients with schizophrenia engaged in risk behaviors as did the diabetic patients.

  1. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS *

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mônica; Vilasboas, Virginia; Mendes, Luciana; Talhari, Carolina; Talhari, Sinésio

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few in...

  2. First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

    2014-06-01

    Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

  3. Vibrant Soundbridge and Bone Conduction Hearing Aid in Patients with Bilateral Malformation of External Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343

  4. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS Sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico em paciente com Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few indolent lesions to an aggressive diffuse disease. Advanced Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, typically those on the lower extremities, are often associated with lymphedema. In this paper, we report a case of a patient with a rare form of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma called lymphangiectatic Kaposis's sarcoma.O sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia originária do endotélio linfatico, que apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações, com quatro formas clínicas: sarcoma de Kaposi clássico, endêmico, iatrogêncio e epidêmico ou associado ao HIV. Em pacientes imunocompetentes, a doença é tipicamente limitada às extremidades. Porém em pacientes imunideprimidos, o sarcoma de Kaposi é uma doença sistêmica multifocal. Apresenta cursos clínicos diferentes, desde simples lesões cutâneas isoladas até lesões agressivas e difusas, com ou sem envolvimento sistêmico. Lesões avançadas de sarcoma de Kaposi, principalmente as localizadas nas extremidades, podem apresentar linfedema. Neste trabalho, reportamos caso de paciente com forma rara de Sarcoma de Kaposi associado a Aids, chamada de sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico.

  5. Assessment of the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids patients

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Cidral; Waldirene Fernandes Silva; Angelita Visentin; Angela Cristina da Silva Borghi; Maria de Fátima Mantovani; Ana Paula Hey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids. Metod: study quantitative descriptive with 35 patients admitted to an infectious diseases hospital in Curitiba-PR-BR. Characterized clinical and epidemiological of patients using a data collection instrument and the Braden Scale. Data was compiled using Excel® and a simple descriptive analysis. Results: two patients were found to have pressure ulcers and the most common comorbidities associate...

  6. Serological markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with HIV/AIDS and active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito B; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Barreto, Silvana; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima Pessoa Militão

    2016-06-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife. J. Med. Virol. 88:996-1002, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26580855

  7. HRCT in AIDS patients presenting with acute pulmonary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of HRCT of the lung in patients with known HIV-infection and acute lung disease. In a prospective study a HRCT was performed in 31 patients infected with the HIV-1 virus, mainly stage C (CDC), who had acute pulmonary symptoms. Precondition for the HRCT examination was a normal or non-specific chest radiograph. A provoked sputum as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and/or transbronchial biopsy were performed concurrently. In 24 out of 31 cases a pathogenic organism was identified. 19 of these 24 patients showed abnormal HRCT findings. The most frequent pathogenic organism was Pneumocystis carinii (n=12). 9 out of these 12 patients (75%) showed pathological HRCT findings consisting of ground-glass opacity. Specific patterns of attenuation could not be worked out except for Pneumocystis carinii infection. Compared to bronchoalveolar lavage, the diagnostic value of HRCT is inferior; it is however helpful in the early stage of disease, when the pathogenic organism has not yet been identified, HRCT may demonstrate parenchymal abnormalities in patients with normal radiographic findings. Compared to bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum, HRCT can provide conclusive results within a short time. (orig.)

  8. Utilization of the Health Ministry recommended services by Iranian HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashi AH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Behavioral Consultation Centers are the main organizations responsible for providing HIV/AIDS patients with services according to the Iranian Ministry of Health guidelines. In this study we assessed provision of these supposed services to Iranian HIV/AIDS patients referring to Behavioral Consultation Centers. "nMethods: One hundred seventy one clinical files were selected by systematic random sampling from the files of all new HIV/AIDS patients accepted at Imam Khomeini behavioral consultation center who were registered during 2005-2006 and were followed for at least six months. Data were extracted from files and included consultation, vaccination, laboratory and treatment services. "nResults: Family planning and HIV prevention methods consultation were performed for 32.5% and 2.29% of patients respectively. CD4 count was done for 69% of patients. 65.6% of patients who needed anti-retroviral treatment were given medication. Hepatitis B and Td vaccination were done for 21.7% and 3.5% of patients respectively. Coverage of pneumococal and influenza vaccinations was less than 5%. 79.5% of patients who needs tuberculosis prophylaxis were given medication. TB case finding was 14% during one year and the cure rate for patients under anti TB treatment were 95.8%. "nConclusion: Coverage of consultations and vaccination services are very low. Antiretroviral therapy coverage is intermediate. TB case finding and its cure rate are appropriate.

  9. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in an AIDS Patient without Concurrent Pulmonary Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen T Liu

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS are potentially at increased risk for developing secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis because of underlying immunosuppression and frequent opportunistic lung infections. This condition. however, has been diagnosed uncommonly in these patients and, with the exception of one previously reported case. only in the presence of concurrent pulmonary infection. The case of a 35-year-old male with AIDS who was found on open lung biopsy to have pulmonary alveolar proteinosis without evidence of associated lung infection is presented.

  10. [Disseminated Pneumocystis carinii infection: clinico-pathologic findings in an AIDS patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdès, E; Borzoni, F; Onnis, D; Piras, S; Vespa, A; Varsi, C

    1994-12-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PcP) is the most frequent cause of death in AIDS patients. Systemic diffusion of this microorganism is a rare event, mostly reported in patients receiving prophylactic aerosol therapy. The case here described is relative to a 29 years old man with AIDS, dead short by after hospital admission. Radiological and ecoscan examinations revealed structural subversion of liver and spleen, with frequent parenchymal calcification. Post mortem histological examination of lung, liver, spleen, heart, bone marrow, lymph nodes, kidney and hypophysis identified the presence of Pc, confirmed by monoclonal specified antibody immunostaining. PMID:7617399

  11. The compassion of concealment: silence between older caregivers and dying patients in the AIDS era, northwest Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Klerk

    2012-01-01

    In northwest Tanzania, where AIDS has been present for 25 years, AIDS-related illness is a trigger through which community members discuss personal experiences of loss and assess social relationships. The terminal phase of AIDS demands intimate social relations between patients and caretakers. In th

  12. Neurocognitive features in male patients with schizophrenia exhibiting serious violence: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Kuroki, Noriomi; Ikezawa, Satoru; Matsushita, Masateru; Ishikawa, Masanori; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Ikeda, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between violence and neurocognitive function in schizophrenia is unclear. We examined the backgrounds and neurocognitive functions of violent and nonviolent patients with schizophrenia to identify factors associated with serious violence. Methods Thirty male patients with schizophrenia who were hospitalized after committing serious violent acts were compared with 24 hospitalized male patients with schizophrenia and no history of violence. We evaluated psychiatric s...

  13. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Thomas, Benjamin A.; Lambrou, Tryphon; Hutton, Brian F.; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I.; Afaq, Asim; Ell, Peter J.; Groves, Ashley M. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Radiology Department, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Porter, Joanna C. [University College London, Centre for Respiratory Diseases, University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Maher, Toby M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Lukey, Pauline [GSK, Fibrosis DPU, Research and Development, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p < 0.001). The TF-corrected mean SUV in the controls was 2.24 ± 0.29 and 3.24 ± 0.84 in IPF patients (p < 0.001). IPF patients have increased pulmonary uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  14. First aid strategy for severe traumatic patients in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Neng-ping; FANG Wei-min; GU Yong-feng; LU Xiao-bing; CONG Jian-nong; HUI Xiao-ping; LIN Zhao-fen; LI Wen-fang; YANG Xing-yi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the emergency management principles of severe trauma in hospital (injury severity score ≥ 16).Methods: We used "ATP principle" to manage severe traumatic patients. The ATP principle is composed of: 1) attending surgeons offering initial management (A);2 ) teamwork commencement immediately after patients admitted to hospital (T);3) parallel principle, ie,emergency resuscitation, evaluation and laboratory test performed simultaneously (P). Clinical effects before and after applying ATP principle were retrospectively analyzed and compared.Results: During January 1, 2002 to December 31,2003, 338 patients were treated without applying ATP principle, in which ISS was 25.9±6.4, 152 cases died with the mortality being 39.2%, and the time stayed in emergency department and the time to operation room after admission were (102.8±16.7) rmin, (140.3 ±20.6) min,respectively. During January 1, 2004 to December 31,2005, 438 patients were treated based on ATP principle, in which ISS was 28.6±7.8, 87 cases died with the mortality being 19.9%, and the time in emergency department and the time to operation room after admission were (69.5 ±11.5) min, (89.6 ±9.3) min, respectively. ISS showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05),but the mortality, the time stayed in emergency department and the time to operation room after admission were greatly reduced and showed significant difference between the two groups (P <0.05).Conclusions: Applying ATP principle to treat severe traumatic patients can shorten emergency treatment time in hospital and decrease mortality.

  15. Cold urticaria patients exhibit normal skin levels of functional mast cells and histamine after tolerance induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring Tannert, Line; Stahl Skov, Per; Bjerremann Jensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    Cold urticaria is a skin condition characterized by rapid appearance of itchy wheals and occasionally angioedema in response to cold stimulation. Antihistamines do not sufficiently protect all patients from symptoms, even when used in higher than standard doses. In these patients, desensitization...

  16. Development of a patient decision aid for type 2 diabetes mellitus for patients not achieving glycemic control on metformin alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillington AC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia C Shillington,1 Nananda Col,2 Robert A Bailey,3 Mark A Jewell11EPI-Q, Inc., Oak Brook, IL, USA; 2Shared Decision-making Resources, Georgetown, ME, USA; 3Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USAPurpose: To describe the process used to develop an evidence-based patient decision aid (PDA that facilitates shared decision-making for treatment intensification in inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM consistent with International Patient Decision Aids Standards.Methods: A PDA was developed by a multidisciplinary steering committee of clinicians, patient advocate, nurse, certified diabetes educators, and decision scientist, using a systematic development process. The process included defining the PDA scope and purpose, outlining the framework, content creation, and designing for integration into clinical practice. This was accomplished through a review of the literature and publically available educational materials and input from practicing clinicians and patients during development and iteratively refining content based on input. Patients with poorly controlled T2DM on metformin considering additional medication assessed the PDA during a pilot.Results: Testing identified six preference-sensitive domains important for choosing T2DM treatment: degree of glycemic response, avoiding weight gain, hypoglycemia risk and other adverse events, avoiding injections, convenience of dose administration, blood glucose monitoring, and cost of therapy. Patient feedback guided content revision. Treatment options were offered after presenting medication class risk–benefit information and eliciting patient values, goals, and preferences. The PDA received the highest International Patient Decision Aids Standards global score to date, 88/100, with 100% of criteria fully met for the following dimensions: development process, disclosures, evaluation process, evidence quality, guidance for users, information quality, language

  17. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  18. Burkitt's lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS Linfoma de Burkitt do duodeno em um paciente com AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell type is the second most common neoplasm after Kaposi's sarcoma, among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases that are associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome involve extranodal sites, especially the digestive tract and the central nervous system. We report a case of primary lymphoma of the duodenum in a patient with AIDS. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed pseudopolypoid masses found in the second portion of the duodenum. A complete diagnostic study including histological, immunohistochemical and virological analyses showed high-grade B-cell Burkitt's lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus genome was detected in biopsies by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization.O linfoma não-Hodgkin de células B é a segunda neoplasia mais comum em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana depois do sarcoma de Kaposi. A maioria dos casos de linfoma não-Hodgkin associados com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida envolve locais extraganglionares, especialmente o trato digestivo e o sistema nervoso central. Nós relatamos um caso de linfoma primário do duodeno em um paciente com AIDS. Uma endoscopia digestiva alta mostrou massas pseudopolipóides encontradas na segunda porção do duodeno. Um estudo diagnóstico completo incluindo exames histológicos, imunohistoquímicos e virológicos mostrou um linfoma de células B tipo Burkitt. Detectou-se genoma do vírus Epstein-Barr em biópsias por hibridização in situ e imuno-histoquímica.

  19. Areas of normal pulmonary parenchyma on HRCT exhibit increased FDG PET signal in IPF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show increased PET signal at sites of morphological abnormality on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the PET signal at sites of normal-appearing lung on HRCT in IPF. Consecutive IPF patients (22 men, 3 women) were prospectively recruited. The patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/HRCT. The pulmonary imaging findings in the IPF patients were compared to the findings in a control population. Pulmonary uptake of 18F-FDG (mean SUV) was quantified at sites of morphologically normal parenchyma on HRCT. SUVs were also corrected for tissue fraction (TF). The mean SUV in IPF patients was compared with that in 25 controls (patients with lymphoma in remission or suspected paraneoplastic syndrome with normal PET/CT appearances). The pulmonary SUV (mean ± SD) uncorrected for TF in the controls was 0.48 ± 0.14 and 0.78 ± 0.24 taken from normal lung regions in IPF patients (p 18F-FDG on PET in areas of lung with a normal morphological appearance on HRCT. This may have implications for determining disease mechanisms and treatment monitoring. (orig.)

  20. Usefulness of recombinant human TSH aided radioiodine doses administered in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The published studies confirming the safety and efficacy of rh TSH for diagnostic purposes have led to an increased interest in its use for preparation for radioiodine (RI) dose administration in patients with recurrent or persistent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). In order to establish the efficacy of RI therapy after rh TSH, we have reviewed 39 rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatments in a series of 28 DTC patients. Patients were divided into two groups: GI (n=17), with previous thyroid bed uptake and undetectable thyroglobulin (Tg) levels under levothyroxine treatment and GII (n=11), with proven metastatic local or distant disease. Median follow-up after the first rh TSH-aided radioiodine treatment was 32 ± 13 months (range 8 to 54 months). Sixteen patients (94%) in GI were rendered disease free and one patient was shown to have persistent disease. In GII, the post therapy whole body scan showed pathological uptakes in all cases: in four patients in lungs, in four in mediastinum and in three in lateral neck. In two patients with mediastinum uptake, Tg levels were undetectable after rh TSH. In the follow-up, two patients with lateral neck uptake were rendered disease free, four patients died (three due to thyroid cancer) and five out of the remaining patients have persistent disease. In conclusion, rh TSH aided therapy was helpful to eliminate normal thyroid bed remnants in 16/17 (94%) patients (GI). rh TSH stimulated Tg was undetectable in two patients with mediastinal metastasis. We believe that rh TSH is a good alternative to levothyroxine withdrawal for the treatment of DTC with radioactive iodine, increasing the quality of life in these patients. Caution should be recommended in the follow-up of unselected DTC patients only with stimulated Tg levels. (author)

  1. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient.

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, R J; Tandy, M W; Boreham, R E; Stenzel, D. J.; O'Donoghue, P J

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic examination of feces from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with chronic diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy revealed the presence of numerous refractile bodies resembling microsporidian spores. They were subsequently identified as belonging to the genus Nosema on the basis of their ultrastructural characteristics. However, the microsporidia were enclosed within striated muscle cells, suggesting that they were probably ingested in food; thus, this represented an i...

  2. Nef does not contribute to replication differences between R5 pre-AIDS and AIDS HIV-1 clones from patient ACH142

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekosh David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIDS-associated, CCR5-tropic (R5 HIV-1 clones, isolated from a patient that never developed CXCR4-tropic HIV-1, replicate to a greater extent and cause greater cytopathic effects than R5 HIV-1 clones isolated before the onset of AIDS. Previously, we showed that HIV-1 Env substantially contributed to the enhanced replication of an AIDS clone. In order to determine if Nef makes a similar contribution, we cloned and phenotypically analyzed nef genes from a series of patient ACH142 derived R5 HIV-1 clones. The AIDS-associated Nef contains a series of residues found in Nef proteins from progressors 1. In contrast to other reports 123, this AIDS-associated Nef downmodulated MHC-I to a greater extent and CD4 less than pre-AIDS Nef proteins. Additionally, all Nef proteins enhanced infectivity similarly in a single round of replication. Combined with our previous study, these data show that evolution of the HIV-1 env gene, but not the nef gene, within patient ACH142 significantly contributed to the enhanced replication and cytopathic effects of the AIDS-associated R5 HIV-1 clone.

  3. Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. McNamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn − 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n − 3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n − 3, has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ. In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n=20 and age-matched healthy controls (n=24. Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5% was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, −22%, P=0.007. The majority of SZ patients (72% exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P=0.001. In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n−6 (+9%, P=0.02 and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P=0.0004 were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n−6 was significantly lower (−12%, P=0.009 and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (−19%, P=0.04 but not female (−13%, P=0.33 SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P=0.008 and female (+22%, P=0.04 SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn − 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  4. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  5. Responder and nonresponder patients exhibit different peripheral transcriptional signatures during major depressive episode

    OpenAIRE

    Belzeaux, R; Bergon, A; Jeanjean, V; Loriod, B; Formisano-Tréziny, C; Verrier, L.; Loundou, A; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Boyer, L.; Gall, V; Gabert, J; Nguyen, C.; Azorin, J-M.; Naudin, J; Ibrahim, E C

    2012-01-01

    To date, it remains impossible to guarantee that short-term treatment given to a patient suffering from a major depressive episode (MDE) will improve long-term efficacy. Objective biological measurements and biomarkers that could help in predicting the clinical evolution of MDE are still warranted. To better understand the reason nearly half of MDE patients respond poorly to current antidepressive treatments, we examined the gene expression profile of peripheral blood samples collected from 1...

  6. The functional status of patients with AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Thejus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the functional status of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS registered in the Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART center. Materials and Methods: Design: Descriptive study. Study setting: ART center in Calicut Medical College, Kerala, India. Subjects: Cohorts of AIDS patients attending the ART center during the year 2007. Data collection: Done prospectively from the secondary data available from the center. Outcome measures: The demographic, morbidity, functional status and laboratory parameters were collected. Data processing was done using Excel datasheet and analysis were done using Epi info 2003. Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients received care during this period; 69% were males. The mean age was 38±9 years; 80% of them were married and in 50% of their spouses also tested positive for HIV. The mean CD4 count was 127 cells/microliter. The majority (90% were categorized as WHO Stage 3 or 4 of HIV. Only 52% of them were able to perform their usual work in or outside their house; the rest were not able to lead an economically productive life. Thirty-six per cent were only able to perform activities of daily living; 12% were bedridden.The functional status of the patients positively correlated with WHO disease stage ( P = < 0-0001, and CD4 count and hemoglobin levels negatively correlated with staging ( P = < 0.001. 62% are having any of the opportunistic infections. Conclusion: Fifty per cent of the AIDS patients are disabled and need support and care. As AIDS is a growing problem, community-based palliative care for AIDS patients should be strengthened in India.

  7. Frequency of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection among Iranian Patients with HIV/AIDS by PPD Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Persons infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are particularly susceptible to tuberculosis, either by latent infection reactivation or by a primary infection with rapid progression to active disease. This study was done to determine the frequency of tuberculosis infection among Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS. A total of 262 HIV/AIDS patients attending all three HIV/AIDS health care centers of Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. A detailed history and physical examination were obtained from all HIV patients suspected of having pulmonary M. tuberculosis. A positive PPD skin test was used as a diagnostic parameter for probability of TB infection. Out of 262 HIV/AIDS patients, a total of 63 (24% were shown to have the tuberculosis infection based on a positive PPD skin test. Of the patients with positive PPD skin test, 22 (35% had pulmonary Tuberculosis, 2 (3.2% had extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and 39 (53% had no evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (latent infection. Also 8 (12.7% had history of long term residence in a foreign country, 32 (50.8% were exposed to an index case, and 9 (14.3% had past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, while only 33.3% had clinical manifestations of TB (active disease. There was no resistant case of tuberculosis. Our study showed that near 24% of Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS were infected with M. tuberculosis. This finding denotes the need to improve the diagnostic and preventive measures, and also prompt treatment of this type of infection in the HIV infected individuals.

  8. MRI of infections and neoplasms of the spine and spinal cord in 55 patients with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M. [Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Post, M.J.D. [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Jinkins, J.R. [Neuroimaging Research, Department of Radiology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Our purpose was to describe the range of MRI findings in infectious and neoplastic involvement of the spine and spinal cord in symptomatic patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). MRI studies in 55 patients with AIDS and neurological signs and symptoms thought to be related to the spine or spinal cord were reviewed. We categorized the findings according to the spinal compartment involved. There were 29 patients with extradural, 11 with intradural-extramedullary and 9 with intramedullary disease. In 6 patients more than one compartment was involved simultaneously, and patients presented with multiple lesions in the same compartment. The most common causes of extradural disease were bone lesions (28); an epidural mass was seen in 14 and spondylodiscitis in 4 patients. Cytomegalovirus polyradiculitis was the most common cause of intradural-extramedullary disease (in 10 cases); herpes radiculitis was seen in two, and tuberculous infection in another two. In three cases leptomeningeal contrast enhancement was due to lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) myelitis was seen in two patients, presumed vacuolar myelopathy in two, toxoplasma myelitis in four, intramedullary lymphoma in one, and herpes myelitis in one. Familiarity with the various potential pathological entities that can affect the spine and spinal cord in the AIDS population and their imaging characteristics is crucial for initiation of further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  9. MRI of infections and neoplasms of the spine and spinal cord in 55 patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to describe the range of MRI findings in infectious and neoplastic involvement of the spine and spinal cord in symptomatic patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). MRI studies in 55 patients with AIDS and neurological signs and symptoms thought to be related to the spine or spinal cord were reviewed. We categorized the findings according to the spinal compartment involved. There were 29 patients with extradural, 11 with intradural-extramedullary and 9 with intramedullary disease. In 6 patients more than one compartment was involved simultaneously, and patients presented with multiple lesions in the same compartment. The most common causes of extradural disease were bone lesions (28); an epidural mass was seen in 14 and spondylodiscitis in 4 patients. Cytomegalovirus polyradiculitis was the most common cause of intradural-extramedullary disease (in 10 cases); herpes radiculitis was seen in two, and tuberculous infection in another two. In three cases leptomeningeal contrast enhancement was due to lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) myelitis was seen in two patients, presumed vacuolar myelopathy in two, toxoplasma myelitis in four, intramedullary lymphoma in one, and herpes myelitis in one. Familiarity with the various potential pathological entities that can affect the spine and spinal cord in the AIDS population and their imaging characteristics is crucial for initiation of further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  10. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy service; an aid to patient management

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marathe, N

    2016-02-01

    The study illustrates advantages of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy, a new service started at St. Luke’s General Hospital in patient care since April 2014. Retrospective review of Bronchoscopies and referrals to Tertiary care unit for Bronchoscopy, prior and after initiation of service at St. Luke’s Hospital were studied. In total, 106 procedures were performed out of which 103(98%) were for diagnostic purpose. Common indications for bronchoscopy were functional airway assessment in 38 cases (35%) of chronic cough, 26 cases (24.8%) of suspected malignancy. The average time taken for procedure was 15 + 1 minute with overall rate of complication recorded in 1 case (0.95%). 32(30%) inpatients were referred before bronchoscopy services were started locally. Fifteen (14%) patients were referred for Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) after diagnostic procedure performed at St. Luke’s Hospital. To conclude, Bronchoscopy is a safe procedure used for diagnosis of various Lung conditions. The services offered locally reduced the time and cost involved in referrals. The diagnostic bronchoscopies performed for malignancy at St. Luke’s Hospital have rightly increased references for EBUS at Tertiary care Unit

  11. Radiotherapy of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From August 1986 to May 1989, 15 patients suffering from Kaposi's sarcoma and serologically proven HIV infections were treated in the Department of Radiotherapy, University of Cologne, Medical Hospital. All patients were male and homosexual. Therapeutic objectives were palliation of pain and functional impairment as well as elimination of the cosmetically disturbing Kaposi's sarcoma. 68 localizations (facial skin, torso, extremities, sole of the foot, penis, oral mucosa and oropharynx) were irradiated. Depending on the individual therapy regimen, photons or high-energy electrons up to a total dose of 26 to 40 Gy, with single doses of 1.8 to 2.5 Gy were applied four to five times a week. In 66% of the cases, complete remission was achieved within the area of irradiation at the dermal or mucosal level, with at most a discrete residual pigmentation of the cluster remaining. Partial remission with at least 50% regression or a distinctive residual pigmentation was achieved in 31%. In 3% of the cases, a less than 50% regression of the Kaposi's lesions were achieved after radiotherapy. There were five local recurrences. Treatment with radiation is an effective local therapy in epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma and yields good functional and cosmetic results and also provides relief from pain. (orig.)

  12. Computer aided diagnosis in digital chest radiography: evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giuseppe; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Paterni, Marco; Tonelli, Lucia; Bauleo, Carolina; Monti, Simonetta; Miniati, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided quantitative analysis of chest radiographs is a useful tool in describing alterations in lung shape that occur in patients with emphysema. In the present study, the analysis was limited to the lateral chest radiograph, but we expect that the use of the postero-anterior view may further improve the rate of correct classification.

  13. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    REINA, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; RIBEIRO, Camila Aparecida; de ARAÚJO, Ronalda Silva; Maria Helena MATTÉ; CASTANHO, Roberto Esteves Pires; TANAKA, Ioshie Ibara; Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas VIGGIANI; MARTINS, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2016-01-01

    We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  14. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  15. Canadian Consensus Recommendations for the Optimal Use of Enfuvirtide in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rachlis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: An eight-member group consisting of Canadian infectious disease and immunology specialists and a family physician with significant experience in HIV management was convened to update existing recommendations, specifically intended for use by Canadian HIV-treating physicians, on the appropriate use of enfuvirtide in HIV/AIDS patients with resistance to other antiretroviral drugs.

  16. Plasmid profile of bacteria isolated from tears of HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O B Ajayi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the presence and transfer of plasmids in bacteria isolated from tears of HIV/AIDS patients, their sensitivity and resistance to commercially available antibiotics. Design: This was a cross sectional experimental study. Materials and methods:One hundred tears samples from HIV/ AIDS patients and fifty tears samples from HIV/AIDS negative patients were screened for resistance to 14 commercially available antibiotics using disc diffusion method. Result: Three multiple antibiotics resistant strains of staphylococcus aureus and four multiple antibiotics resistance strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. staphylococcus aureus strains showed 100% resistance to Ampiclox and erythromycin, 66.6% to Perfloxacin, amoxicillin and septrin, 33.33% to ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains showed 100% resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, septrin and chloramphenicol. Only I strain of staphylococcus aureus showed presence of plasmid which was not transferable to Escherichia coli because of presence of disulphide cross--linked cell wall. Other strains of both staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained resistant after curing . Conclusion: Further studies are needed in this area to show if antibiotic resistance in HIV/AIDS positive patients could be as a result of plasmid as well as other factors.

  17. Co-infection of disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis in an AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tomazini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, recognized as an AIDS-defining illness since the Center for Disease Control’s revision criteria in 1985. This infection is reported to be present in 5-20% of AIDS patients, and in 95% of the cases it is manifested in its disseminated form. Serum antibodies and/or antigen research can make diagnosis, but the demonstration of the agent by culture or histopathological examination remains the gold standard methods. Co-infections in patients with AIDS are well known; however, reports on disseminated tuberculosis and histoplasmosis are scarce. The authors report the case of a female patient who presented a short-course history of weight loss, fever, and mild respiratory symptoms, with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Laboratory workup called attention to anemia, altered liver, canalicular enzymes, liver function tests, high titer of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and pulmonary nodules on thoracic computed tomography. Incidental finding of yeast forms within the leukocytes during a routine blood cell count highlighted the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The patient started receiving amphotericin B but succumbed soon after. The authors emphasize the possibility of this co-infection, the diagnosis of severe infection through the finding of yeast forms within peripheral leukocytes, and for the high titer of LDH in aiding the differential diagnosis.

  18. Evaluation of disease patterns, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atomiya Angela Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of tuberculosis in 100 patients co-infected with AIDS at Casa da AIDS clinic was studied. Demographic characteristics were as follows: 76 male patients, 24 female patients, 67 caucasian, average 35.8 years-old (SD ± 8.5. Sexual transmission of HIV was reported in 68 patients. Pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in 40 patients, extrapulmonary in 11, and combined in 49 patients. In 63 patients, TCD4+ counts were below 200/mm³ when tuberculosis was diagnosed. Fifty-five patients had their diagnoses confirmed by bacteriological identification of Mycobacterium; either through direct observation and/or culture. Tuberculosis was treated with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in 60 patients, reinforced treatment in 14 and alternative treatment in the other 13 patients. Tuberculosis therapy lasted up to 9 months in 66% of the patients. Fifty-four patients were treated with a two-drug antiretroviral regimen and the remaining 46 patients received a triple regimen, which included a protease inhibitor. Among the latter, 35 patients were co-treated with rifampin. The occurrence of hepatic liver enzyme abnormalities was statistically related to alternative antiretroviral regimens (p = 0.01 and to the co-administration of rifampin and protease inhibitor (p = 0.019. Clinical resolution of tuberculosis was obtained in 74 patients. Twelve patients died during tuberculosis treatment. Resolution of tuberculosis was statistically significant related to antituberculosis treatment adherence (p = 0.001. The risk of no response to the treatment was 1.84 times more frequent among patients treated with alternative regimens regardless of the duration of the therapy. We conclude that the characteristics of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients requires that special attention be directed to the types and duration of both antiretroviral and anti-TB therapy in order to achieve the highest level of care.

  19. Anti-HIV antibodies in the CSF of AIDS patients: a serological and immunoblotting study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukasa, K S; Sindic, Christian; Bodéus, Monique; Burtonboy, Guy; Laterre, C; Sonnet, J.

    1988-01-01

    CSF and serum samples from 16 AIDS patients were tested for the presence of anti-HIV antibodies either by classical serological methods or by an immunoblot technique based on agarose gel isoelectric focusing and transfer of the specific IgG antibodies onto HIV antigens-loaded nitrocellulose sheets. This method enabled the demonstration of an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HIV oligoclonal IgG antibodies, often superimposed on diffuse polyclonal production, in 14 patients. The two negative cases...

  20. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, M.; Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  1. The difficult, demanding, and demented AIDS patient in long-term care

    OpenAIRE

    DUBLER, NANCY NEVELOFF

    2000-01-01

    Demented AIDS patients in long-term care present interconnected medical, ethical, and management problems. The patient's right to care must be considered in the context of the obligations owed to other residents and to staff members. A principled analysis should focus on substantive and procedural issues: the concept of autonomy must be modified by notions of accommodation to the needs of others; procedural fairness should guide discussions. A dynamic analysis should identify the various part...

  2. Neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with AIDS-associated Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Kharazmi, A; Larsen, C G; Lundgren, J D

    1997-01-01

    been shown to confer a poor prognosis in PCP. We therefore investigated the potential of BAL fluid from 17 patients with PCP to induce neutrophil chemotaxis. BAL fluid from patients induced considerable neutrophil chemotactic activity compared to normal controls. Elevated levels of IL-8 were detected...... in patient samples as compared to controls. A specific anti-IL-8 antibody significantly reduced chemotactic activity of patient samples by more than 50%. In conclusion, IL-8 appears to be a significant participant of neutrophil chemotaxis in AIDS-associated PCP, and may participate in the recruitment...

  3. Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Yael; Tickle, Timothy L; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Kim, Mi-Ok; Tang, Dora; Karns, Rebekah; Baldassano, Robert N; Noe, Joshua D; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Heyman, Melvin B; Griffiths, Anne M; Crandall, Wallace V; Mack, David R; Baker, Susan S; Huttenhower, Curtis; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Kugathasan, Subra; Walters, Thomas D; Aronow, Bruce; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gevers, Dirk; Denson, Lee A

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individuals; therefore, this signature is specific to CD and independent of clinical inflammation. An abnormal increase of antimicrobial dual oxidase (DUOX2) expression was detected in association with an expansion of Proteobacteria in both UC and CD, while expression of lipoprotein APOA1 gene was downregulated and associated with CD-specific alterations in Firmicutes. The increased DUOX2 and decreased APOA1 gene expression signature favored oxidative stress and Th1 polarization and was maximally altered in patients with more severe mucosal injury. A regression model that included APOA1 gene expression and microbial abundance more accurately predicted month 6 steroid-free remission than a model using clinical factors alone. These CD-specific host and microbe profiles identify the ileum as the primary inductive site for all forms of CD and may direct prognostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25003194

  4. Seropositivity ofChlamydophila pneumoniae immunoglobulin G antibody of HIV/AIDS patients in Abuja, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakubu Boyi Ngwai; Izebe KS; Ijele IG; Ishaleku D; Inyang US

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To detect IgG antibody toChlamydophila pneumoniae(CP)in sera ofHIV/AIDS patients and provide rationale for inclusion of routine screening for anti-CP antibodies and anti-chlamydial agents in the Nigerian NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan.Methods: Serum samples from34 consentingHIV/AIDS patients attended a Government-approved Antiretroviral Treatment Facility in Abuja were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-CP IgG antibody using ImmunoComb® Chlamydia Bivalent IgG Test kit (Orgenics, Israel).Results:Anti-CP IgG antibody was detected in20 (58.8%)of34 patients tested. The detection rate was higher among the males(8/13; 61.5%) than the females (12/21; 57.1%). Patients of the age group 16-30 years had the highest(7/10; 70%) detection of anti-CP IgG antibody.Conclusions:The result of the present study suggests the presence of anti-CP antibodies in sera of the HIV/AIDS patients, and reinforces the need for routine screening for anti-CPantibodies as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden ofChlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infections and to reduceHIV-positive morbidity in Nigeria. The outcome of this study also provides justification for the possible inclusion of anti-chlamydial agents in the NationalHIV/AIDS Management Plan to provide prophylaxis against or treat activeC. pneumoniae infections.

  5. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in ten non-AIDS immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Kim, Eun A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Tae Sung; Jung, Kyung Jae; Song, Jae Hoon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To describe the HRCT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. This retrospective study involved the ten all non-AIDS immunocompromised patients with biopsy-proven CMV pneumonia and without other pulmonary infection encountered at our Medical Center between January 1997 and May 1999. HRCT scans were retrospectively analysed by two chest radiologists and decisions regarding the findings were reached by consensus. The most frequent CT pattern was ground-glass opacity, seen in all patients, with bilateral patchy (n = 8) and diffuse (n = 2) distribution. Other findings included poorly-defined small nodules (n = 9) and consolidation (n = 7). There was no zonal predominance. The small nodules, bilateral in eight cases and unilateral in one, were all located in the centrilobular region. Consolidation (n = 7), with patchy distribution, was bilateral in five of seven patients (71%). Pleural effusion and bilateral areas of thickened interlobular septa were seen in six patients (60%). CMV pneumonia in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients appears on HRCT scans as bilateral mixed areas of ground-glass opacity, poorlydefined centrilobular small nodules, and consolidation. Interlobular septal thickening and pleural effusion are frequently associated.

  6. Professional centred shared decision making: Patient decision aids in practice in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtagh Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient decision aids are increasingly regarded as important components of clinical practice that enable shared decision making (SDM and evidence based patient choice. Despite broad acceptance of their value, there remains little evidence of their successful implementation in primary care settings. Methods Health care practitioners from five general practice surgeries in northern England participated in focus group sessions around the themes of patient decision aids, patient and practitioner preferences and SDM. Participants included general practitioners (n = 19, practice nurses (n = 5 and auxiliary staff (n = 3. Transcripts were analysed using a framework approach. Results We report a practitioners' discussion of the current impetus towards sharing decisions and their perspectives on barriers to SDM, and b the implementation of patient decision aids in practice and impediments such as lack of an evidence base and time available in consultations. Conclusion We demonstrate two orientations to sharing decisions: practitioner-centred and patient-centred with the former predominating. We argue that it is necessary to rethink the changes required in practice for the implementation of SDM.

  7. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in ten non-AIDS immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the HRCT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. This retrospective study involved the ten all non-AIDS immunocompromised patients with biopsy-proven CMV pneumonia and without other pulmonary infection encountered at our Medical Center between January 1997 and May 1999. HRCT scans were retrospectively analysed by two chest radiologists and decisions regarding the findings were reached by consensus. The most frequent CT pattern was ground-glass opacity, seen in all patients, with bilateral patchy (n = 8) and diffuse (n = 2) distribution. Other findings included poorly-defined small nodules (n = 9) and consolidation (n = 7). There was no zonal predominance. The small nodules, bilateral in eight cases and unilateral in one, were all located in the centrilobular region. Consolidation (n = 7), with patchy distribution, was bilateral in five of seven patients (71%). Pleural effusion and bilateral areas of thickened interlobular septa were seen in six patients (60%). CMV pneumonia in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients appears on HRCT scans as bilateral mixed areas of ground-glass opacity, poorlydefined centrilobular small nodules, and consolidation. Interlobular septal thickening and pleural effusion are frequently associated

  8. A Comparative Study of HIV/AIDS: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behaviors of Schizophrenic and Diabetic Patients in Regard to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Lawal, Rahmaan A; Okulate, Gbenga T; Christopher O. Alebiosu; Michael O. Olatawura

    2006-01-01

    Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophrenic patient...

  9. Retrobulbar optic neuritis and meningoencephalitis following progressive outer retinal necrosis due to CMV in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K H; Bang, J H; Park, W B; Kim, H B; Kim, N J; Ahn, J K; Chang, K H; Oh, M D; Choe, K W

    2008-10-01

    We report on a 34-year-old male patient with AIDS who developed retrobulbar optic neuritis and meningoencephalitis following bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV). This case documents the presumed association of PORN with retrobulbar optic neuritis, and CMV meningoencephalitis in an AIDS patient. PMID:18574556

  10. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increases circulating CD34-postive cells in patients with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Dam-Larsen, S; Nielsen, C;

    1997-01-01

    circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34 cells) in patients with AIDS, using the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Eight patients with AIDS were treated with G-CSF for neutropenia (< 1.0 x 10(9)/l). Treatment consisted of daily subcutaneous injections with 300 micrograms...

  11. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  12. Scintigraphic pattern of pneumothorax complicating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finestone, H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Wasserman, I.; Garcia, H. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a serious though infrequently reported pulmonary complication of AIDS. An unsuspected lung collapse was discovered via gallium scintigraphy for the study of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neither the pneumonia nor the pneumothorax were apparent on the most recent chest roentgenogram. In evaluating gallium images during the work-up of AIDS patients with associated pulmonary pathology, the possible complication of lung collapse should be considered. If pneumothorax is suspected on gallium imaging, a chest roentgenogram in expiration must be obtained for prompt delineation of this serious, yet correctable, condition.

  13. Scintigraphic pattern of pneumothorax complicating Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a serious though infrequently reported pulmonary complication of AIDS. An unsuspected lung collapse was discovered via gallium scintigraphy for the study of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Neither the pneumonia nor the pneumothorax were apparent on the most recent chest roentgenogram. In evaluating gallium images during the work-up of AIDS patients with associated pulmonary pathology, the possible complication of lung collapse should be considered. If pneumothorax is suspected on gallium imaging, a chest roentgenogram in expiration must be obtained for prompt delineation of this serious, yet correctable, condition

  14. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection

  15. Roles of nurse aides and family members in acute patient care in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming

    2004-01-01

    To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals. PMID:15077835

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs about HIV and AIDS among mentally ill patients in Soweto, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Jonsson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics; knowledge on how HIV is acquired and spread; attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS; and condom usage. The statements in the knowledge sections were used to calculate a composite score, which if greater than or equal to 75% was defined as ‘adequate knowledge’. Results. A total of 1 151 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The mean age was 41.9 years (standard deviation 11.6 and the majority were males (50%; single (55%, and had achieved only a secondary level of education (53.3%. Overall, most of the study population did not believe in the myths surrounding the spread and acquisition of HIV and AIDS. There were however, significant associations between a low level of education and the belief that HIV is acquired from mosquito bites (odds ratio (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002 and through masturbation or body rubbing (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.33; p=0.000. Although more than 90% of the patients were aware of the facts regarding the spread of HIV, approximately 40% did not believe that one could acquire HIV through a single sexual encounter. The composite scoring for knowledge showed that less than half the patients had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This was significantly associated with gender and level of education: females were 1.6 times (p<0.0004 and patients with Grade 8 or higher education 1.5 times more knowledgeable (p=0.002. Conclusion. Among mentally ill patients there is a both a lack of

  17. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    immune cells (PBICs) in sepsis patients during the first week after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: PBICs from 20 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were analyzed with high-resolution respirometry 3 times after admission to the ICU (within 48 hours, days 3 to 4 and days 6 to...... 7). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cytochrome c (Cyt c), and citrate synthase (CS) were measured as indicators of cellular mitochondrial content. RESULTS: In intact PBICs with endogenous substrates, a gradual increase in cellular respiration reached 173% of controls after 1 week (P = 0.001). In...... permeabilized cells, respiration using substrates of complex I, II, and IV were significantly increased days 1 to 2, reaching 137%, 130%, and 173% of controls, respectively. In parallel, higher levels of CS activity, mtDNA, and Cyt c content in PBICs (211%, 243%, and 331% of controls for the respective...

  18. Dengue Patients Exhibit Higher Levels of PrM and E Antibodies Than Their Asymptomatic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Syin Lian Yeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.

  19. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in venous blood from AIDS patients by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, J; de Souza, S L; Maslo, C; Paugam, A; Saimot, A G; Benarous, R; Tourte-Schaefer, C; Derouin, F

    1993-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in blood by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may facilitate the diagnosis and follow-up of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. We evaluated this approach with seven patients with tissue culture-proven parasitemia, 14 patients with presumptive cerebral toxoplasmosis, and 17 healthy human immunodeficiency virus-positive controls. Each sample of blood was assayed on three different occasions by a PCR assay based on detection of the gene encoding the P30 surface protein. A positive PCR diagnosis required positivity in at least two of the three PCR tests. None of the controls had a positive PCR diagnosis, but six of the seven patients with parasitemia did. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 13 of the 14 patients with a presumptive diagnosis; diagnosis by PCR was positive before treatment for 9 of these 13 patients, whereas tissue culture was positive for only 1 patient. During treatment, blood samples were taken from 14 patients at regular intervals until day 12. PCR diagnosis became negative on ethidium-stained gels, but persistent signals were observed after hybridization, in some cases, for up to 12 days after initiation of therapy. PCR on venous blood could thus be a sensitive and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of cerebral and disseminated toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients and could be a potential tool for monitoring the effects of treatment. PMID:8349765

  20. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors improve parenchymal findings of liver cirrhosis in a patient exhibiting concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUS, TULAY; AKTAS, GOKMEN; SEVINC, ALPER; OKTAY, CEMIL; KALENDER, MEHMET EMIN; CAMCI, CELALETDIN

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are malignancies, which are chemotherapy resistant and fatal at the advanced stages. Previously developed tyrosine kinase inhibitors are used in the treatment of advanced stage disease. In the present case study, a patient using sunitinib for stage IV RCC presented with HCC following 2 years of treatment. A patient who exhibited Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis initially, exhibited a marked improvement of hepatocellular parenchyma findings following treatment with sunitinib. Sunitinib is suggested to have preventive effects on the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in vitro, via an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-platelet-derived growth factor mechanism. However, no clinical supportive study has been performed until now. Improvement of liver functions may be explained in this manner. Therefore, investigations are required with different doses of sunitinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors in order to evaluate the efficacy on treatment of cirrhosis progression. PMID:26893877

  1. Tumors associated with HIV / AIDS monitoring 45 patients between 1/1998 and 6/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper is intended to show 45 patients with cancer associated the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / AIDS, diagnosed, treated and followed over a period of 6.5 years in our country. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed of cancer patients diagnosed HIV positive on 5 institutions public and private in our midst, in the period between 1/98 and 6/04 (Institute of Health, National Institute of Oncology, Hospital of Clinics, Service Comprehensive Medical, Spanish Mutual Aid Association). They took into account different variables (origin, medical record number, sex, age, sexual habits, addiction to injecting drugs, HIV diagnosis positive diagnosis of AIDS, infectious prophylaxis, antiretroviral therapy, lymphocyte start and in the evolution population viral load start and evolutionary, tumor type, stage, treatment received, date of last control and status the close of the work). We compared data collected by us AIDS Ministry report of Public Health. 24 cases were Kaposi sarcomas (one nodal exclusive), 11 were non-Hodgkin lymphomas (two of SNC and other gastric), 1 Hodgkin's Disease 1 rectal cancer, tongue cancer 1 1 laryngeal cancer, thyroid cancer 1 1 Melanoma 1 parotid cancer, cancer 1 Lung and breast cancer 1. No cervical tumors or recorded anal canal in the study population. Treatments received varied for each disease depending on the stage of the disease and viral load / Towns lymphocyte start. This is the first study with longer follow-up in our country HIV patients / AIDS-associated cancer, he reflected the difficulty in collecting data, various types of cancer in the study population and demand the need to create an accurate and accessible system of monitoring these patients

  2. Tuberculous Gastric Abscess in a Patient with AIDS: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Nayyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a healthcare concern that affects millions of individuals around the globe. Coinfection with HIV has changed both the clinical presentation and the outcome of the disease dramatically in the last few decades. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is seen more frequently in the immunocompromised host. An unusual case of gastric tuberculosis in an AIDS patient is reported here. A 49-year-old female with AIDS was admitted for fever and epigastric pain. A gastric submucosal abscess was observed on imaging and confirmed by biopsy showing numerous neutrophils and acid-fast bacilli. Aspirate grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This report highlights a very unusual presentation of tuberculosis in an immunodeficient patient. High clinical suspicion for opportunistic infections in unusual locations should be maintained in these patients presenting with clinical syndromes that do not respond to standard treatments. New diagnostic modalities facilitate accurate identification of these infections.

  3. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  4. Clinical analysis of neurological system complications in AIDS and HIV positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To report the clinical manifestations of AIDS with nervous system complications. Methods:We collected the clinical material of AIDS and HIV positive patients who were admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to July 2006, and retrospectively analyzed the 39 cases having nervous system complications, among 146 cases in total. Results:Among 39 cases, there were 3 cases of HIV dementia, 1 case of vacuolar myelopathy, 3 cases of Gullain-barre syndrome, 3 cases of myopathy and 26 cases of secondary opportunistic infection of CNS,including 9 cases of tuberculosis, 6 cases of cryptococcus, 5 cases of toxoplasma, 3 cases of herpes zoster virus, 2 cases of herpes simples virus, 1 case of cytomegalovirus, 1 case of progressive multifocal leukoencencephalitis. 2 cases with central nervous system lymphoma.Among them 12 patients gave up treatment, other patients received anti-HIV treatment and antimicroorganism treatment. 5 patients died of respiratory failure, 2 patients died of multiple organs failure. Conclusion:Up to now, AIDS still has not very good management. So prevention is very important.

  5. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  6. Changing mortality profile among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: shifting from AIDS to non-AIDS related conditions in the HAART era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Grinsztejn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ. METHODS: Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively checked using patients' medical charts, through active contact with individuals and family members and by linkage with the Rio de Janeiro Mortality database using a previously validated algorithm. The CoDe protocol was used to establish the cause of death. Extended Cox proportional hazards models were used for multivariate modeling. RESULTS: A total of 3530 individuals met the inclusion criteria, out of which 868 (24.6% deceased; median follow up per patient was 3.9 years (interquartile range 1.7-9.2 years. The dramatic decrease in the overall mortality rates was driven by AIDS-related causes that decreased from 9.19 deaths/100PYs n 1986-1991 to 1.35/100PYs in 2007-2009. Non-AIDS related mortality rates remained stable overtime, at around 1 death/100PYs. Immunodeficiency significantly increased the hazard of both AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related causes of death, while HAART use was strongly associated with a lower hazard of death from either cause. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the remarkable decrease in AIDS-related mortality as the HIV epidemic evolved and alerts to the conditions not traditionally related to HIV/AIDS which are now becoming more frequent, needing careful monitoring.

  7. Clinical Profile of HIV/Aids Patients in Srinagar, Kashmir, India

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    Kaiser Ahmed Wani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the inception of the integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC at government medical college (GMC and associated hospitals, there was no previous study on the clinical experiences in HIV/Aids positive cases in this institution.Objectives: The aim of this study was to delineate the epidemiological profile of HIV/Aids seropositive cases and which included to study: • Number of HIV seropositive patients from april 2002 to december 2009. • Common signs and symptoms of HIV/Aids seropositive patients. • Age and sex distribution of all seropositive cases. • Mode of transmission of HIV infection. • Residence and profession profile of seropositive cases. • Different types of opportunistic infections in these patients. Study design: The present study is documental and analytical descriptive and it was conducted at the government medical college and associated hospitals through data collection of 128 records of individual who tested positive for HIV by three rapid test methods using three different antigens at integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC. Demographic variables such as age, sex and occupation, data on mode of transmission and clinical manifestation were examined together.Results: A total of 128 patients had tested positive for HIV by at least three tests using three different antigens, which included 112(87.5% male and 16(12.5% females. The mean age of these patients were 34.45±8.40 with male to female ratio of 7:1.The peak incidence was found in the age group of 30-39yrs (36.8%. Majority of HIV positive patients belonged to security personnel’s followed by migrant labourers and housewives. Transmission of infection was through sexual contact in 90.7 % followed by homosexual transmission in 4.7 %. Vertical transmission and blood transfusion accounted in 2.3% cases each. 78.9 % of patients presented with fever of > 1 month duration, 35.1 % with weight loss and 33.5% with diarrhea. Tuberculosis and

  8. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

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    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  9. Emergence of Azoles Resistance Candida species in Iranian AIDS defined patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis

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    Farzad Katiraee

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that screening of resistant Candida isolates by disk diffusion or broth dilution method is essential for the surveillance and prevention of antifungal resistance in patient management. Although nystatin is widely used in clinical practice for HIV patients in Iran, no evidence of enhanced resistance against this agent was found on the other hand, resistance to azole antifungals, particularly fluconazole, increased. Considering the lack of resistance to caspofungin, administration of this agent is suggested for the treatment of OPC in AIDS patients.

  10. Trends in survival of Danish AIDS patients from 1981 to 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Gøtzsche, P C; Buhl, M; Salim, Y; Schmidt, K; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    survival were a CD4 cell count less than 200 x 10(6)/l, a serum IgA level greater than 4 g/l, and an initial diagnosis with opportunistic infections other than PCP. In addition, the multivariate analysis suggested an improved survival in recent years for patients diagnosed with PCP, independent of other...... factors examined. We conclude that length of survival in AIDS patients is highly variable. Determinants of progression include CD4 cell count, serum IgA level, and presenting disease. Survival has increased markedly for patients with PCP and median survival now exceeds 24 months....

  11. 201Tl brain SPECT in differentiating central nervous system lymphoma from toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the leading causes of CNS mass lesions. It is important to make the correct diagnosis expeditiously, since the two diseases require markedly different treatments and have different prognoses. In general, CT and MR imaging have failed to provide specific distinguishing characteristics to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis, and it is difficult to differentiate these entities clinically. We performed 201Tl brain SPECT in order to differentiate two diseases. Counts ratio of a lesion to the normal brain (L/N ratio) was elevated in patients of lymphoma compared in patients of toxoplasmosis. 201Tl brain SPECT is useful to differentiate CNS lymphoma from toxoplasmosis. (author)

  12. High level HIV-1 DNA concentrations in brain tissues differentiate patients with post-HAART AIDS dementia complex or cardiovascular disease from those with AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GALLIGAN; Derek; C.; LAMERS; Susanna; L.; YU; Stephanie; SHAGRUN; Lamia; SALEMI; Marco; MCGRATH; Michael; S.

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment(HAART) has had a significant impact on survival of individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS);however,with the longer life-span of patients with AIDS,there is increasing prevalence of AIDS dementia complex(ADC) and other non-AIDS-defining illness,and cardiovascular diseases(CVD) are also common.The influence of these varied disease processes on HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues has not been thoroughly assessed in the post-HAART era.The purpose of the current study is to clarify the impacts of ADC and other complications of HIV disease on the viral load in the brains in AIDS patients with post-HARRT.We examined autopsy specimens from the brains of thirteen patients who died from complications of AIDS with quantitative polymerase chain reaction(QPCR).All but one patient had received HAART prior to death since 1995.Two patients died with severe CVD,multiple cerebrovascular atherosclerosis(CVA) throughout the brain and five patients died with ADC.Six patients had no ADC/CVA.A QPCR was used to measure the presence of HIV-1 DNA in six brain tissues(meninges,frontal grey matter,frontal white matter,temporal subcortex,cerebellum and basal ganglia).In the post-HARRT era,for non-ADC/CVA patients,HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues was statistically higher than that in patients with ADC.In a new finding,two patients who suffered from severe CVD,especially CVA,also had high concentrations of HIV-1 in brain compartments not showing ADC related changes.To our knowledge,this is the first report of a relationship between the CVA and HIV-1 viral burden in brain.The current observations suggest that HAART-resistant HIV reservoirs may survive within ADC lesions of the brain as well as the macrophage rich atherosclerosis,which needs to be confirmed by more AIDS cases with CVA.

  13. Distribution and clinical manifestations of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

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    Haileeyesus Adamu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause for chronic diarrhea and death in HIV/AIDS patients. Among common Cryptosporidium species in humans, C. parvum is responsible for most zoonotic infections in industrialized nations. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of C. parvum and role of zoonotic transmission in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in developing countries remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, 520 HIV/AIDS patients were examined for Cryptosporidium presence in stool samples using genotyping and subtyping techniques. Altogether, 140 (26.9% patients were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, belonging to C. parvum (92 patients, C. hominis (25 patients, C. viatorum (10 patients, C. felis (5 patients, C. meleagridis (3 patients, C. canis (2 patients, C. xiaoi (2 patients, and mixture of C. parvum and C. hominis (1 patient. Sequence analyses of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene revealed a high genetic diversity within the 82 C. parvum and 19 C. hominis specimens subtyped, including C. parvum zoonotic subtype families IIa (71 and IId (5 and anthroponotic subtype families IIc (2, IIb (1, IIe (1 and If-like (2, and C. hominis subtype families Id (13, Ie (5, and Ib (1. Overall, Cryptosporidium infection was associated with the occurrence of diarrhea and vomiting. Diarrhea was attributable mostly to C. parvum subtype family IIa and C. hominis, whereas vomiting was largely attributable to C. hominis and rare Cryptosporidium species. Calf contact was identified as a significant risk factor for infection with Cryptosporidium spp., especially C. parvum subtype family IIa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the study indicate that C. parvum is a major cause of cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and zoonotic transmission is important in cryptosporidiosis epidemiology in Ethiopia. In addition, they confirm that different Cryptosporidium species and

  14. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Eckersten; Aleksander Giwercman; Anders Christensson

    2015-01-01

    Male reproductive function is impaired during end‑stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbance of the hypothalamic‑pituitary‑gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26–48) years, were analyzed for follicle‑stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, sex hormone‑binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19–44) years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l−1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3, 729), LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l−1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14), and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −1.31, −0.15). Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l−1 (95% CI: −37.6,−11.6). There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  15. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  16. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, I; Sim, B L H; Brent, R D; Johari, S; Yvonne Lim, A L

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a particular concern in immunocompromised individuals where symptoms may be severe. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia in order to identify risk factors and facilitate control measures. A modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast staining method was used to test for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools of 346 HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Standard coproscopical methods were used to identify infections with other protozoan or helminths parasites. To identify the species of Cryptosporidium, DNA was extracted and nested-PCR was used to amplify a portion of the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 43 (12.4%) HIV-infected patients were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Of the 43 Cryptosporidium-positive HIV patients, 10 (23.3%) also harboured other protozoa, and 15 (34.9%) had both protozoa and helminths. The highest rates of cryptosporidiosis were found in adult males of Malay background, intravenous drug users, and those with low CD4 T cell counts (i.e., tuberculosis. DNA sequence analysis of 32 Cryptosporidium isolates identified C. parvum (84.3%), C. hominis (6.3%), C. meleagridis (6.3%), and C. felis (3.1%). The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients. The results also confirmed the potential significance of zoonotic transmission of C. parvum in HIV infected patients, as it was the predominant species found in this study. However, these patients were found to be susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates provides clinicians and researchers with further information regarding the origin of the infection, and may enhance treatment and control strategies. PMID:26691260

  18. Computed tomography in diagnosis of lung pneumocystosis in hiv-infected and aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the issue concerning epidemiology of pneumocystosis, clinical and radiological features of changes in the lungs in treatment of opportunistic infections. Indications for the use of computed tomography in HIV-infected and AIDS patients, radiation CT semiotics of changes in lung pneumocystosis, the possibility of establishing of exacted diagnosis in pneumocysosis of the lungs when using CT, differential diagnosis issues have been considered in the paper

  19. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-six chloroform-, methanol-, and water- extracts of some plants used as self mediciation by AIDS patients were investigated for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities. Of these extracts, Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, chloroform extract) showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, MeOH extract) and Alpinia galanga (rhizome, MeOH extract) with the inhibitions of 64.92, 51.92 and 48.70%, respectively, at concen...

  20. Association of progressive outer retinal necrosis and varicella zoster encephalitis in a patient with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Horn, G. J; Meenken, C; D. Troost

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patient with AIDS who developed the clinical picture of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in combination with varicella zoster encephalitis is described. The picture developed more than 2 years after an episode of ophthalmic zoster infection, and following intermittent exposure to oral acyclovir because of recurrent episodes of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. METHODS: Aqueous humour, obtained by paracentesis of the anterior chamber, was analysed using immun...

  1. Balancing the presentation of information and options in patient decision aids: an updated review

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, P.; Volk, R.J.; Blumenthal-Barby, J.; Bravo, P.; A. Buchholz; Ozanne, E.; Vidal, D.C.; Col, N.; Stalmeier, P F M

    2013-01-01

    Background Standards for patient decision aids require that information and options be presented in a balanced manner; this requirement is based on the argument that balanced presentation is essential to foster informed decision making. If information is presented in an incomplete/non-neutral manner, it can stimulate cognitive biases that can unduly affect individuals’ knowledge, perceptions of risks and benefits, and, ultimately, preferences. However, there is little clarity about what const...

  2. Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Sepucha, Karen R; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Lally, Joanne; Levin, Carrie A.; Matlock, Daniel D; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Ropka, Mary E.; Stacey, Dawn; Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Wills, Celia E.; Thomson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure five...

  3. Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Sepucha, Karen R; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Lally, Joanne; Levin, Carrie A.; Matlock, Daniel D; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Ropka, Mary E.; Stacey, Dawn; Joseph-Williams, Natalie; Wills, Celia E.; Thomson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods: This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure fi...

  4. The impact on patient trust of legalising physician aid in dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M; Trachtenberg, F; Dugan, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical evidence exists to support either side of the ongoing debate over whether legalising physician aid in dying would undermine patient trust. Design: A random national sample of 1117 US adults were asked about their level of agreement with a statement that they would trust their doctor less if "euthanasia were legal [and] doctors were allowed to help patients die". Results: There was disagreement by 58% of the participants, and agreement by only 20% that legalising euthanasia would cause them to trust their personal physician less. The remainder were neutral. These attitudes were the same in men and women, but older people and black people had more agreement that euthanasia would lower trust. However, overall, only 27% of elderly people (age 65+) and 32% of black people thought that physician aid in dying would lower trust. These views differed with physical and mental health, and also with education and income, with those having more of these attributes tending to view physician aid in dying somewhat more favourably. Again, however, overall views in most of these subgroups were positive. Views about the effect of physician aid in dying on trust were significantly correlated with participants' underlying trust in their physicians and their satisfaction with care. In a multivariate regression model, trust, satisfaction, age, and white/black race remained independently significant. Conclusion: Despite the widespread concern that legalising physician aid in dying would seriously threaten or undermine trust in physicians, the weight of the evidence in the USA is to the contrary, although views vary significantly. PMID:16319229

  5. AIDS Cholangiopathy in an Asymptomatic, Previously Undiagnosed Late-Stage HIV-Positive Patient from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS-associated cholangiopathy is a form of biliary tract inflammation with stricture formation seen in AIDS patients who are severely immunosuppressed. It is no longer common in countries in which HAART therapy is widely employed but is still seen in underdeveloped countries. The majority of patients are symptomatic at the time of presentation. Herein, we describe a seventy-four-year-old woman who presented with unilateral leg swelling after a prolonged airplane flight. She was otherwise entirely asymptomatic. Routine laboratory testing was notable for a hypochromic microcytic anemia, slight leukopenia, and mild hypoalbuminemia. Liver enzymes were all elevated. Deep venous thrombosis was confirmed, and a CT scan of the chest disclosed no pulmonary emboli. However, the visualized portion of the abdomen showed dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and MRCP, and no obstructive lesions were noted. An ERCP revealed a dilated common bile duct without filling defects or strictures. A balloon occlusion cholangiogram showed strictures and beading of the intrahepatic ducts. Shortly thereafter, serology for HIV returned positive along with a depressed CD4 cell count, and the patient was diagnosed with AIDS-associated cholangiography.

  6. Poor response to tuberculosis treatment with regimens without rifampicin in immunosuppressed AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnel M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted on 79 advanced immunosuppressed AIDS patients from 1997 to 1999, during which nine cases of tuberculosis (TB were diagnosed. The main clinical and laboratory characteristics and the response to TB treatment were reviewed. The clinical manifestations of TB were: pulmonary (six cases, extrapulmonary (two cases and disseminated (one case. These patients were being treated with highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART and were not responding. In three cases an optional regimen without rifampicin (RMP was indicated to maintain HAART during TB treatment. A clinical response to TB treatment (disappearance of fever was observed in 6/9 patients during a mean of 73 days (SD = 96. The three unresponsive patients were those treated without RMP. A switch to TB regimens containing RMP was proposed and successful. In our study, though it was limited by a small sample size, the response to TB regimens without rifampin was poor in immunossupressed patients failing HAART.

  7. Primary aspergilloma and subacute invasive aspergillosis in two AIDS patients Aspergiloma primário e aspergilose invasiva subaguda em dois pacientes com AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Martinez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Although uncommon, invasive aspergillosis in the setting of AIDS is important because of its peculiar clinical presentation and high lethality. This report examines two AIDS patients with a history of severe cellular immunosuppression and previous neutropenia, who developed subacute invasive aspergillosis. One female patient developed primary lung aspergilloma, with dissemination to the mediastinum, vertebrae, and spine, which was fatal despite antifungal treatment. The second patient, who had multiple cavitary brain lesions, and eye and lung involvement, recovered following voriconazole and itraconazole, and drugs for increasing neutrophil and CD4+ lymphocyte levels. These cases demonstrate the importance of Aspergillus infections following neutropenia in AIDS patients, and emphasize the need for early and effective antifungal therapy.A aspergilose invasiva em pacientes com aids, embora incomum, é relevante pela apresentação clínica peculiar e alta letalidade. Este relato descreve os casos de dois pacientes com aids com grave imunossupressão celular e neutropenia prévia, os quais tiveram aspergiloma pulmonar primário, com disseminação para mediastino, vértebras e medula espinhal, evoluindo para óbito apesar do tratamento antifúngico. O segundo paciente, que tinha lesões cavitárias múltiplas no cérebro e infecção ocular e pulmonar, recuperou-se após tratamento com voricanazol, itraconazol e com drogas para aumentar o número de neutrófilos e de linfócitos CD4+. Estes casos demonstram o risco de infecção por Aspergillus após episódios de neutropenia em pacientes com aids e alertam para o início precoce de terapia antifúngica eficaz.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L;

    1999-01-01

    reported case, along with a survey of archival autopsy cases to assess baseline expression of EBV in AIDS patients. DESIGN: The case patient's autopsy material was studied exhaustively for infectious agents by culture, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry, with negative results. Formalin-fixed paraffin......-embedded lung, spleen, lymph node, and liver tissue were further studied by in situ hybridization using a probe for EBV early RNA (EBER, Kreatech). The same method was applied to lymphoid tissues from eight other archival AIDS autopsy cases. Case patient tissues were also examined by electron microscopy...... pneumocytes. Of the archival cases studied, only one spleen was found to have rare positive lymphocytes. CONCLUSION: Primary or reactivation EBV infection may represent a previously underreported cause of morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients. Autopsy tissues from AIDS patients do not routinely show...

  9. ACSM4 polymorphisms are associated with rapid AIDS progression in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Fulgencio, María; Jiménez, José L; Jiménez-Sousa, María A; Bellón, José M; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Soriano, Vicente; Gijón-Vidaurreta, Paloma; Bernal-Morell, Enrique; Viciana, Pompeyo; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Resino, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to explore the association among ACSM4 and PECI polymorphisms and AIDS progression in 454 HIV-infected patients never treated with antiretroviral drugs (146 long-term nonprogressors, 228 moderate progressors, and 80 rapid progressors). For ACSM4 polymorphisms, rs7137120 AA/AG and rs7961991 CC/CT genotypes had higher odds of having a rapid AIDS progression [odds ratio (OR) = 3.21; 95% of confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.26 to 8.16; P = 0.014 and OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.38 to 9.36; P = 0.009, respectively]. Additionally, the ACSM4 haplotype integrated for both rs7961991 A and rs7137120 C alleles had higher odds of having a rapid AIDS progression (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.28 to 6.25; P = 0.010). For PECI polymorphisms, no significant associations were found. In conclusion, ACSM4 polymorphisms might play a significant role in AIDS progression. PMID:23982661

  10. Are patient decision aids the best way to improve clinical decision making? Report of the IPDAS Symposium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-Rovner, M.; Nelson, W.L.; Pignone, M.; Elwyn, G.; Rovner, D.; O'Connor, A.M.; Coulter, A.; Correa-de-Araujo, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Symposium held in 2006 at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The symposium featured a debate regarding the proposition that "decision aids are the best way to improve clin

  11. Factors associated with poor CD4 and viral load outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Imran Ahmed; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hassali, Mohammad Azmi; Syed, Shahzad Hasan; Shan, Lau Hui; Lee, Christopher K C

    2016-05-01

    Suboptimal viral suppression and CD4 response to antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is known to cause poor outcomes with the increase cost of treatment. We aimed to assess factors associated with such control among HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Four hundred and six HIV/AIDS patients, using Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for at least the past three months, treated as outpatients at medication therapy adherence clinics (MTAC) were recruited. CD4 cell counts, viral load readings along with co-variants such as socio-demographic factors, adverse drug reactions, comorbidities, and medication record were obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS(®) ) version 18 and STATA IC(®) version 12 were used for data analysis. CD4 counts were found highest among those within the age category 41-50 years (390.43 ± 272.28), female (402.64 ± 276.14), other ethnicities (400.20 ± 278.04), and participants with no formal education (414.87 ± 290.90). Patients experiencing adverse effects had a 2.28 (95%CI:1.25-4.18) fold greater risk of poor CD4 control, while patients with comorbidities had 2.46 (95%CI:1.02-5.91) fold greater risk of mild viral suppression. Adverse drug reactions, co-morbidities were found to be significantly associated with poor immunological and virological outcomes in HIV/AIDS patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation is needed to better understand other confounders J. Med. Virol. 88:790-797, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26399724

  12. Serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease in AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation.

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    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier during chronic HIV infection allows translocation of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS from the gut into the circulation. Microbial translocation also occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD serological markers are useful in the diagnosis of IBD and to differentiate between Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here, we evaluate detection of IBD serological markers in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and their relationship to HIV disease markers. METHODS: IBD serological markers (ASCA, pANCA, anti-OmpC, and anti-CBir1 were measured by ELISA in plasma from AIDS patients (n = 26 with low CD4 counts (<300 cells/µl and high plasma LPS levels, and results correlated with clinical data. For meta-analysis, relevant data were abstracted from 20 articles. RESULTS: IBD serological markers were detected in approximately 65% of AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation. An antibody pattern consistent with IBD was detected in 46%; of these, 75% had a CD-like pattern. Meta-analysis of data from 20 published studies on IBD serological markers in CD, UC, and non-IBD control subjects indicated that IBD serological markers are detected more frequently in AIDS patients than in non-IBD disease controls and healthy controls, but less frequently than in CD patients. There was no association between IBD serological markers and HIV disease markers (plasma viral load and CD4 counts in the study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: IBD serological markers may provide a non-invasive approach to monitor HIV-related inflammatory gut disease. Further studies to investigate their clinical significance in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.

  13. Impact of gender on the risk of AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality in Danish HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Larsen, Mette Vang; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Pedersen, Gitte; Storgaard, Merete; Obel, Niels; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    time of HIV diagnosis MSM had a lower prevalence of AIDS compared to MSW. Women and MSW presented more often with tuberculosis and less often with AIDS-defining cancers compared to MSM. In the adjusted analyses we observed no differences in progression to AIDS. In the adjusted analyses of risk of death......Abstract Background: Gender differences in the risk of AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and mortality have been reported in the HIV-1-infected (HIV-positive) population, with conflicting findings. We aimed to assess the impact of gender on the risk of ADI and death in HIV-positive patients infected...

  14. HIV/AIDS related mortality among adult medical patients in a tertiary health institution in South-South, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyuse AN; Bassey IE; Udonwa NE; Okokon IB; Philip-Ephraim EE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients as a step to planning strategies to improve mortality from this condition.Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed the mortality pattern of adult HIV/AIDS patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital from January 2005 to December 2007. The data were obtained from sexually transmitted infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STI/AIDS) clinic register, admissions and discharge/death registers as well as the patients' case records and the hospitals monthly mortality reviews. Information obtained included age, sex, diagnosis and cause(s) of death. The causes of death considered were the directcauses of death, since the originating antecedent cause of death is the same in all the patients, in this case, HIV/AIDS. Data was analysed using Epi Info 2002.Results: The total number of mortalities during the study period was 350,100 were HIV positive representing 28.6% of all deaths. While advanced HIV/AIDS disease was the leading cause of death in our study representing 27.0%, tuberculosis was the single leading cause of deaths in HIV/AIDS patients constituting about 24.0% of deaths. This was followed by sepsis and septicaemia (13.0%), meningitis and encephalitis, and anaemia accounting for 11.0%, while respiratory diseases constituted 5.0% of the mortality burden. The highest number of deaths occurred in those aged between 21-50 years (82.0%).Conclusions: The study has shown that HIV/AIDS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in our hospital. The causes of death reflect the varied spectrum of infection and other forms of organ involvement that affect HIV/AIDS patients. The present dismal situation of adult patients living with HIV/AIDS calls for enhanced strategies to decrease the mortality trend observed in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Hearing aid fitting results in a case of a patient with auditory neuropathy

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    Dell´Aringa, Ana Helena Bannwart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Auditory Neuropathy is described recently as a hearing loss characterized by the preservation of outer hair cells and absence of auditory brainstem responses. Objective: To present a case report of hearing aid fitting in a patient with Auditory Neuropathy. Case Report: S.A.P., male, 32 years old, sought the Otorhinolaryngology Service after five years of Guillain-Barré syndrome, complaining of progressive and bilateral tinnitus auditory loss in both ears. The audiological evaluation resulted in: severe sensorioneural hearing deficiency with bilateral irregular configuration; speech recognition rate of 0% and speech detection rate in 35dB in both ears; type A tympanometric curve and absent ipsilateral, bilateral and contralateral reflexes; absence of waves and presence of cochlear microphonics in both ears in the auditory evoked potential and present bilateral distortion product-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The speech perception test was performed with polysyllabic words and lip reading, and presented 44% of hit with hearing aid and 12% without it. Final Comments: Despite the differences in the process of hearing aid habilitation and rehabilitation, we conclude that sound amplification brought benefits to the patient with auditory neuropathy.

  16. Cystatin C Falsely Underestimated GFR in a Critically Ill Patient with a New Diagnosis of AIDS

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    Caitlin S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystatin C has been suggested to be a more accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR surrogate than creatinine in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS because it is unaffected by skeletal muscle mass and dietary influences. However, little is known about the utility of this marker for monitoring medications in the critically ill. We describe the case of a 64-year-old female with opportunistic infections associated with a new diagnosis of AIDS. During her course, she experienced neurologic, cardiac, and respiratory failure; yet her renal function remained preserved as indicated by an eGFR ≥ 120 mL/min and a urine output > 1 mL/kg/hr without diuresis. The patient was treated with nephrotoxic agents; therefore cystatin C was assessed to determine if cachexia was resulting in a falsely low serum creatinine. Cystatin C measured 1.50 mg/L which corresponded to an eGFR of 36 mL/min. Given the >60 mL/min discrepancy, serial 8-hour urine samples were collected and a GFR > 120 mL/min was confirmed. It is unclear why cystatin C was falsely elevated, but we hypothesize that it relates to the proinflammatory state with AIDS, opportunistic infections, and corticosteroids. More research is needed before routine use of cystatin C in this setting can be recommended.

  17. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of lung infections in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, Tomas [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Radiology Section, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    Non-AIDS immunocompromised patients are susceptible to infections by a wide range of organisms. In the past several decades, advances in the treatment of cancer, organ transplantation, and immunosuppressive therapy have resulted in large numbers of patients who develop abnormalities in their immune system. Moreover, mildly impaired host immunity as it occurs in chronic debilitating illness, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, alcoholism, advanced age, prolonged corticosteroid administration, and chronic obstructive lung disease have also been regarded as predisposing factors of pulmonary infections. Imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of patients with pulmonary infectious diseases. When pulmonary infection is suspected, knowledge of the varied radiographic manifestations will narrow the differential diagnosis, helping to direct additional diagnostic measures and serving as an ideal tool for follow-up examinations. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infection occurring in the immunocompromised patients. (orig.)

  18. Serodeconversion of HIV Antibody-Positive AIDS Patients Following Treatment with V-1 Immunitor

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    Aldar S. Bourinbaiar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely rare when HIV seropositive adult patients experience spontaneous loss of antibodies, that is, seroreversion. The disappearance of HIV antibodies was occasionally attributed to iatrogenic intervention—serodeconversion. Such interventions include: HAART; oral interferon; Chinese herbal remedies; and therapeutic AIDS vaccines derived from pooled blood. Oral therapeutic, alloimmune AIDS vaccine, V-1 Immunitor (V1, was administered to 60000 HIV-positive Thai patients. The administration of V1 resulted in serodeconversion among 23 individuals. The patient group consisted of 9 females (39% and 14 males (61% including two 2-year-old boys. The age range was 2–58 years with mean/median 29/29.3 years. Patients were tested seropositive for HIV at least once before being enrolled on V1. The duration of treatment until discovery of seronegative status ranged between 2 weeks and 15 months with average/median 7.2/8 months. Time to seronegativity was correlated with baseline disease stage (R=0.62; P=.002. The seronegative status was positively associated with V1-induced undetectable or low viral load (R=0.65; P=.0008. The odds ratio analysis comparing the outcome of our study with published surveys of diagnostic accuracy of laboratory tests suggested that the probability of HIV antibody testing error was remote (P<.000001. The possible causes responsible for this unusual phenomenon are discussed.

  19. Assessment of the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids patients

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    Silvana Cidral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids. Metod: study quantitative descriptive with 35 patients admitted to an infectious diseases hospital in Curitiba-PR-BR. Characterized clinical and epidemiological of patients using a data collection instrument and the Braden Scale. Data was compiled using Excel® and a simple descriptive analysis. Results: two patients were found to have pressure ulcers and the most common comorbidities associated with HIV/Aids were pneumocystis pneumonia, caused by pneumocisti cariini (16, and pulmonary tuberculosis (13. The lowest scores were obtained in the friction and shear subscale, followed by the activity, nutrition, mobility and moisture subscales. The highest score was obtained in the sensory perception subscale. Two patients were classified as 'very high risk', six as 'high risk', three as 'low risk', and the rest as 'no risk'. Conclusion: risk assessment using scales provides objective information to assist with systemized and targeted nursing decision-making.

  20. Impact of individual-level social capital on quality of life among AIDS patients in China.

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    Ying Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With growing recognition of the social determinants of health, social capital is an increasingly important construct in international health. However, the application of social capital discourse in response to HIV infection remains preliminary. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social capital on quality of life (QoL among adult patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. METHODS: A convenient sample of 283 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART was investigated in Anhui province, China. QoL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Survey (MOS-HIV questionnaire. Social capital was measured using a self-developed questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between social capital and QoL. RESULTS: The study sample had a mean physical health summary (PHS score of 50.13 ± 9.90 and a mean mental health summary (MHS score of 41.64 ± 11.68. Cronbach's α coefficients of the five multi-item scales of social capital ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. When other variables were controlled for, lower individual levels of reciprocity and trust were associated with a greater likelihood of having a poor PHS score (odds ratio [OR] =2.02 or PHS score (OR=6.90. Additionally, the factors of social support and social networks and ties were associated positively with MHS score (OR=2.30, OR=4.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration.

  1. Are patient decision aids the best way to improve clinical decision making? Report of the IPDAS Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Nelson, Wendy L; Pignone, Michael; Elwyn, Glyn; Rovner, David R; O'Connor, Annette M; Coulter, Angela; Correa-de-Araujo, Rosaly

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Symposium held in 2006 at the annual meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The symposium featured a debate regarding the proposition that "decision aids are the best way to improve clinical decision making.'' The formal debate addressed the theoretical problem of the appropriate gold standard for an improved decision, efficacy of decision aids, and prospects for implementation. Audience comments and questions focused on both theory and practice: the often unacknowledged roots of decision aids in expected utility theory and the practical problems of limited patient decision aid implementation in health care. The participants' vote on the proposition was approximately half for and half against. PMID:17873257

  2. New NOK mobile exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of 20 visual aids, the NOK mobile exhibition aims to illustrate how the NOK satisfies the power requirements of two million people in nine cantons. Of particular interest are the graphs of daily and annual consumption. Examples of the exhibits are a flow model which at the touch of a button demonstrates to the visitor how a pumped-storage or nuclear power station operates, and a model of power transmission. (R.S.)

  3. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): an unusual potential pathogen in cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patients Complexo Mycobacterium avium: um patógeno potencial pouco comum no líquido céfalo -raquidiano de pacientes com AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    David Jamil Hadad; Tereza Cristina Petry; Anaenza Freie Maresca; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Maria Conceição Martins; Maria Cecilia de Almeida Palhares; Walkyria Pereira Pinto; Adauto Castelo Filho; Moises Palaci

    1995-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is frequently isolated from patients with late complications of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), especially in North America and Europe. However, its isolation from the central nervous system (CNS) has been seldom reported in these countries. MAC infections in AIDS patients in African and Latin American countries are believed to be uncommon. We report the isolation of MAC from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 11 AIDS patients out of 1723 (0.63%) seen at...

  4. Utility of CT in the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients without Aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To assess the utility of CT in the evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients without AIDS. Patients and methods. Thin-section CT scans for suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from 226 patients. A total of 38 patients were excluded; the reasons were unavailability of final results (n=18), patient unavailability for follow-up (n=13), and coexistence of tuberculosis and aspergilloma (n=7). The results from 188 patients were used for this study. After assessing the patterns of parenchymal lesion, involved segments, and presence of cavity, bronchiectases, and bronchogenic spread of the lesion with CT, tentative diagnosis and disease activity were recorded. Results. With CT, 133 of 146 patients (91%) with tuberculosis were correctly diagnosed as having pulmonary tuberculosis whereas 32 of 42 patients (76%) without tuberculosis were correctly excluded. CT diagnosis of lung cancer (n=8), bacterial pneumonia (n=2), pulmonary metastasis (n=1), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (n=1) and diffuse pan-bronchiolitis (n=1) turned out to be tuberculosis. Conversely CT diagnoses of tuberculosis appeared pathologically as lung cancer (n=5), bacterial pneumonia 71/89, 80%) and inactive state (51/57, 89%) of disease respectively could be correctly differentiated by CT. Conclusion. CT can be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in most cases. On the basis of CT findings, distinction of active from inactive disease can be made in most cases. (authors)

  5. Clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients: differences between public and private hospitals in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiman T. Pohan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to determine the demographic data, risk factors, clinical presentations, opportunistic/co-infections and its difference between public and private hospitals. A retrospective -descriptive study was conducted in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital (public hospital and Medistra Hospital (private hospital, Jakarta. The inclusion criteria were new HIV/AIDS cases admitted in year 2002-2003 and positive HIV serology (Elisa method. Secondary data were collected form medical record. Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in this study (public hospital 30 subjects and private hospital 36 subjects, consist of 59 male (89.4% and 7 female (10.6%. Thirty-seven percent subjects were defined as HIV and 62% AIDS. Risk factors obtained include drug user (59.1%, homosexual (13.6%, heterosexual (21.1%, transfusion (1.5% and maternal-child (perinatal (1.5%. The clinical symptoms mainly present as acute fever (56.2%, weight loss (39.4%, cough (38.8%, shortness of breath (27.2%, chronic diarrhea (22.8%, prolong fever (19.7%, loss of conciousness (15.3%, anorexia (15.3%. Significant differences between public and private hospitals were seen in fever and cough symptoms. Clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS patients during admission were : pneumonia (56%, oral trush (22.6%, anemia (56.5%, leucopenia (32.3%, lymphopenia (55.9%, elevated AST/ALT (66.1%, hypoalbuminemia (46.9%, limphadenopathy (10.6%, brain space occuping lesion (7.6%, encephalopathy (6.0%, pulmonary tb and pleural effusion (10.6%. The opportunistic and co-infections present were candidiasis (25.8%, chronic hepatitis C (24.2%, chronic hepatitis B and C (4.5%, pulmonary tb, lymphadenitis and miliary tb. Candidiasis and pulmonary tb were frequently found in public hospital. In conclusion from this study that clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS were young man or woman, with one or more possible risk factor, had fever, respiratory complain, loss of body weight, chronic diarrhea

  6. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, Pneumopericardium, and Pneumothorax with Respiratory Failure in a Patient with AIDS and Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yun Kyung; Jung, Hee Chan; Kim, Shin Young; Kim, Min Young; Jo, Kwanhoon; Kim, Se Young; Kang, Borami; Woo, Gihyeon; Choi, Hyun Joo; Wie, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax occurs in up to 35% of patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. However, spontaneous pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium are uncommon complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, with no reported incidence rates, even among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and P. jirovecii pneumonia. We report a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and pneumothorax with respiratory failure during treatment...

  7. Fatores associados à subnotificação de pacientes com Aids, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1996 Variables associated with underreporting of AIDS patients, Brazil, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja MB Ferreira

    2000-04-01

    System for the year of 1996, in Rio de Janeiro city, and by the National Surveillance System, patients were randomly selected and their medical records reviewed to verify an AIDS diagnosis. A multinomial model was used to perform an analysis of the variations on the chances of underreporting of AIDS cases versus reporting and on the chances of underreporting without evidences to fulfill the case definition of AIDS versus reporting. RESULTS: No significant associations were found between the variables such as "age", "marital status", "level of education", "occupation", and "severity of illness" and the underreporting of AIDS cases. The variable "female gender" showed a strong association with hospitalization without evidence of an AIDS diagnosis. A strong association was found between two or more admissions in an inpatient unit care and reporting. The existence of a epidemiological surveillance department in the hospital is inversely associated with the underreporting of AIDS cases. CONCLUSION: The significant association between organizational variables and underreporting of AIDS cases found in the study point out to the need of standardization of the surveillance procedures, the especial need for the creation and maintenance of surveillance departments in hospitals to improve the quality of the health information system and, therefore, AIDS prevention and care.

  8. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Incisor Exhibiting Concurrence of Fusion, Talon Cusp and Dens Invaginatus using CBCT as a Diagnostic Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Teeth with aberrant anatomy present a challenge to the endodontist. Advanced tools like cone beam computed tomography aid in exploring the details of endodontic architecture in such cases. The aim of this case report is to highlight the advantage of CBCT in endodontic management of teeth with multiple dental anomalies. A mandibular lateral incisor associated with an extraoral sinus tract revealed unusual clinical anatomy. A provisional diagnosis of type III dens in dente was made based on radiographic findings. Considering the complex anatomy, CBCT was advised to get a confirmatory diagnosis. The anatomic details revealed by CBCT differed significantly from the provisional diagnosis. A final diagnosis of concurrence of fusion with a supernumerary tooth, talon cusp and type II dens invaginatus was established and endodontic treatment of the concerned tooth was carried out. Non-surgical endodontic treatment resulted in successful resolution of the sinus tract and healing of the periapical lesion. CBCT, thus proves to be an excellent diagnostic tool for management of teeth with unusual anatomy, paving way for a conservative treatment free of endodontic mishaps. PMID:27042591

  9. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an AIDS patient with acute renal failure and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Bargiacchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a neurological entity characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI evidence of bilateral subcortical edema in the occipital regions of the brain. Case report: We report the case of a female patient with AIDS, pulmonary aspergillosis, CMV infection, and acute renal failure due to Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Her clinical course was complicated by seizures and hypertension. MRI findings were consistent with PRES. The patient was treated with anticonvulsants and antihypertensive agents with clinical improvement. Discussion and conclusions: Few cases of PRES in HIV-infected patients have been described, and it is not clear whether HIV infection is a predisposing factor for this syndrome. The article reviews the literature on PRES in HIV and discusses the role of HIV-associated endothelial damage in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  10. Microbial translocation is associated with increased monocyte activation and dementia in AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Ancuta

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an indicator of microbial translocation from the gut, is a likely cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection. LPS induces monocyte activation and trafficking into brain, which are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD. To determine whether high LPS levels are associated with increased monocyte activation and HAD, we obtained peripheral blood samples from AIDS patients and examined plasma LPS by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay, peripheral blood monocytes by FACS, and soluble markers of monocyte activation by ELISA. Purified monocytes were isolated by FACS sorting, and HIV DNA and RNA levels were quantified by real time PCR. Circulating monocytes expressed high levels of the activation markers CD69 and HLA-DR, and harbored low levels of HIV compared to CD4(+ T-cells. High plasma LPS levels were associated with increased plasma sCD14 and LPS-binding protein (LBP levels, and low endotoxin core antibody levels. LPS levels were higher in HAD patients compared to control groups, and were associated with HAD independently of plasma viral load and CD4 counts. LPS levels were higher in AIDS patients using intravenous heroin and/or ethanol, or with Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection, compared to control groups. These results suggest a role for elevated LPS levels in driving monocyte activation in AIDS, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of HAD, and provide evidence that cofactors linked to substance abuse and HCV co-infection influence these processes.

  11. Usability assessment of ASIBOT: a portable robot to aid patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardón, Alberto; Gil, Ángel M; de la Peña, Ana I; Monje, Concepción A; Balaguer, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The usability concept refers to aspects related to the use of products that are closely linked to the user's degree of satisfaction. Our goal is to present a functional evaluation methodology for assessing the usability of sophisticated technical aids, such as a portable robot for helping disabled patients with severe spinal cord injuries. The specific manipulator used for this task is ASIBOT, a personal assistance robot totally developed by RoboticsLab at the University Carlos III of Madrid. Our purpose is also to improve some aspects of the manipulator according to the user's perception. For our case study, a population of six patients with spinal cord injury is considered. These patients have been suffering spinal cord injuries for a period of time longer than 1 year before the tests are carried out. The methodology followed for the information gathering is based on the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST). Different daily functions, such as drinking, brushing one's teeth and washing one's face, are considered to assess the user's perception when using ASIBOT as a technical aid. The human factor in this procedure is the main base to establish the specific needs and tools to make the end product more suitable and usable. PMID:20969432

  12. Variation in morphotype, karyotype and DNA type of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans from an AIDS patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuka, T; Baily, G G; Birch, M; Anderson, M J; Law, D; Denning, D W

    1998-01-01

    Azole-resistant oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis is a recent phenomenon observed in patients with AIDS usually previously treated with fluconazole. Some variation has been observed in antifungal susceptibility testing among separate colonies of Candida albicans from the same patient. This raises the question of whether there are multiple clones present or simply phenotypic variation in expression of azole resistance. To address this question we took 18 isolates grown from multiple swabs taken before and after experimental azole therapy from a single HIV-positive individual with fluconazole-resistant oral candidiasis and compared morphotype, karyotype, PCR-based DNA typing and azole susceptibility. Ten of the isolates were from a single 2-day period. Amongst these 10 there were seven morphotypes, five karyotypes and four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) types. Three further morphotypes, one karyotype and two PCR types were found amongst the eight isolates obtained during the subsequent 4 months. Limited variation in susceptibility to two azoles--fluconazole and D0870--was also seen. This work emphasizes both the large genotype and phenotypic variability of C. albicans isolates in the mouth of AIDS patients with fluconazole resistance, and the difficulties in interpretation of present typing methods. PMID:9515670

  13. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  14. Knowledge and affective traits of physiotherapy students to provide care for patients living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Y. Adetoyeje

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This  study  aimed  to  assess  Nigerian physiotherapy students’ knowledge and their affective traits in caring for patients living with AIDS (PWA.Methods: Nigerian students (N=104 in four training programs were surveyed using a 43-item questionnaire that elicited information on the  students’  demographics  characteristics,  knowledge  levels  on AIDS transmission, universal precaution and pathophysiology, their feeling  of  preparedness,  comfort,  ethical  disposition  for  PWA  and their  willingness  to  evaluate  and  provide  care  to  PWA  in  different clinical scenarios.Results: Overall  the  students  showed  unsatisfactory  know ledge  of universal  precaution  and  AIDS  pathophysiology  and  did  not  feel comfortable or prepared to care for PWA. The students did not also show  satisfactory  ethical  disposition  and  may  be  unwilling  to  care for PWA. The students’ knowledge levels on AIDS transmission and willingness were influenced by religious affiliation while feeling of comfort and ethical disposition were influenced by gender and knowing someone living with AIDS. They were more unwilling to provide whirlpool wound care procedures and chest physiotherapy compared to providing gait training, therapeutic exercise and activities of daily living training for PWA.Conclusion: The study identified the need to improve the curriculum on AIDS and recommends clinical clerkship and a methodical and sequential exposure of students to cases during clinical rotations.

  15. Ga-67 citrate myocardial uptake in a patient with AIDS, toxoplasmosis, and myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 38-year-old man with AIDS presented with fever of unknown origin, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Admission laboratory data revealed a positive toxoplasmosis titer in the blood. The initial chest x-ray showed small bilateral pleural effusions, a normal cardiac silhouette, no infiltrates, and no interstitial edema. Ga-67 imaging revealed markedly abnormal uptake in the myocardium. A diagnosis of toxoplasmosis myocarditis was made based on laboratory and imaging data. The patient was treated for toxoplasmosis. No myocardial uptake of tracer was demonstrated on a follow-up Ga-67 scan, performed after completion of treatment for toxoplasmosis

  16. Enhancing patient compliance in the elderly. Role of packaging aids and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J A

    1998-01-01

    Inadequate compliance with medications is a significant contributor to the costs of medical care in every therapeutic area. No matter how severe the consequence, there is no assurance that all patients will take their medications as prescribed. Elderly patients are a particular concern because of their common deficits in physical dexterity, cognitive skills and memory, and the number of medications that they are typically prescribed. To overcome problems of compliance in the elderly, healthcare providers are advised to prescribe a simple dosage regimen for all medications to be taken (preferably 1 or 2 doses daily), to help the patient select cues that assist them in remembering to take doses (time of day, meal-time, or other daily rituals), to provide devices to simplify remembering doses (medication boxes), and to regularly monitor compliance. A variety of compliance aids are available to help patients organise their medications (e.g. plastic boxes) or remember dose times (alarms). Medication packaged in standard pharmacy bottles should be identified with special labels, or dose charts can be provided to check the daily schedule. Single-unit doses, widely used in hospitals, may be cumbersome for elderly patients who have difficulty opening the foil-backed wrappers. Medication boxes with compartments that are filled weekly by the patient, family member or a home healthcare provider are useful organisers that simplify the patient's responsibilities for self-administration. Microelectronic devices can provide feedback that shows patients whether they have been taking doses as scheduled. Some systems are also designed to notify patients within a day if doses were omitted. No system is optimal for all patients, but elderly patients deserve a comprehensive assessment of their needs to enhance medication compliance. PMID:9467683

  17. CMV co-infection and risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lichtner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In HIV-positive patients (pts, CMV co-infection has been proposed as a key factor in sustaining immune activation, which in turn could play a role in determining immune senescence. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of CMV co-infection in a cohort of HIV+ pts and assessed the impact of CMV co-infection on the risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. We included pts in the ICONA study with<1 month follow-up and<1 CMVIgG (CMV test available without active CMV disease. Pts' characteristics at time of the first CMV test (baseline were compared in those tested positive (CMV+ and negative (CMV- using X2/Wilcoxon tests. Factors associated with CMV+ were identified by logistic regression. A prospective analysis was also performed with endpoints AIDS/AIDS-related death and severe non-AIDS (SNA: cardio-cerebrovascular, neurologic disease, renal failure, non-AIDS tumours/death due to SNA. Time to event was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression (multivariable model included: age, gender, ethnicity, risk factor for HIV, HCVAb and HBsAg, AIDS and CD4 at baseline, initiation of ART prior to baseline. 6,053 pts were included; 83.7% were tested CMV+ a median of 17 (IQR 6–45 months after enrolment. As compared to CMV-, CMV+ were older (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.03 per 1 year older [95% CI 1.02–1.04], HIV infected by homosexual route (MSM (AOR 1.39 [95% CI 1.06–1.82], less frequently Caucasian (AOR 0.56 [95% CI 0.42–0.76], with higher CD4 count at baseline (AOR per 1 cell higher 1.035 [95% CI 1.00–1.06] By 10 years from first CMV test, 402 (12.6% [95% CI 11.1–13.6] CMV+ and 74 (10.1% [95% CI 7.7–12.5] CMV- pts developed AIDS/AIDS-related death (log-rank p=0.43. After adjustment for potential confounders, CMV+was still not associated with the risk of AIDS/AIDS-related death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.23 [95% CI 0.96–1.60]. By 10 years, 339 (10.6% [95% CI 9.4–11.9] CMV+ and 41 (6.4% [95% CI 6.1–6.6] CMV- pts experienced a non-AIDS

  18. Human Cardiosphere-Derived Cells From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Exhibit Augmented Functional Potency in Myocardial Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deliang; Sun, Baiming; Blusztajn, Agnieszka; Xie, Yucai; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aminzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Liu, Weixin; Li, Tao-Sheng; De Robertis, Michele A.; Marbán, Linda; Czer, Lawrence S. C.; Trento, Alfredo; Marbán, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to compare the regenerative potency of cells derived from healthy and diseased human hearts. Background Results from pre-clinical studies and the CADUCEUS (CArdiosphere-Derived aUtologous stem CElls to reverse ventricUlar dySfunction) trial support the notion that cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) from normal and recently infarcted hearts are capable of regenerating healthy heart tissue after myocardial infarction (MI). It is unknown whether CDCs derived from advanced heart failure (HF) patients retain the same regenerative potency. Methods In a mouse model of acute MI, we compared the regenerative potential and functional benefits of CDCs derived from 3 groups: 1) non-failing (NF) donor: healthy donor hearts post-transplantation; 2) MI: patients who had an MI 9 to 35 days before biopsy; and 3) HF: advanced cardiomyopathy tissue explanted at cardiac transplantation. Results Cell growth and phenotype were identical in all 3 groups. Injection of HF CDCs led to the greatest therapeutic benefit in mice, with the highest left ventricular ejection fraction, thickest infarct wall, most viable tissue, and least scar 3 weeks after treatment. In vitro assays revealed that HF CDCs secreted higher levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), which may contribute to the cells’ augmented resistance to oxidative stress, enhanced angiogenesis, and improved myocyte survival. Histological analysis indicated that HF CDCs engrafted better, recruited more endogenous stem cells, and induced greater angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle re-entry. CDC-secreted SDF-1 levels correlated with decreases in scar mass over time in CADUCEUS patients treated with autologous CDCs. Conclusions CDCs from advanced HF patients exhibit augmented potency in ameliorating ventricular dysfunction post-MI, possibly through SDF-1–mediated mechanisms. PMID:24511463

  19. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    , and 3) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another...

  20. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...

  1. Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, H; Fernandes, O; Viola, J P; Silva, S P; Passos, R H; Lima, D B

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986), treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE), between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79.8%) patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2%) who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.). The most occurring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia (15.2%), E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1%) and Isospora belli (10.1%). Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56.3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitic infections does not seem to depend on the acquisition of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependency is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity. PMID:2487448

  2. An evaluation of community nursing services for HIV/AIDS patients in Lothian, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, F I; Grant, I; Lewis, R; Sherval, J

    1996-10-01

    This paper reports on a postal questionnaire survey of district nurses' work with HIV positive patients. Each nurse was asked to provide information about their contact with HIV positive patients and the level of training they had received in HIV/AIDS care. The nature of nursing activities carried out for these patients was established along with levels of confidence the nurses had in being able to provide a high standard of care. Where the nurses indicated less than full confidence they were asked to indicate what factors predisposed their response. Questionnaires were completed by 101 district nurses. On average, each nurse made 1.25 visits to HIV-infected patients in the two weeks preceding the study. The nursing activities most commonly carried out for these patients were providing advice/counselling, carer support, general nursing care and specialist treatments. The activities least commonly carried out were technical procedures, tests and assessments. Nurses were most confident in providing a high standard in relation to general nursing care and least confident that high standards were being achieved in providing specialist treatments. The most frequently encountered explanations offered by the district nurses for their lack of confidence in achieving a high standard were a lack of specialist training and a lack of experience with HIV-infected patients. PMID:8894891

  3. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population.

  4. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population

  5. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total o...

  6. Acute pancreatitis in HIV/AIDS patients: an issue of concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dragovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is a well-described complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV itself and its combination antiretroviral therapy. Historically, this has been predominantly associated with the usage of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine and stavudine, but only rarely with the usage of protease inhibitors via the induction of hypertriglyceridemia. Pancreatitis rates in HIV/AIDS population may have been exceedingly high because of the comorbid conditions prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients (e.g. ethanol use and biliary disease, and the use of non-combination antiretroviral therapy medications such as pentamidine, corticosteroids, ketoconazole, sulphonamides, metronidazole, isoniazid and opportunistic infections (e.g. cytomegalovirus, cryptosporidiosis, mycobacterial disease. In resource limited settings, where didanosine and stavudine are widely available in cheaper generic fixed dose combinations it is likely that their usage will remain in the first line HIV treatment in common. In such settings management or estimation of a patient's risk of pancreatitis still remains an issue of concern.

  7. Upcycle Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Townsley, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The exhibition Upcycle, at Athens Institute of Contemporary Art (ATHICA‘) in Athens, Georgia, USA. opens in congruence with Earth Day on April 22nd, 2012. Upcycle celebrates over twenty artists’ creative approaches to material re-use, materials destined to become landfill fodder — or worse, toxic pollution — are reborn as these artists dream them out of the waste stream. Curated by Lizzie Zucker Saltz with the assistance of Katie Faulkner, the exhibit will run through Athfest weekend, clos...

  8. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor of the appendix vermiformis in a patient with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basílio-de-Oliveira Carlos Alberto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterial pseudotumor (MP is a rare pathologic presentation of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease, hitherto reported to occur only in immunosuppressed patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus infection. This lesion shares close pathologic resemblance to certain mesenchymal neoplasms, particularly Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, from which it must be properly differentiated due to distinct prognosis and therapy. We report a case of MP obliterating the lumen of the appendix vermiformis in a 34-year-old patient who died of complications of AIDS at our hospital in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 24 cases of MP (including our patient have been described in the literature. MP has been found especially in lymph nodes, but extranodal lesions have been described in the skin, spleen, lung, bone marrow, brain and, in our patient, the appendix vermiformis. We offer a review of the other 23 published case reports of MP in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients and discuss the pathologic features that differentiate MP from KS.

  9. Humoral and cellular responses to Pneumocystis carinii, CMV, and herpes simplex in patients with AIDS and in controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Nielsen, P B; Ødum, Niels; Gerstoft, J; Platz, P; Ryder, L P; Poulsen, A G; Mathiesen, L; Dickmeiss, E; Norrild, B

    1988-01-01

    The titers of IgG and IgA to Pneumocystis carinii in 36 AIDS patients did not differ significantly from those in 31 controls. Only 2/15 patients (13%) with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) had titers of IgM antibodies greater than or equal to 5, which is significantly less frequent than in 32 controls ...

  10. Adhesive Capabilities of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Tears of HIV/AIDS Patients to Soft Contact Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    B. O., Ajayi; F.E., Kio; F.D., Otajevwo

    2012-01-01

    Fifty conjunctival swab samples collected from ELISA confirmed HIV/AIDS seropositive patients who were referred to the HIV/AIDS laboratories of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital both based in Benin City, Nigeria were aseptically cultured on appropriate media by standard methods. The resulting isolates/strains, after identification by standard methods, were tested for their ability to adhere to two hydrophobic non-ionic daily wear silicone hydrogel soft contact len...

  11. Caring for terminal AIDS patients: The experiences of caregivers in a palliative care institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essie Ricks

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This research focused on the lived experiences of caregivers working with AIDS patients, particularly patients who die from this disease whilst resident in a formal institution. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, and contextual research design with a phenomenological approach to inquiry was utilised. Thirteen unstructured interviews, which were audio-taped, were conducted with caregivers working full-time in a formal institution caring for patients who are dying from AIDS. The transcribed interviews were analysed using Tesch’s method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell 1994:115.

    One central theme emerged, namely that in their daily duty (at their place of work, caregivers experienced various challenges as a result of having to deal with the death of their patients suffering from AIDS, and five sub-themes were formulated from further analysis. The five subthemes were:

    • Caregivers experienced emotional challenges in caring for patients dying of AIDS;

    • Caregivers experienced a difference in death and dying of adults as apposed to children;

    • Caregivers experienced the rationalisation of death and dying differently;

    • Caregivers experienced that faith in God give them strength to cope with death and dying;

    • Caregivers experienced caring for patients as fulfilling and meaningful to them despite the sadness of death and dying.

    The participants face the death of their patients daily, from a disease that causes untold suffering to the patients, family members and to the caregivers themselves, who wish they could prevent the anguish, the pain and the inability of the medical profession to do more than they are at present towards curing this disease. They described their emotional experiences, which included the various challenges that they face as a result of having to deal with the death and dying of their patients suffering from AIDS. The information shared by these participants formed

  12. Radiologic features of pyogenic pulmonary infection in AIDS patients and HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 HIV-infected patients were examined by chest radiographs and CT examinations. The radiological diagnosis of pyogenic bacterial pneumonia was confirmed by clinical examinations, laboratory tests and in cases by autopsy. Lobar consolidation often, bilateral, with abscesses and atelectasis, pleural effusions, diffuse interstitial infiltrates were noted mostly in the bacterial pneumonia group. In spite of immunodeficiency in these patients lobar consolidation and abscesses regressed after therapy. The relapse of pyogenic pulmonary infection, often in the same localization, which also regressed during treatment were observed. (author)

  13. Anemia in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV/AIDS Patients: A Study from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Pande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hematological manifestations are common throughout the course of HIV infection. Impact of anemia is the most significant among them. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the etiologies underlying anemia in HIV/AIDS. Methods This was a non randomized cross sectional observational study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of India over a period of 2 years. One hundred and fifty HIV patients were screened. Thorough clinical and laboratory evaluation was done in 50 randomly selected anemic cases. Results: Proper etiological diagnosis could be reached in 46 patients. Among them correlation between Hb% and CD4 count was statistically insignificant (p = 0.074, r = 0.47 whereas it was significant with absolute lymphocyte and CD4 count (p = 0.006, r = 0.41. There was better correlation of bone marrow iron status with percent saturation of transferrin (p = 0.003, r = 0.54 than with serum ferritin (p = 0.055, r = 0.09. Bone marrow iron status did not have any relationship with CD4 count. Anemia of chronic disease was the commonest etiology (37% followed by HIV related myelodysplastic syndrome (31%, iron deficiency anemia (13%, bone marrow suppression due to direct involvement by some infective process (7%. Aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease, pure red cell aplasia, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and vitamin B12 deficiency were detected in one case (2% each. Conclusions: Etiologies of anemia in HIV/AIDS are multifactorial with anemia of chronic disease being the commonest. For screening of iron deficiency in this group, percent saturation is a better tool than serum ferritin. Absolute lymphocyte count can sometimes be used as a surrogate marker of immunological status in antiretroviral naïve HIV patients, particularly in resource poor areas.

  14. Evidence-based patient choice: a prostate cancer decision aid in plain language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohene-Frempong Janet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids (DA to assist patients in evaluating treatment options and sharing in decision making have proliferated in recent years. Most require high literacy and do not use plain language principles. We describe one of the first attempts to design a decision aid using principles from reading research and document design. The plain language DA prototype addressed treatment decisions for localized prostate cancer. Evaluation assessed impact on knowledge, decisions, and discussions with doctors in men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. Methods Document development steps included preparing an evidence-based DA in standard medical parlance, iteratively translating it to emphasize shared decision making and plain language in three formats (booklet, Internet, and audio-tape. Scientific review of medical content was integrated with expert health literacy review of document structure and design. Formative evaluation methods included focus groups (n = 4 and survey of a new sample of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer (n = 60, compared with historical controls (n = 184. Results A transparent description of the development process and design elements is reported. Formative evaluation among newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients found the DA to be clear and useful in reaching a decision. Newly diagnosed patients reported more discussions with doctors about treatment options, and showed increases in knowledge of side effects of radiation therapy. Conclusion The plain language DA presenting medical evidence in text and numerical formats appears acceptable and useful in decision-making about localized prostate cancer treatment. Further testing should evaluate the impact of all three media on decisions made and quality of life in the survivorship period, especially among very low literacy men.

  15. Novel and recurrent AID mutations underlie prevalent autosomal recessive form of HIGM in consanguineous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadani, Hanen; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Ben-ali, Meriem; Ben-khemis, Leila; Larguèche, Beya; Boussoffara, Raoudha; Maalej, Sonia; Fetni, Ilhem; Hassayoun, Saida; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid; Mellouli, Fethi; Yalaoui, Sadok; Masmoudi, Hatem; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-D) are characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM level and absence of IgG, IgA, and IgE. Most reported cases are due to X-linked CD40L deficiency. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deficiency is the most frequent autosomal recessive form, whereas CD40 deficiency is more rare. Herein, we present the first North African study on hyper IgM (HIGM) syndrome including 16 Tunisian patients. Phenotypic and genetic studies allowed us to determine their molecular basis. Three CD40LG mutations have been identified including two novels (c.348_351dup and c.782_*2del) and one already reported mutation (g.6182G>A). No mutation has been found in another patient despite the lack of CD40L expression. Interestingly, three AICDA mutations have been identified in 11 patients. Two mutations were novel (c.91T>C and c.389A>C found in one and five patients respectively), and one previously reported splicing mutation (c.156+1T>G) was found in five patients. Only one CD40-deficient patient, bearing a novel mutation (c.109T>G), has been identified. Thus, unlike previous reports, AID deficiency is the most frequent underlying molecular basis (68%) of Ig-CSR-D in Tunisian patients. This finding and the presence of specific recurrent mutations are probably due to the critical role played by inbreeding in North African populations. PMID:26545377

  16. Immunologically confirmed disseminated, asymptomatic Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C; Schwartz, D A; Visvesvara, G S; Müller, A; Schwenk, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Hartmann, P; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V

    1995-12-01

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They are increasingly recognized as human pathogens, especially in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Organisms of the genus Encephalitozoon have been implicated as a major cause of disseminated microsporidian infections in persons with AIDS. Until recently, E. hellem was the only Encephalitozoon species confirmed by antigenic or nucleic acid methods to have infected humans. We describe the clinical course and morphological features of a case of disseminated microsporidian infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in an HIV-infected patient with chronic sinusitis, rhinitis, and keratoconjunctivitis. Parasites were found in conjunctival swab, nasal discharge, sputum, urine, stool, and duodenal biopsy specimens, but no pulmonary, renal, or gastrointestinal symptoms were documented. The patient was treated with albendazole (400 mg po b.i.d.), resulting in complete remission of his ocular and nasal symptoms, and microsporidian spores disappeared from all sites. To our knowledge, this case is only the second of E. cuniculi infection in humans that has been confirmed by either antibody- or nucleic acid-based methods, and it is the first in which an Encephalitozoon species has been found in the intestinal tract of a human. Microsporidiosis is an important emerging opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients and, as documented in this report, has an expanding clinicopathologic spectrum. PMID:8749639

  17. Intestinal microsporidiosis with Septata intestinalis in a patient with AIDS--response to albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C; Müller, A; Schwenk, A; Salzberger, B; Fätkenheuer, G; Mahrle, G; Diehl, V; Schrappe, M

    1995-11-01

    Microsporidiosis is a common finding in HIV-infected patients who have diarrhoea. The species most commonly causing gastrointestinal disease is Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Recently Septata intestinalis has been described as a cause of diarrhoea and disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. A 44-year-old homosexual man with severe immunodeficiency (CD4 cell count 40/microliters) had a history of watery diarrhoea for 2 weeks. Microsporidian spores measuring 1.2 to 1.5 x 2.5 to 3.0 microns were found in stool samples. Electron microscopy of duodenal biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis and showed parasitophorous vacuoles with the typical ultrastructure of S. intestinalis. The patient was treated with albendazole (400 mg twice daily) and became asymptomatic within 4 days. No spores could be detected in stool samples after a treatment period of 14 days. About 25 infections with S. intestinalis have been reported to date, and the case presented here is the first in a German patient. PMID:8586846

  18. Dolor y sufrimiento en el paciente con SIDA Pain and suffering of AIDS' patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Arroyave

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se analizan algunos aspectos relacionados con el dolor y el sufrimiento de los pacientes con SIDA, así como su manejo médico y ético; se explican, además, los componentes del cuidado paliativo, a saber: control de la sintomatología, manejo administrativo, atención domiciliaria, atención hospitalaria, acción del voluntariado, ayuda espiritual, manejo de la aflicción y aspectos educativos y evaluativos.

    Pain and suffering of AIDS' patients are analyzed including medical and ethical implications; the following aspects of palliative care are reviewed: control of symptoms, administrative handling of the problem, home and hospital care, volunteer help, spiritual needs, management of affliction, as well as educational and evaluative Issues related with AIDS.

  19. The compassion of concealment: silence between older caregivers and dying patients in the AIDS era, northwest Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Josien

    2012-01-01

    In northwest Tanzania, where AIDS has been present for 25 years, AIDS-related illness is a trigger through which community members discuss personal experiences of loss and assess social relationships. The terminal phase of AIDS demands intimate social relations between patients and caretakers. In this final phase of illness, caretakers are scrutinised for their behaviour towards the patient. In the moral world in which caregiving takes place, the act of concealing is considered an intrinsic part of proper care. Current debates on morality, stigma and secrecy inform my argument that acts of concealment around dying are not so much related to the exclusion and ostracism of patients but to inclusion and compassionate care. PMID:22092190

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging features of neuroinfections in patients with AIDS. Pablo Tobon Hospital, Medellin (2008-2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose is to describe the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the central nervous system (CNS ) most common infectious diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and / or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS ) that consulted to the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in the period 2008-2009. We included four adult patients with HIV and / or AIDS from Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe database, who were diagnosed having central nervous system infections by MRI and diagnostic microbiological tests. The most common MRI patterns of CNS infections in AIDS patients in our institution were irregular multifocal intra-axial space-occupying lesions with heterogeneous and variable signals on T1, T2 and FLAI R, with perilesional edema and rim postcontrast enhancement.

  1. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

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    Duschau-Wicke Alexander

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training

  2. Patient understanding of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines: need for development of patient decision aids

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    Allen Summer V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to examine patients’ understanding of the revised screening mammogram guidelines released by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF in 2009 addressing age at initiation and frequency of screening mammography. Methods Patients from the Departments of Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, and Obstetrics and Gynecology (n = 150 at a tertiary care medical center in the United States completed a survey regarding their understanding of the revised USPSTF guidelines following their release, within four to six months of their scheduled mammogram (March 2010 to May 2010. Results Of the patients surveyed, 97/147 (67% indicated increased confusion regarding the age and frequency of screening mammography, 61/148 (41% reported increased anxiety about mammograms, and 58/146 (40% reported anxiety about their own health status following the release of the revised screening guidelines. Most of the patients surveyed, 111/148 (75%, did not expect to change their timing or frequency of screening mammograms in the future. Conclusion Results from this survey suggested increased confusion and possibly an increase in patients’ anxiety related to screening mammography and their own health status following the release of the revised USPSTF screening mammogram guidelines to the public and subsequent media portrayal of the revised guidelines. Although the study did not specifically address causality for these findings, the results highlight the need for improvements in the communication of guidelines to patients and the public. Development of shared decision-making tools and outcomes should be considered to address the communication challenge.

  3. On the Estimation of Expected Survival Time of AIDS Patients Undergoing Antiretroviral Therapy Using Censored Generalized Poisson Regression Model

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    Gurprit GROVER

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The progression of HIV infection depends not only on the combination of drugs and adherence to the Anti Retroviral therapy (ART, but also on various other factors. The survival of an HIV patient depends on interaction of these factors with the therapy. Material and Methods: The parametric approach with and without covariates have been used to analyze the survival data of HIV/AIDS patients. When covariates are not considered, survival distributions are fitted and best one chosen. The inclusion of covariates is analyzed using Censored Generalized Poisson Regression Model (CGPR. Results: For a retrospective right censored data of 1689 HIV/AIDS patients undergoing ART at the Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India, appropriate survival distributions in the absence of covariates are fitted. Using the Akaike Information Criterion, Gamma distribution is found to be the distribution of best fit. Assuming Gamma survival distribution with right censored survival time data, the mean survival time of AIDS patients using the method of maximum likelihood is found to be 11.14 years. Also, CGPR model for estimating the survival time while accounting for the impact of cofactors is used for the first time on the AIDS dataset. Conclusion: The advantage of using a CGPR model over the gamma right censored distribution is that the mean survival time of the AIDS patient undergoing ART can be estimated in the presence of significant prognostic factors. Using this model, age, gender, smoking status, alcoholism, WHO staging, improvement in CD4 count, opportunistic infections, number of visits and weight at initiation of ART are identified as significant prognostic factors effecting the survival time. On averaging the predicted survival times based on CGPR model, the mean survival time of AIDS patients on ART is found to be 12.12 years.

  4. Specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚红; 韩晓旭; 王亚男; 周立平; 张子宁; 姜拥军; 张旻; 于旭

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are considered to play a central role in the immune response against HIV-1. During untreated acute HIV-1 infection, virus-specific CTL activity is associated with the initial decrease in viremia.1 After HIV infection, those individuals with a slow progressive course develop stronger CTL responses than those with typical disease progression.2,3 Restoring HIV-1-specific CTL responses have been considered a key factor in immune reconstitution and vaccine development. Here we present the analysis of HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL responses in 23 Chinese HIV/AIDS cases in order to take the initial steps at identifying the epitopes that dominate the CTL response in Chinese patients.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards patients with HIV/AIDS in staff nurses in one university hospital in Sicily

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    Marina Marranzano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practices towards patients with HIV/AIDS are of ongoing interest, especially in developing countries. Nothing or very little is known about Italian nurses.Methods: HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the nurses (n=107 from one university hospital inCatania,Sicily, were documented. Comparisons among nurses belonging to different Operative Units (O.U. were conducted by the chi-square test (P<0.05.Results: although HIV was nurses’ main concern in regard to contracting infections in the workplace (54%, the vast majority of them (98% had never refused an HIV/AIDS patient care assignment. Moreover, despite their concern of being more at risk of contracting HIV than the general population (41%, a not negligible percentage of nurses did not use gloves routinely (21% and only a few treated all patients as potentially HIV-positive (9%. The vast majority of the respondents knew the meaning of AIDS (87% and of a positive serological test (78%. On the contrary, a relatively low percentage of them knew what is the ‘window period’ (62% and were acquainted with HIV pathophysiology (65%. No statistically significant differences in terms of risk perception were found between nurses who had previously attended an HIV/AIDS workshop, lecture or specific course (43% and nurses who did not (57%. Level of knowledge was positively associated to age (P=0.000 and to education (P=0.016, and it was found higher in nurses working in a O.U. of Infectious Diseases.Conclusions: data from our study show that also in developed countries, such as Italy, nurses could have some misconceptions and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The importance of examining the impact of continuing education on nurses’ preparedness to care for patients with HIV/AIDS and to prevent the risks of occupational HIV transmission is discussed. 

  6. Identifying risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in AIDS patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy

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    Bo He

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome typically occurs within days after patients undergo highly active anti-retroviral therapy and is a big hurdle for effective treatment of AIDS patients. In this study, we monitored immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in 238 AIDS patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Among them, immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurred in 47 cases (19.7%. Immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients had significantly higher rate of opportunistic infection (p < 0.001 and persistently lower CD4+ cell count (p < 0.001 compared to the non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome patients. In contrast, no significant differences in HIV RNA loads were observed between the immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group and non-immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome group. These data suggest that a history of opportunistic infection and CD4+ cell counts at baseline may function as risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammation syndrome occurrence in AIDS patients as well as potential prognostic markers. These findings will improve the management of AIDS with highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

  7. the Diagnostic Value of Brain Magnetic Resonance imaging in Detecting CNS Diseases Among Advanced AiDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of brain magnetic resonance imaging in detecting central nervous system diseases among AIDS patients of different levels of T cells. Methods Total of 164 AIDS patients who did not receive antiviral treatment were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline CD4+T cell counts. Group A had CD4+T cell below or equal to 50 cells/μl (n=81) and group B had CD4+T cells over 50 cells/μl (n=83). All patients underwent brain MRI scan. Imaging analysis and the prevalence of the central nervous system disorders were compared between two groups. Results Among them 48 cases were found of abnormal brain MRI, group A was higher than group B (35.8%vs. 22.9%) although without statistical significance (P = 0.065). Altogether 48 cases were diagnosed as AIDS related central nervous system disorders based on clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory findings. The prevalence of CNS disorders was higher in group A than in group B (41.9%vs. 16.8%) with statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions The patients with CD4+T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/μl had high prevalence of CNS diseases. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of CNS diseases in advanced AIDS patients. This study suggests patients with low CD4+T cell count (≤ 50/μl) should routinely undergo MRI examination.

  8. [EXPORT] Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Skjonsberg, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    INDIANAPOLIS CITY ENGAGEMENT PROJECTS BY SIX INTERNATIONALLY ACTIVE ARTISTS How can you understand your city more deeply? This exhibition presents the ways in which the Indianapolis-based informal collective We Are City has answered that question over the past two years. At the center of this show are the products of We Are City’s artist-in-residence program, which has brought six internationally active artists into conversation with Indianapolis residents. Featuring these artists’ visual, a...

  9. Cystic pneumocystosis in a patient with AIDS; Pneumocistose cistica em paciente com SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; Barata, Cristina Hueb; Correia, Dalmo [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: dalmo@mednet.com.br

    2007-09-15

    A 34-year-old man was hospitalized on February 14, 2005, with fever of up to 39 deg C with several peaks over the course of the day. He also reported a persistent cough with slight production of yellowish sputum. He had sought the health services in his hometown and had been medicated for three days with amikacin, ceftriaxone and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Because there was no clinical improvement, he was referred to the teaching hospital of Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro. He had had AIDS since July 1998, and had already presented clinical episodes of pneumocystosis, secondary syphilis and, as a comorbidity, moderate asthma. The CD4+T lymphocyte count in February 2005 was 381 cells/mm{sup 3} (51.1%). He had given up treatment for HIV infection two months earlier. On physical examination, he presented diffuse wheezing and rales in the lower third of both lungs. His respiratory rate was 24; his heart rate was 76; and his arterial blood pressure was 130/80mmHg. A chest x-ray showed condensations in the base of the right lung (Figure A). Computed tomography of the chest showed tenuous ground-glass opacity in both lung fields and multiple bilateral well-defined thin-walled cystic lesions in subpleural and medullary locations (Figure B - in a lateral view, a large, well defined cyst is demonstrated by CT scan - arrow). He was treated for pneumocystosis using SMX-TMP. Bronchofibroscopy with alveolar lavage was performed, from which the anatomopathological examination showed structures compatible with Pneumocystis jiroveci. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) using the AZT/3TC/NFV scheme was administered and a good clinical response to treatment was observed. Cyst formation in the pulmonary parenchyma is unusual in patients with pneumocystosis. We have reported on the case of an AIDS patient who presented cystic lesions attributed to pneumocystosis. (author)

  10. Total Body Photography as an Aid to Skin Self-examination: A Patient's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Lisanne J; Bergman, Wilma; Kukutsch, Nicole A

    2016-03-01

    Skin self-examination can help patients who are at high risk for developing melanoma to become more involved in their own surveillance and treatment. This study examined the use of total body photography as an aid to skin self-examination from the patients' perspective. A total of 179 individuals at high risk for developing melanoma who had undergone total body photography (60.5% response rate) completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing the frequency of skin self-examination, perceived usefulness of total body photography, and a variety of potential demographic, clinical and psychological factors. Only approximately half of the participants indicated skin self-examination as useful and 78.9% preferred clinical skin examination by a specialist. Finding total body photography useful was associated with having received instructions on how to perform skin self-examination, the use of a (hand)mirror, and confidence to detect changing moles. These findings allow us to develop strategies to further improve patients' self-screening behaviours. PMID:26315708

  11. Interferonγ in patients with HIV/AIDS and suspicion or latent tuberculosis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guadalupe García-Elorriaga; Mayté Martínez-Velazquez; Veronica Gaona-Flores; Guillermo del Rey-Pineda; César Gonzalez-Bonilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the usefulness ofIGRA test(QuantiFERON?-Cell mediated immune) compared with the tuberculin skin test.Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out in Mexico,25 infected patients withHIV-AIDS and the suspicion or with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) who were >18 years of age and without treatment for tuberculosis(TB), were enrolled in the study.Results:Median cluster of differentiation(CD4) count was364 cells/μL and median HIV viral load was50 copies/mL.Overall,20 patients(80%) had at least one positive diagnostic test forLTBI: four(16%) had a positive tuberculin skin test and19(76%), a positiveQuantiFERON?-tuberculosis.Conclusions:No agreement is found between the two diagnostic tests:k = -0.004,95% confidence interval(-0.2219,0.2210).Additional longitudinal studies amongHIV-infected populations with high prevalence ofTB are needed to further assess the usefulness of IGRAs in this patient population.

  12. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis among antiretroviral-treated HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Gebru, Rezene Berhe

    2014-10-01

    Summary A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Socio-demographic information was collected and faecal samples were analysed from 384 randomly selected patients on ART. Data on CD4+ T-cell counts and World Health Organization clinical staging were obtained from the medical records at the hospital. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51% to 61%). No opportunistic intestinal parasites or Schistosoma haematobium eggs were detected. Unavailability of latrine and lack of hand washing with soap were associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.75; 95% CI: 1.77 to 4.27 and AOR, 2.67; 95% CI: 1.60 to 4.44, respectively) and Giardia lamblia (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.99 and AOR, 2.46; 95% CI: 1.06 to 5.75, respectively) infections. Intestinal parasitosis was significantly associated with low CD4 cell count (p = 0.002). In contrast, intestinal parasitic infections were not associated (p > 0.05) with the World Health Organization disease staging. In summary, poor personal hygiene and sanitation practice contributed to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis. Routine diagnosis for intestinal parasitic infections should be performed in patients attending ART clinics in this setting. PMID:24554001

  13. The characteristics of HIV and AIDS patients with deep vein thrombosis at Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital

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    Indiran Govender

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is 10 times more prevalent in HIV and AIDS patients than in the general population and is more common in patients with severe immune suppression (CD4 < 200 cells/mL. Opportunistic infections render HIV and AIDS patients susceptible to a hypercoaguable state, including lower protein S levels. Aim and setting: To present the profile of HIV and AIDS patients who developed DVT in the primary care wards of Dr. George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH, Garankuwa. Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical records of admitted HIV and AIDS patients without DVT to the primary care wards, DGMAH, from 01 February 2010 to 31 January 2011. Results: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were admitted and 17 (7.4% developed DVT. Of those that developed DVT, eight (47% had infection with tuberculosis (TB, four (24% had pneumonia and four (24% had gastroenteritis. The risk of developing DVT was 8/94 (8.5% in those with TB, 4/53 (7.5% in those with gastroenteritis and 4/75 (5.3% in those with pneumonia. The mean duration of stay was 14.1 days in those with DVT versus 4.0 days in those without. Conclusion: HIV (and AIDS is a hypercoaguable state and the risk of DVT is relatively high in patients with opportunistic infections. HIV and AIDS patients who are admitted to hospital with opportunistic infections may benefit from anti-thrombotic prophylaxis and further studies are needed to evaluate this.

  14. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J N; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials. PMID:7790424

  15. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials.

  16. Lymphangiectatic Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS Sarcoma de Kaposi linfangiectásico em paciente com Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Santos; Virginia Vilasboas; Luciana Mendes; Carolina Talhari; Sinésio Talhari

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is a malignant disease that originates in the lymphatic endothelium. It has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its four distinct clinical forms are: classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. In non-HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, the disease is typically limited to the lower extremities, but in immunodeficient patients, it is a multifocal systemic disease. The clinical course of the disease differs among patients, ranging from a single or a few in...

  17. Endobronchial leiomyoma: an unusual non-defining neoplasm in a patient with AIDS Leiomioma endobronquial: rara neoplasia não definida em paciente com AIDS

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    Humberto Metta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle neoplasms are more frequent in human immunodeficiency infected children than in HIV seropositive adults. Endobronchial leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor in HIV infected adult patients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Here we describe an adult patient with HIV infection with atelectasis of the left upper pulmonary lobe as the first clinical expression of an intrabronchial leiomyoma. In this case, we can not show the association with EBV. Our report suggests that smooth muscle tumors as leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of endobronchial masses in AIDS patients.Neoplasmas da musculatura lisa são mais freqüentes em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana do que em adultos HIV-soropositivos. Leiomioma endobronquial é um tumor benigno em pacientes adultos infectados por HIV. Vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV tem sido implicado na patogenia destes tumores. Descrevemos paciente adulto infectado pelo HIV com atelectasia do lobo pulmonar superior esquerdo como primeira manifestação clínica de leiomioma intrabronquial. Neste caso não pudemos demonstrar a associação com EBV. Nosso relato sugere que tumores de musculatura lisa como leiomioma deveriam ser incluídos no diagnóstico diferencial de massas endobronquiais em pacientes com AIDS.

  18. Quality of life profile and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients

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    Tran Bach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL, its associated factors, and examined measurement properties of the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions - 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional multi-site survey was conducted in 1016 patients (age: 35.4 ± 7.0 years; 63.8% male in three epicenters of Vietnam. Internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and discriminative validity of the EQ-5D-5L and a visual analogue scale (VAS were evaluated. Tobit censored regression models were used to identify predictors of HRQOL in HIV/AIDS patients. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L single index and VAS were 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.63; 0.67 and 70.3 (95% CI = 69.2; 71.5. Cronbach’s alpha of five dimensions was 0.85. EQ-5D-5L has a good convergent validity with VAS (0.73. It discriminated patients at different HIV/AIDS stages, duration of ART, and CD4 cell count. Predictors of poorer HRQOL included being female, lower education level, unemployment, alcohol and drug use, CD4 Conclusion The EQ-5D-5L has good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients and holds potentials for monitoring ART outcomes. Integration of HRQOL measurement using EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS clinical practice could be helpful for economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions.

  19. Epstein–Barr virus-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology in AIDS patients: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwan, Yanin; Rojanaporn, Duangnate; Teekhasaenee, Chaiwat; Keelawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    Importance Report of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated iris smooth muscle tumor. Observations A 14-year-old African American female diagnosed with AIDS developed a painless iris mass in the right eye for 10 months. Iridocyclectomy was performed, and the pathology indicated EBV-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology. Immunohistochemical stains and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid are very useful diagnostic tools for definite diagnosis. At 14-month follow-up, the patient did not have any tumor recurrence. Conclusion This is the case report of EBV-associated iris smooth muscle tumor in a person diagnosed with AIDS with a unique epithelioid morphologic feature. PMID:27099533

  20. BILATERAL ENDOGENOUS BACTERIAL ENDOPHTHALMITIS SECONDARY TO PNEUMONIA IN AN AIDS PATIENT : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Ku.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: Endogenous or metastatic endophthalmitis is a very rare sever form of ocular disease which is uncommon now - a - days. Prevalence of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is 2 - 8% of all cases of endophthalmitis 1 . Mostly it is associated with chronic disease like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, liver abscesses, prolong placement of catheter, IV line or central venous line, drug abusers and immunocompromise d patients. Gram +bacteria are the most common causative organism of the endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis . 1 A few cases of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis due to klebsiella pneumonias, a gram - ve organism have been documented and majority of them were in Taiwan . 2, 3,4,5,6, 7 K. pneumonia endophthalmitis is associated with diabetes mellitus and hepatic abscesses can be bilateral and resulted into poor visual outcome . 2,3,4,5,6, 7 K. pneumonia pneumonia has been reported most frequently from patients with alcoholic liver diseases and one of the common cause of acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis . 8,9 In this scenario we report the case of a Malawian in African Continent who developed bilateral endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis after suffering from pneumonia in immunocompromise state. PURPOSE : to report a case bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to pneumonia in an AIDS patient . DESIGN : Observational case report . METHODS : A patient with bilateral pain full red eye with diminution of vision was seen in c onsultation by ophthalmology. RESULT : with clinical characteristic and laboratory diagnosis of sputum and blood conf i rmed the causative agent for pneumonia and endophthalmitis is K.pneumonia. CONCLUSION : it is unusual disease, required early detection and prompt treatment.

  1. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  2. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in

  3. A Novel First Aid Stretcher for Immobilization and Transportation of Spine Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the “emergency carpet”, which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages

  4. Assessing the quality of decision support technologies using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi.

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    Glyn Elwyn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids. DESIGN: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. SETTING: There has been increasing use of decision support technologies--adjuncts to the discussions clinicians have with patients about difficult decisions. A global interest in developing these interventions exists among both for-profit and not-for-profit organisations. It is therefore essential to have internationally accepted standards to assess the quality of their development, process, content, potential bias and method of field testing and evaluation. METHODS: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five researcher-members of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration worked together to develop the instrument (IPDASi. In the fourth Stage (reliability study, eight raters assessed thirty randomly selected decision support technologies. RESULTS: IPDASi measures quality in 10 dimensions, using 47 items, and provides an overall quality score (scaled from 0 to 100 for each intervention. Overall IPDASi scores ranged from 33 to 82 across the decision support technologies sampled (n = 30, enabling discrimination. The inter-rater intraclass correlation for the overall quality score was 0.80. Correlations of dimension scores with the overall score were all positive (0.31 to 0.68. Cronbach's alpha values for the 8 raters ranged from 0.72 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas based on the dimension means ranged from 0.50 to 0.81, indicating that the dimensions, although well correlated, measure different aspects of decision support technology quality. A short version (19 items was also developed that had very similar mean scores to IPDASi and high correlation

  5. Patient costs associated with accessing HIV/AIDS care in Malawi

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    Andrew D Pinto

    2013-03-01

    difference in total costs per visit between CC and DC. Conclusions: Even within a system of HIV/AIDS care where patients do not pay to see clinicians or for most medications, they still incur costs. We found that most costs are travel related. This has important implications for poorer patients who live at a distance from health facilities for whom these costs may be significant.

  6. Brain american trypanosomiasis: chagoma with involvement of the corpus callosum in a patient with aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas's disease affects 7% of the Colombian population and is an uncommonly diagnosed disease due to its non-specific symptoms. In the acute phase of the disease, direct invasion of the brain can be present, with acute eningoencephalitis. In the chronic phase, there can be a residual meningoencephalitis or ischemic events related to cardiomyopathy. In acute reactivation,there is parasitaemia due to an immunosuppressed state with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and formation of cerebral masses, also called chagomas. There are no pathognomonic findings for chagomas, which consist of solitary or multiple nodular lesions, located in the white matter,basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, brainstem or spinal cord. They present an irregular and peripheral gadolinium enhancement pattern. The main differential diagnoses include Toxoplasma gondii infection and neoplasms. This article presents a case of a 74-year-old female HIV + patient,with progressive walking impairment, presented with a corpus callosum and left periventricular white matter mass on MRI. The histological study revealed amastigotes. She had positive serum titles for Trypanosoma cruzi, confirming the diagnosis of a chagoma in a patient with AIDS.

  7. Microsporidiosis and Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: Serological Identification of Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium parvum in Sera Samples from HIV/AIDS Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Z.; Sokolova, O.I.; Demyanov, A.; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Secor, W. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2011), s. 13-15. ISSN 0889-2229 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * HIV * AIDS Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.246, year: 2011

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing dental technology for a patient with a mandibulectomy: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of dental prostheses with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing shows acceptable marginal fits and favorable treatment outcomes. This clinical report describes the management of a patient who had undergone a mandibulectomy and received an implant-supported fixed prosthesis by using additive manufacturing for the framework and subtractive manufacturing for the monolithic zirconia restorations. PMID:26518985

  9. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

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    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.

    Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.

    Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an

  10. Application of diffusion tensor imaging in AIDS patients with brain opportunistic diseases: A comparative study of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis

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    Xiang-le Chu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Quantitative DTI is valuable for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of patients with AIDS-associated infections, and also could provide references for clinical physicians for proper medications. The quantitative FA value could help better reveal different changes of microstructural integrity between different opportunistic infections.

  11. Treating an HIV/AIDS Patient's PTSD and Medication Nonadherence with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Principle-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS patients with medication adherence problems are vulnerable to developing drug resistance, immune system degradation, and opportunistic infections. Poor adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens can be aggravated by psychiatric problems, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article presents the case study of a…

  12. Clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre in Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To study the clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre. Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 1141 patients suspected of having HIV/AIDS on clinical grounds. Screening was done using different Elisa's as advised by NACO and those confirmed as HIV positive were studied for their clinical spectrum and different demographic parameters. Results: Out of 1141 patients tested, 26 proved to have HIV 1 infection with no case of HIV 2 detected. Mean age of presentation was 40.04 +- 7 years, main age group affected 31-40 years and a male: female ratio of 4.2:1 was observed. More than 42% were non Kashmiris with armed forces outnumbering all other occupational classes. Heterosexual transmission was the commonest with married out numbering unmarried. Fever, asthenia and weight loss were the predominant symptoms and pulmonary tuberculosis and oropharyngeal candidiasis commonest opportunistic infections. Conclusion: The clinical and demographic profile of HIV/AIDS patients in Kashmir is largely similar to the rest of India. Kashmir no longer stands immune to the menace of HIV/AIDS. With increasing globalization, frequent travel and change in social values the state is likely to witness an alarming rise in new cases unless a multi pronged approach is undertaken to control the spread. (author)

  13. Stigma, social reciprocity and exclusion of HIV/AIDS patients with illicit drug histories: A study of Thai nurses' attitudes

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    Stoové Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular, injecting drug users. The effect of the stigmatising attitudes towards injecting drug users on perceptions of PLWHA within the health care contexts has not been thoroughly explored, and typically neglected in terms of stigma intervention. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of twenty Thai trainee and qualified nurses. Drawing upon the idea of 'social reciprocity', this paper examines the constructions of injecting drug users and PLWHA by a group of Thai nurses. Narratives were explored with a focus on how participants' views concerning the high-risk behaviour of injecting drug use might influence their attitudes towards PLWHA. Results The analysis shows that active efforts were made by participants to separate their views of patients living with HIV/AIDS from injecting drug users. While the former were depicted as patients worthy of social support and inclusion, the latter were excluded on the basis that they were perceived as irresponsible 'social cheaters' who pose severe social and economic harm to the community. Absent in the narratives were references to wider socio-political and epidemiological factors related to drug use and needle sharing that expose injecting drug users to risk; these behaviours were constructed as individual choices, allowing HIV positive drug users to be blamed for their seropositive status. These attitudes could potentially have indirect negative implications on the nurses' opinions of patients living with HIV/AIDS more generally. Conclusion Decreasing the stigma associated with illicit drugs might play crucial role in improving attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS. Providing health workers with a broader understanding of risk behaviours and redirecting

  14. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

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    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  15. Practical Strategies for Educating Nurses in India to Improve Care of Patients with HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Baskaran, Christiana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2.4 million people presently living in India have HIV/AIDS. Nurses have a vital role in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS; therefore, education of nurses is imperative to manage HIV/AIDS in India. Very little information is available about nurses' knowledge in India. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a train-the-trainer (TTT) program in improving nurses' knowledge and assessing attitude about HIV/AIDS among nurses employed ...

  16. Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma exhibit elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells upon progression of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Markowitz, Joseph; Brooks, Taylor R.; Duggan, Megan C.; Paul, Bonnie K.; Pan, Xueliang; Wei, Lai; Abrams, Zachary; Luedke, Eric; Lesinski, Gregory B; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Carson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) induced by tumor-derived factors are associated with inhibition of immune responses in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. We hypothesized that pro-MDSC cytokines and levels of MDSC in the peripheral blood would be elevated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with progressive disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 16 pancreatic cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and phenotyped for MDSC ...

  17. The cost of antiretroviral treatment service for patients with HIV/AIDS in a central outpatient clinic in Vietnam

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    Nguyen LT

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Long Thanh Nguyen,1 Bach Xuan Tran,2 Cuong Tuan Tran,1 Huong Thi Le,1 Son Van Tran1 1Authority of HIV/AIDS Control, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam Introduction: Antiretroviral treatment (ART services are estimated to account for 30% of the total resources needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS control and prevention in Vietnam during the 2011–2020 timeframe. With international funding decreasing, determining the total cost of HIV/AIDS treatment is necessary in order to develop a master plan for the transition of ART services delivery and management. We analyzed the costs of HIV/AIDS treatment paid by both HIV programs and patients in a central outpatient clinic, and we explored factors associated with the capacity of patients to pay for this service. Methods: Patients (n=315 receiving ART in the Department of Infectious Diseases at Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, were interviewed. Patient records and expenses were reviewed. Results: The total cost of ART per patient was US$611 (75% from health care providers, 25% from patients or their families. The cost of a second-line regimen was found to be 2.7 times higher than the first-line regimen cost. Most outpatients (73.3% were able to completely pay for all of their ART expenses. Capacity to pay for ART was influenced by five factors, including marital status, distance from house to clinic, patient's monthly income, household economic condition, and health insurance status. Most of the patients (84.8% would have been willing to pay for health insurance if a copayment scheme for ART were to be introduced. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on payment capacity of HIV/AIDS patients in Vietnam and supplies information on ART costs from both provider and patient perspectives. In particular, results from this study suggest that earlier access to ART

  18. Brain computed tomography of patients with HIV/AIDS before the advent of subsidized treatment program in Nigeria

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    Kenneth C Eze

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective is to study intracranial complications of HIV/AIDS using brain-computed tomography in patients who presented with neurological features before the advent of subsidized HIV/AIDS treatment program with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of patients′ records retrieved from radiology and medical records departments of the hospital. The studied patients had HIV/AIDS and presented with neurological features and underwent CT scan. Results: A total of 36 patients who tested positive for HIV and who presented with neurological features suspected to be complications of AIDS were examined with CT scan. They consisted of 24 male and 12 females. The male to female ratio was 2:1. The age of the patients ranged from 27 to 45 years. Seventeen patients (47.2% were aged 30-34 years. Twenty-four patients (60% were single while 12 (40% were married. Twenty-seven patients (75% were infected with HIV 1 and 2, five patients (13.9% were infected only with HIV-1 while four were infected with only HIV-2. Presenting neurological complaints include left hemiplegia 13 (36.1%, right hemiplegia 6 (16.7%, coma 7 (19.4%, memory loss/dementia complex 5 (13.9%, convulsion with coma 2 (5.6%, left hemi-pariesis with memory loss 2 (5.6%, and staggering gait 1 (2.8%. The findings in CT scan include infarcts-like lesions 14 (38.9%, multiple ring-enhancing lesions 7 (19.4%, cerebral atrophy 5 (13.9%, multiple nodular lesions 4 (11.1%, acute intracerebral hemorrhage 3 (8.3%, cerebral hemiatrophy 2 (5.6%, and solitary ring-enhancing lesions 1 (2.8%. Eight patients with single or multiple ring enhancing lesions were treated with empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis but only three (37.5% made full recovery. Conclusion: Brain CT scan showed extensive structural damages in patients with HIV/AIDS who were not treated with HAART. Out-of-pocket payment for investigations and treatment and absence of

  19. Non Hodgkin's lymphoma with cutaneous involvement in AIDS patients: report of five cases and review of the literature

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    Marcelo Corti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous B cell lymphoma (CBCL is a lymphoproliferative disorder of neoplastic B cell of the skin with a wide range of clinical manifestations. Commonly, the clinical features of CBCL are plaques, nodules, or ulcerative lesions. Skin is one of the common sites for extra-nodal lymphomas in patients with AIDS and B cell type is less common than T cell type. Only recently, the existence of B cell lymphomas presenting clinically in the skin without evidence of extra-cutaneous involvement has been accepted as primary CBCL. Here, we are presenting 5 patients with cutaneous involvement in the setting of HIV/AIDS disease. Two of them were primary cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphomas. All were CBCL; 3 were immunoblastic, 1 was plasmablastic, and the other was a Burkitt lymphoma. We analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, virological, and immunological characteristics of this group of patients.

  20. Social support and quality of life in patients with hiv / aids, Monteria residents. Colombia

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    Romero-Massa Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To determine the association between social support and quality of life of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: We performed a quantitative study of analytic type. The population consisted of patients with HIV / AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in Monteria, Colombia. A total of 77 patients was choosed using a simple random sampling and were assessed for quality of life through the instrument QLI-SP and perceived social support scale. To determine the degree of association we used the Spearman coefficient. RESULTS: The mean age was 33.3 years [CI 95% (31 – 35,8]. Sixty two percent of patients were men. Among the dimensions of quality of life, physical and occupational functioning reported higher average, while dimensions of community support, social support and personal fulfillment had the lowest average. None of the average dimensions exceeded 7 points on a scale of 1 to 10. Dimension of community support had the greatest variability. The highest correlation was reported by personal fulfillment and family support (r = 0.56, P = 0.0. CONCLUSION: The interpersonal functioning, social support, community support, personal fulfillment, spiritual fulfillment and overall perception of the quality of life are moderately correlated with the support of family, friends and significant othersRESUMENOBJETIVO: Determinar la asociación entre apoyo social y calidad de vida de los pacientes con VIH/SIDA que reciben tratamiento antirretroviral.METODOLOGÍA: Se realizo un estudio cuantitativo de tipo analítico. La población estuvo conformada por los pacientes con VIH/SIDA que reciben terapia antirretroviral en Montería, Colombia. Muestra de 77 pacientes. Mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple se realizo escogencia, y se les evaluó la calidad de vida mediante el instrumento QLI-SP y la escala de apoyo social percibido. Para determinar el grado de asociación se utilizo el coeficiente de Spearman.RESULTADOS: El

  1. Mielitis aguda necrotizante en un paciente con Sida Acute necrotizing myelitis in an AIDS patient

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    M. Corti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Como consecuencia de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo-1 (HIV-1, otros patógenos como citomegalovirus (CMV y herpes simple tipo 1-2 (HSV 1-2 pueden comprometer tanto el sistema nervioso central como el periférico. Estos agentes pueden involucrar también a la médula espinal y causar una mielitis aguda necrotizante. Esta complicación ocurre por lo general en pacientes con enfermedad HIV/sida avanzada y marcada inmunodeficiencia, con recuentos de linfocitos T CD4+ de menos de 50 cél/µL. El cuadro clínico, los cambios en el LCR y las neuroimágenes generan una importante sospecha diagnóstica. Es fundamental el inicio precoz de la terapia antiviral específica. Se presenta un paciente con enfermedad avanzada debida al HIV-1 y mielitis aguda necrotizante por CMV y HSV bajo la forma clínica de síndrome de la cola de caballo.In the setting of HIV infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV and herpes simplex virus type 1-2 (HSV 1-2 can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. These agents can involve the spinal cord and produce a necrotizing transverse myelitis. This usually occurs in AIDS patients with severe immunodeficiency: CD4 + lymphocyte counts typically are less than 50 cell/µL. The clinical presentation, CSF and imaging studies can provide a high level of suspicion diagnosis. Prompt initiation of antiviral specific drugs is essential. We report a patient with an acute necrotizing myelitis (cauda equina syndrome secondary to CMV and HSV infections.

  2. Han Chinese patients with dopa-responsive dystonia exhibit a low frequency of exonic deletion in the GCH1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W T; Cai, C Y; Li, M S; Ling, C; Li, W D

    2015-01-01

    We identified three novel mutations of the GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene in patients with familial dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), but were unable to identify meaningful sporadic mutations in patients with no obvious family DRD background. To investigate whether GCH1 regional deletions account for the etiology of DRD, we screened for heterozygous exonic deletions in DRD families and in patients with sporadic DRD. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed in all members of our DRD cohort and in controls to detect exonic deletions in GCH1, tyrosine hydroxylase, and the epsilon-sarcoglycan-encoding (SGCE) genes. Using these techniques, we detected a GCH1 exon 1 heterozygous deletion in 1 of 10 patients with sporadic DRD. Therefore, we concluded that exonic deletion in the GCH1 gene only accounted for the etiology in a small percentage of patients with sporadic DRD in our Han Chinese cohort. PMID:26400349

  3. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants in AIDS patients: review article

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    Hajiabdolbaghi M

    2008-10-01

    known to overestimate adherence. Some determinants are associated with adherence include: age, gender, addiction specially injection drug users, alcohol consumption, depression, social support, level of education, work situation, adverse antiretroviral effects, pregnancy, type of antiretroviral drug regimen, number of pills and daily doses received, severe traumas, social and psychological factors, and relationship between clinician and patient.0 "nKeywords: Adherence, antiretroviral therapy, AIDS, treatment.

  4. Ergotism related to a single dose of ergotamine tartrate in an AIDS patient treated with ritonavir

    OpenAIRE

    Blanche, P.; Rigolet, A; GOMBERT, B; Ginsburg, C.; Salmon, D.; Sicard, D

    1999-01-01

    We report a rare case of ergotism related to a single dose of ergotamine tartrate in a man with AIDS being treated with ritonavir. He was treated with a prostacyclin analogue and made a complete recovery.


Keywords: ergotism; ergotamine tartrate; AIDS; ritonavir; adverse drug reaction; HIV infection

  5. Guidelines/strategies for effective student support in caring for aids patients and HIV reactive individuals

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    Joyce Mokoena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS has reached epidemic proportions all over the world.

    Opsomming
    Dwarsoor die wereld het AIDS epidemiese afmetings bereik. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  6. Hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and mortality in AIDS patients with acute kidney injury

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    M.S. Biagioni Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of electrolyte disturbances in AIDS patients developing acute kidney injury in the hospital setting, as well as to determine whether such disturbances constitute a risk factor for nephrotoxic and ischemic injury. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Hospitalized AIDS patients were evaluated for age; gender; coinfection with hepatitis; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; time since HIV seroconversion; CD4 count; HIV viral load; proteinuria; serum levels of creatinine, urea, sodium, potassium and magnesium; antiretroviral use; nephrotoxic drug use; sepsis; intensive care unit (ICU admission, and the need for dialysis. Each of these characteristics was correlated with the development of acute kidney injury, with recovery of renal function and with survival. Fifty-four patients developed acute kidney injury: 72% were males, 59% had been HIV-infected for >5 years, 72% had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm³, 87% developed electrolyte disturbances, 33% recovered renal function, and 56% survived. ICU admission, dialysis, sepsis and hypomagnesemia were all significantly associated with nonrecovery of renal function and with mortality. Nonrecovery of renal function was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, as was mortality in the multivariate analysis. The risks for nonrecovery of renal function and for death were 6.94 and 6.92 times greater, respectively, for patients with hypomagnesemia. In hospitalized AIDS patients, hypomagnesemia is a risk factor for nonrecovery of renal function and for in-hospital mortality. To determine whether hypomagnesemia is a determinant or simply a marker of critical illness, further studies involving magnesium supplementation in AIDS patients are warranted.

  7. The effect of a patient-oriented treatment decision aid for risk factor management in patients with diabetes (PORTDA-diab: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Denig Petra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve risk factor management in diabetes, we need to support effective interactions between patients and healthcare providers. Our aim is to develop and evaluate a treatment decision aid that offers personalised information on treatment options and outcomes, and is intended to empower patients in taking a proactive role in their disease management. Important features are: (1 involving patients in setting goals together with their provider; (2 encourage them to prioritise on treatments that maximise relevant outcomes; and (3 integration of the decision aid in the practice setting and workflow. As secondary aim, we want to evaluate the impact of different presentation formats, and learn more from the experiences of the healthcare providers and patients with the decision aid. Methods and design We will conduct a randomised trial comparing four formats of the decision aid in a 2×2 factorial design with a control group. Patients with type 2 diabetes managed in 18 to 20 primary care practices in The Netherlands will be recruited. Excluded are patients with a recent myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, angina pectoris, terminal illness, cognitive deficits, >65 years at diagnosis, or not able to read Dutch. The decision aid is offered to the patients immediately before their quarterly practice consultation. The same decision information will be available to the healthcare provider for use during consultation. In addition, the providers receive a set of treatment cards, which they can use to discuss the benefits and risks of different options. Patients in the control group will receive care as usual. We will measure the effect of the intervention on patient empowerment, satisfaction with care, beliefs about medication, negative emotions, health status, prescribed medication, and predicted cardiovascular risk. Data will be collected with questionnaires and automated extraction from medical records in 6 months before and

  8. Molecular diversity of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from AIDS patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marilena A Martins

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite highly active anti-retroviral therapy, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is the second most prevalent neurological disease in Brazilian AIDS patients, being frequently a defining condition with several episodes. As knowledge of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the same episode is critical for understanding why some patients develop several episodes, we investigated the genotype characteristics of C. neoformans isolates in two different situations. By pulsed field gel electrophoresis and random amplifield polymorphic DNA analysis, 54 isolates from 12 patients with AIDS and cryptococcosis were analyzed. Group 1 comprised 39 isolates from nine patients with a single episode and hospitalization. Group 2 comprised 15 isolates from three patients with two episodes and hospitalizations. Except for three patients from group 1 probably infected with a single C. neoformans isolate, the other nine patients probably were infected with multiple isolates selected in different collection periods, or the infecting isolate might have underwent mutation to adapt and survive the host immune system and/or the antifungal therapy. However, the three patients from group 2 presented genetic diversity among isolates collected in both hospitalizations, possibly having hosted the initial isolate in both periods. These data, emphasize that Cryptococcus diversity in infection can contribute to strategies of treatment and prevention of cryptococcosis.

  9. Epstein–Barr virus-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology in AIDS patients: a case report

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    Suwan Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yanin Suwan,1 Duangnate Rojanaporn,1 Chaiwat Teekhasaenee,1 Somboon Keelawat2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Importance: Report of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patient with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-associated iris smooth muscle tumor. Observations: A 14-year-old African American female diagnosed with AIDS developed a painless iris mass in the right eye for 10 months. Iridocyclectomy was performed, and the pathology indicated EBV-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology. Immunohistochemical stains and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid are very useful diagnostic tools for definite diagnosis. At 14-month follow-up, the patient did not have any tumor recurrence. Conclusion: This is the case report of EBV-associated iris smooth muscle tumor in a person diagnosed with AIDS with a unique epithelioid morphologic feature. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, iris tumor, Epstein–Barr virus, smooth muscle tumor, leiomyosarcoma 

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

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    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  11. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

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    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  12. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients; Patologia del sistema musculosqueletico en pacientes con sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and

  13. Opportunistic infections in relation to antiretroviral status among AIDS patients from south India

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    S Srirangaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to generate data from India on relative frequencies of specific opportunistic infections (OIs in different regions and their relation to the choice of commonly used generic highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART regimens. Objectives: To document the prevailing prevalence pattern of OIs both before and after HAART, to look for reduction in OIs following HAART, to assess the risk of developing new OIs within 6 months of HAART initiation and to see if there is any difference in the risk of developing a new OI within 6 months of HAART initiation, for those on Efavirenz (EFV-based regimens and Nevirapine (NVP-based regimens. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study conducted in South India involving 108 ART-naive AIDS patients, different pathogens were isolated and identified using standard laboratory techniques. Data analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0. Risk of developing an OI after HAART initiation was assessed using the likelihood ratio test from Cox regression models. Results: Tuberculosis (53.4%, oral Candidiasis (27.2% and Herpes Zoster (14.7% were the common infections seen. There was a drastic reduction of 96.59% in OI events after 6 months of HAART. The risk of developing an OI within 6 months of HAART initiation was 5.56%. Time to development of an OI in the first 6 months of HAART was shorter for the NVP-based regimens than with EFV-based regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR=0.891, 95% CI: 0.179-4.429; P=0.888. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most important OI before initiation of HAART. Both EFV and NVP-based regimens are equally efficacious in controlling OIs.

  14. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  15. A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar Shyam; Gulati Anil K; Singh Deepak K; Tuli Lekha; Mohapatra Tribhuban M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Enteric protozoa and sporozoa have emerged as important opportunistic parasites and can cause fatal infections in AIDS patients. The line of treatment being different for them necessitates an accurate and prompt identification of these to avoid empirical treatment. In this study which is the first of its kind from India we did a comprehensive evaluation of different techniques, comparing them on the basis of the attributes like yield, cost, time taken, expertise and infras...

  16. Gender differences among oral health care workers in caring for HIV/AIDS patients in Osun state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adedigba, MA; Ogunbodede, EO; Fajewonyomi, BA; Ojo, OO; Naidoo, S

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between gender and knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control among oral health care workers in the management of patients with HIV/AIDS in Osun State of Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey using 85 oral Health care workers (OHCWs) enlisted in the public dental health clinics. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. A total of 85 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 93%; 42 (53%) wer...

  17. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages. PMID:19229772

  18. Epstein–Barr virus-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology in AIDS patients: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Suwan Y; Rojanaporn D; Teekhasaenee C; Keelawat S

    2016-01-01

    Yanin Suwan,1 Duangnate Rojanaporn,1 Chaiwat Teekhasaenee,1 Somboon Keelawat2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Importance: Report of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated iris smooth muscle tumor. Observations: A 14-year-old African American fem...

  19. Epstein–Barr virus-associated iris smooth muscle tumor with epithelioid morphology in AIDS patients: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Suwan, Yanin

    2016-01-01

    Yanin Suwan,1 Duangnate Rojanaporn,1 Chaiwat Teekhasaenee,1 Somboon Keelawat2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Importance: Report of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated iris smooth muscle tumor. Observations: A 14-year-old African American...

  20. Genetic diversity analysis of Penicillium marneffei isolated from AIDS patients in Guangdong, China using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-hua; HU Feng-yu; CHEN Wan-shan; CAI Wei-ping; SONG Wei-nan; KUANG Yan-ling; TANG Xiao-ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Penicillium mameffei (P.mameffei) is an emerging pathogenic fungus that can cause invasive mycosis in patients with AIDS.The epidemiological features of P.mameffei infection in AIDS patients in Guangdong province remain unclear so far.This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity within a population of 163 P.mameffei isolates obtained from AIDS patients and search for the dominant clinical strains in Guangdong province.Methods One hundred and sixty-three P.marneffeiisolates obtained from AIDS patients in Guangdong province during January 2004 and December 2009 were studied by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using two random primers (H2 and H22).The degree of similarity between samples was calculated through similarity coefficients from RAPD fragment data and the dendrogram was assessed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA).Results Two primers showed a high degree of discrimination and good stability.Primer H2 yielded eight different patterns (H2-1 to H2-8) among 163 isolates with the discriminatory power being 0.413.Primer H22 identified seven types (H22-1 to H22-7) among 163 isolates with the discriminatory power being 0.467.Genetic similarity coefficients based on RAPD data among 163 P.marneffei isolates ranged from 0.681 to 0.957,61.96% of which were no less than 0.83.The discriminatory power of the two primers was 0.524.One hundred and sixty-three P.marneffei isolates were clustered into nine distinct groups (groups I to IX) at the similarity coefficient value of 0.83 and group Ⅰ was the most common,including 101 strains (61.96%).Conclusion The RAPD analyses could provide important information as to the degree of genetic diversity and the relationship among clinical P.mameffei isolates,revealing genetic polymorphism and dominant strains.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients attending hospitals in Makurdi metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria

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    Amuta E.U

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that gradually evolved to be the most opportunistic parasite that complicates the course of HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV-infected patients attending hospitals in Makurdi metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique was used to determine the presence of Toxo-IgG antibodies in blood samples collected from the HIV/AIDS patients and their CD4 counts were estimated using flow cytometry. Questionnaires were also administered to obtain information on their socio-demographic status. Results: Thirty-nine, 39 (10.8% were screened positive for Toxo-IgG antibodies out of the 360 HIV/AIDS patients enrolled. Males (10.3% and females (11.2% had similar seroprevalence of Toxo-IgG with no significant difference (χ2= 0.001, p>0.05. The presence of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was found to be highest in the ≥ 54 years age group. A significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgG among age groups (χ2=11.56, p 0.05. Conclusion: Further investigations are still needed to clarify the exact relationship of the parasite infection, its effects on the HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and the detection of their major means of transmission.

  2. [Changes in life-style, needs and difficulties faced by caregivers of AIDS patients in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, E; Reis, R K

    2001-12-01

    This study aimed at delineating the social and demographic profile of 17 home caregivers for AIDS patients, identifying the alterations occurring in their life style and detecting the main needs and doubts presented by them when assisting a person living with AIDS at home, as well as the difficulties stemming from the disease and the care given by them. We identified that the introduction of HIV/AIDS within the family generates a crisis situation and awakens many negative feelings in caretakers. An alteration in life routine takes place and there is also an overload of tasks to be carried out. The main difficulties of caretakers are related to taking care of the patient at home in addition to financial and emotional difficulties. We have shown the need for more effective orientation as to protection measure while caring for the patient. We have also pointed out the importance of orientation and educational actions to be given by health professionals, during which nurses' participation in home assistance/visits is essential. PMID:12483976

  3. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B.; Anumba, Dilly O.

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) control...

  4. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  5. Computer-Assisted Mandibular Reconstruction using a Patient-Specific Reconstruction Plate Fabricated with Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Frank; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery.

  6. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS Related Burkitt’s Leukemia/Lymphoma

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    Metin Kanıtez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has markedly decreased human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV- related mortality and the incidence of opportunistic infections. The dramatic reduction in HIV-1 RNA and increase in CD4 lymphocyte count mean a recovery in immune function. This restoration in immune function may be associated with paradoxical deterioration in subclinical opportunistic infections in some patients, a condition called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. IRIS, a “paradoxical” inflammatory response to either previously treated or subclinical infections or noninfectious diseases, can manifest during the restoration phase of immunity hemophagocytic syndrome (HS which is a very rare complication in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We describe a case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with IRIS in a patient with AIDS related Burkitt’s leukemia/lymphoma (BL. IRIS was probably the cause of hemophagocytosis for our patient. Zoster infection may facilitate to IRIS. With the increasing number of people with HIV infection and the accompanying use of HAART, much more clinical manifestations of IRIS will be experienced especially in patients given high dose chemotherapy, just like in our case.

  7. Purified protein derivative skin testing on HIV/AIDS patients and logistic regression analysis of its risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengren Liu; Jianjun Ye; Changfu Xiong; Jiguo Yin; Weihua He; Gaobo Li; Dingyuan Zhao; Linxiang Ye

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand the reactivity of purified protein derivative skin test(PPD test) in HIV-infected persons and to determine the influential factors associated with PPD. Methods: 174 HIV/AIDS patients registered in the local center for disease control and prevention(CDC) participated this study from April to June in 2006. Questionnaire, CD4 count and thoracic roentgenogram were performed for all participants. Results: In this study, response rate of questionnaires was 83.65%. The majority of these participants had a different degree of immunodeficiency that accounted for 93.64%. Female patients had a higher CD4 count than that of males. The total positive rate of PPD was 38.15%. Analysis of single factor in our study indicated that CD4 count, previous tuberculosis history, tuberculosis contact history and thoracic roentgenogram manifestation of patients were related to their PPD diameters. Further analysis of multiple factors also supports the previous conclusion that CD4 count and previous tuberculosis history of patients were risk factors in the PPD test. Conclusion: The PPD test of HIV/AIDS patients could be affected by several factors. For persons infected with HIV, the confirmation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should be considered the combination effect of previous MTB infection and body cellular immune function.

  8. Monocyte subpopulations from pre-eclamptic patients are abnormally skewed and exhibit exaggerated responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14(high)CD16(+) and CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  9. The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of HIV/AIDS Patients’ Family toward Their Patients before and after Counseling

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    Behnam Honarvar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.

  10. Central obesity and dietary intake in HIV/AIDS patients Obesidade abdominal e consumo alimentar em portadores de HIV/Aids

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    Patrícia Constante Jaime

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between dietary intake and central obesity among people living with HIV/AIDS and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 223 adult individuals in the city of São Paulo city in 2002. The study population was classified according to central obesity, defined as waist-to-hip ratio >0.95 for men and >0.85 for women. The dietary variables studied were energy consumption (in calories and calories/kilo of body weight, macronutrients (in grams and % of energy intake, total fiber (grams and fruit and vegetables intake (grams. The potential confounders examined were sex, skin color, age, schooling, income, body mass index, physical activity, smoking habits, peripheral CD4+ T lymphocyte count and length of protease inhibitor use. The multiple logistic regression model was performed in order to evaluate the association between central obesity and dietary intake. RESULTS: The prevalence of central obesity was 45.7% and it was associated with greater consumption of lipids: for every increase of 10g of lipid intake the odds of central obesity increased 1.28 times. Carbohydrate consumption showed negative association (OR=0.93 with central obesity after adjustment for control variables. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the amount of carbohydrates and lipids in the diet, regardless of total energy intake, may modify the chance of developing central obesity in the studied population. Nutritional interventions may be beneficial for preventing central obesity among HIV/AIDS patients.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre consumo alimentar e presença de obesidade abdominal em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV/Aids, em uso de terapia antiretroviral de alta potência. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 223 indivíduos adultos, realizado no município de São Paulo, em 2002. A população de estudo foi classificada de acordo com a obesidade

  11. The dangers of involving children as family caregivers of palliative home-based-care to advanced HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Kang′ethe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to explore the dangers of involving children as family caregivers of palliative care and home-based-care to advanced HIV/AIDS patients, while its objective is to discuss the dangers or perfidiousness that minors especially the girl children face as they handle care giving of advanced HIV/AIDS patients. The article has relied on eclectic data sources. The research has foundminors disadvantaged by the following: being engulfed by fear and denied rights through care giving; being emotionally and physiologically overwhelmed; being oppressed and suppressed by caring duties; being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS; and having their education compromised by care giving. The paper recommends: (1 strengthening and emphasizing on children′s rights; (2 maintaining gender balance in care giving; (3 implementation and domestication of the United Nations conventions on the rights of children; (4 community awareness on equal gender co participation in care giving; (5 and fostering realization that relying on child care giving is a negative score in fulfilling global Millennium Development Goals.

  12. OCRL-mutated fibroblasts from patients with Dent-2 disease exhibit INPP5B-independent phenotypic variability relatively to Lowe syndrome cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montjean, Rodrick; Aoidi, Rifdat; Desbois, Pierrette; Rucci, Julien; Trichet, Michaël; Salomon, Rémi; Rendu, John; Fauré, Julien; Lunardi, Joël; Gacon, Gérard; Billuart, Pierre; Dorseuil, Olivier

    2015-02-15

    OCRL mutations are associated with both Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease, two rare X-linked conditions. Lowe syndrome is an oculo-cerebro-renal disorder, whereas Dent-2 patients mainly present renal proximal tubulopathy. Loss of OCRL-1, a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase, leads in Lowe patients' fibroblasts to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) accumulation, with defects in F-actin network, α-actinin distribution and ciliogenesis, whereas fibroblasts of Dent-2 patients are still uncharacterized. To search for mechanisms linked to clinical variability observed between these two OCRL mutation-associated pathologies, we compared dermal fibroblasts from independent patients, four affected by Dent-2 disease and six with Lowe syndrome. For the first time, we describe that Dent-2 fibroblasts with OCRL loss-of-function (LOF) mutations exhibit decrease in actin stress fibers, appearance of punctate α-actinin signals and alteration in primary cilia formation. Interestingly, we quantified these phenotypes as clearly intermediate between Lowe and control fibroblasts, thus suggesting that levels of these defects correlate with clinical variations observed between patients with OCRL mutations. In addition, we show that Lowe and Dent-2 fibroblasts display similar PI(4,5)P2 accumulation levels. Finally, we analyzed INPP5B, a paralogous gene already reported to exhibit functional redundancy with OCRL, and report neither differences in its expression at RNA or protein levels, nor specific allelic variations between fibroblasts of patients. Altogether, we describe here differential phenotypes between fibroblasts from Lowe and Dent-2 patients, both associated with OCRL LOF mutations, we exclude direct roles of PI(4,5)P2 and INPP5B in this phenotypic variability and we underline potential key alterations leading to ocular and neurological clinical features in Lowe syndrome. PMID:25305077

  13. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abebe Alemu; Yitayal Shiferaw; Gebeyaw Getnet; Aregaw Yalew; Zelalem Addis

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections amongHIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar.Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted amongHIV/ AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1- May30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of248subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Results: Out of248 enrolled in the study,171(69.0%) (90 males and81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed amongHIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum(43.6%),Isospora belli (15.5%) andBlastocystis hominis (10.5%)were opportunistic parasites that were found only inHIV/AIDS patients.Conclusions:Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/ AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life ofHIV/AIDS patients.

  14. Electroencephalographic markers of robot-aided therapy in stroke patients for the evaluation of upper limb rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Patrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Del Percio, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Babiloni, Claudio; Foti, Calogero; Franceschini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in developed countries; its effects may include sensory, motor, and cognitive impairment as well as a reduced ability to perform self-care and participate in social and community activities. A number of studies have shown that the use of robotic systems in upper limb motor rehabilitation programs provides safe and intensive treatment to patients with motor impairments because of a neurological injury. Furthermore, robot-aided therapy was shown to be well accepted and tolerated by all patients; however, it is not known whether a specific robot-aided rehabilitation can induce beneficial cortical plasticity in stroke patients. Here, we present a procedure to study neural underpinning of robot-aided upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients. Neurophysiological recordings use the following: (a) 10-20 system electroencephalographic (EEG) electrode montage; (b) bipolar vertical and horizontal electrooculographies; and (c) bipolar electromyography from the operating upper limb. Behavior monitoring includes the following: (a) clinical data and (b) kinematic and dynamic of the operant upper limb movements. Experimental conditions include the following: (a) resting state eyes closed and eyes open, and (b) robotic rehabilitation task (maximum 80 s each block to reach 4-min EEG data; interblock pause of 1 min). The data collection is performed before and after a program of 30 daily rehabilitation sessions. EEG markers include the following: (a) EEG power density in the eyes-closed condition; (b) reactivity of EEG power density to eyes opening; and (c) reactivity of EEG power density to robotic rehabilitation task. The above procedure was tested on a subacute patient (29 poststroke days) and on a chronic patient (21 poststroke months). After the rehabilitation program, we observed (a) improved clinical condition; (b) improved performance during the robotic task; (c) reduced delta rhythms (1-4 Hz) and increased alpha

  15. Unusual development of polyoma virus in the brains of two patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, F; Ellis, D S; Tovey, G; Harcourt-Webster, J N; Guiloff, R J; Sinclair, E

    1989-01-01

    Two HIV-positive male patients presented with a variety of symptoms including hemiparesis, unsteadiness, progressive loss of vision and poor memory. There were multiple non-enhancing lesions shown by CT scan in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Specimens obtained by burr-hole biopsy showed the features of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in both cases. Electron microscopy demonstrated round and rod shaped particles of papovavirus in the nuclei and cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes and in processes of astrocytes where abnormal and florid modes of viral replication were seen. Additional features observed were viral particles suggestive of an enterovirus in Case 1 and, in both specimens, massive membrane proliferation within both nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells together with the presence of tubuloreticular structures (TRS) in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. At post-mortem, the brain of patient 2 showed PML and HIV encephalitis. The presence of HIV was confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. We suggest that in AIDS patients the abnormality of the immune system induced by HIV causes abnormal replication patterns of papovavirus in the brain. In addition, these cases confirm the frequent occurrence in AIDS patients of TRS, now considered to be a marker for HIV. PMID:2555730

  16. Epidemiological composition, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patient cohort of the german competence network for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective As its central basis for research, the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet established a nationwide cohort study on HIV-positive patients being in medical care in Germany. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological composition, and clinical as well as treatment characteristics of the KompNet cohort over time. Methods The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multi-center, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semiannually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering a wide range of clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up. Results As of 20.10.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to ten outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprised 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years, 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean: 6.7 years. Due to the short period of recruitment till now, rates of death (0.3%-0.8% and losses to follow up (1.1%-5.5% were low. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risk of transmission was sex between men (MSM: 62.9%. Mean age was 45 years. About two third of patients were classified as CDC-stage B or C. Therapy regimens of currently treated patients complied with recent guidelines. Trends of mean CD4 cell count/μl regarding the initial therapy and concerning the population under treatment reflected the developments and the changing standards of antiretroviral therapy over time. Conclusion The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients estimated as being under treatment in Germany. Its composition can be accounted approximately

  17. Communicating with Patients Who Have Advanced Dementia: Training Nurse Aide Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Susan R.; Skala-Cordes, Kristine K.

    2012-01-01

    The increase of dementia in older adults is changing how medical care is delivered. Recognizing symptoms of pain, managing behaviors, and providing quality of life for people who have advanced dementia requires a new skill set for caregivers. Researchers in this study targeted nurse aide students to test an educational module's effect on students'…

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa;

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...

  19. Pattern of Cutaneous Pathology among a Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients Accessing Care in a Rural/Suburban Adult ART Clinic in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Salami, T. A. T.; Adewuyi, G. M.; Echekwube, P.; Affusim, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous diseases are common in patients with HIV/AIDS however there are few documented reports of these lesions from some parts of world such as Nigeria and West Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify cutaneous pathologies in patients attending an adult outpatient (HIV/AIDS) clinic department in a rural/suburban centre in the south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Additionally it also aims to determine if there are differences in the pattern of presentation as com...

  20. Factors explaining the heterogeneity of effects of patient decision aids on knowledge of outcome probabilities: a systematic review sub-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gentles, Stephen J; Stacey, Dawn; Bennett, Carol; Alshurafa, Mohamad; Walter, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable unexplained heterogeneity in previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of patient decision aids on the accuracy of knowledge of outcome probabilities. The purpose of this review was to explore possible effect modification by three covariates: the type of control intervention, decision aid quality and patients' baseline knowledge of probabilities. Methods A sub-analysis of studies previously identified in the 2011 Coch...

  1. Public Awareness toward Patients with AIDS%公众对艾滋病患者的认知心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仪

    2011-01-01

    After AIDS was discovered in 1981, it spreads around the world, and maintains the increasing trend in China. By the end of September 2004, a total of 89 067 HIV infection cases were reported in China, but this report is only the tip of the iceberg. Faced with such a special large groups, the level of social and psychological tolerance and care toward HIV/AIDS patients is lower than the demands of patients. Now this enormous contrast has become a problem of social public health and mental disorder. The public awareness levels on HIV/AIDS medical knowledge are generally not high. The incorrect psychological cognition is the social root of prejudice and discrimination. It is important to improve the social and psychological cognition level, promote the social psychological support for patients, guide the public to care this group and give a correct attitude toward AIDS patients, and learn the knowledge a-bout AIDS. Patients and the public should work together to improve the harmonious development of society, as so to achieve the goal of AIDS control and prevention.%艾滋病(AIDS)自1981年被发现后,已在全球肆虐蔓延,在我国也是保持着增长的流行趋势,截至2004年9月底,全国累计报告艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者89 067例,此报告只是冰山一角.面对这么一个特殊的大群体,中国对HIV/AIDS罹患者的社会心理容忍、支持和关怀程度是低于罹患者本人社会心理支持需求的,这种强烈反差已成为目前我国社会公共卫生和精神障碍问题之一.公众对HIV/AIDS医学问题的社会认知水平普遍认识不高、心理认知不正确是产生偏见、歧视的社会根源.提高社会心理认知水平,促进社会对患者的心理支持,从心理学的角度指导公众关爱这个群体,正确对待AIDS病人,认识AIDS关传播知识,患者和公众齐心协力,使社会和谐发展,进而达到控制和预防AIDS的目的.

  2. Activation and coreceptor expression of T lymphocytes induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zi-ning; SHANG Hong; JIANG Yong-jun; LIU Jing; DAI Di; DIAO Ying-ying; GENG Wen-qing; JIN Xin; WANG Ya-nan

    2006-01-01

    Background At the end of 2005, 650 000 people lived with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in (HAART) supported by the "China CARES" program but the immune responses of HAART were seldom reported. This study investigated the effect of HAART on the activation and coreceptor expression of T lymphocytes in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients and evaluated its effect on immune reconstitution.Methods Seventeen HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled and three-color-flow cytometry was used to detect the activation of HLA-DR CD38 and the coreceptor CCR5, CXCR4 expression on T lymphocytes in whole blood samples taken from the patients before and after 3- or 6-month HAART.Results The activation percents of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly higher before therapy than the normal controls (HLA-DR/CD4: 40.47± 18.85 vs 11.54±4.10; CD38/CD4: 81.34± 10.86 vs 53.34± 11.44;HLA-DR/CD8:63.94±12.71 vs 25.67±9.18; CD38/CD8:86.56±11.41 vs 58.84±6.16, all P<0.01). After 6-month combined antiretroviral treatment, the activation of T lymphocytes in HIV/AIDS patients was significantly decreased (HLA-DR/CD4:28.31 ± 13.48; CD38/CD4:69.88 ± 12.64; HLA-DR/CD8: 46.56±18.64;CD38/CD8: 70.17± 14.54, all P<0.01 compared with the pre-treatment values). Before the treatment, CCR5 expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes was up-regulated while CXCR4 expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes downregulated in HIV/AIDS patients compared with the normal controls (CD8/CCR5:70.9 1± 10.03 vs 52.70 ±7.68; CD8/CXCR4: 24.14± 11.08 vs 50.05± 11.68, all P<0.01). After 6-month HAART, CCR5 expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes significantly decreased (56.35±12.96, P<0.01), while CXCR4 expression on CD8+ T lymphocytes increased (36.95±9.96, P<0.05) compared with the pre-treatment and the normal controls. A significant statistical relationship was observed between the expression of activation markers, CCR5 and the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts after HAART (P<0.05).Conclusions Reduced activation of T lymphocytes

  3. Causes of Death among AIDS Patients after Introduction of Free Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART in Three Chinese Provinces, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    Full Text Available Although AIDS-related deaths have had significant economic and social impact following an increased disease burden internationally, few studies have evaluated the cause of AIDS-related deaths among patients with AIDS on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART in China. This study examines the causes of death among AIDS-patients in China and uses a methodology to increase data accuracy compared to the previous studies on AIDS-related mortality in China, that have taken the reported cause of death in the National HIV Registry at face-value.Death certificates/medical records were examined and a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three provinces to verify the causes of death among AIDS patients who died between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Chi-square analysis was conducted to examine the categorical variables by causes of death and by ART status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate factors associated with AIDS-related death versus non-AIDS related death.This study used a sample of 1,109 subjects. The average age at death was 44.5 years. AIDS-related deaths were significantly higher than non-AIDS and injury-related deaths. In the sample, 41.9% (465/1109 were deceased within a year of HIV diagnosis and 52.7% (584/1109 of the deceased AIDS patients were not on cART. For AIDS-related deaths (n = 798, statistically significant factors included CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at the time of cART initiation (AOR 1.94, 95%CI 1.24-3.05, ART naïve (AOR 1.69, 95%CI 1.09-2.61; p = 0.019 and age <39 years (AOR 2.96, 95%CI 1.77-4.96.For the AIDS patients that were deceased, only those who initiated cART while at a CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 were less likely to die from AIDS-related causes compared to those who didn't initiate ART at all.

  4. AIDS-defining illnesses among patients with HIV in Singapore, 1985 to 2001: results from the Singapore HIV Observational Cohort Study (SHOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellamy Richard

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to describe the causes of initial and overall AIDS-defining disease episodes among HIV patients in Singapore. Methods A retrospective observational cohort study was performed of all adult patients seen at the national HIV referral center between 1985 and 2001. Data were extracted from the patients' records by ten trained healthcare workers. AIDS-defining conditions were established using predefined criteria. Results Among 1504 patients, 834 had experienced one or more AIDS-defining diseases. The most frequent causes of the initial AIDS-defining episode were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (35.7%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (22.7% and herpes simplex (7.4%. In total 1742 AIDS-defining episodes occurred. The most frequent causes were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (25.1%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (16.2% and cytomegalovirus retinitis (9.5%. Conclusions The most frequent causes of AIDS-defining illnesses in Singapore are similar to those reported in the West, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections remain the most frequent AIDS-defining illnesses.

  5. The clinical impact of continuing to prescribe antiretroviral therapy in patients with advanced AIDS who manifest no virologic or immunologic benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Wohl

    Full Text Available Despite the efficacy and tolerability of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART, many patients with advanced AIDS prescribed these regimens do not achieve viral suppression or immune reconstitution as a result of poor adherence, drug resistance, or both. The clinical outcomes of continued ART prescription for such patients have not been well characterized.We examined the causes and predictors of all-cause mortality, AIDS-defining conditions, and serious non-AIDS-defining events among a cohort of participants in a clinical trial of pre-emptive therapy for CMV disease. We focused on participants who, despite ART had failed to achieve virologic suppression and substantive immune reconstitution.233 ART-receiving participants entered with a median baseline CD4+ T cell count of 30/mm(3 and plasma HIV RNA of 5 log10 copies/mL. During a median 96 weeks of follow-up, 24.0% died (a mortality rate of 10.7/100 patient-years; 27.5% reported a new AIDS-defining condition, and 22.3% a new serious non-AIDS event. Of the deaths, 42.8% were due to an AIDS-defining condition, 44.6% were due to a non-AIDS-defining condition, and 12.5% were of unknown etiology. Decreased risk of mortality was associated with baseline CD4+ T cell count ≥25/mm(3 and lower baseline HIV RNA.Among patients with advanced AIDS prescribed modern ART who achieve neither virologic suppression nor immune reconstitution, crude mortality percentages appear to be lower than reported in cohorts of patients studied a decade earlier. Also, in contrast to the era before modern ART became available, nearly half of the deaths in our modern-era study were caused by serious non-AIDS-defining events. Even among the most advanced AIDS patients who were not obtaining apparent immunologic and virologic benefit from ART, continued prescription of these medications appears to alter the natural history of AIDS--improving survival and shifting the causes of death from AIDS- to non-AIDS-defining conditions.

  6. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  7. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  8. Confidentiality or continuity? Family caregivers' experiences with care for HIV/AIDS patients in home-based care in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoae, Mokhantso G; Jubber, Ken

    2008-04-01

    In the context of poor access to antiretroviral therapies in sub-Saharan Africa, the minimum treatment package intended to treat opportunistic infections common with HIV infection is inadequate but appealing, since it presumes universal coverage of medical care for patients living with HIV and AIDS. The overall objective of this study was to analyse the challenges which family caregivers encountered in home-based care when they tried to access medical treatment for home-based AIDS patients in the context of confidentiality and limited medical care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a sample of 21 family caregivers -16 females and 5 males aged between 23 and 85 years was conducted with the assistance of health personnel in two hospitals in Lesotho. Using the concept of continuity of care, this article discusses the experiences of family caregivers about home care, including their experiences of adherence to confidentiality by health care professionals and non-disclosure of AIDS as the context of illness, the circumstances under which the caregivers initiated caregiving and sought medical care, and how these factors could be stressors in caregiving. There was continuity of care where the caregivers obtained hospital support. However, when confidentiality was adhered to the caregivers were frustrated by lack of information, disrupted treatment, exclusion of their perspectives in medical care, failure to secure hospitalisation, ambiguous goals and non-responsiveness, so that continuity of care was jeopardised. Thus it can be concluded that professional-assisted disclosure benefited the patients because it facilitated continuity of care through the caregivers. PMID:18496618

  9. Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted i...

  10. A Novel First Aid Stretcher for Immobilization and Transportation of Spine Injured Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Sheng Liu; Ya-Ping Feng; Jia-Xin Xie; Zhuo-Jing Luo; Cai-Hong Shen; Fang Niu; Jian Zou; Shao-Feng Tang; Jiang Hao; Jia-Xiang Xu; Li-Ping Xiao; Xiao-Ming Xu; Hui Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injure...

  11. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  12. The Clinical Impact of Continuing to Prescribe Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with Advanced AIDS Who Manifest No Virologic or Immunologic Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, David A.; Kendall, Michelle A.; Feinberg, Judith; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Owens, Susan; Chafey, Suzette; Marco, Michael; Maxwell, Sharon; Benson, Constance; Keiser, Philip; van der Horst, Charles; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite the efficacy and tolerability of modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), many patients with advanced AIDS prescribed these regimens do not achieve viral suppression or immune reconstitution as a result of poor adherence, drug resistance, or both. The clinical outcomes of continued ART prescription for such patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined the causes and predictors of all-cause mortality, AIDS-defining conditions, and serious non-AIDS-defining events among a cohort of participants in a clinical trial of pre-emptive therapy for CMV disease. We focused on participants who, despite ART had failed to achieve virologic suppression and substantive immune reconstitution. Results 233 ART-receiving participants entered with a median baseline CD4+ T cell count of 30/mm3 and plasma HIV RNA of 5 log10 copies/mL. During a median 96 weeks of follow-up, 24.0% died (a mortality rate of 10.7/100 patient-years); 27.5% reported a new AIDS-defining condition, and 22.3% a new serious non-AIDS event. Of the deaths, 42.8% were due to an AIDS-defining condition, 44.6% were due to a non-AIDS-defining condition, and 12.5% were of unknown etiology. Decreased risk of mortality was associated with baseline CD4+ T cell count ≥25/mm3 and lower baseline HIV RNA. Conclusions Among patients with advanced AIDS prescribed modern ART who achieve neither virologic suppression nor immune reconstitution, crude mortality percentages appear to be lower than reported in cohorts of patients studied a decade earlier. Also, in contrast to the era before modern ART became available, nearly half of the deaths in our modern-era study were caused by serious non-AIDS-defining events. Even among the most advanced AIDS patients who were not obtaining apparent immunologic and virologic benefit from ART, continued prescription of these medications appears to alter the natural history of AIDS—improving survival and shifting the causes of death from AIDS- to non-AIDS

  13. Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes adultos com tuberculose e AIDS no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: relacionamento dos bancos de dados de tuberculose e AIDS Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Nascimento do Prado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com tuberculose (TB e daqueles com TB e HIV no estado do Espírito Santo entre 2000 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Coletamos dados demográficos e clínicos dos pacientes de interesse do Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado do Espírito Santo (banco de dados para TB, do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, do Sistema de Controle de Exames Laboratoriais da Rede Nacional de Contagem de Linfócitos CD4+/CD8+ e Carga Viral e do Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos (bancos de dados para HIV/AIDS. Todos os dados compilados foram cruzados. RESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, 9.543 pacientes com TB > 15 anos de idade foram identificados, dos quais 437 (4,6% tinham HIV. A mediana de idade não diferiu entre os pacientes com TB/AIDS e somente com TB (35 anos vs. 38 anos. Dos 437 pacientes com TB/AIDS, 298 (68,2% eram homens, e 156 (35,8% estavam na faixa etária de 30-39 anos. Quanto ao desfecho do tratamento da TB, 79,0% foram curados, 9,7% foram transferidos para outros locais, 6,0% foram a óbito, 5,2% abandonaram o tratamento, e 0,2% desenvolveram TB multirresistente. O óbito foi 4,75 vezes mais comum nos pacientes com TB/AIDS do que naqueles somente com TB. A TB pulmonar representou 82,4% dos casos. A combinação de TB pulmonar e extrapulmonar foi 8,2 vezes mais frequente nos pacientes com TB/AIDS do que naqueles somente com TB (IC95%: 6,2-10,8. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados enfatizam a significância da AIDS em pacientes com TB no Brasil, assim como a importância de se avaliar dados secundários a fim de melhorar a sua qualidade e desenvolver intervenções de saúde públicaOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with tuberculosis (TB only and that of patients with TB/AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. METHODS: For the patients of interest, we collected

  14. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

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    Kozko V.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.

  15. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Brazilian AIDS patients: a study of 144 cases Sarcoma de Kaposi em pacientes com AIDS: estudo de 144 casos

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    Esther G. BIRMAN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-four Brazilian AIDS patients presenting with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS were evaluated with respect to the frequency of oral neoplasms and their clinical features. The majority of the patients were young male adults (age range: 21-40 years old, from which 11.1 % presented with oral KS (OKS exclusively. Oral and skin lesions were associated in 25% of the cases, while only four patients showed association between oral and visceral KS; 49.3% of the cases were exclusively dermatological. The hard palate was the main site affected, followed by the oropharynx. The localization of KS was found to be similarly frequent in the tongue, gingiva and other sites of the oral mucosa. Candidosis was the prevailing fungal disease; in 20% of the cases it was restricted to the oral mucosa and in 80% it was systemic. No high frequency of paracoccidioidomicosis and cryptococcosis was detected. The prevailing bacterial disease was Tuberculosis and there was only one case of syphilis. Among the viral diseases, the most frequently detected was herpes simplex, followed by molusco contagiosum, condiloma acuminatum and cytomegaloviroses at lower frequencies. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystes carinii and toxoplasmosis were also identified. The authors emphasise the importance of oral examination in HIV-infected patients bearing in mind several aspects related especially to KS, and stress the need for an interdisciplinary team in the management of these patients, in order to provide better quality of life as well as rapid diagnosis and treatment.Foram estudados pacientes brasileiros portadores de SIDA apresentando sarcoma de Kaposi (SK. O perfil de idade mostrou um grupo com média de idade entre 21 e 40 anos, sendo que 11,1% da amostra apresentava SK exclusivamente na cavidade bucal, observando-se em 25% da amostra uma associação de lesões bucais e na pele. Somente quatro pacientes apresentaram associação de lesões bucais e viscerais, enquanto 49

  16. A Comparative Study of HIV/AIDS: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Behaviors of Schizophrenic and Diabetic Patients in Regard to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunsemi Olawale O; Lawal Rahmaan A; Okulate Gbenga T; Alebiosu Christopher O; Olatawura Michael O

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophreni...

  17. Masterplan: multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    van Zuilen, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized study addresses the question if intensified treatment (multiple targets, nurse practitioner assistance) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) decreases the number of cardiovascular events. The study started in February 2004.The projected time of follow-up was 5 years. The study was closed in July 2010. Enrollment In total 793 patients were included in 9 participating centers (range 64 to 104 per center). Five patients had to be excluded from the analysis. Patients were...

  18. Antiretroviral drugs and acute pancreatitis in HIV/AIDS patients: is there any association? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Natalia Mejias; Ferreira, Felipe Augusto Yamauti; Yonamine, Raquel Yumi; Chehter, Ethel Zimberg

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-seropositive individuals, the incidence of acute pancreatitis may achieve 40% per year, higher than the 2% found in the general population. Since 1996, when combined antiretroviral therapy, known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), was introduced, a broad spectrum of harmful factors to the pancreas, such as opportunistic infections and drugs used for chemoprophylaxis, dropped considerably. Nucleotide analogues and metabolic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis have emerged as new conditions that can affect the pancreas. To evaluate the role of antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV/AIDS in a scenario of high incidence of acute pancreatitis in this population, a systematic review was performed, including original articles, case reports and case series studies, whose targets were HIV-seropositive patients that developed acute pancreatitis after exposure to any antiretroviral drugs. This association was confirmed after exclusion of other possible etiologies and/or a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis after re-exposure to the suspected drug. Zidovudine, efavirenz, and protease inhibitors are thought to lead to acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, despite being powerful inhibitors of viral replication, induce a wide spectrum of side effects, including myelotoxicity and acute pancreatitis. Didanosine, zalcitabine and stavudine have been reported as causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis. They pose a high risk with cumulative doses. Didanosine with hydroxyurea, alcohol or pentamidine are additional risk factors, leading to lethal pancreatitis, which is not a frequent event. In addition, other drugs used for prophylaxis of AIDS-related opportunistic diseases, such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and pentamidine, can produce necrotizing pancreatitis. Despite comorbidities that can lead to pancreatic involvement in the HIV/AIDS population, antiretroviral drug-induced pancreatitis

  19. Tuberculose associada à AIDS: características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes atendidos em um serviço de referência do sul do Brasil Tuberculosis associated to AIDS: demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients cared for at a reference center in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Santos Boffo

    2004-04-01

    profile of patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the city of Rio Grande by relating demographic, clinical and laboratory data. METHOD: The sample comprised all cases of tuberculosis defined by identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that occurred in the AIDS Service of the University Hospital/FURG between September, 1997 and December, 2000, which added to a total of 31 patients confirmed as definite cases of AIDS. Using the Ogawa-Kudoh culture method and the Kinyoun bacilloscopy, 33 clinical pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens were analyzed. Identification of M. Tuberculosis was made by the usual phenotype methods. The method of proportions was chosen to establish resistance of isolated strains. RESULTS: The mean age was of 33.8±9.9 years, with a man/ woman ratio of 2.87:1 and 80.7% of Caucasians. All patients (n=31 exhibited overall or specific clinical manifestations of turberculosis at the time of suspicion diagnosis. In 20 of the cases risk factors were observed: use of injected drugs, alcoholism, malnutrition, imprisonment. Pulmonary disease occurred in 19 cases, extrapulmonary in 10 and the association of both in two. Lymph node commitment was more frequent among those with extrapulmonary disease. The isolated strains (33 were identified as M. Tuberculosis and 28 were tested and showed sensibility to Isoniazid and Rifampin. CONCLUSION: In AIDS patients, tuberculosis appeared with various clinical manifestations, jeopardizing both men and women of less favored social conditions while at a fully productive stage of their lives.

  20. Effect of audible and visual reminders on adherence in glaucoma patients using a commercially available dosing aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Y Ho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Y Ho1, Larissa Camejo1, Malik Y Kahook2, Robert Noecker11UMPC Eye Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; 2Rocky Mountain Lions Institute, University of Colorado, CO, USAAbstract: We studied the effects of audible and visual alarms on adherence with a recommended dosing regimen in the management of glaucoma. Forty-two patients were begun on therapy with the Travatan® Dosing Aid (TDA and randomly divided into two observation groups-one with visual and audible alarm functions turned on and the other with alarms off. Dosing information was analyzed for mean rates of adherence, missed days, and dosing at the wrong time. Twenty patients were randomized to the TDA alarm on group and 22 to the alarm off group. The rates of adherence were 87.9% and 79.7% (p = 0.02, rates of missed dosing were 7.6% and 14.4% (p = 0.03, and rates of dosing at the incorrect times were 7.1% and 9.8% (p = 0.19, respectively for alarm on versus alarm off groups. In the alarm on group, the adherence rate was significantly higher and proportion of missed dosing was significantly lower. It is still yet to be determined whether there is a relationship between adherence and progression of glaucoma.Keywords: adherence, glaucoma, Travatan® Dosing Aid, audible alarms, visual alarms

  1. Radiologic findings of an AIDS patient with gastrointestinal mixed infection of cytomegalovirus and Candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Isamu; Nakajima, Tetsuji.

    1988-08-01

    A radiologic examination was performed on a 50-year-old homosexual man with AIDS in his gastrointestinal tract. Main abnormalities were ulcerative lesions due to mixed infection of cytomegarovirus and Candida. Esophageal involvement was demonstrated as multiple granulations and ulcers ; gastric involvement, as two ulcers ; and intestinal involvement, as only rapid transit of barium. With the lapse of time, esophageal lesions almost disappeared ; while gastric ulcers remained the same and intestinal involvement was exacerbated. The ulcerations of terminal ileum and colon due to severe bleeding and perforation caused the death.

  2. Radiologic findings of an AIDS patient with gastrointestinal mixed infection of cytomegalovirus and Candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic examination was performed on a 50-year-old homosexual man with AIDS in his gastrointestinal tract. Main abnormalities were ulcerative lesions due to mixed infection of cytomegarovirus and Candida. Esophageal involvement was demonstrated as multiple granulations and ulcers ; gastric involvement, as two ulcers ; and intestinal involvement, as only rapid transit of barium. With the lapse of time, esophageal lesions almost disappeared ; while gastric ulcers remained the same and intestinal involvement was exacerbated. The ulcerations of terminal ileum and colon due to severe bleeding and perforation caused the death. (author)

  3. Analysis of causes of death among HIV-infected patients of Kiev Regional AIDS Center during 2013

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    Tetiana Stepchenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is a leader in Europe in the prevalence of HIV infection. There are up to 270 thousand people, who are living with HIV. Since 1987, in Ukraine, 33,149 HIV-infected people died. During the first six months of 2013, of all the dead, who were suffering from HIV and in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART at the time of death, 41% received treatment and only 5.7% received ART for more than one year. Specialists of Kiev Regional AIDS Center analyzed mortality among the patients of the centre, in order to determine the most frequent cause of death, set the group most at risk and to develop effective measures to reduce mortality among HIV-infected patients. In Kiev AIDS Center, 10,000 people are under medical observation and 4004 of them are taking ART. During 2013, 305 persons died: 217 were women and 88 were men which included 3 children under 14 years. Most of the dead – 272 (89% were aged 25–49. Among the total number of the dead, 125 people (41% were receiving ART, 53 of them (17% were receiving ART for at least one year and 39 of them (13% were receiving ART for less than one month. Hundred and fifty-eight people (52% required ART and 22 (7% did not need therapy. Hundred and ninety-two patients (63% were in four clinical stage of HIV infection. Hundred and ten of them had HIV+TB co-infection. Twenty patients died due to TB and 12 patients died due to hepatitis b virus/hepatitis c virus (HBV/HCV. Among these patients, 87 people (39% were taking ART and 136 persons (61% were in need of ART, but did not get it. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with cancer. Sixteen patients, who were co-infected HIV+TB had a CD4 cell count of more than 300. Based on this analysis, we can conclude that the main causes of high mortality among HIV-infected patients in 2013 were late diagnosis of HIV, besides a large number (52% of patients, who were in need of ART did not take it. A large number (40% among those who died were patients co-infected with HIV

  4. [Hygienic aspects with regard to nursing of home care patients with AIDS, chronic diseases and mental handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, H G; Flassak, H; Throm, W

    1995-04-01

    A human handicap is defined as a broad, hard and long lasting restriction of the mental development and the social integration. Groups of handicapped persons can be divided into mentally, psychologically, physically, sensory (blind, deaf) handicapped as well as into multiple disabled and chronically sick persons and those in need of care (old). New groups with demands for aid are among others people suffering from AIDS, psychologically sick (old) and people getting old as well as mentally, physically und multiple handicapped persons, people suffering from cancer, severely ill and dying people. For all handicapped people should be demanded the possibility of living almost normal lives. For all persons directly concerned as well as their families such a normal life should include: the right of self-determination and autonomy, the demand for complex styles of living and nearby care/support, the providing of respective infrastructures such as barrier free living and access to public institutions, access to public transport and homes fitting for handicapped persons, the demand for out-patient treatment by a complex range of various possibilities of support and finally, the providing of alternative forms of living in contrast to the traditional way of life of handicapped people like families or homes. Three important living areas can be derived from these ideas, namely: living conditions, education/professional and working field, social life/social environment. These important living areas require preventive measures, mainly advice and information centres, places to go early recognition and early promotion of handicapped people and those in risk of a handicap (especially children) as well as medical, professional and social rehabilitation or integration. Concerning the spectrum of support, aid and care in the homely area up to now already exists a variety of offers by out-patient services (information services, social units, mobile support services

  5. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America.

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    Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after an opportunistic infection (OI has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in "real life" settings in Latin America has not been evaluated.Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001-2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI and a delayed HAART (DH group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI. All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009 were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%, followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%, Invasive Candidiasis (16% and Toxoplasmosis (9%. Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8-12.1 weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0-7.1 after 2009 (p<0.01. Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001, having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001, study site (p<0.001, and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001.The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has decreased in Latin America coinciding with the

  6. Time to HAART Initiation after Diagnosis and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Patients with AIDS in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Fink, Valeria; Jayathilake, Karu; Person, Anna K.; McGowan, Catherine; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2009, earlier initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after an opportunistic infection (OI) has been recommended based on lower risks of death and AIDS-related progression found in clinical trials. Delay in HAART initiation after OIs may be an important barrier for successful outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Timing of HAART initiation after an OI in “real life” settings in Latin America has not been evaluated. Methods Patients in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet) ≥18 years of age at enrolment, from 2001–2012 who had an OI before HAART initiation were included. Patients were divided in an early HAART (EH) group (those initiating within 4 weeks of an OI) and a delayed HAART (DH) group (those initiating more than 4 weeks after an OI). All patients with an AIDS-defining OI were included. In patients with more than one OI the first event reported was considered. Calendar trends in the proportion of patients in the EH group (before and after 2009) were estimated by site and for the whole cohort. Factors associated with EH were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 1457 patients had an OI before HAART initiation and were included in the analysis: 213 from Argentina, 686 from Brazil, 283 from Chile, 119 from Honduras and 156 from Mexico. Most prevalent OI were Tuberculosis (31%), followed by Pneumocystis pneumonia (24%), Invasive Candidiasis (16%) and Toxoplasmosis (9%). Median time from OI to HAART initiation decreased significantly from 5.7 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.8–12.1) weeks before 2009 to 4.3 (IQR 2.0–7.1) after 2009 (p<0.01). Factors associated with starting HAART within 4 weeks of OI diagnosis were lower CD4 count at enrolment (p-<0.001), having a non-tuberculosis OI (p<0.001), study site (p<0.001), and more recent years of OI diagnosis (p<0.001). Discussion The time from diagnosis of an OI to HAART initiation has

  7. The response of health care workers to AIDS patients' requests for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R S; Ballis, P H

    1999-11-01

    This paper reports on research into the practice of euthanasia amongst Australian health care professionals specializing in HIV/AIDS. It draws on data from thirty-nine semi-structured interviews carried out in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Canberra with physicians, general practitioners, hospital and community nurses, therapists and community workers. Using a qualitative methodology, the study seeks to identify how (illegal) euthanasia is currently practised, the degrees of involvement, the various forms that involvement takes, and the social relations which provide the context for involvement. In this paper we outline three categories of 'doers' to illustrate the range of attitudes and practices concerning euthanasia. This 'typology' carries a number of implications for recent policy debates over the legalisation of euthanasia. In particular it illustrates, at least within the context of AIDS care, the fragmentation of consensus over euthanasia amongst health care workers, the reality of current illegal euthanasia practices, and the limitations of a prohibitionist policy. While the legalisation of euthanasia within a regulatory framework is sometimes portrayed as an extreme or 'radical' response to terminal illness, the data presented in this paper suggest that prohibitionism is also radical in its failure to control euthanasia practice. PMID:15719498

  8. Profile of hemogram and transaminases in dengue-suspected patients at a first-aid health unit

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    Érica Maria da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current retrospective analysis describes the laboratorial profile of patients hypothetically diagnosed with dengue at a First-Aid Health Unit in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Results of hemograms were assessed by counting platelets and transaminase dosages, in the first half of 2012. Further, 394 patients (252 females or 64% and 142 males or 34% were listed, mostly during March and April. Hemograms with platelet counting was undertaken with 210 patients (53.3% and hemogram plus transaminases dosages with 184 patients (46.7%. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and atypical lymphocytes occurred in both genders. Hematocrits were highest in males and transaminases were more altered in females. Patients attended at the health unit with clinical symptoms of classical dengue had a laboratory profile of non-specific exams which is a feature of infection by the dengue virus. Diagnosis could not be confirmed and the need of a fast test in the health unit services was mandatory. The above avoids dengue cases not being notified and treated or overestimated.

  9. The use of music to aid patients' relaxation in a radiotherapy waiting room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Laura [Oncology Department, Cheltenham General Hospital, Sandford Road, Cheltenham, Glos. GL53 7AN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ljtrooper@hotmail.com; Foster, Irene [Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of West of England, Glenside Campus, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: irenejfoster@hotmail.com

    2008-08-15

    Patient-centred practice and increasing user involvement adds impetus to built environmental research within the health care setting. Much work has been centred around stress reduction initiatives for improving health outcomes for patients and staff. This study examined the influence of music choice on patients' anxiety levels whilst seated in a radiotherapy waiting area. Patients' stress levels and perceptions were assessed in the absence/presence of music. The opinions of patients were elicited through a questionnaire following exposure to a range of music types. Music therapy was shown to have clear benefits when individuals enjoyed the music to which they listened. Although clear preferences were indicated, the results were skewed by the negative effects of music not enjoyed by patients. Further investigation needs to take account of the impact of personal variables and the value of 'quiet areas'.

  10. The use of music to aid patients' relaxation in a radiotherapy waiting room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient-centred practice and increasing user involvement adds impetus to built environmental research within the health care setting. Much work has been centred around stress reduction initiatives for improving health outcomes for patients and staff. This study examined the influence of music choice on patients' anxiety levels whilst seated in a radiotherapy waiting area. Patients' stress levels and perceptions were assessed in the absence/presence of music. The opinions of patients were elicited through a questionnaire following exposure to a range of music types. Music therapy was shown to have clear benefits when individuals enjoyed the music to which they listened. Although clear preferences were indicated, the results were skewed by the negative effects of music not enjoyed by patients. Further investigation needs to take account of the impact of personal variables and the value of 'quiet areas'

  11. Evaluating the utility of a patient decision aid for potential participants of a prostate cancer trial (RAVES-TROG 08.03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can be hampered by poor patient accrual and retention. Decision aids (DAs) containing simple, evidence-based information, may assist patients with decision-making regarding trial participation. The current DA was of use for 95% of participants. Further evaluation of the DA in a RCT is currently underway.

  12. Microbiological Analysis of Nontyphoidal Salmonella Strains Causing Distinct Syndromes of Bacteremia or Enteritis in HIV/AIDS Patients in San Diego, California

    OpenAIRE

    Preziosi, Michael J.; Kandel, Sean M.; Guiney, Donald G.; Browne, Sara H

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is an AIDS-defining illness that has become less common in the developed world in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), while it has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. We retrospectively analyzed Salmonella (NTS) infection in HIV/AIDS patients from June 2003 until December 2009 at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Medical Center. Bacterial...

  13. Socioepidemiologic Profile and Treatment-seeking Behaviour of HIV/AIDS Patients in a Tertiary-care Hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Balasundaram, Abyramy; Sarkar, Sonali; Hamide, Abdoul; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT India has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) for eligible persons living with HIV (PLHA) has been scaled up significantly both in terms of facilities for treatment and number of beneficiaries. This study aimed at describing the profile of HIV/AIDS patients on ART from a tertiary-care hospital and to explore the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour, family support, and perceptions regarding HIV and ART...

  14. Antibiotic use in otitis media: patient simulations as an aid to audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Hathaway, N R

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic and prescribing practices in otitis media vary, and audit is difficult because doctors may not see comparable cases. Seven general practitioners took part in a pilot study to discover if simulated patients evoked the same diagnostic and treatment responses as reveal patients. Forty-eight patients entered the study over three weeks and provided data for two simulations; one included the doctor's description of the ear and the other a photograph instead. Each doctor was shown the two...

  15. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jansen; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T. J.; Bensing, J M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment. Recall was checked against the actual communication in video-recordings of the consultations. Patients also completed measures of anxiety and memory-related beliefs.Results: Findings revealed that...

  16. Orbital and Maxillofacial Computer Aided Surgery: Patient-Specific Finite Element Models To Predict Surgical Outcomes

    CERN Document Server

    Luboz, V; Swider, P; Payan, Y; Luboz, Vincent; Chabanas, Matthieu; Swider, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses an important issue raised for the clinical relevance of Computer-Assisted Surgical applications, namely the methodology used to automatically build patient-specific Finite Element (FE) models of anatomical structures. From this perspective, a method is proposed, based on a technique called the Mesh-Matching method, followed by a process that corrects mesh irregularities. The Mesh-Matching algorithm generates patient-specific volume meshes from an existing generic model. The mesh regularization process is based on the Jacobian matrix transform related to the FE reference element and the current element. This method for generating patient-specific FE models is first applied to Computer-Assisted maxillofacial surgery, and more precisely to the FE elastic modelling of patient facial soft tissues. For each patient, the planned bone osteotomies (mandible, maxilla, chin) are used as boundary conditions to deform the FE face model, in order to predict the aesthetic outcome of the surgery. Seven F...

  17. Urgent problems of improvement of stomatologic aid to patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus

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    Ivanova О.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the investigation: to develop the methods of increasing effectiveness of stomatologic accompanying therapy at all stages of locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus. Material and methods: The results of treatment of 563 patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus have been analyzed. Among them 205 patients with the proved diagnosis were examined by a dentist. A special committee developed a plan of accompanying therapy where a stomatologic treatment was significant. Other 358 patients were not examined by a dentist before therapy. Re-sults. Planning of stomatologic aid and carrying out measures directed to the prevention of complications against the background of combined and complex therapy of locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus allows to decrease the number of hemorrhagic complications to 4,9%, local inflammatory processes — to 2,7% as well as other complications. Conclusion: Planning of accompanying stoma-tologic therapy and organization of adequate curable and rehabilitation measures significantly improves life quality of the patients with locally extended cancer of oral cavity mucus.

  18. Robot-aided therapy for upper limbs in patients with stroke-related lesions. Brief report of a clinical experience

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    Dall'Armi Valentina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was aimed at verifying the improvement on the motor impairment and functionality in 19 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke treated with a robot-aided rehabilitation protocol using the ReoGo™ system (Motorika Medical Ltd, Israel, and at evaluating the persistence of the effects after 1 month. The study also focused on the actual possibility of administering the robot-aided therapy with the ReoGo™ for the upper limbs and on the patients' degree of acceptance and compliance with the treatment. Subjects underwent an assessment prior to the start of the rehabilitation project (T-1, one at the start (T0, one at the end of the treatment (T1 and one after one month from the end of the treatment (T2. The following tests were administered: (i Fugl-Meyer (FM upper limb; Ashworth scale (AS; Functional Independence Measure (FIM™ (T-1 - T2; (ii strength evaluation; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain; Frenchay Arm test (FAT; Box and Block test (BBT; Timed Up and Go (TUG test (T0 - T2. Additionally, the Euro-QoL questionnaire and a VAS for the treatment satisfaction were administered to the subjects. Non-statistical difference of scores at T-1 and T0 on almost the entire battery of tasks suggested a stable patients' performance prior to the start of the rehabilitation. With the exception of the Medical Research Council (MRC and the AS sub-scales measuring -as appropriate- strength and spasticity of the shoulder, triceps and wrist, all scores showed a significant increase between T0 and T1. The improvement on the pain could not be proved significant (p = 0.10. A significant increase between T0 and T2 was found for all assessment scores, with the exception of the MRC for external shoulder rotators (p = 0.05 and of the AS for shoulder (p = 0.32 and wrist (p = 0.08. Substantial stability was observed between T1 and T2. Patients were capable of completing the treatment and showed good participant satisfaction. This pilot study

  19. On visibility: AIDS, deception by patients, and the responsibility of the doctor.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar, S; Rehm, S.

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to the usual discussion of lying or deceiving in medical ethics literature where the lying or deceiving is done by the doctor or surgeon, this paper deals with lying or deceiving on the part of the patient. Three cases involving HIV-infected male homosexual or bisexual persons are presented. In each case the patient deceives or wants the doctor to deceive a third party on his behalf. Are such deceptions or lies expressions of compassion? Are they in the patient's best interests? Do t...

  20. Aiding the Alzheimer's dementia patient to live in safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L E

    1991-12-01

    Alzheimer's is truly a "family" disease, affecting not only the patient but the entire family. The patient's emotional/psychological safety and security are as important as his or her physical condition, and therefore must be addressed. Families should be encouraged to use every resource that is available. The nurse/caregiver is in an excellent position to offer support and suggest resources. The key is understanding the course of the disease and measures that can be employed to maintain the patient in optimal safety and security. PMID:10170884

  1. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy Isolated to Posterior Fossa in a Patient with AIDS: DWI and 1H-MRS Features

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    Park, Byung Sa; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee [Eulji University Hospital, College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We report a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) isolated to the posterior fossa in a 55-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Initial MR images revealed a few foci of patchy increased signal intensity (SI) on a T2-weighted image and a diffusion weighted image (DWI) at the pons, right middle cerebellar peduncle, and right cerebellar hemisphere, with no enhancement. After anti-retroviral therapy, follow-up MR images revealed the more prominent extent of previously-seen lesions and newly discovered newly developed focal increased SI on T2-weighted images located left of the inferior cerebellar hemisphere. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed a slightly increased choline peak (3.2 ppm) and lactate peak (1.35 ppm), as well as a decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak (2.0 ppm), which suggests active demyelinating disease. DWI and 1H-MRS may support the diagnosis of PML in patients with AIDS

  2. Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Paradigm of Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Non-HIV/AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a parasitic disease characterized by immune suppression. Successful treatment is usually followed by immune reconstitution and a dermatosis called post-Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL. Recently, PKDL was described as one of the immune reconstitution syndromes (IRISs in HIV/VL patients on HAART. This study aimed to present PKDL as a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals. Published and new data on the pathogenesis and healing of PKDL was reviewed and presented. The data suggested that PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS, being a new disease entity that follows VL successful treatment and immune recovery. PKDL lesions are immune inflammatory in nature with granuloma, adequate response to immunochemotherapy, and an ensuing hypersensitivity reaction, the leishmanin skin test (LST. The data also suggested that the cytokine patterns of PKDL pathogenesis and healing are probably as follows: an active disease state dominated by IL-10 followed by spontaneous/treatment-induced IL-12 priming, IL-2 stimulation, and INF-γ production. INF-γ-activated macrophages eliminate the Leishmania parasites/antigen to be followed by LST conversion and healing. In conclusion, PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals with anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns that are superseded by treatment-induced proinflammatory cytokines and lesions healing.

  3. The pros and cons of funnel plots as an aid to risk communication and patient decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Tim; Wright, Rebecca J; Spiegelhalter, David J; Bull, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Funnel plots, which simultaneously display a sample statistic and the corresponding sample size for multiple cases, have a range of applications. In medicine, they are used to display treatment outcome rates and caseload volume by institution, which can inform strategic decisions about health care delivery. We investigated lay people's understanding of such plots and explored their suitability as an aid to individual treatment decisions. In two studies, 172 participants answered objective questions about funnel plots representing the surgical outcomes (survival or mortality rates) of institutions varying in caseload, and indicated their preferred institutions. Accuracy for extracting objective information was high, unless question phrasing was inconsistent with the plot's survival/mortality framing, or participants had low numeracy levels. Participants integrated caseload-volume and outcome-rate data when forming preferences, but were influenced by reference lines on the plot to make inappropriate discriminations between institutions with similar outcome rates. With careful choice of accompanying language, funnel plots can be readily understood and are therefore a useful tool for communicating risk. However, they are less effective as a decision aid for individual patient's treatment decisions, and we recommend refinements to the standard presentation of the plots if they are to be used for that purpose. PMID:25123852

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients in Iran

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    Hadadi A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: One of the clinical manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected patients is cardiovascular disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular disorders in HIV infected patients for the beginning treatment of these patients and reducing mortality and morbidity in these patients. "n"nMethods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 134 HIV infected patients who referred to Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran Iran during years 2007-2008. Demographic characteristics, history of smoking and opium addiction, antiretroviral therapy, class of drugs and duration of consumption were recorded. After completion of physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography studies were done."n"nResults: In this study 98(73.1% patients were male. The mean age of the patients was 36.5±10.3 years. The mean of the CD4 number were 296±181. Injection drug users were 54.4% of the study patients. Cardiovascular disorders were found in 84(62.7% patients. Among patients with heart diseases, 75% were male. The most Electrocardiographic change was the axis deviation of the heart found in 32(23.7% patients. Pericardial effusion and LVEF<50

  5. Antibiotic use in otitis media: patient simulations as an aid to audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput de Saintonge, D M; Hathaway, N R

    1981-10-01

    Diagnostic and prescribing practices in otitis media vary, and audit is difficult because doctors may not see comparable cases. Seven general practitioners took part in a pilot study to discover if simulated patients evoked the same diagnostic and treatment responses as reveal patients. Forty-eight patients entered the study over three weeks and provided data for two simulations; one included the doctor's description of the ear and the other a photograph instead. Each doctor was shown the two sets of simulations and asked to state his diagnosis and treatment. The diagnoses each doctor reached agreed significantly with those reached on the simulations of the same patients. The decisions to prescribe antibiotics also showed good agreement. PMID:6793159

  6. [Acute abdomen in patients with HIV/AIDS seen in a national hospital of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leonor; Rodríguez, Ericka; Zúñiga, Grace; Yamamoto, Gaby; González, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the features in the presentation and management of acute abdomen (AA) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We reviewed the medical records of 97 HIV patients who presented with AA and were seen in 2006-2011 at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital in Lima, Peru. 1.6% of immunosuppressed patients underwent surgery. Appendectomy was the most common surgical procedure (33.3%). Morbidity was 28.1% and postoperative mortality was 9.4%. Infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis was the most common cause of acute abdominal pain, at 26.8%. Data suggest that an early surgical decision for cases of AA in HIV patients may prevent significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:25418651

  7. Design strategies to improve patient motivation during robot-aided rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrozza M Chiara

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation is an important factor in rehabilitation and frequently used as a determinant of rehabilitation outcome. Several factors can influence patient motivation and so improve exercise adherence. This paper presents the design of two robot devices for use in the rehabilitation of upper limb movements, that can motivate patients during the execution of the assigned motor tasks by enhancing the gaming aspects of rehabilitation. In addition, a regular review of the obtained performance can reinforce in patients' minds the importance of exercising and encourage them to continue, so improving their motivation and consequently adherence to the program. In view of this, we also developed an evaluation metric that could characterize the rate of improvement and quantify the changes in the obtained performance. Methods Two groups (G1, n = 8 and G2, n = 12 of patients with chronic stroke were enrolled in a 3-week rehabilitation program including standard physical therapy (45 min. daily plus treatment by means of robot devices (40 min., twice daily respectively for wrist (G1 and elbow-shoulder movements (G2. Both groups were evaluated by means of standard clinical assessment scales and the new robot measured evaluation metric. Patients' motivation was assessed in 9/12 G2 patients by means of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI questionnaire. Results Both groups reduced their motor deficit and showed a significant improvement in clinical scales and the robot measured parameters. The IMI assessed in G2 patients showed high scores for interest, usefulness and importance subscales and low values for tension and pain subscales. Conclusion Thanks to the design features of the two robot devices the therapist could easily adapt training to the individual by selecting different difficulty levels of the motor task tailored to each patient's disability. The gaming aspects incorporated in the two rehabilitation robots helped maintain

  8. Persistence, replacement, and microevolution of Cryptococcus neoformans strains in recurrent meningitis in AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, D.; Haynes, K.; Moran, G.; Shanley, D; Coleman, D.

    1996-01-01

    Six separate human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with cryptococcal meningitis were each found to have been infected with a unique strain of Cryptococcus neoformans on the basis of genomic DNA finger-printing analysis with the microsatellite sequence-containing oligonucleotide probe (GGAT)4 and by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Two patients (A and B) experienced a recurrent episode of infection. Between 12 and 16 single-colony isolates recovered from primary isolation medi...

  9. Voriconazole as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Schlamm, Haran T

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the triazole anti-fungal agent, voriconazole, as therapy for systemic Penicillium marneffei infections in patients with advanced HIV infection. Patients with systemic P. marneffei infection were enrolled into a study of voriconazole for the treatment of less common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Patients were eligible for inclusion in the study on the basis that no anti-fungal agents have received regulatory approval specifically for P. marneffei infections. Patients were treated in the hospital setting with intravenous voriconazole (6 mg/kg every 12 hours on Day 1 and then 4 mg/kg every 12 hours for at least 3 days, after which patients could switch to oral therapy at 200 mg twice a day) or as outpatients with oral voriconazole (400 mg twice a day on Day 1 and then 200 mg twice a day) for a maximum of 12 weeks. Eleven patients received treatment with voriconazole. Two received short courses of intravenous therapy followed by the oral formulation; nine were treated with oral voriconazole only. At the end of therapy, eight of the nine evaluable patients had favorable response to therapy, based on mycological and clinical findings. There were no relapses of P. marneffei infection in the six patients who were seen at follow-up within 4 weeks of the end of therapy. Treatment with voriconazole was well tolerated, with no discontinuations caused by drug-related adverse events. The results of this study suggest that voriconazole is an effective, well-tolerated, and convenient option for the treatment of systemic infections with P. marneffei. PMID:17690411

  10. HHV-8 infection in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8 in HIV-positive Brazilian patients with (HIV+/KS+ and without Kaposi's sarcoma (HIV+/KS- using PCR and immunofluorescence assays, to assess its association with KS disease, to evaluate the performance of these tests in detecting HHV-8 infection, and to investigate the association between anti-HHV-8 antibody titers, CD4 counts and staging of KS disease. Blood samples from 66 patients, 39 HIV+/KS+ and 27 HIV+/KS-, were analyzed for HHV-8 viremia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by PCR and HHV-8 antigenemia for latent and lytic infection by immunofluorescence assay. Positive samples for latent nuclear HHV-8 antigen (LNA antibodies were titrated out from 1/100 to 1/409,600 dilution. Clinical information was collected from medical records and risk behavior was assessed through an interview. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected by PCR in 74.3% of KS+ patients and in 3.7% of KS- patients. Serological assays were similar in detecting anti-LNA antibodies and anti-lytic antigens in sera from KS+ patients (79.5% and KS- patients (18.5%. HHV-8 was associated with KS whatever the method used, i.e., PCR (odds ratio (OR = 7.4, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.16-25.61 or anti-LNA and anti-lytic antibodies (OR = 17.0, 95%CI = 4.91-59.14. Among KS+ patients, HHV-8 titration levels correlated positively with CD4 counts (rho 0.48, P = 0.02, but not with KS staging. HHV-8 is involved in the development of KS in different geographic areas worldwide, as it is in Brazil, where HHV-8 is more frequent among HIV+ patients. KS severity was associated with immunodeficiency, but no correlation was found between HHV-8 antibody titers and KS staging.

  11. Controlled guidance of handwriting in Parkinson's Disease patients. Can a sonic aid improve tau guidance measures

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To identify, using “tau theory” (Lee, 1998), i) if there are significant differences in tau guidance of handwriting between PD patients and normal healthy controls, and if so, ii) whether tau guidance for these actions can be improved by use of external sound cues attempting to provide missing intrinsic tG information. Method: Four patients with Parkinson’s disease (mean age 69 years) were compared with a healthy control on data recorded by Selspot cameras during handwr...

  12. Neiguan and Jianshi Acupoint Stimulation Aids Hemodynamic Stability in a Cervical Cord Trauma Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Shalini T; Suliman Al-Nabi, Mohammed Juma; Suri, Neelam; Khan, Rashid M; Kaul, Naresh K

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old male patient with posttraumatic cervical cord damage and resultant quadriparesis, demonstrated hypotension and periods of bradycardia. For most of his two-month stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), he was dependent on dopamine support to maintain hemodynamic stability. Keeping in mind evidence from the literature, that electrostimulation of acupoints Neiguan (PC - 6) and Jianshi (PC - 5) has therapeutic efficacy in restoring hypotension, we treated this patient with two six-ho...

  13. Design strategies to improve patient motivation during robot-aided rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Carrozza M Chiara; Micera Silvestro; Delconte Carmen; Mazzone Alessandra; Pisano Fabrizio; Colombo Roberto; Dario Paolo; Minuco Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation is an important factor in rehabilitation and frequently used as a determinant of rehabilitation outcome. Several factors can influence patient motivation and so improve exercise adherence. This paper presents the design of two robot devices for use in the rehabilitation of upper limb movements, that can motivate patients during the execution of the assigned motor tasks by enhancing the gaming aspects of rehabilitation. In addition, a regular review of the obtain...

  14. Facial osteomyelitis as complication of chronic sinusitis in hemophiliac-AIDS patients - scintigraphic evaluation with technetium-99m-MDP and Gallium-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper six cases of facial osteomyelitis as a complication of chronic sinusitis in hemophiliac-AIDS patients are reported. Osteomyelitis was suggested by an increasing of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive 99m Tc MDP scintigraphy. The patients were submitted to clinical treatment. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and 67-gallium citrate scans were used in the follow-up of the therapy. Three patients had negative gallium after three weeks of organism-specific antibiotic therapy; in two patients the gallium scintigraphy remained positive. One patient did not undergo the radionuclide scan for this clinical conditions. These results suggest that MDP scans showed higher sensitivity and specificity in detection of bone disease in chronic sinusitis. Gallium scans appeared to be valuable tool in the follow-up of the infection. There are no reports in the literature of osteomyelitis as a complication of chronic sinusitis in AIDS patient. (author)

  15. Structural modification of serum vitamin D3-binding protein and immunosuppression in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Srinivasula, S M

    1995-11-01

    A serum glycoprotein, vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of stimulated B lymphocytes and sialidase of T lymphocytes to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is a precursor for MAF. Treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates an extremely high-titered MAF (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages of 46 HIV-infected patients were treated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the monocytes/macrophages of all patients were efficiently activated. However, the MAF precursor activity of plasma Gc protein was low in 16 (35%) of of these patients. Loss of the MAF precursor activity appeared to be due to deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase found in the patient blood stream. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Thus, precursor activity of Gc protein and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient blood can serve as diagnostic and prognostic indices. PMID:8573395

  16. CD4+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ah Lee

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are altered in young TS patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young TS patients (n = 24, 17.4-35.9 years and healthy controls (n = 16 were stained with various Treg markers to characterize their phenotypes. Based on the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, patients were categorized into TS (- (n = 7 and TS (+ (n = 17. Tregs sorted for CD4+ CD25bright were co-cultured with autologous CD4+ CD25- target cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies to assess their suppressive function.Despite a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells in the TS (- and TS (+ patients (mean 30.8% and 31.7%, vs. 41.2%; P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively, both groups exhibited a higher frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs among CD4+ T cells compared with controls (means 1.99% and 2.05%, vs. 1.33%; P = 0.029 and P = 0.004, respectively. There were no differences in the expression of CTLA-4 and the frequency of Tregs expressing CXCR3+, and CCR4+ CCR6+ among the three groups. However, the ability of Tregs to suppress the in vitro proliferation of autologous CD4+ CD25- T cells was significantly impaired in the TS (- and TS (+ patients compared to controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.041. Meanwhile, both the TS (- and TS (+ groups had lower frequencies of naïve cells (P = 0.001 for both but higher frequencies of effector memory cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002 than did the healthy control group.The Tregs of the TS patients could not efficiently suppress the proliferation of autologous effector T cells, despite their increased frequency in peripheral CD4+ T cells.

  17. CD4+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Impaired Ability to Suppress Effector T Cell Proliferation in Patients with Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Hang-Rae; Lee, Jeong Seon; Jung, Hae Woon; Kim, Hwa Young; Lee, Gyung Min; Lee, Jieun; Sim, Ji Hyun; Oh, Sae Jin; Chung, Doo Hyun; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the frequency, phenotype, and suppressive function of CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are altered in young TS patients with the 45,X karyotype compared to age-matched controls. Design and Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young TS patients (n = 24, 17.4–35.9 years) and healthy controls (n = 16) were stained with various Treg markers to characterize their phenotypes. Based on the presence of thyroid autoimmunity, patients were categorized into TS (–) (n = 7) and TS (+) (n = 17). Tregs sorted for CD4+CD25bright were co-cultured with autologous CD4+CD25− target cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies to assess their suppressive function. Results Despite a lower frequency of CD4+ T cells in the TS (-) and TS (+) patients (mean 30.8% and 31.7%, vs. 41.2%; P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively), both groups exhibited a higher frequency of FOXP3+ Tregs among CD4+ T cells compared with controls (means 1.99% and 2.05%, vs. 1.33%; P = 0.029 and P = 0.004, respectively). There were no differences in the expression of CTLA-4 and the frequency of Tregs expressing CXCR3+, and CCR4+CCR6+ among the three groups. However, the ability of Tregs to suppress the in vitro proliferation of autologous CD4+CD25− T cells was significantly impaired in the TS (–) and TS (+) patients compared to controls (P = 0.003 and P = 0.041). Meanwhile, both the TS (–) and TS (+) groups had lower frequencies of naïve cells (P = 0.001 for both) but higher frequencies of effector memory cells (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002) than did the healthy control group. Conclusions The Tregs of the TS patients could not efficiently suppress the proliferation of autologous effector T cells, despite their increased frequency in peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:26709833

  18. Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J.; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinica...

  19. HIV-specific CD8~+ T cell responses to HXB2 Gag and Nef peptide pools in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    HXB2 is primarily used as a template strain in developing HIV vaccines in Europe and the US. However,it is not yet known whether the strain can induce strong HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. In the present study,two groups of subjects were investigated:9 AIDS patients and 7 long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were examined in all patients through the ELISPOT assay. CD4+ T cell counts,CD8+ T cell counts,viral load and HIV subtype of each patient were also measured. Thailand B virus strain was identified among all the patients. The breadth and magnitude of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the LTNPs group are greater than those in the AIDS group (P<0.01). There is a positive correlation between magnitude of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and CD4+ T cells,and a negative correlation between HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and mean viral load. In summary,the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses to the HXB2 Gag and Nef peptide pools are considerable in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients infected with Thailand B virus strain. HIV-1 vaccines based on HXB2 strain that can induce extensive immunity may be helpful for Chinese.

  20. Chest X-ray Plain Film Analysis Underlying 31 1 Case of HIV/AIDS Patients%311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线平片分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗洪云; 胡必富; 刘长华; 夏玉明; 江凤兰

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部病变 X 线表现,为认知和诊断艾滋病提供医疗影像依据,为临床诊治提供指导。方法:收集本地区2006年1月~2014年1月门诊及住院确诊的311例 HIV/AIDS 患者胸部 X 线片,分析其病变的 X 线表现。结果:患者胸部 X 线表现为:心肺正常124例,肺门纵隔淋巴结增大20例(淋巴瘤4例)。肺纹理增强101例,肺炎36例,肺结核27例,肺癌3例(肝癌转移2例);结论:艾滋病患者胸部病变由呼吸道机遇性致病菌感染和 AIDS 相关恶性肿瘤所引起,胸部 X 线表现无明显特异性,为多种影像表现并存,结合临床表现和相关实验室检查,对诊断及治疗 HIV/AIDS 有一定参考价值。%Objective:To analyze the chest X-ray appearance of HIV / AIDS patients,so as to provide medical image basis and guidance for clinical diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS patients.Methods:We collect the chest X ray films of local HIV/AIDS patients outpatient and inpatient from January 2006 to Janu-ary 2014,analyze the X-ray manifestation of lesions.Results:The manifestation of chest X-ray is shown as:124 cases of normal,enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes in 20 cases (lymphoma 4 cases).Lung marking disorder in 101 cases,36 cases of pneumonia,27 cases of tuberculosis,3 cases of lung cancer (2 cases of me-tastasis);Conclusion:The chest manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients are caused by respiratory opportunity pathogenic bacteria and AIDS related malignant tumor,the chest X-ray showed no obvious specificity,but a variety of imaging performance,it has certain reference value that combined with the clinical manifestations and related laboratory tests to the diagnosis and treatment of HIV/AIDS patients.

  1. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques had been developed and validated. The studies have shown that patients with head and neck cancer used to drink alcohol and smoked much more frequently than healthy individuals, both in the past and presently. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of average metal content in the group of patients with head and neck cancers compared to the control group were confirmed. Significant differences in metal content between the group of patients with head and neck cancers and healthy individuals were found which enabled distinguishing between the study groups. To this end, a more advanced statistical tool, i.e. chemometrics, was used. The conducted research analyses and the use of advanced statistical techniques confirm the benefits of using alternative material to distinguish the patients with head and neck cancers from the healthy individuals. PMID:26660304

  2. Coincidental Observation of Global Hypometabolism in the Brain on PET/CT of an AIDS Patient With High-Grade Pulmonary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-08-01

    AIDS-related dementia complex is the most severe form of cognitive dysfunction in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The use of FDG PET/CT to diagnose AIDS-related dementia complex has been studied previously and shows various specific metabolic patterns from striatal hypermetabolism in early asymptomatic stage to global hypometabolism in advanced stages. We present a case of a 49-year-old patient with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus infection, where global brain hypometabolism was noted coincidentally on FDG PET/CT done for initial staging of primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:27280906

  3. Detection of Emergence Cyclospora cayetanensis in A HIV+ / AIDS Patient with Diarrhea from Tehran: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; DAVOUDI, Setareh; REZA HOSSEINI, Omid; TARIGHI, Fatemeh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Coccidian protozoa of Cyclospora cayetanensis are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that infect the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine of immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. A 25- years old woman from around, Tehran with complaint of faintness and fatigue with HIV positive/AIDS confirmed eight months ago was admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patient suffered from intestinal and lung symptoms like watery diarrhea, flu-like symptoms. The stool was examined by direct preparation and concentration technique, stained with modified acid-fast staining method, and observed with light and then Immunofluorescence microscope. The stool cultivation was made in dichromate potassium medium and diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was finally made according to observation of Cyclospora oocysts almost 10 μm in acid-fast staining method and autofluorescence of Cyclospora under Immunofluorescence microscope. The patient was initially treated with azithromycin, tazocin and fluconazol because of lung lesions and diarrhea and relative remission was observed. Cyclospora sp. causes an intestinal infection particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26258100

  4. [Housing and health: providing special aids to geriatric patients (rehabilitation in relation to section 46 BSHG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöllen, W

    1991-01-01

    The age structure of the population is undergoing dramatic changes resulting in a steady increase in the number of geriatric patients requiring special care. In 2000 A.D. about one quarter of the inhabitants of North Rhine Westphalia will be over 60 years of age. In our Geriatric Advisory Service bureau the number of patients over 60 years of age has been rising steadily in recent years and is at present about 49.5% of a total of 2,069 patients who in 1990 are being looked after by our Advisory Office for the Elderly, the Sick and the Physically Handicapped in the North Rhine Westphalian capital city of Düsseldorf. One of the fundamental principles of our work is to check on the required measures of social rehabilitation in consultation with the physicians, physiotherapists, ergotherapists and the hospital social welfare service, so that the patient can be looked after at home without any break directly after his discharge from hospital. All the necessary auxiliaries such as handles fixed to the bath-room wall above the bathtub, bathtub seat, toilet chair etc. should be available when the patient moves into his or her home. This supply of auxiliary devices is very important because otherwise it will often not be possible to realize other tasks of social rehabilitation. For example, the patient can often not be provided at short notice with a flat that will be convenient for his disability, which means that fitting the auxiliary devices is the only way out of the problem to adapt the existing flat to his needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1837907

  5. Estimation of muscular blood flow with the aid of 133Xe in neurosurgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation technique of muscular blood flow (MB) by 133Xe in neurosurgical patient with injuries of motor function is described. MB in upper and lower limbs in patients with hemiparesis, hemiplegia and its change after electrostimulation, vibration, exercise therapy is investigated. It is shown that the method of blood flow determination by 133Xe locally injected is very reproducible and sensitive. When the method is thoroughly and precisely followed conditions for the obtaining of adequate information with small amount of methodical defects are ensured

  6. Development of Patients' Decision Aid for Older Women With Stage I Breast Cancer Considering Radiotherapy After Lumpectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Alimonte, Laura [Department of Radiation Therapy, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Angus, Jan [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Paszat, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Metcalfe, Kelly [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary [Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Center of Informed Choice, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon); Warner, Eiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Franssen, Edmee [Consultant Statistician, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Szumacher, Ewa, E-mail: Ewa.Szumacher@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for older women with Stage I, pathologically node negative, estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer who are considering adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy and to examine its impact on patients' decision making. Methods and Materials: A PtDA was developed and evaluated in three steps according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework: (1) needs assessment (n = 16); (2) Pilot I to examine PtDA acceptability (n = 12); and (3) Pilot II, a pretest posttest (n = 38) with older women with estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer after lumpectomy who were receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Measures included patients' satisfaction with the PtDA, self-reported decisional conflict, level of distress, treatment-related knowledge, and choice predisposition. Results: The PtDA is a booklet that details each adjuvant treatment option's benefits, risks, and side effects tailored to the patient's clinical profile; includes a values clarification exercise; and includes steps to guide patients towards their decision. On the basis of qualitative comments and satisfaction ratings, all women thought that the PtDA was helpful and informative. In comparison with their baseline scores, patients had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in decisional conflict (adjusted mean difference [AMD], -7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.50 to 12.59); increased clarity of the benefits and risks (AMD, -10.86; CI, -20.33 to 21.49); and improved general treatment knowledge (AMD, 8.99; CI, 2.88-10.28) after using the PtDA. General trends were also reported in the patients' choice predisposition scores that suggested potential differences in treatment decision after PtDA use. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that this PtDA may be a helpful educational tool for this group of women. The quality of care for older breast cancer patients may be

  7. Clinical relationships tested by iatrogenicity: the case of haemophiliac patients faced with the epidemic of transfusional AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Emmanuelle

    2008-11-01

    After being victims of a serious iatrogenous damage, what kind of relationship can patients rebuild with the world of medicine? In this article, I examine this question in terms of the contaminated blood affair in France. Using a qualitative study of haemophiliac patients and their families as a base, I looked at the changes in their modes of commitment to medicine, from the period preceding contamination with AIDS through blood transfusion, until the present day. It would seem that the experience of iatrogenous injustice was at the root of a major reconfiguration: all of the patients looked back over their trajectories, examined their relationship with the medical world and changed their positions, but without necessarily drawing the same conclusions or taking the same stances. This article looks at the change from relationships essentially based on cooperation to relationships that are more negotiated. It also shows the current diversity in forms of commitment: they are the fruit of critical work, carried out by patients and their families, which reassesses both the cognitive and moral bases of medical legitimacy. The analysis of the reconfiguration of the relationships that haemophiliac patients have had with the medical world in the aftermath of the contaminated blood affair is enlightening in two ways. First of all, the current medical world would appear to be deeply marked by health scandals and the victims have become prime actors. Secondly, the experience of iatrogenicity asks, with especial acuteness, the question of confidence that is at the core of any clinical relationship. It thus has a heuristic value of general scope. PMID:18715682

  8. HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的研究进展%Analysis of the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞芳; 刘中夫

    2013-01-01

    近年来,随着越来越多的艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者进入艾滋病(AIDS)发病期,越来越多的感染者死于AIDS相关疾病.另外,随着抗病毒治疗的覆盖率不断扩大,HIV感染者/AIDS病人死于AIDS相关疾病的比例不断降低,而死于其他非AIDS相关疾病的比例却不断升高.文章就当前国内外对HIV感染者/AIDS病人死亡原因的有关研究进展进行综述,为医疗机构加强和提高对重点疾病的诊疗技术水平提供理论支持,也为中国AIDS死因监测的建立提供理论依据.%In recent years, an increasing number of HIV infectors died of AIDS related diseases because more and more HIV infections are progressing into AIDS stage. Furthermore, along with the expanding of antiretroviral therapy coverage, the proportion of HIV infectors/AIDS patients who died of AIDS related diseases was decreasing while the proportion of deaths of non-AIDS related diseases was rising continuously. This paper reviews domestic and oversea reports about progress in researches on the causes of death of HIV infectors/AIDS patients. Hopefully it could provide theoretical support and evidence for medical care facilities to strengthen and enhance their diagnostic and therapeutic ability and also for the establishment of AIDS related death monitoring system in China.

  9. Yield of diagnostic tests for opportunistic infections in AIDS: a survey of 33 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Olesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    /prophylaxis without diagnosis could be considered. In 8 autopsies, microscopy was suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis, but only 1 patient had presented important clinical symptoms. We suggest a schedule with regular microbiologic and parasitic examinations and few antibody tests, but with more antigen tests....

  10. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  11. Clinical features of AIDS patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma with isolated bone marrow involvement: report of 12 cases at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the main clinical and histopathological features of 12 patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) diagnosed primarily from bone marrow (BM) involvement. We included 12 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with HL assisted in the F. J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital since January 2002 to December 2013. The diagnosis of HL with primary BM involvement in patients was confirmed by clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. All patients presented “B” symptoms and pancytopenia. All of them had stage IV neoplasm disease because of BM infiltration. The median of CD4+ T-cell counts was 114 cells/μL, and mixed cellularity (MC) was the most frequent histopathological subtype of 92% cases. When other causes are excluded, BM biopsy should be performed in AIDS patients with “B” symptoms and pancytopenia to evaluate BM infiltration by atypical lymphocytes

  12. Clinical features of AIDS patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma with isolated bone marrow involvement:report of 12 cases at a single institution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Corti; Maria Villafae; Gonzalo Minue; Ana Campitelli; Marina Narbaitz; Leonardo Gilardi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the main clinical and histopathological features of 12 patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) diagnosed primarily from bone marrow (BM) involvement. Methods:We included 12 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with HL assisted in the F. J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital since January 2002 to December 2013. hTe diagnosis of HL with primary BM involvement in patients was conifrmed by clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical ifndings. Results:All patients presented“B”symptoms and pancytopenia. All of them had stage IV neoplasm disease because of BM inifltration. hTe median of CD4+T-cell counts was 114 cells/μL, and mixed cellularity (MC) was the most frequent histopathological subtype of 92%cases. Conclusion:When other causes are excluded, BM biopsy should be performed in AIDS patients with“B”symptoms and pancytopenia to evaluate BM inifltration by atypical lymphocytes.

  13. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  14. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniqu...

  15. Pigmented Bowen's disease of the penis and scrotum in a patient with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Raslan, Wasim; Dawamneh, M Fawaz

    2014-01-01

    Patients with HIV have higher risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the skin given the increased risk of HPV infection, which alters cell proliferation and apoptosis [1]. Pigmented Bowen’s disease is an uncommon form of squamous cell carcinoma in-situ characterized by pigmented lesions that can clinically mimic superficial spreading melanoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, melanocytic nevus, Bowenoid papulosis, and seborrheic keratosis

  16. Advanced diffusion imaging sequences could aid assessing patients with focal cortical dysplasia and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, G P; Micallef, C.; Symms, M.R.; Alexander, D. C.; Duncan, J.S.; Zhang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Malformations of cortical development (MCD), particularly focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are a common cause of refractory epilepsy but are often invisible on structural imaging. NODDI (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging) is an advanced diffusion imaging technique that provides additional information on tissue microstructure, including intracellular volume fraction (ICVF), a marker of neurite density. We applied this technique in 5 patients with suspected dysplasia to ...

  17. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) isolated from AIDS patients and the criteria required for its implication in disease Complexo Mycobacterium avium (MAC) isolado de pacientes com AIDS e os critérios exigidos para sua implicação em doença

    OpenAIRE

    David Jamil Hadad; Maria Cecília de Almeida Palhares; Anna Luiza Nunes Placco; Carmem Silvia Bruniera Domingues; Adauto Castelo Filho; Lucilaine Ferrazoli; Sueli Yoko Mizuka Ueki; Maria Alice da Silva Telles; Maria Conceição Martins; Moisés Palaci

    1995-01-01

    Before the AIDS pandemia, the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was responsible in most cases for the pneumopathies that attack patients with basic chronic pulmonary diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis36. In 1981, with the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), MAC started to represent one of the most frequent bacterial diseases among AIDS patients, with the disseminated form of the disease being the major clinical manifestation of the infection8. Between Janua...

  18. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  19. Tissue expression of TGF-β1 in uterine cervical samples from HIV/AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Thiago X; Pacheco, Juliana T; Xavier, Marilia B; Quaresma, Juarez A S

    2012-07-01

    Case-control study based on the immunohistochemistry for TGF-β1 evaluation of cervical samples obtained from two groups of women: CIN/HIV- and CIN/HIV+. Eleven women infected with HIV and with a histopathological diagnosis of CIN were included. The control group consisted of 12 patients with CIN. Cervical tissue samples obtained from all patients were submitted to histopathology and semiquantitative analysis of immunostaining for TGF-β1 protein. In addition, the peripheral CD4+ cell count and viral load were evaluated in HIV + patients. Tissue expression of the cytokine was higher in the CIN/HIV+ group compared to control (p = 0.0023). In addition, higher TGF-β1 expression was observed in higher grade cervical lesions in the two groups. There was a trend toward a direct correlation between peripheral CD4+ T cell count and tissue TGF-β1, and toward an inverse correlation between viral load and cytokine expression. Thus, TGF-β1 was more marked in situations in which cervical lesions are known to present a more aggressive behavior, suggesting that this cytokine is involved in the pathogenesis of tumor growth in these lesions. Tissue expression of TGF-β1 is increased in cervical samples from HIV-infected women with CIN. PMID:22542711

  20. EVALUATION OF AN APPLICATION FOR AID RAISING A DECISION MAKING CRITICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fontes de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate an application to support decision making in the process of mobilizing early critical patients. This is a cross-sectional survey type. Application development, followed by phases of software engineering: requirements analysis, design and specification, construction, internal testing, maintenance and external evaluation. The application was developed by MitApp tool, based on the criteria for termination of early mobilization of critically ill patients willing in the systematic review published in the Journal Cardio Pulmonary Physical Therapy in 2012. It was called "Mob Assessment. Early "and freely available on Google play (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=br.uesb.cpds.av. For the evaluation of the application, we used an online form, using the Likert scale, evaluating four areas: Interface, Usability, Practicality and Applicability. We invited the entire sample, the eighth, ninth and tenth semester Physical Therapy Course at the State University of Southwest Bahia - UESB. Fifty-eight academic delivered the completed form, of which 81% had mobile devices and 82% use apps in their clinical practice. Regarding the domains evaluated all obtained positive assessment with statistical significance: The interface got 93%, usability got 91.3%, 86.2% and 79.3% in practicality in applicability (p <0.001. The application proved practical, easy to understand and use, and can assist in supporting decision making to mobilize early critical patients.

  1. Clinical use of vaginal or rectally applied microbicides in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta SK

    2013-10-01

    effective against a broad spectrum of HIV strains, developing multipurpose technologies incorporating additional features of efficacy against other sexually transmitted infections, and contraception will help in moving the field of microbicide development forward.    Keywords: AIDS, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual transmission of HIV, vaginal/rectal gel

  2. A comparative study of erectile function and use of erectile aids in high-risk prostate cancer patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby-Deglum, Marie; Brennhovd, B.; Axcrona, K.; Fossa, S. D.; Dahl, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Hospital, Radiumhospitalet, between 2005 and 2010 was invited to complete a mailed questionnaire in 2011. The response rate was 79%, but only 609 patients did not have adjuvant treatment and reported on erection. The sample consisted of 29% high-risk, 40% intermediate-risk and 25% low-risk patients...... according to the preoperative D'Amico classification. Based on questionnaire data, two primary outcomes were defined: ability to have intercourse (sufficient erection), and use and effect of erectile aids. Results. Sufficient erection with or without erectile aids was reported by 19% of the high-, 30% of...... the intermediate- and 19% of the low-risk group (not significant). Erectile aids were used by 48% of the sample, of whom 18% of the high-, 21% of the intermediate- and 14% of the low-risk group reported sufficient erection (not significant). Papaverine injections were used by 21% and phosphodiesterase...

  3. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with HIV/AIDS by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies strongly indicate Dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. METHODS: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis associated with the causes of diarrhea in 82 HIV/ AIDS patients hospitalized at the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from September 2006 to November 2008. RESULTS: In total, 105 samples were collected from 82 patients. Unprotected sex was the most frequent cause of HIV infection (46.3%, followed by the use of injectable or non-injectable drugs (14.6%. Patients presented with viral loads of 49-750,000 copies/ mL (average: 73,849 ± 124,850 copies/mL and CD4 counts ranging of 2-1,306 cells/mm³ (average: 159 ± 250 cells/mm³. On an average, the odds of obtaining a positive result by using the other techniques (Hoffman, Pons and Janer or Lutz; Ritchie were 2.7 times higher than the chance of obtaining a positive result by using the simplified iron hematoxylin method. Significant differences were found between the methods (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: The other techniques can detect a significantly greater amount of parasites than the simplified iron hematoxylin method, especially with respect to Isospora belli, Cryptosporidium sp., Schistosoma mansoni, and Strongyloides stercoralis, which were not detected using hematoxylin. Endolimax nana and D. fragilis were detected more frequently on using hematoxylin, and the only parasite not found by the other methods was D. fragilis.

  4. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Dessie Referral Hospital, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanu Demeke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the HIV infection into a chronic manageably disease. Optimal adherence (≥ 95% has required to achieve treatment success; however, still non-adherence remains major problem among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. The aim of this study was to determine adherences rate and evaluate factors affecting adherence among patients on ART in Dessie Referral Hospital (DRH. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A total of 130 people living with HIV/AIDS on ART were included. All patients who came to the hospital during study period were considered based on convenient sampling technique. Chi-Square test is used to examine the association of adherence with associated factors. Both data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results: Of 130 respondents, 58(44.6% were males and 72(55.4% were females and 107 (82.3% had 100% adherences, 10(7.7% had 95 -100% and the rest, 13(10% had <95% adherences with overall adherence rate of 90% for last month prior to the study period. The main reasons for non-adherence were 12(37.5% forgetfulness, 7(21.8% being away from home and 4 (12.5% being extremely ill. Use of other medications in addition to antiretroviral drugs (p=0.01, treatment fit into daily routines (p=0.01, family disclosure (p=0.01, active substance use (p=0.04 and living condition (p=0.00 were significantly associated with adherence to ART. Conclusion: The self reported adherence rate to ART (90% was found to be relatively higher which needs inclusion of other methods to ensure consistency of this value. Forgetfulness, being away from home and being extremely ill were the foremost reasons for non-adherence. The patients should be encouraged to maintain this high level of adherence.

  5. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A BRAZILIAN AIDS PATIENT WITH PROTRACTED DIARRHEA CAUSED BY Enterocytozoon bieneusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia BRASIL

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidian parasite that causes gastrointestinal infection in persons with AIDS. Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as important opportunistic pathogens all over the world but in Brazil only few cases have been reported due either to the non awareness of the clinical presentation of the disease or to difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis. We report a 3-year follow-up of a Brazilian HIV-positive patient in whom microsporidial spores were detected in stools and were identified as E. bieneusi using electron microscopy and PCR. The patient presented with chronic diarrhea, CD4 T-lymphocytes count below 100/mm3 and microsporidial spores were consistently detected in stools. Albendazole was given to the patient in several occasions with transient relief of the diarrhea, which reappeared as soon as the drug was discontinued. Nevertheless, a diarrhea-free period with weight gain up to 18 Kg occurred when a combination of nucleoside and protease inhibitors was initiated as part of the antiviral treatment.Enterocytozoon bieneusi é o mais comum microsporídio agente de infecções gastrointestinais que ocorre predominantemente em pessoas com AIDS. Em todo o mundo os microsporídios são reconhecidos como importantes patógenos oportunistas, entretanto poucos casos já foram diagnosticados no Brasil, provavelmente devido ao pouco conhecimento do quadro clínico que os agentes produzem ou a dificuldades no diagnóstico laboratorial. No presente trabalho relatamos o caso de um paciente brasileiro HIV-positivo acompanhado durante 3 anos, em que foram detectados esporos de microsporídios nas fezes, identificados como Enterocytozoon bieneusi por microscopia eletrônica e PCR. O paciente apresentava diarréia crônica, contagem de linfócitos CD4 abaixo de 100/mm3 e fez uso de albendazol em diferentes ocasiões com melhora transitória da diarréia, que reaparecia logo que a droga era suspensa

  6. [Poor quality of sleep associated with low adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peruvian patients with HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Velásquez, Jorge Renzo; Díaz-Llanes, Bruno Eduardo; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Huamaní, Charles; Hernández, Adrián V; Arévalo-Abanto, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between poor quality of sleep and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 389 Peruvian patients with HIV/AIDS. Poor quality of sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and adherence with the CEAT-VIH (Peruvian adaptation). A Poisson generalized linear model with robust standard errors was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95%CI. A crude model showed that mild, moderate, and severe poor quality of sleep were associated with inadequate treatment adherence. In the adjusted model for variables associated in the bivariate analysis or variables theoretically associated with adherence, only moderate/severe poor quality of sleep remained associated (PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.17-1.54; and PR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.16-1.57, respectively). The study concluded that moderate/severe poor quality of sleep was independently associated with adherence to HAART. Assessing quality of sleep may be helpful in the comprehensive evaluation of HIV patients. PMID:26083174

  7. The Chest Pain Choice trial: a pilot randomized trial of a decision aid for patients with chest pain in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branda Megan E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chest pain is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department (ED. Despite the frequency with which clinicians evaluate patients with chest pain, accurately determining the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS and sharing risk information with patients is challenging. The aims of this study are (1 to develop a decision aid (CHEST PAIN CHOICE that communicates the short-term risk of ACS and (2 to evaluate the impact of the decision aid on patient participation in decision-making and resource use. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a parallel, 2-arm randomized trial to compare an intervention group receiving CHEST PAIN CHOICE to a control group receiving usual ED care. Adults presenting to the Saint Mary's Hospital ED in Rochester, MN USA with a primary complaint of chest pain who are being considered for admission for prolonged ED observation in a specialized unit and urgent cardiac stress testing will be eligible for enrollment. We will measure the effect of CHEST PAIN CHOICE on six outcomes: (1 patient knowledge regarding their short-term risk for ACS and the risks of radiation exposure; (2 quality of the decision making process; (3 patient and clinician acceptability and satisfaction with the decision aid; (4 the proportion of patients who decided to undergo observation unit admission and urgent cardiac stress testing; (5 economic costs and healthcare utilization; and (6 the rate of delayed or missed ACS. To capture these outcomes, we will administer patient and clinician surveys after each visit, obtain video recordings of the clinical encounters, and conduct 30-day phone follow-up. Discussion This pilot randomized trial will develop and evaluate a decision aid for use in ED chest pain patients at low risk for ACS and provide a preliminary estimate of its effect on patient participation in decision-making and resource use. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01077037

  8. Lung fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exhibit genome-wide differences in DNA methylation compared to fibroblasts from nonfibrotic lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Huang

    Full Text Available Excessive fibroproliferation is a central hallmark of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, a chronic, progressive disorder that results in impaired gas exchange and respiratory failure. Fibroblasts are the key effector cells in IPF, and aberrant expression of multiple genes contributes to their excessive fibroproliferative phenotype. DNA methylation changes are critical to the development of many diseases, but the DNA methylome of IPF fibroblasts has never been characterized. Here, we utilized the HumanMethylation 27 array, which assays the DNA methylation level of 27,568 CpG sites across the genome, to compare the DNA methylation patterns of IPF fibroblasts (n = 6 with those of nonfibrotic patient controls (n = 3 and commercially available normal lung fibroblast cell lines (n = 3. We found that multiple CpG sites across the genome are differentially methylated (as defined by P value less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 2 in IPF fibroblasts compared to fibroblasts from nonfibrotic controls. These methylation differences occurred both in genes recognized to be important in fibroproliferation and extracellular matrix generation, as well as in genes not previously recognized to participate in those processes (including organ morphogenesis and potassium ion channels. We used bisulfite sequencing to independently verify DNA methylation differences in 3 genes (CDKN2B, CARD10, and MGMT; these methylation changes corresponded with differences in gene expression at the mRNA and protein level. These differences in DNA methylation were stable throughout multiple cell passages. DNA methylation differences may thus help to explain a proportion of the differences in gene expression previously observed in studies of IPF fibroblasts. Moreover, significant variability in DNA methylation was observed among individual IPF cell lines, suggesting that differences in DNA methylation may contribute to fibroblast heterogeneity among patients with IPF

  9. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  10. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  11. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, S; Stenderup, J; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    From July 1, 1989 to September 5, 1990, 530 serum specimens and 50 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 334 HIV-1 infected patients, most of whom had AIDS or ARC, were analysed in a cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination assay, and all were negative. Three cases of meningitis due to...

  12. Chest radiographs assist in judging prognosis of patients with severe pulmonary complications of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of 17 patients, who required assisted ventilation in the intensive care unit for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with probable respiratory distress syndrome, were studied retrospectively. Five of the six survivors manifested central lucencies forming rosettes typical of alveolar air filling, usually with central air bronchograms of normal caliber. Nine of the 11 fatalities lacked these features and instead had abnormal peripheral lucencies suggesting interstitial air. This was confirmed in seven autopsies that all revealed marked distortion of pulmonary architecture similar to that seen in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Thus, aeration typical of normal alveoli and airways suggests an increased likelihood of survival and response to respiratory therapy, while peripheral aeration suggesting interstitial air or BPD is prognostically ominous

  13. The end of life decisions -- should physicians aid their patients in dying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B R

    2004-06-01

    Decisions pertaining to end of life whether legalized or otherwise, are made in many parts of the world but not reported on account of legal implications. The highly charged debate over voluntary euthanasia and physician assisted suicide was brought into the public arena again when two British doctors confessed to giving lethal doses of drugs to hasten the death of terminally ill patients. Lack of awareness regarding the distinction between different procedures on account of legal status granted to them in some countries is the other area of concern. Some equate withdrawal of life support measures to physician assisted suicide whereas physician assisted suicide is often misinterpreted as euthanasia. Debate among the medical practitioners, law makers and the public taking into consideration the cultural, social and religious ethos will lead to increased awareness, more safeguards and improvement of medical decisions concerning the end of life. International Human Rights Law can provide a consensual basis for such a debate on euthanasia. PMID:15260998

  14. Application of neural networks to the follow-up of AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, M; Ruggiero, C; Maillard, M; Lillo, F B; Varnier, O E

    1997-01-01

    The present work aims to obtain groups of patients with similar profiles of p24 antigen concentration and of CD4+ cell counts. These two markers were chosen because their evaluation represents a significant step in the clinical follow up of HIV-1 infected subjects. The classifications were obtained by a Kohonen neural net trained in three ways: with p24 antigen profiles only, with CD4+ cell count profiles only and with both sets of profiles. The results show that the clustering fashion of the two parameters closely resembles the clustering fashion of CD4+ only rather than the one of p24Ag, both with reference to cluster formation and with reference to distance among clusters. PMID:10179579

  15. A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric protozoa and sporozoa have emerged as important opportunistic parasites and can cause fatal infections in AIDS patients. The line of treatment being different for them necessitates an accurate and prompt identification of these to avoid empirical treatment. In this study which is the first of its kind from India we did a comprehensive evaluation of different techniques, comparing them on the basis of the attributes like yield, cost, time taken, expertise and infrastructure. For the first time combination of Calcoflour White and DAPI, a nuclear stain, were used to identify Microsporidia spp. Thus, a diagnostic protocol was devised for rapid, sensitive and cost effective identification of the opportunistic enteric protozoa. Results The organisms isolated from the stool samples of the cases (450 HIV patients were predominantly Cryptosporidium spp., Microsporidia spp. and Cyclospora spp. Interestingly, the control group (200 relatives of the patients who were HIV negative showed a high incidence (21% of Cryptosporidium spp. We found a significant increase in the sensitivity of microscopy in detecting Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora spp. after formol ether concentration. Kinyoun's staining was better compared to Modified safranin staining for Cryptosporidium spp. identification. Although ELISA had a sensitivity of 93.25% and specificity of 97% for Cryptosporidium spp. detection, we ranked Kinyoun's staining better than ELISA because it is not affordable to most of our patients. For detecting Cyclospora cayetanensis, autoflourescence was the easiest and most cost effective method followed by Safranin technique. Combination of Calcoflour White stain and DAPI gave good results for the identification of Microsporidia spp. We assessed the above techniques and graded the attributes in the following descending order: cost effectiveness, sensitivity, ease of use and interpretation, time taken for the procedure and batch

  16. Computer-aided detection system performance on current and previous digital mammograms in patients with contralateral metachronous breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The computer-aided detection (CAD) system is widely used for screening mammography. The performance of the CAD system for contralateral breast cancer has not been reported for women with a history of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the performance of a CAD system on current and previous mammograms in patients with contralateral metachronous breast cancer. Material and Methods: During a 3-year period, 4945 postoperative patients had follow-up examinations, from whom we selected 55 women with contralateral breast cancers. Among them, 38 had visible malignant signs on the current mammograms. We analyzed the sensitivity and false-positive marks of the system on the current and previous mammograms according to lesion type and breast density. Results: The total visible lesion components on the current mammograms included 27 masses and 14 calcifications in 38 patients. The case-based sensitivity for all lesion types was 63.2% (24/38) with false-positive marks of 0.71 per patient. The lesion-based sensitivity for masses and calcifications was 59.3% (16/27) and 71.4% (10/14), respectively. The lesion-based sensitivity for masses in fatty and dense breasts was 68.8% (11/16) and 45.5% (5/11), respectively. The lesion-based sensitivity for calcifications in fatty and dense breasts was 100.0% (3/3) and 63.6% (7/11), respectively. The total visible lesion components on the previous mammograms included 13 masses and three calcifications in 16 patients, and the sensitivity for all lesion types was 31.3% (5/16) with false-positive marks of 0.81 per patient. On these mammograms, the sensitivity for masses and calcifications was 30.8% (4/13) and 33.3% (1/3), respectively. The sensitivity in fatty and dense breasts was 28.6% (2/7) and 33.3% (3/9), respectively. Conclusion: In the women with a history of breast cancer, the sensitivity of the CAD system in visible contralateral breast cancer was lower than in most previous reports using the same CAD

  17. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  18. Computer-Aided Evaluation of Breast MRI for the Residual Tumor Extent and Response Monitoring in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lyou, Chae Yeon; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Jang, Mijung; Park, Jeong-Seon; Baek, Seung Yon; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of a computer-aided evaluation program (CAE) of breast MRI for the assessment of residual tumor extent and response monitoring in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods Fifty-seven patients with breast cancers who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after chemotherapy were included as part of this study. For the assessment of residual tumor extent after compl...

  19. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Intravenous Ganciclovir Versus Oral Ganciclovir in the Maintenance Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Patients with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Rachlis; Fiona Smaill; Valery Walker; Lorraine Hotchkies; Amy Jones

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a new product, oral ganciclovir, in comparison to a current therapy, intravenous (IV) ganciclovir, in the maintenance treatment of newly diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. Design: This was a retrospective economic study of a prospective non-blinded randomised clinical trial. The model included IV ganciclovir induction, IV or oral ganciclovir maintenance and IV ganciclovir reinduction for patients whose CMV retiniti...

  20. A clinical comparative study of polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia in non-AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Xiang-dong; WANG Guang-fa; SU Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneurnocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common and fatal infections in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients,which is difficult to diagnose by traditional morphologic methods.This study evaluated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of Pneumocystis jirovecii mitochondrial large subunits ribosomal RNA in sputum and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosing PCP.Methods Sputum and BALF specimens from two groups were collected:one group (PCP group) included 20 patients definitely diagnosed of PCP by Gomori methenamine silver (GMS) stains of BALF;the other group (non-PCP group) included 40 patients.Each specimen was examined by GMS stains and PCR assays.Results GMS stains of BALF in PCP group were 100% positive (20/20),GMS stains of sputum in PCP group were 35% positive (7/20);GMS stains of BALF in non-PCP group were 100% negative (40/40),GMS stains of sputum in non-PCP group were 100% negative (40/40).PCR assays of BALF in PCP group were 100% positive (20/20),PCR assays of sputum in PCP group were 100% positive (20/20);PCR assays of BALF in non-PCP group were 100% negative (40/40),PCR assays of sputum in non-PCP group were 100% negative (40/40).Sensitivity and specificity of PCR assays of sputum and BALF were both 100%;positive and negative predictive values were also both 100%.Conclusion The diagnostic value of PCR assays of Pneumocystisjirovecii mitochondrial large subunits ribosomal RNA on sputum and BALF for pneumocystis pneumonia are both high and equivalent.

  1. Efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Góngora Rubio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulae have been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB, but their high costs preclude widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion, i.e. Intralipid (AmB-IL, in 37 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM. We retrospectively reviewed data collected in a non-comparative open study between January 1999 and December 2001. The therapeutic cure was defined as complete resolution or improvement of the clinical symptoms or complete absence or improvement of the mycological alterations of the CSF. The outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, induction phase (IP, and at the end of treatment or consolidation phase (CP with the last available CSF. Prior to the diagnosis of CM, 72% of patients had had one or more OI and 67.57% had a concomitant OI. The median CD4-cell count was 32 cells/mm³, the median leukocyte count in the CSF was 29 cells/mm³ and the median cumulative dose of AmB-IL was 1,200 mg (300-2,500. The therapeutic cure was 57.14% in the IP and 64.86% in the CP. During IP, 9 patients died (24.32% and 4 (10.81% during the CP (p=0.2. Thus, the overall mortality rate was 35.14%. AmB-IL, an inexpensive preparation, might be an alternative to conventional AmB. Some questions remain such as its compatibility, stability and level of toxicity. The benefit is especially important in developing countries, where no drugs other than AmB are available to treat systemic fungal infections.

  2. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  3. Effects of exposure to factor concentrates containing donations from identified AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors recipients of eight lots of factors VII and IX voluntarily withdrawn from distribution because one donor was known to have subsequently developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a nonexposed cohort matched by age, sex, and factor use. The factor VIII recipient cohorts did not differ in prevalence of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), T-cell subset numbers, T-helper to T-suppressor ratios, or immunogloubulin levels. Exposed individuals had higher levels of immune complexes by C1q binding and staphylococcal binding assays and lower responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. However, only the staphylococcal binding assay values were outside the normal range for our laboratory. Factor IX recipient cohorts did not differ in HIV antibody prevalence or any immune tests. Although exposed and nonexposed individuals did not differ from each other in a clinically meaningful fashion at initial testing, both the exposed and nonexposed cohorts had high rats of HIV seroprevalence. Market withdrawals were clearly insufficient means of limiting the spread of HIV in hemophilic patients; however, the currently available methods of donor screening and viral inactivation of blood products will prevent continued exposed within this population

  4. Late onset of cryptococcal cervical lymphadenitis following immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathi, Meenakshi; Yoganathan, Kathir

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed HIV positive with disseminated cryptococcal infection in May 2006. Her initial CD4 was 7 cells/µL and she had a right supraclavicular nodal mass, which was biopsied and shown to be consistent with cryptococcal lymphadenitis. She was treated for disseminated cryptococcal infection and was started on antiretroviral medications subsequently. Two years later, she developed a left supraclavicular mass. Her CD4 count was 320 cells/µL and HIV RNA level was undetectable. Investigations and biopsy results were consistent with a late presentation of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). She was treated with oral corticosteroids and her symptoms resolved completely. IRIS is a recognised complication of HIV treatment and occurs in a significant percentage of patients within the first 3 months of starting antiretroviral therapy. This case report illustrates the importance of recognising late presentations of IRIS. It is vital to differentiate true cryptococcal lymphadenitis from IRIS-induced cryptococcal lymphadenitis. PMID:25564633

  5. Brain NMR: Predictors of the AIDS developing. Preliminary report in 15 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to determine factors of predictive value in HIV (human immuno-deficiency virus) sero-positive patients, particular attention was payed to symptoms indicating early involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). A cohort of healthy carriers was thus constituted. Follow-up will be carried out every six month including clinical, biological as well as CNS imaging by NMR. Among the first 15 of them, abnormalities could be observed in 4 individuals. Lesions constituted in modules of high signal in T2 which were localized either in the withe matter or thalamic nuclei. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. Such lesions appeared similar to the localizations observed in multiple sclerosis or to the scars of limited vascular accidents. The nature of these lesions is not clear. They certainly indicate early involvement of CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent sequellae of this primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy

  6. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C); Sindrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por virus C e SIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Angelica; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia; Barreto, Sergio Saldanha Menna; Knorst, Marli Maria [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Interna

    2001-02-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxaemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnoea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome. (author)

  7. Methods to model and predict the ViewRay treatment deliveries to aid patient scheduling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan

    2016-01-01

    A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of

  8. “I Wish I Had AIDS”: A qualitative study on access to health care services for HIV/AIDS and diabetic patients in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Men

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Financially stricken Cambodian patients with diabetes and HIV/AIDS typically encounter multiple, serious barriers to effective care. This process may extend over many years and involve numerous rounds of diagnosis and treatment as the disease progresses from initial symptoms to longer term complications. Living with both the impact of the disease and this ongoing struggle for care can severely disrupt the everyday life of both sufferers and their families. Our retrospective study adopted qualitative research methods to collect data from HIV/AIDS and diabetic patients enrolled and not enrolled in treatment programs at varying institutions in urban and rural settings. Using purposive sampling techniques, a total of 25 HIV/AIDS and 45 diabetic patients were recruited. Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were used to collect information on patient experiences of different phases in the on-going process of seeking care and treatment. The findings indicate that both HIV/AIDS and diabetic patients encounter multiple supply- and demand-side barriers to care at different stages of their illness. More strikingly, our research findings suggest that supply-side barriers, for example rationing systems or targeting strategies that limit access to free treatment or social assistance, are substantially higher for diabetic patients. This perceived inequity had a profound impact on diabetic patients to the extent that some “wished they had HIV/AIDS”. These findings suggest that there is an urgent need to widen the focus of health care to address the substantial and increasing burden of disease resulting from diabetes and other serious chronic disorders in Cambodia and many other low/middle income countries. 

  9. Correlation between Total Lymphocyte Count, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and CD4 Count in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi S.M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte CD4+count, a standard laboratory test for staging of HIV infection, is expensive and unavailable in resource-restricted countries. Total lymphocyte count (TLC and hemoglobin (Hb are recommended as simple & inexpensive surrogates. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation, sensitivity and predictive power of these parameters as substitutes for CD4 count. One hundred HIV patients enrolled in this analytic descriptive study in Ahvaz, a city in the South of Iran, from 2005 to 2006. They were tested for CD4 count, TLC, Hb, and hematocrit (Hct. The cutoffs were determined as: 200 cells/µL, 1200 cells/µL, 12 g/dl and 30%, respectively. We used Sys Max SE 9500 for CBC and Flow cytometry for CD4 count. The correlation coefficient established correlation between values. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated. 2 females (%2 and 98 males (%98 of the mean age of 32±5 years were studied. 87 cases (%87 were IV drug users, the majority having a history of imprisonment. The mean CD4 count, TLC, Hb and Hct were 279±225, 2102±1250, 10.7±2.4 and 30.4±9.0, respectively. A strong correlation was observed between CD4 count and TLC (R = 0.645, P = 0.001, but no correlation was seen between CD4 count and Hb or Hct (R= 0.451, P=0.056 and R= 0.375, P=0.816 respectively. This study shows that TLC is a suitable surrogate marker for CD4 count. Hb and Hct are of limited value in predicting CD4 counts and should not be substituted for CD4counts.

  10. Diagnosis on Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's exhibition industry, often renowned as the locomotive of the tertiary industry, has developed rapidly in recent years and has become the sunrise industry and gets much concern. However, in exhibition industry circles in China, there is a saying being passed around "rushed exhibitions with bad service, property rights protection is badly needed; a low threshold with high demand, and 5 out of 10 exhibitions are disorganized." This jingle reflects many problems that currently exist in the exhibition industry in China.

  11. HIV infection of choroid plexus in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the choroid plexus may be a reservoir of productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, C K; Chen, H; Mastri, A R; Torres-Munoz, J; Roberts, B; Wood, C

    1999-12-01

    The choroid plexus (CPx) may be an important site of viral dissemination since monocytes and dendritic cells in its stroma are infected with HIV in AIDS patients and since the ratio of CPx to brain infection is more than 2 : 1. In order to see if CPx infection also develops in asymptomatic (ASY) HIV-infected patients, we examined archival formalin-fixed brain and CPx from 14 AIDS and seven ASY cases, using routine histology, immunohistochemistry for HIV gp41, and DNA extraction and gene amplification for HIV DNA. Eight of 14 AIDS (57%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx and four (29%) had HIV encephalitis. Two of seven ASY cases (29%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx but none had HIV encephalitis. Extracted DNA from brain, CPx and systemic organs of five ASY cases was amplified by nested PCR with or without Southern blotting for HIV env gene. It was positive in systemic organs in five cases; in CPx in four cases; and in brain in one case. This study shows that the CPx is a site of HIV infection in ASY patients and that the frequency of CPx infection is higher than seen in brain in both AIDS and ASY cases. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the CPx may be a site for hematogeneous spread and a reservoir for HIV infection during the period of clinical latency. PMID:10602407

  12. Tratamiento antirretroviral en pacientes con sida y micobacteriosis Anti-retroviral treatment in patients with AIDS and mycobacterial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Corti

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis y otras micobacteriosis constituyen asociaciones o coinfecciones frecuentes en pacientes con sida y se asocian con una elevada mortalidad. En esta revisión se actualizan los tratamientos de las principales enfermedades micobacterianas asociadas al sida (tuberculosis y micobacteriosis por Mycobacterium avium, con especial énfasis en las interacciones farmacológicas entre antimicobacterianos, principalmente rifampicina y claritromicina, y fármacos antirretrovirales. Se analizan los esquemas de tratamiento, su duración, la quimioprofilaxis primaria y secundaria y el momento óptimo de iniciación del tratamiento antirretroviral. Finalmente se describe el síndrome inflamatorio de reconstitución inmune y su tratamiento.Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are frequent coinfections in AIDS patients with an increased related mortality. In this review we have updated the treatment of the main mycobacterial diseases (tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium disease, under the scope of pharmacological interactions between antimycobacterial drugs, specially rifampicin and clarithromycin, and anti-retroviral drugs. Antimycobacterial treatment schemes, their duration, primary and secondary chemoprophylaxis and the optimal time to start the anti-retroviral therapy are analized. Finally, the immnune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and its treatment are discussed.

  13. In vitro susceptibility characteristics of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties from AIDS patients in Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orionalda de FL Fernandes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from AIDS from Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil, were characterized according to varieties, serotypes and tested for antifungal susceptibility. To differentiate the two varieties was used L-canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium and to separate the serotypes was used slide agglutination test with Crypto Check Iatron. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards macrodilution method. Our results identified 56 isolates as C. neoformans var. neoformans serotype A and 4 isolates as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype B. MIC values for C. neoformans var. gattii were higher than C. neoformans var. neoformans. We verified that none isolate was resistant to itraconazole and to amphotericin B, but one C. neoformans var. neoformans and three C. neoformans var. gattii isolates were resistant to fluconazole. The presence of C. neoformans var. gattii fluconazole resistant indicates the importance of determining not only the variety of C. neoformans infecting the patients but also measuring the MIC of the isolate in order to properly orient treatment.

  14. Evaluation of cotrimoxazole use as a preventive therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar University Referral Hospital, northwestern Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebresillassie BM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie,1 Minaleshewa Biruk Gebeyehum,1 Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,3 Yokabd Dechassa Tadesse2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH, northwestern Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015. Medical records of 264 patients were selected by using systematic random sampling technique from the sampling frame list of all patients’ medical records. Data were collected from patients’ medical records using the structured checklist and evaluated against World Health Organization (WHO guidelines on the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences Version 20. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables.Results: Approximately 95 (36.0% patients were at WHO clinical stage III at the start of CPT. The use of CPT was consistent with the guidelines in the rationale for indication 200 (75.75% and dose 263 (99.62%, despite the presence of contraindications in 24 (9.90% patients. The occurrence of cotrimoxazole-associated side effects was higher in the

  15. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutthiprapaporn, Pipop; Kongsomboon, Supaporn; Limmonthol, Saowaluck; Pisek, Poonsak; Keinprasit, Chutimaporn [Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand); Tanimoto, Keiji; Nakamoto, Takashi [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27{+-}103.72/117.73{+-}92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29{+-}86.70/388.31{+-}109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98{+-}98.11/366.71{+-}154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57{+-}98.12/383.47{+-}135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02{+-}116.07/384.16{+-}146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  16. Evaluation of alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients using a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the trabecular bone changes after alveolar bone grafting in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The occlusal radiographs taken from 50 UCLP patients were surveyed retrospectively. The images were categorized as: 50 images in group 0 (before bone grafting), 33 images in group 1 (one month after bone grafting), 24 images in group 2 (2-4 months after bone grafting), 15 images in group 3 (5-7 months after bone grafting), and 21 images in group 4 (8 or more months after bone grafting). Each image was grouped as either 'non-cleft side' or 'cleft side'. The CAD system was used five times for each side to calculate the pixel area based on the mathematical morphology. Significant differences were found using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test or paired samples t test. The pixel area showed a significant difference between the 'non-cleft side' and 'cleft side' in group 0 (404.27±103.72/117.73±92.25; p=0.00), group 1 (434.29±86.70/388.31±109.51; p=0.01), and group 4 (430.98±98.11/366.71±154.59; p=0.02). No significant differences were found in group 2 (423.57±98.12/383.47±135.88; p=0.06) or group 3 (433.02±116.07/384.16±146.55; p=0.19). Based on the design of this study, alveolar bone grafting was similar to normal bone within 2-7 months postoperatively.

  17. [The liver and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, S; Sanchís, M J; Palacios, A; Anguiz, A; Colomina, J

    1992-02-01

    Hepatic disorders in AIDS are very common, although the injuries observed are usually non-specific. This is the reason why the real usefulness of hepatic biopsy in this patients is being currently discussed. In this work, such aspect and the hepatic injuries observed in patients with AIDS are discussed. Current indications for hepatic biopsy are summarized, as well as its later manipulation in order to obtain maximum profitability of it. PMID:1576316

  18. Endobronchial leiomyoma: an unusual non-defining neoplasm in a patient with AIDS Leiomioma endobronquial: rara neoplasia não definida em paciente com AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Metta; Marcelo Corti; Liliana Redini; Roberto Dure; Ana M. Campitelli; Marina Narbaitz

    2009-01-01

    Smooth muscle neoplasms are more frequent in human immunodeficiency infected children than in HIV seropositive adults. Endobronchial leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor in HIV infected adult patients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Here we describe an adult patient with HIV infection with atelectasis of the left upper pulmonary lobe as the first clinical expression of an intrabronchial leiomyoma. In this case, we can not show the association wit...

  19. Multifactorial approach and superior treatment efficacy in renal patients with the aid of nurse practitioners. Design of The MASTERPLAN Study [ISRCTN73187232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vervoort Gerald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at a greatly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Recently developed guidelines address multiple risk factors and life-style interventions. However, in current practice few patients reach their targets. A multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse practitioners was effective in achieving treatment goals and reducing vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus and in patients with heart failure. We propose that this also holds for the CKD population. Design MASTERPLAN is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate whether a multifactorial approach with the aid of nurse-practicioners reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Approximately 800 patients with a creatinine clearance (estimated by Cockcroft-Gault between 20 to 70 ml/min, will be included. To all patients the same set of guidelines will be applied and specific cardioprotective medication will be prescribed. In the intervention group the nurse practitioner will provide lifestyle advice and actively address treatment goals. Follow-up will be five years. Primary endpoint is the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. Secondary endpoints are cardiovascular morbidity, overall mortality, decline of renal function, change in markers of vascular damage and change in quality of life. Enrollment has started in April 2004 and the study is on track with 700 patients included on October 15th, 2005. This article describes the design of the MASTERPLAN study.

  20. Imaging of brain tumors in AIDS patients by means of dual-isotope thallium-201 and technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to evaluate the use of dual-isotope thallium-201 (Tl) and technetium-99m sestamibi (sestamibi) simultaneous acquisition in brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) for the differentiation between brain lymphoma and benign central nervous system (CNS) lesions in AIDS patients. Thirty-six consecutive patients with enhancing mass lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were included in the study. SPET of the brain was performed to obtain simultaneous Tl and sestamibi images. Regions-of-interest were drawn around the lesion and on the contralateral side to calculate uptake ratios. The final diagnosis was reached by pathologic findings in 17 patients and clinical and/or MR follow-up in 19 patients. Of the 36 patients, 11 had brain lymphoma, 1 glioblastoma multiforme, 15 toxoplasmosis and 9 other benign CNS lesions. Correlation between SPET and the final diagnosis revealed in 10 true-positive, 23 true-negative, 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative studies. All patients with toxoplasmosis had negative scans. A patient with a purulent infection had positive scans. Tl and sestamibi scans were concordant in every lesion. The same lesions that took up Tl were also visualized with sestamibi. However, sestamibi scans showed higher lesion-to-normal tissue uptake ratios (3.7±1.8) compared with those of Tl (2.3±0.8, P<0.002). Simultaneous acquisition of Tl and sestamibi can help differentiate CNS lymphoma from benign brain lesions in AIDS patients. (orig.)

  1. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of the...... main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  2. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir in the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinapori, Roberta; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The fixed-dose combination (FDC) elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/c/FTC/TDF) is a once-daily, single-tablet regimen containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and a pharmacoenhancer (cobicistat) associated with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It is approved as the preferred regimen and as the first-line combined antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve patients with HIV infection. Two large trials, 102-Study and 103-Study, demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF was not inferior to efavirenz/FTC/TDF and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir in association with FTC/TDF, in terms of virological suppression and immunological reconstitution through week 144. Also, simplification arms containing EVG/c/FTC/TDF reached noninferiority in comparison with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or a protease inhibitor, or a raltegravir-based regimen. Furthermore, EVG/c/FTC/TDF exhibited an excellent tolerability profile, with a safer lipid profile, and despite the indication of its use in subjects with an estimated creatinine clearance >70 mL/min, recent data demonstrated that EVG/c/FTC/TDF determined a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but not a reduction of actual GFR. Moreover, in a cohort of naïve patients with pretreatment mild-to-moderate renal impairment, GFR decrease was noted as early at week 2, after which it generally stabilized and was nonprogressive through week 48. The FDC's efficacy and good tolerability enable EVG/c/FTC/TDF to meet the patients' needs, improving adherence and quality of life, which are among the most important factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy of an antiretroviral regimen. This paper describes the evidence making EVG/c/FTC/TDF a new therapeutic opportunity for different HIV-infected patients. PMID:26345643

  3. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  4. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  5. Detection of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者精子中病毒核酸的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 李练兵; 侯志伟; 谢庆东; 康祥锦; 黄天华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence of HIV - 1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients.Methods Spermatozoon samples of 33 HIV/AIDS patients were prepared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) ,in which biotinylated HIV gag and HIV pol were used as probes, was performed to detect HIV nucleic acid in spermatozoa. Results HIV nucleic acid was detected in spermatozoa of 9 patients( 27. 3% ). Conclusion These results further confirm the presence of HIV nucleic acid in sperm of HIV/AIDS patients and indicates that FISH is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the nucleic acid in sperm.%目的 检测HIV/AIDS患者精子中HIV核酸.方法 制备33例HIV/AIDS患者精子样本,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH),以生物素标记的HIV gag及 HIV pol作为双探针对这些患者精子进行HIV核酸检测.结果 在9例(27.3%)患者中检测到阳性荧光信号.结论 HIV/AIDS患者精子存有HIV核酸;FISH是一种检测HIV/AIDS患者精子病毒核酸灵敏而可靠的方法.

  6. Lifetime Suicide Attempt History, Quality of Life, and Objective Functioning among HIV/AIDS Patients with Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kimberly N.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in 170 HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and the impact of suicide attempt history on subjective indices of quality of life and objective indices of cognitive and physical functioning. Compared to their counterparts without a history of a suicide attempt, patients with a history of a suicide attempt (n = 60, 35.3%) had significantly poorer emotional and cognitive quality of life scores (ps quality of life scores. Lifetime suicide attempt status was unrelated to objective indices of cognitive functioning, but there was a non-significant trend (p = .07) toward lower viral loads in those with a lifetime suicide attempt relative to those without. The findings indicate that suicide attempt histories are prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and relate to poorer perceived emotional and cognitive quality of life, but not objective functioning. HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders should be screened for lifetime histories of suicide attempts and offered assistance to improve perceived emotional and cognitive functioning. PMID:25953963

  7. Cytomegalovirus viral load kinetics in patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to a medical intensive care unit: a case for pre-emptive therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simnikiwe H Mayaphi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is associated with severe diseases in immunosuppressed patients; however, there is a lack of data for pre-emptive therapy in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study, which enrolled patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (CD41,000 copies/ml at baseline testing had significantly higher mortality compared to those who had 5,100 copies/ml and did not receive ganciclovir had 100% mortality compared to 58% mortality in those who received ganciclovir at VLs of >5,100 copies/ml, 50% mortality in those who were not treated and had low VLs of <5,100 copies/ml, and 44% mortality in those who had ganciclovir treatment at VLs of <5,100 copies/ml (p = 0.084, 0.046, 0.037, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed a significantly increased mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS who had high CMV VLs, and suggests that a threshold value of 1,000 copies/ml may be appropriate for pre-emptive treatment in this group.

  8. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR Program in Iranian HIV/AIDS Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychological or behavioral interventions that attenuate the effects of stress may be useful in promoting immunocompetence and delaying HIV disease progression and CD4 count level. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR is a behavioral intervention that has as its foundation the practice of insight-oriented (or mindfulness meditation. In this study, we examined the effects of MBSR upon psychological, physical status and CD4 count of HIV/AIDS infected patients registered at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Using a pilot study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a psychological intervention (8-week that was based on training in mindfulness at the Positive Club of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2007. Eight 2-hour sessions weekly and a day-long retreat were planned for a group of 10 participants with HIV. We investigated the long-term effects of this approach on psychological and physical status of patients by SCL-90-R and MSCL questionnaires and CD4 count after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12-month follow-ups. We studied six HIV positive patients. The mean age was 35 ±7.7 yrs. There was no significant difference in MSCL scores after MBSR and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months compared to those before MBSR (P>0.05. There was a significant difference in SCL-90-R score after MBSR compared with before (P=0.05. Nevertheless, in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months no significant differences were seen in SCL-90-R scores relative to those before MBSR (P>0.05. The means of CD4 count, before and after MBSR, and in 3, 6, 9 and 12 months were 549± 173.6, 640.2±189.4, 655.3±183.4, 638±167.4, 619.3±163.2, and 595.2±165.6, respectively. There was a significant difference in CD4 counts in comparison with those before MBSR (P<0.05. In our study, MBSR had positive effects on psychological status and CD4 count. However, more studies with large sample size are necessary.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  10. AIDS: Dynamics and Rehabilitation Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Henry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) confronts the rehabilitation professional with a number of concerns. This paper reviews literature on the diagnosis, epidemiological factors, psychosocial elements, medical intervention of AIDS, and rehabilitation issues involved in serving AIDS patients. (JDD)

  11. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  12. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  13. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... electrical nerve impulses and send them to the auditory nerve, which connects the inner ear to the ... prefer. Cleaning makes a difference in hearing aid comfort. A perfectly comfortable hearing aid can become pretty ...

  14. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and...... institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  15. HIV感染者/AIDS病人及家属的社会支持状况调查%The Investigation of the Social Support of HIV/AIDS Patients and Their Family Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖菁; 熊俊浩; 师庆科; 马渝根; 况伟宏; 肖远鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective To understand the social support situation to the HIV/AIDS patients and theirfamily members , to provide the objective basis of establishing a care mode for the HIV/AIDS patients andfamily members in Sichuan. Methods Social Support Score(SSS)questionnaire were selected for the in-vestigation,and data collected were analyzed by SPSS statistic software. Results The score getting byHIV infective person and AIDS patients are lower than the score getting by survival patients' fanily mem-bers and normal control group person. The family members of died patients got the lowest social supportscore. Conclusion HIV infective preson and AIDS patients and their family members are urgently need-ed the care, supports and understanding from the whole society, The establishment of comprehensive com-munity care mode for them are also urgently needed.

  16. 创伤院前急救的气道管理%Airway management in pre-hospital first aid in trauma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 张雁; 张进军

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the respiratory problems and first-aid techniques during the period of trauma pre-hospital first aid. And the authors pointed that proper respiratory management was the key to treat severe trauma patients. In order to ensure patients with timely and efficient respiratory support ,the respiratory management was suggested to be conducted with sequences of evaluation ,prevention ,and intervention.%本文将有关创伤院前急救时遇到的呼吸问题和急救技术进行总结、分类,其核心是对所有严重创伤患者进行阶梯化的呼吸管理--评估、预防和干预,使伤病员获得及时、有效的呼吸支持.

  17. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic. PMID:12293692

  18. Survival of AIDS patients and characteristics of those who died over eight years of highly active antiretroviral therapy, at a referral center in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladjane Santos Wolmer de Melo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a significant reduction in morbimortality and significant changes in the causes of death among HIV/AIDS patients. For this reason, it has become essential to monitor survival and causes of death. We constructed a survival curve based on 597 adult patients notified as AIDS cases between 1997 and 2004, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. Among those patients, 150 (25% progressed to death by December, 2005. Of these, 119 were studied in detail. The data were collected from notification files of the State Health Department and the State Mortality Information System, and were complemented by analysis of medical records. These 597 patients had a survival rate of 88%, 86% and 82% after one, two and five years, respectively, and a 75% likelihood of surviving to 1,984 days (66 months. Most of the deaths occurred during the first months after the diagnosis (median, 129 days. Patients who died were predominantly young men who had sexual exposure and came from Recife (the state capital or its metropolitan region. When the patients were first seen, a large proportion had already presented severe signs of immunodeficiency. Comparing the patients within this group, the characteristics that were associated with lower survival were: male sex, hemoglobin < 10 mg/dL, lymphocytes < 1,000/mm³, use of fewer therapeutic drugs and antiretroviral regimens and non-introduction of protease inhibitors. Most of them died from AIDS-related diseases, particularly undefined respiratory infections.

  19. Analysis on the imaging features of AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-bo; ZHANG Yong-gao; YUE Song-wei; LI Hong-jun; NING Pei-gang; GUO Hua; XIAO Hui-juan

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary fungal infection is one type of the common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. The disease is hard to diagnose because of its complicated imaging features. The objective of this study was to investigate the imaging performance characteristics of pulmonary fungal infection in AIDS patients.Methods Fifty-one patients with AIDS complicated with pulmonary fungal infection and 56 patients of non-AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection were examined by CT scans and high-resolution CT scans. The contrast enhanced scans were performed in patients with the mass or suspected enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Results were compared between the two groups.Results The most common fungal infection in the two groups of patients was Candida albicans. The infection rates were 54.8% (28 cases) in the group (AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection) and 58.3% (32 cases) in another group (non-AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection). In the two groups, the difference in diffuse distribution and the difference in incidence of affected upper and lower lobes in the bilateral lung fields were statistically significant. The differences in patchy or large consolidation shadow, cavitas, enlarged lymph nodes in mediastinum and pleural effusion were also significant when comparing the two groups.Conclusions The lesion in most of AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection tends to exhibit diffuse distribution,patchy or large consolidation shadow covering a more extensive region. The differences between AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection and non-AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection are statistically significant in lesion location and complicated imaging features. The most common fungal infection in AIDS patients is Candida albicans.

  20. Tailored antiplatelet therapy to improve prognosis in patients exhibiting clopidogrel low-response prior to percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina or non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paarup Dridi, Nadia; Johansson, Pär I; Lønborg, Jacob T;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate whether an intensified antiplatelet regimen could improve prognosis in stable or non-ST elevation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients exhibiting high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on clopidogrel and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI...... least 30 days after the index procedure. The median follow-up was 571 days (interquartile range, 373-746). Intensifying antiplatelet therapy reduced the rate of the composite endpoint (p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, HTPR in combination with conventional clopidogrel therapy...... antiplatelet therapy significantly reduced the event rate in patients exhibiting HTPR prior to PCI....

  1. Use of a multiplex PCR to detect and identify Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare in blood culture fluids of AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulski, J K; Khinsoe, C; Pryce, T; K. Christiansen

    1995-01-01

    The presence of mycobacteria in blood culture fluids (BACTEC) of AIDS patients with positive growth indices (GIs, > 20 U) was investigated by using a multiplex PCR to detect and identify members of the genus Mycobacterium, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. tuberculosis. Three different methods of extracting mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluid were compared for use with the multiplex PCR. Mycobacterial cells were pelleted from a small aliquot of blood culture fluid by centrifugation, ...

  2. Retrospective Species Identification of Microsporidian Spores in Diarrheic Fecal Samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS Patients by Multiplexed Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    OpenAIRE

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Johansson, Michael A.; Tamang, Leena; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Moura, Laci S.; DaSilva, Alexandre J.; Girouard, Autumn S.; Matos, Olga

    2007-01-01

    In order to assess the applicability of multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for the clinical setting, we conducted retrospective analysis of 110 formalin-stored diarrheic stool samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients with intestinal microsporidiosis collected between 1992 and 2003. The multiplexed FISH assay identified microsporidian spores in 94 of 110 (85.5%) samples: 49 (52.1%) were positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, 43 (45.8%) were positive...

  3. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A.; Amico, K. Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users. Our application of intervention mapping strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to...

  4. Genetic variation of the HIV-1 integrase region in newly diagnosed anti-retroviral drug-naïve patients with HIV/AIDS in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-Y; Kim, E-J; Choi, J-Y; Kwon, O-K; Kim, G J; Choi, S Y; Kim, S S

    2011-08-01

    The survival time of HIV/AIDS patients in Korea has increased since HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) was introduced. However, the occurrence of drug-resistant strains requires new anti-retroviral drugs, one of which, an integrase inhibitor (INI), was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2007. INIs have been used for therapy in many countries and are about to be employed in Korea. Therefore, it is important to identify basic mutant variants prior to the introduction of INIs in order to estimate their efficacy. To monitor potential drug-resistant INI mutations in Korean HIV/AIDS patients, the polymorphism of the int gene was investigated together with the pol gene using a genotypic assay for 75 randomly selected Korean HIV-1 patients newly diagnosed in 2007. The drug-resistant mutation sequences were analysed using the Stanford HIV DB and the International AIDS Society resistance testing-USA panel (IAS-USA). Seventy strains of Korean subtype B were compared with foreign subtype-B strains, and there were no significantly different variants of the int gene region in the study population. Major mutation sites in the integrase (E92Q, F121Y, G140A/S, Y143C/R, Q148H/R/K and N155H) were not detected, and only a few minor mutation sites (L74M, V151I, E157Q, V165I, I203M, S230N and D232N) were identified in 21 strains (28%). Resistance due to mutations in the pol gene was observed in a single strain (1.3%) resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs) and in four strains (5.3%) resistant to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs). In summary, this demonstrates that INIs will be susceptible to drug naïve HIV/AIDS patients in Korea. PMID:20946407

  5. Health literacy in pregnant women facing prenatal screening may explain their intention to use a patient decision aid: a short report

    OpenAIRE

    Delanoë, Agathe; Lépine, Johanie; Leiva Portocarrero, Maria Esther; Robitaille, Hubert; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lévesque, Isabelle; Wilson, Brenda J.; Giguère, Anik M. C.; Légaré, France

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that health literacy may impact the use of decision aids (DAs) among patients facing difficult decisions. Embedded in the pilot test of a questionnaire, this study aimed to measure the association between health literacy and pregnant women’s intention to use a DA to decide about prenatal screening. We recruited a convenience sample of 45 pregnant women in three clinical sites (family practice teaching unit, birthing center and obstetrical ambulatory care clini...

  6. A complementary tool for management of disseminated Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infections in AIDS patients. : A complementary tool for histoplasmosis management

    OpenAIRE

    Iriart, Xavier; Blanchet, Denis; Menard, Sandie; Lavergne, Rose-Anne; Chauvin, Pamela; Adenis, Antoine; Cassaing, Sophie; Fillaux, Judith; Magnaval, Jean-François; Demar, Magalie; Carme, Bernard; Bessieres, Marie-Hélène; Couppie, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu; Berry, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    : In South America, disseminated histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum (H. capsulatum), is a severe and frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In areas outside the USA where specific-Histoplasma antigen detection is not available, the diagnosis is difficult. With the galactomannan antigen (GM) detection, a test commonly used for invasive aspergillosis diagnosis, there is a cross-reactivity with H. capsulatum that can be helpful for the diagnosis of histoplas...

  7. Comparative evaluation of gum-elastic bougie and introducer tool as aids in positioning of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in patients with simulated restricted neck mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Jennyl Maclean; Tripathy, D. K.; Parthasarathy, S.; Ravishankar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is a unique laryngeal mask with a modified cuff to improve seal and a channel to facilitate gastric tube placement. This is a better device in difficult airway situations compared to classic laryngeal mask airway. This prompted us to study the ease of insertion and positioning of PLMA in patients with simulated restricted neck mobility while using gum elastic bougie (GEB) group or introducer tool (group IT) to aid insertion. Methods: Sixty ...

  8. Computer-Assisted Mandibular Reconstruction using a Patient-Specific Reconstruction Plate Fabricated with Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Frank; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the workflow of computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction that was performed with a patient-specific mandibular reconstruction plate fabricated with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques and a fibula flap. We assessed the feasibility of this technique from virtual planning to the completion of surgery. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a cadaveric skull and fibula were obtained for the virtual simulation of mandibular resection and reconstruction using ProPlan CMF software (Materialise(®)/DePuy Synthes(®)). The virtual model of the reconstructed mandible provided the basis for the computer-aided design of a patient-specific reconstruction plate that was milled from titanium using a five-axis milling machine and CAM techniques. CAD/CAM techniques were used for producing resection guides for mandibular resection and cutting guides for harvesting a fibula flap. Mandibular reconstruction was simulated in a cadaveric wet laboratory. No problems were encountered during the procedure. The plate was fixed accurately to the residual bone without difficulty. The fibula segments were attached to the plate rapidly and reliably. The fusion of preoperative and postoperative CT datasets demonstrated high reconstruction precision. Computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction with CAD/CAM-fabricated patient-specific reconstruction plates appears to be a promising approach for mandibular reconstruction. Clinical trials are required to determine whether these promising results can be translated into successful practice and what further developments are needed. PMID:25045420

  9. Survival of adult AIDS patients in a reference hospital of a metropolitan area in Brazil Sobrevivência de pacientes adultos com Aids em hospital de referência no Nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F Guerreiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological factors in AIDS patients survival in a reference hospital. METHODS: A sample of 502 adult AIDS patients out of 1,494 AIDS cases registered in a hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil, was investigated between 1986 and 1998. Sixteen cases were excluded due to death at the moment of the AIDS diagnosis and 486 were analyzed in the study. Socioeconomic and clinical epidemiological were the variables studied. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty two out of the 486 patients studied took at least one antiretroviral drug and their survival was ten times longer than those who did not take any drug (746 and 79 days, respectively, p OBJETIVO: Avaliar, em um hospital de referência, a influência de fatores sociodemográficos e clínico-epidemiológicos na sobrevivência de pacientes com Aids. MÉTODOS:Foi estudada uma amostra de 486 adultos com Aids atendidos em hospital de referência no Ceará, entre 1986 e 1998. Foram avaliadas as variáveis socioeconômicas e clínico-epidemiológicas. A análise foi realizada pelo método Kaplan-Meier e por regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: Dos 486 pacientes estudados, 362 utilizaram pelo menos uma droga anti-retroviral e tiveram sobrevida dez vezes maior que os que não a utilizaram (746 e 79 dias, respectivamente; p<0,001. O risco de morrer, no primeiro ano, foi significativamente menor (0,25; IC95%: 0,12-0,50 para os que fizeram uso de dois inibidores de transcriptase reversa ou HAART e menor a partir do segundo ano (0,10; IC95%:0,42-0,23 em relação aos que não os usaram. Indivíduos sem nível universitário (15,58; IC95%:6,64-36,58 e que apresentaram duas ou mais doenças sistêmicas (3,03; IC95%:1,74-5,25 tiveram risco significativamente maior de morrer no primeiro ano. Após o primeiro ano, não se observou diferen

  10. First Aid Nursing Measures of Patients with Severe Craniocerebral Injury%重型颅脑损伤患者实施急救的护理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨并分析重型颅脑损伤患者实施急救的护理措施。方法采取回顾性分析法,将我院自2011年7月~2013年6月所收治的66例重型颅脑损伤患者作为研究对象,总结并分析患者急救护理措施。结果66例重型颅脑损伤患者于急救护理期间经及时抢救和护理,60例患者被成功抢救,其抢救成功率为90.9%。结论通过本次研究结果的分析可知,在重型颅脑损伤患者的急救中,做好急救准备工作,采取合理且科学的急救护理措施,可有效提高抢救成功率,降低死亡率。%Objective To investigate and analyze the implementation of first-aid nursing measures for the patients with severe craniocerebral injury.Methods Take retrospective analysis method,66 cases of severe craniocerebral injury patients in our hospital from 2011 July~2013 year in June were used as the research object,summarizes and analyzes the first-aid nursing measures for patients. Results 66 cases of severe craniocerebral injury patients in the emergency nursing period with timely rescue and nursing,60 patients were successful rescue,the rescue success rate is 90.9%. Conclusion Through the analysis of the results of the shows,in the first aid of patients with severe craniocerebral injury,first aid in the preparatory work,take the first-aid nursing measures for reasonable and scientific,and can ef ectively improve the success rate,reduce the mortality rate.

  11. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  12. 4 Exhibition Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China's convention and exhibition industry has grown rapidly in recent years, with some of the nation's key cities becoming hubs of internationally renowned expositions, spurred by the construction of new exhibition centers.In 2003, a total of 3,298 conventions and exhibitions were held in China, up from 3,075 in the previous year. The number is estimated to have hit 4,000 in 2004.

  13. Macrophages from IBD patients exhibit defective tumour necrosis factor-α secretion but otherwise normal or augmented pro-inflammatory responses to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Nair; Magro, Fernando; Castro, Ana Rita; Cabral, Joana; Rodrigues, Pedro; Silva, Ricardo; Appelberg, Rui; Rodrigues, Susana; Lopes, Susana; Macedo, Guilherme; Sarmento, Amélia

    2011-08-01

    Defects in macrophage function have been implicated in the establishment of Crohn's disease (CD). However, the response of macrophages from CD patients to live bacteria, particularly Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), has not been addressed. Considering MAP has long been associated to CD, our objective was to assess whether macrophages from CD patients showed impaired inflammatory response to infection by MAP comparing to M. avium subsp. avium (MA) and other live intestinal commensal bacteria. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were obtained from CD patients, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and controls. Following in vitro infection with MAP, MA, Escherichia coli or Enterococcus faecalis, cytokine levels and cell surface receptor expression were evaluated at different time points. Macrophages from CD patients showed impaired TNF-α secretion in response to bacterial challenge, but augmented IL-23 secretion and preserved IL-12 secretion and CD-40 expression. In addition, CD macrophages showed low IL-10 secretion. Macrophages from IBD patients showed increased expression of TLR-2 and -4, unaffected by infection. Differences in cytokine secretion observed after bacterial challenge were not MAP-specific, as other bacteria (E. coli and MA) showed similar effects. Macrophages from UC patients showed a less compromised TNF-α synthesis in response to mycobacterial infection than CD macrophages, with increased constitutive IL-12 secretion, and preserved IL-10 secretion. The increased IL-23 levels in response to infection and decreased IL-10 production observed in macrophages from CD patients may contribute to the inflammatory exacerbation observed in those patients. PMID:21269730

  14. 江苏省男性HIV感染者/AIDS患者AIDS相关支原体感染情况分析%Analysis for infection of AIDS-related mycoplasma in male HIV carrier and AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良佳; 吴建茹; 朱一; 徐金水; 傅更锋; 王蓓

    2013-01-01

    penetrans ( Mpe) and Mycoplasma pirum ( Mpi) , in male HIV carriers and AIDS patients in Jiangsu province, and analyze the correlation between the infection of mycoplasma and the development of AIDS to provide the evidences for the role of AIDS-related mycoplasma in the alterations of immune function in latent HIV carriers and AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological questionnaire survey was performed for 312 male HIV carriers and AIDS patiets following informed consent. The first void urine and venous blood samples from the males included in this study were collected. Mycoplasma was detected with PCR, CD4 + T lymphocyte was measured with flow cytometry and the level of cytokines was determined by ELISA. Results Among the studied males, 3 species of AIDS-related mycoplasma were detectable except Mpe with infection rates of 26. 9% , 13. 8% and 21. 8% for Mg, Mf and Mpi respectively. There were significant differences of the infection rates of Mf among different CD4 + T-cell levels (X2 = 11. 775 , P = 0. 003). The level ofIL-4 (4. 437 pg/mL) in the males who were infected by both of HIV and mycoplasma was significantly higher than that in the males with single HIV infection (1. 922 pg/mL) , but the level of IL-6 (0. 431 pg/mL) in the males with complicated infection was lower than that of the single HIV infection (0.532 pg/mL) (P<0.001). Multiple-factor logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of AIDS-related mycoplasma infection in south Jiangsu was higher than that in north Jiangsu (OR =2. 388, 95%CI: 1.2124.706) and middle Jiangsu (OR =0.447, 95%CI: 0.253-0.790). The risk of AIDS-related mycoplasma infection in the males undergoing active antiretroviral treatment was the lower than that without ART (OR =0. 545 , 95% CI: 0.311-0.955). Conclusion It was noted that high pathogenic mycoplasma infection was found in the males with HIV-latent infection and AIDS patients in Jiangsu province. The mycoplasma infection correlated with the host immune status.

  15. Specific causes of death among 381 AIDS patients who died in hospitals%381例艾滋病住院患者死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯瑞芳; 马烨; 刘中夫; 张福杰; 杨燕; 黄绍标; 何浩岚; 陆娟; 雷素云

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解中国部分艾滋病抗病毒治疗定点医院住院艾滋病患者的死亡原因及其相关影响因素.方法 在7所省级艾滋病抗病毒治疗定点医院收集2009-2010年艾滋病住院死亡患者的死因及相关医疗信息,采用CoDe编码系统归类,应用logistic回归分析患者是否死于艾滋病相关原因的影响因素.结果 7所医院共收集381例艾滋病患者的临床医疗及死因信息,患者以男性为主(82.4%),30~ 45岁占多数,生前曾接受抗病毒治疗(ART)者占32.3%.252例(66.1%)死于艾滋病相关原因,其中机会性感染占92.4%,以结核菌、肺孢子菌、马尔尼菲青霉菌感染为主.在非艾滋病相关死亡原因中,前三位依次是非艾滋病相关感染、肝炎、非艾滋病相关肿瘤,分别占29.5%、22.5%、10.1%.患者死亡前一年内有注射吸毒行为、未接受ART、合并机会性感染、未合并肝炎及死亡前最近一次CD4+T淋巴细胞计数水平较低的病例,死于艾滋病相关原因的风险较高.结论 机会性感染、非艾滋病相关感染、肝炎是艾滋病患者最主要的前三位死因,接受ART的患者死于非艾滋病相关原因的风险低于未接受ART者,且治疗时间越长,死于非艾滋病相关原因的比例越低.%Objective In this study,researchers investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of AIDS patients who died in hospitals,analyzed the specific causes of death,and looked for the correlation between specific cause of death and their clinical characteristics.Methods Data of clinical characteristics of patients and their specific causes AIDS of death who died in the seven hospitals from 2009 to 2010 were collected retrospectively.All the specific causes of death were classified according to the Cause of Death (CoDe) project protocol.Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to find the association between some categorical variables and the risk

  16. Dislipidemia em pacientes HIV/AIDS em uso de anti-retrovirais num hospital universitário, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS patients in antiretroviral therapy in a university hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Farhi

    2008-06-01

    /acquired immunological deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS patients followed in the infectious diseases outpatient clinic of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (HUPE/UERJ. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 10/1/2004 to 5/30/2005, the participants of this study answered a survey about demographic and health data. Afterwards, the following measurements were checked: weight, height, waist and hips. Blood samples were collected for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides tests. Out of 268 patients who came to the appointment during the study period, 23 did not attend the blood collection, and 10 did not want to participate. Poisson regression model was used to find the variables associated with dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Out of the 235 patients included in the study 182 (77.5% had dyslipidemia, with prevalence of male (69.8% over female ones (30.2%. Among the patients with dyslipidemia, 26.9% had family history of dyslipidemia against 15.1% who did not. Regarding ART duration, both mean and media were higher in the group of patients with dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: In our study the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS patients was high (77.5%, and the associated factors were male sex, family history of dyslipidemia and ART duration.

  17. Expressão epidemiológica de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis entre portadores de AIDS Epidemiological expression of other sexually transmitted diseases among AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elucir Gir

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a freqüência de outras doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST em pacientes portadores de AIDS, identificando-se suas associações epidemiológicas e possíveis relações com as categorias de exposição ao vírus. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários médicos, identificando-se as DST com base em dados de anamnese, exame físico e exames laboratoriais. Dos portadores de HIV/AIDS, atendidos no hospital estudado, de janeiro de 1986 a janeiro de 1992, 207 constituíram a amostra estudada. Dos pacientes estudados, 88 (42,5% apresentaram alguma DST e 119 (57,5% não, resultando proporção de pacientes com DST/pacientes sem DST igual a 0,7. As DST mais prevalentes foram hepatite B (33, 3%, sífilis (30, 3% e gonorréia (12, 9%. Quanto às categorias de exposição dos indivíduos ao HIV, a mais prevalente foi a sangüínea (44,9%, seguida pela sexual (21,3%, sexual e sangüínea (17, 9% e indeterminada em 15, 9%. Comparando particularmente as categorias de transmissão sexual e sangüínea do HIV e a presença de outras DST, estas foram significativamente mais freqüentes nos casos cuja categoria de exposição referida foi a sexual.This study was carried out in order to estimate the frequence of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD among AIDS patients and to identify their epidemiological association and possible relations to the groups most exposed to the virus. The data were collected from the medical case histories and the STD were identified on the basis of data provided by anamnesis, physical examination and laboratory examinations. Of the total of HIV/AIDS patients assisted at the hospital studied (S.Paulo State, Brazil, between January 1986 and January 1992, 207 were included as sample subjects for this survey. Of the patients studied, 88 (42.5% had some other STD and 119 (57.5% had no other STD, equivalent to a proportion of 0.7 STD patients-STD to each non-STD patient. The most prevalent STD identified

  18. Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebling, Maryjane; Rubio, Edmundo; Ie, Susanti

    2015-04-01

    The benefit of prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is well documented in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with HIV and/or AIDS; therefore, guidelines dictate this as standard of care. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding those without HIV and/or AIDS who are potentially predisposed to PJP, including patients with sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who may require high dose of prolonged corticosteroids for disease maintenance or to prevent relapses. In this review, the authors examine the available literature regarding prophylaxis in these groups, elaborate on the pathogenesis of PJP, when to suspect PJP in these patients, as well as explore current recommendations that guide clinical practice regarding implementation of PJP prophylaxis, namely with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole being the preferred agent. In summary, the role of PJP prophylaxis in non-HIV patients on chronic steroids remains controversial. The authors present a review of the literature to provide better guidance to the clinician regarding the need to initiate PJP prophylaxis in this patient population. PMID:25771943

  19. T Cell Reactivity against Mycolyl Transferase Antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB Coinfected Subjects and in AIDS Patients Suffering from Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen.

  20. Evolução da contagem de células T CD4+ de portadores de AIDS em contextos socialmente desiguais Evolution of CD4+ T-cell count among AIDS patients in socially unequal contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Assis Patroclo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisou a evolução da contagem de células T CD4+ em portadores de AIDS do Município do Rio de Janeiro, submetidos a esquemas anti-retrovirais altamente ativos (HAART, no Centro Municipal de Saúde (CMS da Maré, localizado em complexo de favelas e no de Copacabana, localizado em área de elites. Imediatamente, antes de HAART, a mediana de linfócitos T CD4+ foi 181células/mm³ na Maré e 182células/mm³ em Copacabana. Após 24 semanas de HAART, a mediana alcançou 302 e 315células/mm³ nos dois CMS, respectivamente. Após HAART, os portadores de AIDS da Maré tiveram 2,8 vezes mais chances de não apresentarem resposta imunológica do que casos de Copacabana (IC95%: 1,1-7,2. Residentes em favelas da Maré tiveram 3,7 mais chances de não apresentarem resposta imunológica do que não residentes em favelas de Copacabana (IC95%: 1,2-11,5. Homens da Maré tiveram 4,4 mais chances de não apresentarem resposta imunológica do que os de Copacabana (IC95%: 1,1-18,2. Resultados sugerem pior prognóstico e maior letalidade para portadores de AIDS residentes em favelas, independente do acesso a HAART.This study analyzed the evolution in CD4+ T-cell count in AIDS patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART at the Municipal Health Centers in the Maré neighborhood, located in a large slum area, and in Copacabana, located in the city's more affluent South Side. Immediately prior to HAART, the median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 181 cells/mm³ in Maré and 182 cells/mm³ in Copacabana. After 24 weeks of HAART, the median count reached 302 and 315/mm3 in the two health centers, respectively. Following HAART, individuals with AIDS in Maré had 2.8 times the odds of not presenting an immune response as compared to cases in Copacabana (95%CI: 1.1-7.2. Slum residents from Maré had 3.7 the odds of not presenting an immune response as compared to slum residents from Copacabana (95%CI