Sample records for aids family planning

  1. Measuring the usefulness of family planning job aids following distribution at training workshops. (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Hubacher, David; Wesson, Jennifer; Lasway, Christine


    A job aid is a tool, such as a flowchart or checklist, that makes it easier for staff to carry out tasks by providing quick access to needed information. Many public health organizations are engaged in the production of job aids intended to improve adherence to important medical guidelines and protocols, particularly in resource-constrained countries. However, some evidence suggests that actual use of job aids remains low. One strategy for improving utilization is the introduction of job aids in training workshops. This paper summarizes the results of two separate evaluations conducted in Uganda and the Dominican Republic (DR) which measured the usefulness of a series of four family planning checklists 7-24 months after distribution in training workshops. While more than half of the health care providers used the checklists at least once, utilization rates were sub-optimal. However, the vast majority of those providers who utilized the checklists found them to be very useful in their work.

  2. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania. (United States)

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa


    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  3. Natural Family Planning (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  4. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan. (United States)

    Phillips, R


    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  5. Family planning Indonesia. (United States)

    Singarimbun, M


    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  6. Family planning: where now? (United States)

    Saunders, L


    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  7. Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  8. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  9. Why family planning matters. (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T


    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception.

  10. Directory of IEC Assistance. Sources and Types of Aid Available for the Information, Education, Communication Components of Population/Family Planning Programs. (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

    This directory is intended as a source of information on the types and sources of assistance available to support the information, education, communication (IEC) components of population/family planning programs in developing countries. Forty international agencies are identified as involved in supporting the IEC components of population/family…

  11. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs. (United States)

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  12. Family planning for women with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.

  13. [Private enterprise and family planning]. (United States)


    In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems.

  14. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers. (United States)

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E


    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  15. STD services in family planning programs. (United States)

    Cole, L; Finger, W R


    Few family planning programs provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Yet, more and more policymakers and program managers are thinking of ways that family planning programs can address reproductive health needs, including STDs. Family planning programs that have already added STD services now operate in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, and Jamaica. Most of them concentrate on STD/AIDS preventive services: providing information, counseling, and promoting condom use. Some programs also provide STD management services. A family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, gradually integrated STD services into its program. It first provided clients with information about STDs, then nurses were trained to diagnose and treat STDs, and last the clinic began receiving STD drugs. This clinic targets low-income workers and groups at high risk for HIV infection. It has 60 outreach volunteers working in bars, brothels, and small shops. During September 1991-March 1994, 57% of clients used condoms. The nurses use a syndromic approach to decide on what treatment to use for STD patients. Since some women do not have obvious STD symptoms, laboratories and microscopes are used to make an accurate diagnosis. A considerable outlay of funds is needed for extensive training in STD diagnosis and treatment, but ending the cycle of infection saves money. Concerns about contraceptive effectiveness of barrier methods keep family planning programs from promoting condom use. Another obstacle to integrating STD services into family planning programs is that most programs focus on women. Clinics should encourage couples to be together for family planning and STD counseling. They can also direct educational materials to men. Other challenges include the difficulty of diagnosing STDs in women, expensive and often unavailable STD drugs, reinfection by partners who do not receive treatment, and lack of power to insist on condom use.

  16. Birth control and family planning (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  17. Family planning costs and benefits. (United States)


    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  18. Utilization of audio-visual aids by family welfare workers. (United States)

    Naik, V R; Jain, P K; Sharma, B B


    Communication efforts have been an important component of the Indian Family Planning Welfare Program since its inception. However, its chief interests in its early years were clinical, until the adoption of the extension approach in 1963. Educational materials were developed, especially in the period 1965-8, to fit mass, group meeting and home visit approaches. Audiovisual aids were developed for use by extension workers, who had previously relied entirely on verbal approaches. This paper examines their use. A questionnaire was designed for workers in motivational programs at 3 levels: Village Level (Family Planning Health Assistant, Auxilliary Nurse-Midwife, Dias), Block Level (Public Health Nurse, Lady Health Visitor, Block Extension Educator), and District (District Extension Educator, District Mass Education and Information Officer). 3 Districts were selected from each State on the basis of overall family planning performance during 1970-2 (good, average, or poor). Units of other agencies were also included on the same basis. Findings: 1) Workers in all 3 categories preferred individual contacts over group meetings or mass approach. 2) 56-64% said they used audiovisual aids "sometimes" (when available). 25% said they used them "many times" and only 15.9% said "rarely." 3) More than 1/2 of workers in each category said they were not properly oriented toward the use of audiovisual aids. Nonavailability of the aids in the market was also cited. About 1/3 of village level and 1/2 of other workers said that the materials were heavy and liable to be damaged. Complexity, inaccuracy and confusion in use were not widely cited (less than 30%).

  19. [What can be expected of family planning?]. (United States)

    Tallon, F


    Growing concern over Rwanda's rapid demographic growth and the development of a family planning program beginning around 1981 have so far had little practical effect on the number of births. Significant mortality reductions resulting from vaccination programs and other development projects may mean that population growth has actually accelerated instead of slowing. Most Rwandans still have the strongly pronatalist attitudes appropriate to an environment with high infant and general mortality rates, small populations, abundant land resources, and a need for manpower and old age security. Lack of services, fear of side effects, and rumors have also hampered acceptance of family planning. Rwanda is 95% rural, but rapid population growth is outstripping agricultural resources. Already in 1984 the average family plot was only .88 hectare, and by the year 2000 it will be half that size. Young people denied employment in agriculture will seek jobs in industry and commerce, but there too the possibilities of absorption are limited. The best employment opportunities will probably be available to the best educated. Between 1962-85, the rate of school enrollment of children aged 7-14 increased from 55-60%, but the total enrollment increased by 150% because of the increased number of children. Acceptance of family planning by substantial numbers of couples will mean significant savings in education. The savings in primary education alone would significantly offset expenditures for family planning. A large part of the funding for family planning in Rwanda is contributed as foreign aid, which could not easily be converted to other development projects, as some critics demand. A more moderate rate of population growth would also mean less expenditure on imports of food and other goods, on health care, on housing, and in all areas where population size is a factor in determining needs. Less reliance on imported food will enable Rwanda to preserve its autonomy. The rising pregnancy

  20. Is it safe? Talking to teens with HIV/AIDS about death and dying: a 3-month evaluation of Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning – anxiety, depression, quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Lyon


    Full Text Available Maureen E Lyon1, Patricia A Garvie2, Linda Briggs3, Jianping He4, Robert Malow5, Lawrence J D’Angelo1, Robert McCarter41Children’s National Medical Center and George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia; 2St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; 3Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin; 4Children’s Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia; 5Florida International University, Miami, FloridaPurpose: To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+ adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning intervention.Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76. Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation. Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©; psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories; quality of life (PedsQL™; and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment.Results: Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001. Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018 and emotional (P = 0.029 quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls.Conclusions: Participating

  1. The "planned" families of Tunisia. (United States)

    Habchi, M


    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the

  2. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  3. [Sichuan adopts family planning measures]. (United States)


    The revolutionary committee of Sichuan Province recently issued a series of measures on family planning, which came into effect on a trial basis from March 1. Sichuan is the province with the biggest population in China, accounting for 10% of the country's total. The trial measures provide for working parents who have only 1 child and who guarantee not to have a 2nd to receive 5 yuan a month in child welfare subsidies till the child is 14 years old. Such 1 child families will also be entitled to an equal amount of living space as a family of 4 and the child will have priority of admission to schools and factories provided they meet the entrance requirements. Peasant families which have only 1 child and guarantee not to have a 2nd are eligible for the following: Production teams give a sum of money equal to 3 workdays/month till the child is 14 years old and the child received an adult's grain ration and counts as 1.5 persons in distributions of plots of private use. If a child becomes disabled or dies, parents may have another child and enjoy the same treatment. In addition, the new regulations state that the "state and the people's communes guarantee that the standard of living of old widows and widowers will be a little higher than that of other commune peasants in the locality. People of the province in every walk of life warmly support the publication of the new measures. It is estimated that about 24% of the families with only 1 child in a Chongqing District will not have the 2nd. 86 1-child families in 1 rural people's commune have taken birth control measures. Women cadres and medical workers throughout the province have been very active in carrying out educational programs on family planning. Population growth in the province was 3.11% in 1970 and 0.867 in 1977. It dropped to 0.606 last year. The figure is slightly higher than for Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Speaking about the importance of the new economic measures, Liu Haiquan, vice-chairman of the

  4. Market research and family planning. (United States)

    Smith, W


    Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched.

  5. Experimental Plans and Intensive Numerical Aided Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvon Gardan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with new methods to optimize design and subsequent phases, notably in SMEs specialized in manufacturing. SMEs use numerical simulation to verify that the design meets the expectations of the specification, following the current traditional process: CAD model, simulation of its behavior, changes in the CAD model... This process suffers from a number of drawbacks: no overall multi-criteria vision, use of CAD software, by nature "constructive, not considering the overall objectives (even with integration of the parameters or with considering the downstream phases. The research centre DINCCS led several projects, relying on industrial cases to consider more efficient approaches. It is proposed to reverse this process by making intensive simulations, based on trade knowledge, before design itself. In order to plan the great number of simulations, automatically designed plan of experiences are used. We discuss the application of this approach to intensive simulations. The stakes are crucial for SMEs, particularly manufacturing ones. Using numerical simulation (optimization intensively, before setting the CAD model, they can get unexpected gains (mass, better use of the means of manufacture.... The results show that the proposed approach is a very promising new way of computer aided design..

  6. Working with Families Affected by HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.


    This article introduces the reader to several of the major issues in treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, as well as clinical and ethical considerations facing marriage and family therapists today. (Contains 20 references.) (GCP)

  7. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer. (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  8. Family Planning Associations Educate by Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    LI Zuomin has been engaged in family planning for 26 years. During the first 16 years, she was a cadre with the public health department in Chongqing, Sichuan Province. There she worked to teach the masses how to carry out the state family planning policy. For the past ten years, after



    Oommachan, Mathew; Khan, Shaukat Saeed


    A preliminary survey was conducted during the years 1978-’79 at Bhopal and its neighbourhood to find out the medicinal plants and their utility. From among a total number of 850 angiospermic plant species of this region, about 10% of them were found having poisonous principles. One fourth of these poisonous plants can be used for safe termination of pregnancy. Certain of these plants are used by the villagers for criminal abortions and even for suicidal purpose. A good number of them can be u...

  10. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood. (United States)

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  11. Southcentral Alaska small hydroelectric projects, reconnaissance phase: Planning aid report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Planning Aid Report is based on information gathered from: (1) Kings River, (2) Tonsina River Tributary, (3) Placer River, (4) Bear Creek, and (5) Windy River....

  12. HIV / AIDS: not just a matter of statistics. The International Conference on AIDS - Law and Humanity culminates into "New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS". (United States)


    The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Law Institute with the cooperation of UNDP, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other national and international groups organized the International Conference on AIDS--Law and Humanity, held during December 6-10, 1995, in New Delhi, India. The leading speakers focused on the need for a united approach to the HIV/AIDS-related legal issues, which would protect society against the spread of HIV infection and respect the dignity and fundamental human rights of HIV infected persons or those suspected of being HIV infected and their families and friends. All conference participants adopted the New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on AIDS. The Plan has six principles designed to guide policy makers in developing laws and strategies to help fight against HIV/AIDS. The first principle is that sound and scientific data (not presupposition, prejudice, and stereotypes) should form the basis for all laws and policies on HIV/AIDS. It lays out eight objectives that vary from protection of rights and empowerment of individuals, so that by their cooperation the spread of HIV infection is contained, to allocation of adequate resources for prevention, care, and anti-discrimination efforts. The participants recognized actions that have been or need to be implemented to control HIV/AIDS at the international, national/legislative, executive, and judicial levels. For example, an international action at the international level is expansion of strategies by the High Commissioner for Human Rights for promoting the co-existence of human rights of persons with HIV/AIDS and for containment of the epidemic. The participants resolved to establish both national and international committees to address the national and international implications of HIV/AIDS from the point of view of law and humanity. The international committee should work with UNAIDS, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, WHO, and UNDP.

  13. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld;


    To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...... of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...

  14. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning. (United States)

    Kumaran, T V


    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  15. Mathematical modelling in the computer-aided process planning (United States)

    Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.


    This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.

  16. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taraphdar


    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Population policy and family planning. (United States)


    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  18. Gay Men with AIDS and Their Families of Origin: An Analysis of Social Support. (United States)

    Kadushin, Goldie


    Reviews literature on relationships of gay men with AIDS and their families of origin. Some reasons for the absence of family from support networks include family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and relationship with a male partner; stigma associated with AIDS; inability of family to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS. (FC)

  19. [World population, family planning and development]. (United States)

    Van Roosmalen, J


    The 1991 world population report of the UNFPA projects a world population of 8.504 billion by 2025. The prevalence of the use of modern contraceptives increased from 9% in previous years to an average of 51% at the present time: to 70% in East Asia, to 60% in Latin America, but only to 17% in Africa. 20% of pregnancies are unwanted, the prevention of which would reduce the expected population by 2.2 billion people in 2100. Without birth control programs today there would be 412 million more people in Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and in 2100 1.48 billion would live on Earth instead of 10 billion forecast by the World Bank. The aim of UNFPA is to increase contraceptive prevalence form 51% to 59% by 2000: from 381 million users in 1991 to 567 million acceptors. Only 15% of men use contraceptives, although the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS makes the use of condoms highly advisable. In the report scant mention is made of breast feeding as a family planning method, although the Bellagio Consensus of 1988 states that if a woman almost exclusively breast feeds during lactation amenorrhea a more than 98% protection against pregnancy is offered during the 1st 6 months postpartum. During this period no additional contraception is necessary until the 1st menstruation occurs. Women in Bangladesh taking an oral contraceptive after delivery had shorter birth intervals than women exclusively relying on breast feeding. The Working Group of Medical Development Association issued guidelines concerning contraceptive methods including subdermal implant of levonorgestrel, although excessively strict standards can foil the contraceptive needs of the Third World. Their reproductive mortality is mainly determined by an extremely high maternal mortality rather than by complications from contraceptive use.

  20. Family planning programs and fertility decline. (United States)

    Cuca, R


    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  1. Observations concerning family planning education in China. (United States)

    Hamburg, M V


    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  2. Social marketing: the family planning experience. (United States)

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J


    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.

  3. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness. (United States)

    Lee, S B


    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by

  4. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?]. (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K


    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  5. [The challenges of the family planning program]. (United States)

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O


    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  6. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. (United States)

    Peng, P


    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  7. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience. (United States)

    Matiasz, Nicholas J; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J; Hsu, William


    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning.

  8. Computer-Aided Experiment Planning toward Causal Discovery in Neuroscience (United States)

    Matiasz, Nicholas J.; Wood, Justin; Wang, Wei; Silva, Alcino J.; Hsu, William


    Computers help neuroscientists to analyze experimental results by automating the application of statistics; however, computer-aided experiment planning is far less common, due to a lack of similar quantitative formalisms for systematically assessing evidence and uncertainty. While ontologies and other Semantic Web resources help neuroscientists to assimilate required domain knowledge, experiment planning requires not only ontological but also epistemological (e.g., methodological) information regarding how knowledge was obtained. Here, we outline how epistemological principles and graphical representations of causality can be used to formalize experiment planning toward causal discovery. We outline two complementary approaches to experiment planning: one that quantifies evidence per the principles of convergence and consistency, and another that quantifies uncertainty using logical representations of constraints on causal structure. These approaches operationalize experiment planning as the search for an experiment that either maximizes evidence or minimizes uncertainty. Despite work in laboratory automation, humans must still plan experiments and will likely continue to do so for some time. There is thus a great need for experiment-planning frameworks that are not only amenable to machine computation but also useful as aids in human reasoning. PMID:28243197

  9. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhart Marianne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy

  10. China's first family planning publicity month. (United States)

    Shen, G


    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  11. Family planning and the Malawian male. (United States)

    Kishindo, P


    To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs.

  12. Using a Systems Framework for Organizing Family Financial Planning. (United States)

    Edwards, Kay P.


    Systems concepts are applied to family financial planning using a functional interpretation of systems analyses. The framework can help professionals researching family financial behavior and its outcomes, planning programs, and offering financial services. It can also be used by families in their own financial planning. (Author/JOW)

  13. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge. (United States)

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M


    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  14. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  15. Problem visits to a family planning clinic. (United States)

    Blumenthal, P D; Jacobson, J; Gaffikin, L


    In order to obtain information necessary for optimum delivery of services, data were collected on the nature of the services provided at a family planing clinic. Clinic visits were divided into initial, annual, routine, problem, supply, educational and unknown. An analysis of the "problem" visits was undertaken to assess various epidemiologic aspects of such visits and to identify areas of clinic efficiency that could be improved. Problem visits were defined as any visits for which the patient had a presenting complaint. Age, level of education, method of contraception and parity were statistically associated with problem visits. When compared to Pill users, diaphragm users, intrauterine device users and non-users had a higher-than-expected number of problem visits. Less educated women and teenagers had a lower-than-expected number of problem visits when compared to more educated and older women. Socioeconomic status and problem visits were not statistically associated. Problem visits required more time, utilized more medical services and resulted in more referrals to the gynecology clinic than did other visit types. As a result of this analysis, we have increased our educational efforts for patients at high risk of problem visits and have instituted a special problem-oriented family planning clinic in which a full complement of house staff and ancillary personnel are available. This arrangement makes the uncomplicated family planning clinic run more smoothly and efficiently and obviates the need for time-consuming and cost-ineffective referrals.

  16. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy (United States)

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.


    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  17. Computer aided planning and navigation for orbito-zygomatic reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck


    This paper suggests a full protocol of Computer Aided Surgery as previously recommended in literature addressing the challenging task of primary or secondary reconstruction of orbito-zygomatic dislocation. First, on a specifically developed planning software, the best zygoma reduction and orbital boundaries reconstruction to achieve skeletal symmetry are determined. This treatment plan is then transferred to the 3D Navigation Systems within the operating room. After patient's anatomy registration to his preoperative CT scan data, the navigation system allows zygomatic guiding to its planned reduced location and bone orbital volume restoration control. The feasibility of this technique was checked in 3 patients with major orbito-zygomatic deformities. Preliminary clinical results are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  19. Li Xiuying’s Family Planning Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    PEOPLE in Yinan County refer to Li Xiuying, a doctor highly respected for her gynecological and obstetrics surgical skills, as "Magic Scalpel Li." Li Xiuying assumed the post as vice director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the People’s Hospital in Yinan County at the young age of 27. She held the post for 12 years until 1988 when she was became director of the county’s Family Planning Service Center. Li had never pursued the new position, and was unable to accept the unexpected transfer, preferring instead to continue working in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics throughout her career.

  20. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium. (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E


    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium ( has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish.

  1. Li Xiuzhen Recalls the History of Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    FAMILY planning and population control has been the basic State policy of China since 1972. The 25th Article of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in 1978 stipulates, "The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development." The 49th Article stipulates, "Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning."

  2. Improving the urban family planning programme. (United States)


    This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen.

  3. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU


    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  4. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans. (United States)

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  5. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans. (United States)

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  6. Main points for 1991 family planning work. (United States)


    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  7. Theoretical Foundation of Family Health Promotion—the Orientation of Family Planning Development in Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO


    Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.

  8. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning. (United States)

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C


    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  9. Familienleistungen – Förderung von Ehe und/oder Familie Family Benefits—Marriage and/or Family Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wersig


    Full Text Available Der Sammelband beschäftigt sich aus wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher sowie aus juristischer Perspektive mit der Berücksichtigung von Ehe und Familie im Gefüge der deutschen Steuerrechts- und Sozialordnung. Die Art der Berücksichtigung von Ehe und Familie, besonders im Steuerrecht, ist seit Jahren Gegenstand politischer und wissenschaftlicher Kontroversen. Die Ausgestaltung der Berücksichtigung bzw. Förderung ist eng verknüpft mit Sollensvorstellungen und politischer Förderung einer bestimmten Art von Familie und einer traditionellen Arbeitsteilung der Geschlechter. Ein Beispiel für diesen Aspekt des Themas ist das seit Jahrzehnten diskutierte Ehegattensplitting und dessen Reformalternativen, die in mehreren Beiträgen des Bandes diskutiert werden.The collection engages with the provisions for marriage and family within the structures of the German tax law and social system from the perspectives of economics, social science, and law. The types of these provisions for marriage and family have been the source of political and scholarly controversy for years, particularly in terms of tax law. The form these provisions or aid should take is tightly connected to concepts of debt, the political aid of certain types of family configurations, and a traditional division of work among the sexes. One example of this aspect is the current manner of splitting the income tax among married partners and the proposed reforms of this system. This has been a topic discussed for decades and finds its way into many of the articles of this volume.

  10. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  11. A Mulditisiciplinary Model of Family Therapy with people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza


    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.

  12. Conceptual framework for the integration of computer-aided design and computer-aided process planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, R.K.


    This research presents a conceptual framework for the integration of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP). The conceptual framework resides in an environmental of N CAD systems and M CAPP systems. It consists of three major modules: a generic-part definition data structure, a preprocessor, and a postprocessor. The generic-part definition data structure was developed to serve as a neutral-part definition data representation between CAD and CAPP systems. With this structure, the number of interfacing systems can be reduced to 1 + M systems. The preprocessor, a part feature recognition system, is designed to extract part definition data from an IGES file, evaluates that data, allows inclusion of unsupported data, and finally puts the data into the data structure. The postprocessor was written to convert the data from the data structure to the part input format of a selected CAPP system. A prototype systems that uses IBM's CAD package (CADAM), IGES and United Technologies Research Center's CAPP package (CMPP) was developed to test and prove the concept of this research. The input is a CADAM graphic design file and the outputs are a summary of operations and a tolerance control chart which are ready to be used in the production shops.

  13. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006. (United States)

    Simbar, M


    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.

  14. A family planning program that pays for itself. (United States)

    Kon, Y


    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  15. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education. (United States)

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  16. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  17. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning (United States)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen


    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  18. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being. (United States)


    As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and

  19. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors. (United States)


    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  20. Analysis on high-risk groups of AIDS comprehensive intervention effect participated by family planning department in Liuzhou city%柳州市计生部门参与高危人群艾滋病综合干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余东远; 翁毓秋


    Objective In order to discuss on high - risk groups of AIDS comprehensive intervention effect participated by family planning department, and explore the validity and feasibility of the model. Method Choosed 100 family planning cadres to conduct training. Randomly selected urban district 35 community drug users and sex workers to carry out comprehensive HIV/AIDS intervention, made baseline survey before intervention, made final survey after intervention, Comparative analysis on the awareness rate of HIV / AIDS knowledge, needle sharing, condom use etc among drug users and sex workers before and after the intervention of. Results In drug users and related to AIDS among female sex workers all knowledge awareness rate after intervention was significantly higher than before intervention, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 05) ; part of drug addicts receiving community referral services, needle sharing was significantly improved," a recent injection drug use or sharing needles with others" by total drug addicts 62. 9% down to 30. 7% , the difference was statistically significant (P <0. 01) ; condom use situation among prostitutes are improved obviously," never used condoms" sex workers from 26. 8% before intervention to 4. 5% after intervention," recently one -time service use a condom" before the intervention increased to 63.8% after intervention in 97.2% , increased significantly, the difference has statistics significance (P < 0. 05) . Conclusions the family planning departments in AIDS prevention intervention effect is obvious, is feasible, and can effectively alleviate the CDC manpower deficiency difficulties, is worth promoting intervention model.%目的 探讨计生部门参与高危人群艾滋病综合干预效果,探索该模式的有效性与可行性.方法 选择100名计生干部进行培训,随机选择市区内35个社区内的吸毒人员及暗娼实施艾滋病防治综合干预,干预前进行基线调查,干预后做终期调查,

  1. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy. (United States)



    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  2. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom? (United States)

    Stemerding, B


    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  3. Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs. (United States)


    A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When

  4. Victims of AIDS: Family, Society, Cost and Outlook. (United States)

    Peyton, Doris F.

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become an increasing problem throughout the nation. Experts predict that there will have been 270,000 cases, including 179,000 deaths, by 1991. The disease has devastating psychosocial as well as physical effects. Neither preventive medicine nor a cure is anywhere in sight. Everyone needs to be…

  5. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role. (United States)

    Tata, N H


    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action.

  6. Participation Rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program: Trends for 1967 through 1984. (United States)

    Ruggles, Patricia; Michel, Richard C.

    This report examines participation rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TRIM2, a microsimulation model that simulated the eligibility and benefit rules of the AFDC program on a state-by-state basis, showed that there had been a dramatic decline after 1981 in the rate at which AFDC families were applying for and…

  7. Financial Therapy and Planning for Families with Special Needs Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Lauderdale


    Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.

  8. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić


    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  9. A second look at natural family planning. (United States)

    Lolarga, E


    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the

  10. Study of Families of Curves in the Euclidian Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaib Lekhmissi


    Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.

  11. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Rasheed


    Full Text Available Context: Inter-spouse communication majorly influences the decision making process of couples for adopting family planning measures. This factor is especially important in male dominated cultures, where, it is thought unnecessary for men to discuss family planning as child bearing and contraception are presumed to be female matters. Aims: The present study was conducted with the aim to know the extent of inter spouse communication among couples and its impact on use of family planning measures and family size. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among ever married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years (n=718 residing in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was a community based cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: A community based household survey was conducted in the registered areas of urban and rural health training centres of Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh,Uttar Pradesh. Participants were enquired on various parameters related to their conversations on family planning with their husband, ever use of contraception and their family size. Statistical analysis used: Chi square was applied to test the association. Results: A sizeable portion (18.1% of women had never conversed with their husbands on family planning matters. Communicators were observed to have lesser number of living children (p<0.001. Current use of contraceptives was significantly associated with inter spouse discussion (p<0.05. 43% women from the study sample had never discussed the choice of a contraceptive method with their husbands. Conclusions: Husband-wife communication plays an important role in family planning acceptance as well as in deciding the final family size.

  13. Computer aided discovery of families of valid inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert

    We present a computer program that helps the user discovering new families of valid inequalities for any integer program. It does so by finding simple valid inequalities that are violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these inequalities further........ We present new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....

  14. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane


    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  15. The feminist position on family planning in Spain. (United States)

    Navarro, M V


    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  16. "An Instrument of Accountability." ILO/AIDS: A Global Plan and a New Code of Practice. (United States)

    World of Work, 2001


    Describes the International Labor Organization's plan of action to fight the global epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Describes the code of practice that provides workers, employers, and governments with guidelines for addressing AIDS and its impact on the workplace. Includes key principles of the code. (JOW)

  17. XPLANE, a Generative Computer Aided Process Planning System for Part Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erve, van 't A.H.


    This paper reports on the development of XPLANE, a generative computer aided process planning system for part manufacturing. Described is its position and functioning as a part of a more extended computer aided manufacturing system that includes a link to CAD systems, as well as systems for computer

  18. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability. (United States)

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.


    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  19. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide


    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  20. Reproductive Health, Family Planning and HIV/AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann


    Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender, and Health in Neo-liberal Times explores the ideas and institutions that were framed at the 1994 United Nations population conference in Cairo and traces their trajectories sixteen years down the line. Why were Third World feminists profoundly critical of ...

  1. Computer aided discovery of families of valid inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    that are violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these examples further. We will present examples of new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....

  2. Using Marriage and Family as an Aid in Acculturation (United States)

    Knyshevytska, Liliya; Hill, Jonnie


    This study describes the usefulness of a simulation, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, in helping newly arrived international students adjust to the academic demands of university life. It outlines various phases of the simulation. The narrative regarding its implementation in the classroom demonstrates how well many international students adapt to the value…

  3. Do different funding mechanisms produce different results? The implications of family planning for fiscal federalism. (United States)

    McFarlane, D R; Meier, K J


    The 104th Congress considered massive structural changes in federal aid to the states. Not only would federal categorical grants be consolidated into block grants, but entitlement programs would be converted to block grants too. Using family planning as a case study, this article examines whether program impacts change if different grant mechanisms are employed. Findings from a pooled time series analysis of state family planning expenditures show that categorical funding (here, title X of the Public Health Service Act) is the most cost effective in producing desired outcomes, such as lowering infant mortality. Policies using entitlement grants are generally more cost effective than those that rely upon block grants. We discuss the implications of these findings for health policy more broadly and for fiscal federalism in general.

  4. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, S R


    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  5. Experimentation in family planning delivery systems: an overview. (United States)

    Cuca, R; Pierce, C S


    Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.

  6. Improving the quality of care in Chinese family planning programme. (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Geng, Q; Haffey, J; Douglas, E


    The Chinese State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) is the government department responsible for coordinating and implementing the national population and family planning programs. The commission includes about 300,000 family planning workers and 50 million volunteers. Community workers provide IEC and technical services to couples of reproductive age. In July 1991, SFPC began a five year project to train rural family planning workers in contraceptive technology and interpersonal communication and counseling. These workers were important because of their service to a population of 800 million or 75% of total population. The training program was part of an effort to standardize training and institutionalize it throughout the country. The project involved 20 pilot training stations in 19 provinces. The primary task was to train family planning workers at the grassroots level. 80,000 persons were expected to be trained during the five years. Activities included a training needs assessment, development of training curricula and programs, training of workers, and monitoring and evaluation. Training techniques and topics will include participatory training methods, interpersonal communication and counseling, development of audience based training methods, issues of contraceptive choice and quality of care, and counseling issues such as sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection prevention. About 40,000 family planning workers and volunteers were trained by 1992 in counties, townships, and villages. Trainees learned about "informed choice" and the importance of counseling. Feedback from training activities focused on the appreciation for the participatory training methods such as brainstorming, case study, and role play. Workers appreciated the process involved in training as well as the information received. Evaluation showed that clients improved their knowledge and had positive interactions with workers.

  7. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation]. (United States)

    de Montigny, F


    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  9. Local sequence targeting in the AID/APOBEC family differentially impacts retroviral restriction and antibody diversification. (United States)

    Kohli, Rahul M; Maul, Robert W; Guminski, Amy F; McClure, Rhonda L; Gajula, Kiran S; Saribasak, Huseyin; McMahon, Moira A; Siliciano, Robert F; Gearhart, Patricia J; Stivers, James T


    Nucleic acid cytidine deaminases of the activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC family are critical players in active and innate immune responses, playing roles as target-directed, purposeful mutators. AID specifically deaminates the host immunoglobulin (Ig) locus to evolve antibody specificity, whereas its close relative, APOBEC3G (A3G), lethally mutates the genomes of retroviral pathogens such as HIV. Understanding the basis for the target-specific action of these enzymes is essential, as mistargeting poses significant risks, potentially promoting oncogenesis (AID) or fostering drug resistance (A3G). AID prefers to deaminate cytosine in WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G) motifs, whereas A3G favors deamination of CCC motifs. This specificity is largely dictated by a single, divergent protein loop in the enzyme family that recognizes the DNA sequence. Through grafting of this substrate-recognition loop, we have created enzyme variants of A3G and AID with altered local targeting to directly evaluate the role of sequence specificity on immune function. We find that grafted loops placed in the A3G scaffold all produced efficient restriction of HIV but that foreign loops in the AID scaffold compromised hypermutation and class switch recombination. Local targeting, therefore, appears alterable for innate defense against retroviruses by A3G but important for adaptive antibody maturation catalyzed by AID. Notably, AID targeting within the Ig locus is proportionally correlated to its in vitro ability to target WRC sequences rather than non-WRC sequences. Although other mechanisms may also contribute, our results suggest that local sequence targeting by AID/APOBEC3 enzymes represents an elegant example of co-evolution of enzyme specificity with its target DNA sequence.

  10. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town. (United States)

    Toledo, R


    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas.

  11. Karmic quest: Thai family caregivers promoting a peaceful death for people with AIDS. (United States)

    Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette F


    This paper reports the constructions of karma by four Thai family caregivers living with a dying person with AIDS in Southern Thailand. These four families form a subset of a larger ethnographic case study exploring the experiences of families living with a relative with AIDS. Serial interviews, observations, and field journal were used as data collection methods with the four families. The findings indicated that the karmic quest is a dominant theme in the narratives of these families caring for their loved ones dying with AIDS. The 'calm and peaceful' death that is described in the palliative care literature equated with their desire for the Buddhist philosophy of a harmonious death. The families used the law of karma and reincarnation as their main frame of reference and mobilised their religious resources to create meaning and purpose. Karmic healing activities were aimed at ending suffering, promoting a peaceful and calm death and ensuring a better life in the next one. The findings are important for the development of palliative nursing practice in Thailand by acknowledging religious and cultural values to promote peaceful death.

  12. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia. (United States)


    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  13. The National Family Planning Program: its impact on perinatal mortality. (United States)

    Arshat, H; Kader, H A; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar


    The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of family planning on declining maternal and infant mortality rates in Malaysia since the National Family Planning Program began operation in May, 1967. Data were derived from the registration of vital events and reports from the Malaysian Family Life Survey conducted in 1978, and demonstrate declines in maternal and infant mortality rates. Although this is a result of a combination of factors (e.g., socioeconomic development, high quality health and medical services) the contribution of family planning is significant. Between 1957 and 1980 the maternal mortality rate declined by 80%. High risk births declined from 10.2% to 8.2% for mothers under age 20, and from 15% to 13.7% for mothers over age 35 during the 1967-1977 decade. From 1955 - 1980 the infant mortality rate declined by 68.2% to a level of 24.9/1000 live births; this may be partly due to the shift to lower order births (and therefore low risk) as a result of better family planning. Perinatal mortality declined 6.7% in the pre-implementation years (1957 - 1967) and 19.8% in the post-implementation years (1967 - 1977). Low birthweight is a significant correlate of infant survival, and data from this study indicate that birthweights increase with maternal age up to 30-34 years, then begin to decrease. Birthweights are also lower (and infant mortality higher) for babies born at birth intervals of less than 15 months. Therefore, concerted efforts in family planning education need to be directed to vulnerable groups such as young mothers (under 19) and older mothers (over 40).

  14. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects]. (United States)

    Mbacke, C


    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  15. Family Resiliency, Uncertainty, Optimism, and the Quality of Life of Individuals with HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Frain, Michael P.; Berven, Norman L.; Chan, Fong; Tschopp, Molly K.


    The purpose of the study is to contribute to the understanding of quality of life as it is experienced by a community-based, nonclinical sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS by applying family resiliency theory and cognitive appraisal concepts of uncertainty and optimism. Through the use of a Web-based survey, 125 individuals with HIV/AIDS…

  16. 77 FR 70874 - Notice of Charter Renewal of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ... Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Charter Renewal of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... the PEPFAR Scientific Advisory Board (hereinafter referred to as ``the Board''). This charter...

  17. 78 FR 31626 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ... AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific, implementation, and policy issues... President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR Scientific Advisory Board (hereinafter...

  18. An Architecture of Computer Aided Process Planning System Integrated with Scheduling Using Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Kumar; Sunil; Rajotia


    Process planning and scheduling are two major plann in g and control activities that consume significant part of the lead-time, theref ore all attempts are being made to reduce lead-time by automating them. Compute r Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a step in this direction. Most of the existin g CAPP systems do not consider scheduling while generating a process plan. Sched uling is done separately after the process plan has been generated and therefore , it is possible that a process plan so generated is e...

  19. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy. (United States)

    Zuhlke, W


    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  20. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12. (United States)

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  1. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study. (United States)

    Reis, Janet; And Others


    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  2. A Natural Method for Family Planning: Lactational Amenorrhea Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Senturk Erenel


    Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390

  3. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member. (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong


    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  4. AIDS (United States)

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  5. Complete, accurate, mammalian phylogenies aid conservation planning, but not much (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Grenyer, Richard; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R. P.; Gittlemann, John L.; Hoffmann, Michael; Safi, Kamran; Schipper, Jan; Stuart, Simon N.; Brooks, Thomas


    In the face of unprecedented global biodiversity loss, conservation planning must balance between refining and deepening knowledge versus acting on current information to preserve species and communities. Phylogenetic diversity (PD), a biodiversity measure that takes into account the evolutionary relationships between species, is arguably a more meaningful measure of biodiversity than species diversity, but cannot yet be applied to conservation planning for the majority of taxa for which phylogenetic trees have not yet been developed. Here, we investigate how the quality of data on the taxonomy and/or phylogeny of species affects the results of spatial conservation planning in terms of the representation of overall mammalian PD. The results show that the better the quality of the biodiversity data the better they can serve as a basis for conservation planning. However, decisions based on incomplete data are remarkably robust across different levels of degrading quality concerning the description of new species and the availability of phylogenetic information. Thus, given the level of urgency and the need for action, conservation planning can safely make use of the best available systematic data, limited as these data may be. PMID:21844044

  6. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning. (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay M


    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care.

  7. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barbeito Roibal


    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  8. [Encouragement of the national family planning program in Rwanda]. (United States)

    Weis, P


    Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of

  9. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy. (United States)

    Weaver, J L


    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  10. Preparing School Counseling Students to Aid Families: Integrating a Family Systems Perspective (United States)

    Paylo, Matthew John


    In this article, the value of integrating family systems theory into a school counseling curriculum is explored. Some programs have historically placed school counselors in a difficult position by not adequately preparing them for the demands of incorporating family systems and community collaboration into clinical practice. The rationale for…

  11. Evaluation on the Effectiveness and Feasibility of Integrating STI/HIV Counseling with Existing Family Planning Service in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏飞; 周颖燕; 高尔生


    Objective To assess the impact of pamphlet distribution and counseling on STI/HIV/condom knowledge, attitudes towards STI / AIDS patients and condom use intention of married couples in Shanghai and explore the effective way of integrating STI/HIV prevention with family planning services.Methods Four hundred and five married women aged 20~39 and their husbands were recruited from 14 family planning stations at 7 administrative districts of Shanghai. They were randomly divided into two groups, the counseling intervention (CI) group with 199 couples and the pamphlet distribution (PD) group with 206 couples. For the PD group, only pamphlets containing information on STI/AIDS/ condom were distributed and condoms given free of charge, whereas for the CI group,they were provided with not only full counseling on STI /AIDS /condom and free condoms, but also followed by demonstration of correct condom use. The two modes of interventions were conducted following the baseline survey, and the follow-up data were collected one month later.Results 1. There was no statistical difference between the two groups on STI/AIDS/condom knowledge level, attitudes towards STI /AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline. 2. The follow-up findings indicated that: ① A significant enhancement in knowledge level was observed in the CI group, with 20% increase for husbands and 24% for wives. While for the PD group, only slight increase was observed : 2% for husbands and 3% for wives ; ② 93% husbands and 76% wives of the CI group changed their discriminatory attitudes towards STI patients, and towards AIDS patients, the percentages were 73% and 78%, respectively; ③ 68% husbands and 64% wives of the CI group expressed their intention for condom use; ④ For the PD group, however, there was no difference in attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline and follow-up. 3. The knowledge scores and attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients were mainly

  12. Case Based Reasoning Intelligent System for Network Computer Aided Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunhua; WU Zhengjia; ZHOU Chengjun; ZHU Dalin; LI Haoping


    Computer aided process planning system played a key role for integrating design and manufacturing or assembly systems properly considering available resources and design constraints. To take advantage of the enterprise resource, the web CAPP framework was established. Case based reasoning and multi agent system were integrated in the system. The multi agent mechanism was discussed in the paper. And an instance of case base was introduced. They made the system run independently and continuously in the network environment of process planning problems.

  13. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs (United States)

    Dubey, Archana


    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  14. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme. (United States)

    Zou, P


    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A multi-agent computer aided assembly process planning system (MCAAPP) for ship hull is presented. The system includes system framework, global facilitator, the macro agent structure, agent communication language, agent-oriented programming language, knowledge representation and reasoning strategy. The system can produce the technological file and technological quota, which can satisfy the production needs of factory.

  16. 75 FR 60846 - Notice of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ... capacity concerning scientific, implementation, and policy issues related to the global response to HIV... of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board, hereinafter referred to...

  17. Maxillary lateral incisor implants: planning with the aid of orthodontics. (United States)

    Kokich, Vincent G


    This article has discussed six guidelines for managing adolescent orthodontic patients who are missing their maxillary lateral incisors and will require implants to replace these teeth. The space for the crown and implant, the space between the apices of the roots of the central incisor and canine, the possibility of implant site development, the effect of space opening on the integrity of the adjacent papillae, the impact of altered passive eruption, and the method for determining the age of implant placement have been discussed in detail. The intent of this article has been to emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary decision-making when planning implants in young adolescent patients who are congenitally missing their maxillary lateral incisors.

  18. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy. (United States)

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  19. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koukoufilippou J


    Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiying; LI Zhen; JIANG Zhibin


    Computer-aided block assembly process planning based on rule-reasoning are developed in order to improve the assembly efficiency and implement the automated block assembly process planning generation in shipbuilding. First, weighted directed liaison graph (WDLG) is proposed to represent the model of block assembly process according to the characteristics of assembly relation, and edge list (EL) is used to describe assembly sequences. Shapes and assembly attributes of block parts are analyzed to determine the assembly position and matched parts of parts used frequently. Then, a series of assembly rules are generalized, and assembly sequences for block are obtained by means of rule reasoning. Final, a prototype system of computer-aided block assembly process planning is built. The system has been tested on actual block, and the results were found to be quite efficiency. Meanwhile, the fundament for the automation of block assembly process generation and integration with other systems is established.

  1. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.


    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  2. Exploring Effectiveness of Computer-Aided Planning in Implant Positioning for a Single Immediate Implant Placement. (United States)

    Edelmann, Alexander R; Hosseini, Bashir; Byrd, Warren C; Preisser, John S; Tyndall, Donald A; Nguyen, Tung; Bencharit, Sompop


    The value of computer-aided implant planning using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for single immediate implants was explored. Eighteen patients requiring extraction of a tooth followed by a single immediate implant were enrolled. Small volume preoperative CBCT scans were used to plan the position of the implant. A taper screwed-type implant was immediately placed into a fresh socket using only the final 1 or 2 drills for osteotomy. Postoperative CBCTs were used for the analysis of actual implant placement positioning. Measurements of the planned and the actual implant position were made with respect to their position relative to the adjacent teeth. Mesio-distal displacements and the facial-lingual deviation of the implant from the planned position were determined. Changes in the angulation of the planned and actual implant position in relation to the clinical crown were also measured. To statistically summarize the results, box plots and 95% CIs for means of paired differences were used. The analysis showed no statistical difference between the planned position and final implant placement position in any measurement. The CBCT scans coupled with the computer-aided implant planning program along with a final 1-to-2 drill protocol may improve the accuracy of single immediate implant placement for taper screwed-type implants.

  3. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.

  4. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning. (United States)

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D


    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  5. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents (United States)

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.


    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  7. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.


    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Health promotion needs of Hammanskraal families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N C van Wyk


    Full Text Available Health promotion is regarded as the cornerstone of good health. It is the action expected from individuals and families in order to better their own health situation. Health promotion is an art and science (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16 that is integrated into the primary health care to reduce existing health problems. The purpose of the research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The research was located within a qualitative paradigm that is both exploratory and descriptive. Eight families who were purposely selected participated in the research process. Qualitative methods, such as group interviews and field notes were utilised to collect data. The health promotion needs of the families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS were explored and described. Tesch’s analysis process, which entails a series of steps, was followed (Creswell, 2003:192. Themes, categories and subcategories that form the central focus of health promotion needs emerged during the data analysis. These themes,categories and subcategories are used to develop guidelines for health promotion. Opsomming Die bevordering van gesondheid is die hoeksteen van gesondheid. Dit is die aksie wat van individue en familie verwag word, sodat hulle hul eie gesondheidstoestand kan verbeter. Die bevordering van gesondheid is ‘n kuns en ‘n wetenskap, wat geïntegreer is in primêre gesondheidsorg, om bestaande gesondheidsprobleme te verminder (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16. Die doel van die navorsing, waarna in hierdie artikel verwys word, was om uit te vind wat die gesondheidsorgbehoeftes van families, met adolessente wat wees gelaat is as gevolg van menslike immunogebrek virus of verworve immuungebrek sindroom (MIV/VIGS, is, en dit te beskryf. Die navorsing was binne die raamwerk van ‘n kwalitatiewe paradigma, wat

  9. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C


    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  10. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article. (United States)

    Hauser, P M


    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering.

  11. Social desirability bias in family planning studies: a neglected problem. (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Grimes, David A


    Studies on family planning methods traditionally have relied on self-reports of unknown validity and reproducibility. Social desirability bias, a type of information bias, occurs when study participants respond inaccurately - but in ways that will be viewed favorably by others. Several lines of evidence reveal that this bias can be powerful in sexual matters, including reports of coitus, use of contraceptives and induced abortion. For example, studies using vaginal prostate-specific antigen testing reveal underreporting of unprotected coitus and overreporting of barrier contraceptive use. Medication Event Monitoring System studies, which electronically record the time of pill dispensing from a bottle or pack, indicate widespread exaggeration of adherence to pill-taking regimens, including oral contraceptives. Comparisons of provider data and self-reports of induced abortions reveal extensive underreporting of induced abortion. Reliance on self-reported data underestimates contraceptive efficacy. Although techniques to minimize this bias exist, they are infrequently used in family planning studies. Greater skepticism about self-reports and more objective means of documenting coitus and contraceptive use are needed if contraceptive efficacy is to be accurately measured.

  12. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Pachauri


    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  13. Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings. (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia; Ilic, Vilma; Mukasa, Miriam N; Ddamulira, Christopher


    This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood status, children report similar levels of psychosocial well-being; 4) high levels of family cohesion, positive perceptions of the future, school satisfaction, and lower levels of hopelessness (hopefulness) are associated with high educational aspirations; and 5) reported family economic resources at baseline, all seem to play a role in predicting children's educational preferences and psychosocial well-being. These findings suggest that the focus for care and support of orphaned children should not be limited to addressing their psychosocial needs. Addressing the economic needs of the households in which orphaned children live is equally important. Indeed, in the context of extreme poverty-in which most of the children represented in this study live-addressing structural factors, including poverty, may be a key driver in addressing their psychosocial functioning.

  14. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women. (United States)

    Sadik, N


    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  15. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.


    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  16. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning. (United States)

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta


    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  17. Children, AIDS and the politics of orphan care in Ethiopia: the extended family revisited. (United States)

    Abebe, Tatek; Aase, Asbjorn


    The astounding rise in the number of orphans due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has left many Ethiopian families and communities with enormous childcare problems. Available studies on the capacity and sustainability of the extended family system, which culturally performs the role of care for children in need, suggest two competing theories. The first is grounded in the social rupture thesis and assumes that the traditional system of orphan care is stretched by the impact of the epidemic, and is actually collapsing. By contrast, the second theory counter-suggests that the flexibility and strength of the informal childcare practise, if supported by appropriate interventions, can still support a large number of orphans. Based on a seven-month period of child-focused, qualitative research fieldwork in Ethiopia involving observations; in-depth interviews with orphans (42), social workers (12) and heads of households (18); focus group discussions with orphans (8), elderly people and community leaders (6); and story-writing by children in school contexts, this article explores the trade-offs and social dynamics of orphan care within extended family structures in Ethiopia. It argues that there is a rural-urban divide in the capacity to cater for orphans that emanates from structural differences as well as the socio-cultural and economic values associated with children. The care of orphans within extended family households is also characterised by multiple and reciprocal relationships in care-giving and care-receiving practices. By calling for a contextual understanding of the 'orphan burden', the paper concludes that interventions for orphans may consider care as a continuum in the light of four profiles of extended families, namely rupturing, transient, adaptive, and capable families.

  18. Institutional Formation of Family Planning in the District Sukabumi and the Bitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy


    Full Text Available This study is about the implementation of family planning (KB in regional affairs. Nevertheless, this study focuses on the establishment of institutional care and family planning in the area set up. The purpose of this study is to get a complete picture of the role of family planning agencies that had stood alone in implementing family planning matters that have been handed over to the local government. By using the methods of descriptive and qualitative approach, this study found several things. First, there is impression of conflicts of interest (sectoral ego between Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA and National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN on forming a population and family planning (BKKBD institutions in province, county and city. Second, the two regions, Sukabumi County and Bitung City that have shaped BKKBD has focused attention in supporting the success of family planning programs. Third, the integration of family planning into the regional medium-term development plan, as did the City of Bitung and Sukabumi County, ensure the sustainability of the program and budgeted in the regional budget revenue and expenditure (APBD. Finally, this study concludes, coordination and synchronization policies on family planning should be done by the BKKBN and MoHA.

  19. 78 FR 55326 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR Scientific... Relief (PEPFAR). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity...

  20. 76 FR 52731 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ...). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  1. 78 FR 33144 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    .... The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  2. 77 FR 55891 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific... (United States)


    ...). The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning scientific... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), the PEPFAR...

  3. China's Experience of Quality Care in Family Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU


    Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.

  4. Computer-aided process planning: Development of an expert process planning system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S.L.; Hummel, K.E.; Wolf, M.L.


    The project utilizes artificial intelligence (AI) technology to develop an expert system that will be used to prepare production plans, to automatically make cutting tool selections, and to automatically define machinability parameters and NC tape requirements. The expert system, XCUT, can plan features on moderately complex prismatic machined parts and reduce 2 to 4 hours of manual process effort into 15 or 30 minutes. Areas of future work have been identified that will enable the XCUT system to be used for production. These areas where further development is required are geometric reasoning, representation of manufacturing features, dimensioning and tolerancing, feature extraction, distributed computing architecture, knowledge gathering, and user interfaces.

  5. Computer-aided process planning: Development of an expert process planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S.L.; Hummel, K.E.; Wolf, M.L.


    The project utilizes artificial intelligence (AI) technology to develop an expert system that will be used to prepare production plans, to automatically make cutting tool selections, and to automatically define machinability parameters and NC tape requirements. The expert system, XCUT, can plan features on moderately complex prismatic machined parts and reduce 2 to 4 hours of manual process effort into 15 or 30 minutes. Areas of future work have been identified that will enable the XCUT system to be used for production. These areas where further development is required are geometric reasoning, representation of manufacturing features, dimensioning and tolerancing, feature extraction, distributed computing architecture, knowledge gathering, and user interfaces.

  6. The Soviet question: as the new commonwealth rises from the ruins, will Western family planning assistance come to the rescue? (United States)

    Barron, T


    Family planning in the old Soviet Union was administered through roughly 100 Family and Marriage Centers scattered across the hugh country. Unfortunately they only provided abortions and help for infertile couples, and not much else. The old Soviet government gave contraceptives a low priority and as a result they were only available as imports on the black market. The result is a lot of ignorance and misinformation about oral contraceptives, IUDs, and sexuality in general. The average Soviet women has 4-6 abortions in a life time. The USSR's infant mortality rate in 1991 was 23/1000. In 1988 its maternal mortality rate was 43/1000. The contraceptive prevalence rate in 1988 was 13.7%. There are some small, encouraging signs of change. The abortion rate fell 15.4% between 1975-1988 according to JOICFP. In 1989 the Soviet Family and Health Association (SFHA) was established in order to improve these horrible statistics. The biggest obstacle to the success of the SFHA is the political instability currently being experienced as the Commonwealth is being formed. The IPPF helped raise $14,000 dollars to purchase 15.5 million Malaysian condoms. UN aid is only in the form of technical assistance since the Commonwealth is considered a developed nation. This is the same problem currently facing the Eastern Block nations. The Commonwealth is really like 2 different countries in terms of its family planning needs. The states of the South and East have a population growth rate of 2.5% annually. While the states of the North and West have a population growth rate of 0.6%. Until political stability is achieved in the new Commonwealth, donor nations are going to be unwilling to offer a great deal of assistance. Ultimately the Commonwealth is going to have fund its own family planning system aided by the technical advice from the West.

  7. Learning about population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India. (United States)

    Iyengar, S


    To determine the attitudes of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning, a sample of 863 high school students (aged 10-18 years) from the state of Andhra Pradesh was asked 2 operational questions ("have you heard about family planning" and "why does India need family planning?") to measure levels of family planning awareness, and 2 additional questions to measure approval of family planning ("do you think family planning is a good thing" and "which is better, a big family or a small family?"). Other variables considered were religion, socioeconomic status, education, political knowledge, and media exposure. 70% of the respondents had heard of family planning. 49% were able to state a reason for family planning (FP), while 32% were able to grasp the causal connection between population growth and economic development. Of the students who had heard of FP, 85% believed that FP was good, while 14% favored large families. The findings reflected the higher level of approval of the Andhra Pradesh youth towards FP compared with their adults; this was attributed to generational differences, and possibly to the lower level of education of Indian adults. Religion exhibited a strong effect on youth's attitudes toward FP, with Hindu children exhibiting a more favorable attitude compared with their Muslim counterparts who felt that family planning was bad and large families were good. Although education appears to be the critical determinant of family planning awareness, the results suggest that overall, the integral element of the socialization process is exposure to a modernizing environment. Nevertheless, reduction of population growth rate still largely depends on the Indian government's provision of educational opportunities to its youth.

  8. Misconceptions about family planning of women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Demirgöz Bal


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause.  The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and  infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.

  9. Specialized vs. combined clinics: patterns of delivery of family planning services. (United States)

    Weintraub, D R; Wald, S B


    Recently it has been asserted that family planning should be offered primarily through maternal and child health (MCH) programs. Others have argued that family planning should be provided only in a comprehensive medical services setting. A pilot study was made during 1968 and 1969 of 12 family planning clinics in New York City with the finding that clinics with a specialized family planning staff provided the same or better quality service and saw significantly more women. In 1971, the National Center for Family Planning Services sponsored a national county-by-county study to obtain information for assessing progress toward providing subsidized family planning services to all persons in need. Results showed that as of 1971, 60% of the 1.9 million patients who received family planning services received them in specialized clinics. Even in hospitals, more than 3 in 10 family planning patients received care in specialized clinics. The conclusion reached is that whatever the advantages of combined or specialized services, neither the MCH system nor general medical care facilities could integrate the current specialized family planning caseload without massive reorganization of the health delivery system and its financing.

  10. Algorithm for planning a double-jaw orthognathic surgery using a computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) protocol. Part 1: planning sequence. (United States)

    Xia, J J; Gateno, J; Teichgraeber, J F; Yuan, P; Chen, K-C; Li, J; Zhang, X; Tang, Z; Alfi, D M


    The success of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery depends not only on the surgical techniques, but also on an accurate surgical plan. The adoption of computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) has created a paradigm shift in surgical planning. However, planning an orthognathic operation using CASS differs fundamentally from planning using traditional methods. With this in mind, the Surgical Planning Laboratory of Houston Methodist Research Institute has developed a CASS protocol designed specifically for orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this article is to present an algorithm using virtual tools for planning a double-jaw orthognathic operation. This paper will serve as an operation manual for surgeons wanting to incorporate CASS into their clinical practice.

  11. Creating a strategic plan for configuration management using computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.R.; Sarfaty, R.


    This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility`s physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables.

  12. Effect of Family Wealth and Attitudes toward Unmet Need for Family Planning Among Fertile Couples in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Azis


    Full Text Available One of the problems generated by unmet need for family planning is the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, that could impact on abortion. Unmet need for family planning affected by various factors, both from within and from outside the woman. This study aimed to analyze the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards family planning unmet need in women of childbearing age couple in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This study is analytic observational research. Cross-sectional design was applied to take sample from a total of 246 spouses of fertile age of respondents, with Systematic Random Sampling technique. For bivariate test, analysis chi-square was applied and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analysis. Studies show that there is no correlation characteristics of socio-demographic variables, only the level of wealthy significantly related to the unmet need for family planning. poorest respondents and poorer levels of prosperity, risk unmet need for family planning is almost 3 times more than respondents with wealthy ≥middle level (OR = 2.451; 95% CI 1.302, 4.615. The tendency of mothers who have a negative attitude, unmet need for family planning is almost 22 time than mothers who have a positive attitude (OR = 21.934; 95%CI = 8.812, 54.596. To increase the awareness and participation of all government institutions and community agencies, including the cooperation and support of religious leaders. In an effort to disseminate family planning information in the context of religion, so that misconceptions about contraceptive use can be improved. Service increase and competence of health workers planning to create awareness and empower women, especially mothers of poor families, to make choices appropriate contraception.

  13. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M


    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  14. Family planning is the first and most important step for rural development. (United States)

    Mokarapong, T


    Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural

  15. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling. (United States)

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J


    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.

  16. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  17. Family planning impact evaluation: the evolution of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermalin, Albert I.


    Full Text Available This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper prepared for the seminar on methods for inpact evaluation of family planning programs held in Jaco, Costa Rica, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, the Carolina Population Center of the University of North Carolina, and the Central American Population Program of the University of Costa Rica. The goal of the seminar was to look at current methodological problems facing careful evaluation of the impact of programs, to examine some of the new methods that have been developed to address persistent issues, and to assess the methodological challenges posed by the expanded goals of many programs following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. This paper was designed to serve as the background to discussions of current methodologies and issues by tracing the development and nature of methods for assessing impact that started soon after the first programs were initiated in the 1950s. The techniques discussed include standardization and trend analysis, the analyses of acceptor data, experimental designs, multivariate areal analysis, population-based surveys, and multilevel strategies. The intent of the program sponsors and coordinators was to publish the collected papers but various contingencies intervened to make this infeasible. A description of the seminar and many of the papers are maintained on the University of Costa Rica website: As a background chapter, the original version contained references to many of the other chapters planned for the volume. As many of these papers appear on the website, relevant references are given to the authors and this website throughout the paper.

  18. Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972). (United States)


    In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

  19. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  20. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  1. Families as catalysts for peer adherence support in enhancing hope for people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1 to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2 to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. Methods: The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. Results: The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. Conclusions: The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in

  2. Satisfaction with family planning services - interpersonal and organisational dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Westaway


    Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.

  3. Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freundl G


    Full Text Available For fertility awareness based methods- (FAB- users charting and checking of menstrual cycle symptoms may be supported by different instruments and devices. These cycle monitors promise to detect the fertile and infertile days by using direct and indirect markers of fertility in a woman´s menstrual cycle. In this article we use data of our own studies, data out of the literature research in Medline and PubMed and from our own German NFP (natural family planning database. We tried to rate the efficacy of the tested monitors. We figured out that only for one hormone- and for one temperature-computer reasonable prospective studies exist. To get more comparable results we have performed in 2000 a small pilot study on 6 devices and the symptothermal method of NFP (NFP-DAG together with “Stiftung Warentest”. The efficacy of the various devices differed significantly. We therefore urgently need more clinical studies on menstrual cycle monitors for reliable information of users.

  4. The Timmons Savings Plan: A Working Document on a Plan to Encourage Families to Save for College. (United States)

    Tierney, Michael L.

    The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…

  5. Psychological, social, and familial problems of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Dejman


    Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.

  6. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers. (United States)

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  7. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa


    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  8. On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work. (United States)

    Yang, D


    The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for

  9. Computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D implants. (United States)

    Gall, Markus; Xing Li; Xiaojun Chen; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Egger, Jan


    In this contribution, a prototype for semiautomatic computer-aided planning and reconstruction of cranial 3D Implants is presented. The software prototype guides the user through the workflow, beginning with loading and mirroring the patient's head to obtain an initial curvature of the cranial implant. However, naïve mirroring is not sufficient for an implant, because human heads are in general too asymmetric. Thus, the user can perform Laplacian smoothing, followed by Delaunay triangulation, for generating an aesthetic looking and well-fitting implant. Finally, our software prototype allows to save the designed 3D model of the implant as a STL-file for 3D printing. The 3D printed implant can be used for further pre-interventional planning or even as the final implant for the patient. In summary, our findings show that a customized MeVisLab prototype can be an alternative to complex commercial planning software, which may not be available in a clinic.

  10. An Intelligent Master Model of Computer Aided Process Planning for Large Complicated Stampings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jinqiao; Wang Yilin; Li Zhigang


    Process planning for large complicated stampings is more complicated, illegible and multiform than that for common stampings.In this paper, an intelligent master model of computer aided process planning (CAPP) for large complicated stampings has been developed based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) and feature technology. This innovative model consists of knowledge base ( KB), process control structure (PCS), process information model (PIM), multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), model link environment (MLE) and simulation engine (SE), to realize process planning, optimization, simulation and management integrated to complete intelligent CAPP system. In this model, KBE provides knowledge base, open architecture and knowledge reuse ability to deal with the multi-domain and multi-expression of process knowledge, and forms an integrated environment. With PIM,all the knowledge consisting of objects, constraints, experience and decision-makings is carried by object-oriented method dynamically for knowledge-reasoning. PCS makes dynamical knowledge modified and updated timely and accordingly. MLE provides sev eral methods to make CAPP system associated and integrated. SE provides a programmable mechanism to interpret simulation course and result. Meanwhile, collaborative optimization, one method of MDO, is imported to deal with the optimization distributed for multiple purposes. All these make CAPP system integrated and open to other systems, such as die design and manufacturing system.

  11. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world]. (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H


    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  12. The contribution of family planning towards the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in Uganda.

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    Wolfgang Hladik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFR worldwide. We compared the effects of antiretroviral (ARV prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT to that of existing family planning (FP use and estimated the burden of pediatric HIV disease due to unwanted fertility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the demographic software Spectrum, a baseline mathematical projection to estimate the current pediatric HIV burden in Uganda was compared to three hypothetical projections: 1 without ARV-PMTCT (to estimate the effect of ARV-PMTCT, 2 without contraception (effect of existing FP use, 3 without unwanted fertility (effect of unmet FP needs. Key input parameters included HIV prevalence, ARV-PMTCT uptake, MTCT probabilities, and TFR. We estimate that in 2007, an estimated 25,000 vertical infections and 17,000 pediatric AIDS deaths occurred (baseline projection. Existing ARV-PMTCT likely averted 8.1% of infections and 8.5% of deaths. FP use likely averted 19.7% of infections and 13.1% of deaths. Unwanted fertility accounted for 21.3% of infections and 13.4% of deaths. During 2008-2012, an estimated 131,000 vertical infections and 71,000 pediatric AIDS deaths will occur. The projected scale up of ARV-PMTCT (from 39%-57% may avert 18.1% of infections and 24.5% of deaths. Projected FP use may avert 21.6% of infections and 18.5% of deaths. Unwanted fertility will account for 24.5% of infections and 19.8% of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Existing FP use contributes as much or more than ARV-PMTCT in mitigating pediatric HIV in Uganda. Expanding FP services can substantially contribute towards PMTCT.

  13. Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia. (United States)

    Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu


    Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans.

  14. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K


    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  15. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa. (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M


    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  16. Meeting the family planning needs of women living with HIV in US government global health programs. (United States)

    Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya


    The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships.

  17. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi


    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  18. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress (United States)


    AIDS; ! restoration of maternal health care in locations hit by natural disasters; ! elimination of female genital mutilation ; and ! access by...particularly through the Administrative Procedure Law enacted in October 1990. Chinese authorities have termed female infanticide an “intolerable crime” that

  19. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

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    P Priyono


    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy  structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program.  The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean  while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2

  20. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.


    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  1. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

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    Hemavarneshwari S.


    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  2. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos. (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge


    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  3. Integration of poverty alleviation with family planning: an interview with SFPC Vice Minister Yang Kuifu. (United States)

    Zhu, H Z


    The Chinese Government, through its 1994-2000 National Program for Poverty Alleviation, plans to eradicate poverty for its 65 million impoverished citizens by 2000. Program strategies include providing tangible financial incentives to couples who accept the use of family planning. For example, family planning acceptors with per capita annual incomes of less than 530 yuan are given priority to obtain low-interest loans from local banks or credit cooperatives to launch and manage income-generating schemes. They also have priority over nonacceptors in being recruited to work in township and village enterprises, in purchasing farm supplies, and in obtaining land from village and township authorities upon which to build housing. Farm families need to be made to understand that family planning is in their own best interest. Providing children and adolescents in impoverished areas with more education is also important. The author notes how leaders in some impoverished areas do not understand the difference between poverty alleviation and poverty relief.

  4. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics. (United States)


    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of

  5. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience. (United States)


    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a

  6. HIV and family planning service integration and voluntary HIV counselling and testing client composition in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Bradley, H; Bedada, A; Tsui, A; Brahmbhatt, H; Gillespie, D; Kidanu, A


    Integrating voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) with family planning and other reproductive health services may be one effective strategy for expanding VCT service delivery in resource poor settings. Using 30,257 VCT client records with linked facility characteristics from Ethiopian non-governmental, non-profit, reproductive health clinics, we constructed multi-level logistic regression models to examine associations between HIV and family planning service integration modality and three outcomes: VCT client composition, client-initiated HIV testing and client HIV status. Associations between facility HIV and family planning integration level and the likelihood of VCT clients being atypical family planning client-types, versus older (at least 25 years old), ever-married women were assessed. Relative to facilities co-locating services in the same compound, those offering family planning and HIV services in the same rooms were 2-13 times more likely to serve atypical family planning client-types than older, ever-married women. Facilities where counsellors jointly offered HIV and family planning services and served many repeat family planning clients were significantly less likely to serve single clients relative to older, married women. Younger, single men and older, married women were most likely to self-initiate HIV testing (78.2 and 80.6% respectively), while the highest HIV prevalence was seen among older, married men and women (20.5 and 34.2% respectively). Compared with facilities offering co-located services, those integrating services at room- and counsellor-levels were 1.9-7.2 times more likely to serve clients initiating HIV testing. These health facilities attract both standard material and child health (MCH) clients, who are at high risk for HIV in these data, and young, single people to VCT. This analysis suggests that client types may be differentially attracted to these facilities depending on service integration modality and other facility

  7. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Women Attending at Amtullabhai Family Planning Clinic in Dar es salaam


    Mbando, Apaisaria Humphrey


    Contraceptive prevalence in Tanzania is low despite high knowledge of contraception. In order to understand the existing barriers, it is important to find out reasons affecting contraceptive method choices. The objective of this study was to assess contraceptive method choice among women attending at Amtullabhai family planning clinic in Dar es Salaam. A cross- sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2010 at Amtullabhai family planning clinic, Ilala District in Dar es Sala...

  8. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

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    Montana Livia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  9. The conceptions of care among family caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Aga, Fekadu; Kylmä, Jari; Nikkonen, Merja


    This focused ethnographic study explores and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality is the conceptual anchor of this ethnographic study. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 key informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language. Data were analyzed in Amharic using Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data and then translated to English. Four major themes representing family caregivers' conceptions of care were identified: nourishing the PLWA while struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and surroundings, comforting the PLWA, and sacrificing self to sustain the PLWA. Valuable data were gathered about the family caregivers' conceptions of care. Nurses can use this knowledge to design and provide culturally congruent care to family caregivers and PLWAs in the community.

  10. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

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    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi


    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  11. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik


    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  12. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members (United States)

    ... Cross Month Latest News Health and Safety Training & Education Mission & Values History National Celebrity Cabinet National Celebrity Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief ... Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be ...

  13. Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers (United States)

    ... hiring from acquaintances, nurses, social workers and others familiar with your situation. Discharge to a facility If the patient is being discharged to a rehab facility or nursing home, effective transition planning should ensure continuity of care, clarify the current ...

  14. Counseling a Client Whose Family Member Is Planning a Suicide. (United States)

    Crawford, Robert


    Discusses planned suicide as a topic that receives much attention both in the popular press and the scholarly literature. Provides a case scenario followed with a discussion of pertinent legal and ethical issues for counselors. (Author/GCP)

  15. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans. (United States)

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J


    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  16. Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

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    Meister H


    Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample: Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results: The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion: The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. Keywords: hearing aid uptake, motivation, attitude, subjective norm, behavioral control

  17. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki


    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  18. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.


    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of adol

  19. The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of HIV/AIDS Patients’ Family toward Their Patients before and after Counseling

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    Behnam Honarvar


    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.

  20. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene


    ABSTRACT Background: The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Methods: Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. Results: In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (<25 years old) were significantly more likely to obtain their method from a drug shop or pharmacy than another type of facility. In both countries, family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and

  1. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Nahid Hatam


    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.

  2. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs. (United States)

    Mauldin, W P


    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  3. Computer-aided process planning in prismatic shape die components based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

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    Awais Ahmad Khan


    Full Text Available Insufficient technologies made good integration between the die components in design, process planning, and manufacturing impossible in the past few years. Nowadays, the advanced technologies based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data are making it possible. This article discusses the three main steps for achieving the complete process planning for prismatic parts of the die components. These three steps are data extraction, feature recognition, and process planning. The proposed computer-aided process planning system works as part of an integrated system to cover the process planning of any prismatic part die component. The system is built using Visual Basic with EWDraw system for visualizing the Standard for the Exchange of Product model data file. The system works successfully and can cover any type of sheet metal die components. The case study discussed in this article is taken from a large design of progressive die.

  4. Fostering accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge among unmarried youths in Cameroon: Do family environment and peers matter?

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    Kuate Defo Barthelemy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Methods Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4 950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1 765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%. For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2 028 unmarried youths aged 12 - 29 years was utilized. Results Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. Conclusions This paper evidenced the limited


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    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.

  6. Family planning education: working with target groups in the South Pacific. (United States)

    Winn, M


    Family planning education programs are commonly designed by expert educators who are far removed, in location and experience, from their target audiences. Educators operate on the premise that their job is simply to develop strategies to successfully transfer their knowledge to the target audience. Judgements are often colored by a determination not to offend local sensibilities, which can lead educators to uncritically adopt the local wisdom about what is and is not culturally acceptable. A proper exploration of sexuality is absent from most family planning programs. Usual features of expert-designed family planning programs are an admonishment about people having too many children (the stick), a clear rationale for having fewer children (the carrot), the provision of detailed contraceptive information (the means), and the encouragement of individuals to exercise some personal control over their fertility (the ends). This standard model, although widely used throughout the Pacific, was not adopted by the Family Planning Federation of Australia in its regional family planning education work. The Federation, in conjunction with the independent Family Planning Association in the South Pacific, has taken a more participatory, learner-focused approach that values the contribution of the audience in all phases of the program. There is a huge need to target men, particularly young, unmarried men. The Federation found that not only did Pacific men want to view and discuss the women's documentary video Taboo Talk about family planning issues, they wanted their own men's version. The Federation soon discovered that attempts to meet the requests can easily flounder on the issue of language. The Federation has worked with the target audience to develop a lexicon of acceptable words for reproductive health education.

  7. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  8. Computer aided process planning system based on workflow technology and integrated bill of material tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-guang; MENG Li-li


    It is extremely important for procedure of process design and management of process data for product life cycle in Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) system,but there are many shortcomings with traditional CAPP system in these respects.To solve these questions,application of workflow technology in CAPP system based on web-integrated Bill of Material (BOM) tree is discussed,and a concept of integrated BOM tree was brought forward.Taking integrated BOM as the thread,CAPP systematic technological process is analyzed.The function,system architecture,and implementation mechanism of CAPP system based on Browser/Server and Customer/Server model are expatiated.Based on it,the key technologies of workflow management device were analyzed.Eventually,the implementation mechanism of integrated BOM tree was analyzed from viewpoints of material information encoding,organization node design of integrated BOM tree,transformation from Engineering BOM (EBOM)to Process BOM (PBOM),and the programming implementation technology.

  9. Three-dimensional visualization system as an aid for facial surgical planning (United States)

    Barre, Sebastien; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Paume, Patricia; Subrenat, Gilles


    We present an aid for facial deformities treatment. We designed a system for surgical planning and prediction of human facial aspect after maxillo-facial surgery. We study the 3D reconstruction process of the tissues involved in the simulation, starting from CT acquisitions. 3D iso-surfaces meshes of soft tissues and bone structures are built. A sparse set of still photographs is used to reconstruct a 360 degree(s) texture of the facial surface and increase its visual realism. Reconstructed objects are inserted into an object-oriented, portable and scriptable visualization software allowing the practitioner to manipulate and visualize them interactively. Several LODs (Level-Of- Details) techniques are used to ensure usability. Bone structures are separated and moved by means of cut planes matching orthognatic surgery procedures. We simulate soft tissue deformations by creating a physically-based springs model between both tissues. The new static state of the facial model is computed by minimizing the energy of the springs system to achieve equilibrium. This process is optimized by transferring informations like participation hints at vertex-level between a warped generic model and the facial mesh.

  10. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning. (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka


    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  11. Children in planned lesbian families: a cross-cultural comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.W. Bos; N.K. Gartrell; F. van Balen; H. Peyser; T.G.M. Sandfort


    A total of 78 planned lesbian families in the United States were compared with 74 planned lesbian families in the Netherlands. Children were interviewed about disclosure to peers about living in a lesbian family and about their experiences of homophobia; mothers filled out the Child Behavior Checkli

  12. The San Pablo experiment: educational strategies in family planning for rural workers. (United States)

    Gatchalian, J; Aganon, M


    16 couples from each of 3 barrios in the Philippines - Barrio Santiago 1, Barrio Santiago 2, and Barrio Dolores - were randomly selected to make up homogeneous groups of young potential family planning acceptors. The objectives were 3-fold: 1) to increase the rural workers' knowledge and awareness of population issues and family planning in order to motivate them to adopt practices; 2) to assist a trade union in integrating population education into its workers' educational program; and 3) to test the effectiveness of 2 different population education strategies. Couples from Barrio Santiago 1 underwent the integrated approach, those from Barrio Dolores the conventional approach, and those from Barrio Santiago 2 served as the control group. Both strategies made use of the same teaching methods. The relative effectiveness of the 2 strategies was gauged through an evaluation of the respondents' knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning 3 months after the training course. The following were among the results: 1) both the conventional and integrated educational strategies worked toward a higher level of knowledge and a more favorable attitude toward family planning; 2) there was no statistical significant difference between the 2 educational strategies in terms of attitude change and increase in knowledge; and 3) the study demonstrates the benefits of integrating family planning into the overall effort of trade unions to educate and inform their members.

  13. Unmet need of contraception: a critical juncture toward family planning goals. (United States)

    Haldar, Dibakar; Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Ray, Tapobrata Guha


    India is the first country in the world to implement a family planning program, and this program has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. In spite of this, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods reflecting an unmet need for contraception. Different communication channels used to disseminate knowledge like television, radio, and newspapers aim to change the family planning methods. Being a didactic method, these have the least potential to change the attitudes of the people. This article represents the tip of the iceberg of the fate arising out of incomplete information provided through mass media not supported by a formal family planning program. One primipara woman after getting pregnant took an emergency contraceptive pill and attended a clinic with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and pallor. Ultimately she underwent suction evacuation and survived. This indicates that mass media should not be a substitute, but rather a supplement to the routine program of the health worker to promote contraception.

  14. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy]. (United States)

    Shi, H


    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  15. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning. (United States)


    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors.

  16. Integrating social preference in GIS-aided planning for forestry and conservation activities: a case study from rural SE Asia. (United States)

    Webb, Edward L; Thiha


    Land-use planning using geographic information systems (GIS) commonly emphasizes biophysical spatial data; however planning can be improved by integrating spatial sets of socioeconomic data into the GIS. As an example, we compared a traditional GIS-aided forestry planning protocol that considered only biophysical suitability, with an integrated GIS-aided approach that incorporated both biophysical and socioeconomic suitability. The analyses were conducted for the planning of plantation investments in the Kyaukpadaung Township in the dry zone of central Myanmar. The traditional approach used three biophysical layers for suitability: land use, slope, and accessibility. In contrast, the integrated GIS approach included biophysical suitability data, perceptions and preferences of local villagers towards forestry (social suitability), and quantitative socioeconomic data. The results indicated that the integrated approach provided two principal benefits over the traditional method. First, the integrated method resulted in a more precise idea of suitable sites for plantation investment that could benefit more rural people and also lead to greater investment efficiency. Second, incorporating social preference into the GIS takes into account the crucial element of social capital (viz., social preference), which should lead to higher levels of community acceptance of plantation projects because those plantations would be established on socially suitable land. A second GIS exercise showed how conservation investment decisions could be informed using the integrated method. The results of this study support the idea that GIS-aided planning activities can be enhanced through the incorporation of social data into the analysis. When applicable, spatial data collection efforts for GIS-based planning exercises should incorporate spatial socioeconomic data.

  17. [Analysis methods for educational needs assessment for family caregivers of HIV positive or AIDS patients in Thailand]. (United States)

    Girault, P; Gagnayre, R; d'Ivernois, J F


    Identification of educational needs of natural helpers for the home-based care of persons living with HIV or AIDS. Surin, Thailand. The very significant increase in the number of persons living with aids in Thailand, (1995: 20,154 notified cases; 1996: 23,309 cases; 1997: 25,064 cases), and the insufficiency of medical care for patients within Thailand's health structures, have driven Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to put in place since 1996 a home-based care project in Surin province (North-Eastern Thailand). In Thai culture, the sick are commonly cared for by one family member, known as the natural helper. An evaluation of the health situation showed that natural helpers who took care of a family member living with HIV or aids were not prepared for this situation. In order to better define the tasks that they ought to perform, we carried out a needs assessment in three interdependent steps: a records analysis of the activities delegated to natural helpers by nurses; an enquiry on the acceptability of natural helpers to carry out these cares and on the perceived usefulness of being trained; an expert consensus on the cares to be carried out by the natural helpers, obtained by the Delphi method. Twenty seven cares were identified as being able to be provided by natural helpers. They constitute as a list of reference for the training for natural helpers. This work has shown a social coherence between the different actors of the project. At no stage was the role of the natural helpers questioned. On the contrary, natural helpers have a privileged place within the family and in the home-based care programme. Natural helpers will allow continuity of care between the health structures and the patient's home.

  18. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning. (United States)

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila


    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  19. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan. (United States)

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays


    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  20. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines. (United States)

    Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas


    Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.

  1. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

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    Antić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  2. Ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS in Nanning, China. (United States)

    Xu, Yongfang; Lin, Xinqin; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yanfen; Liu, Hongjie


    Although the HIV epidemic continues to spread among older adults over 50 years old in China, little empirical research has investigated the interrelationships among ageism, adaptability, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). In this cross-sectional study, among 197 older PLWHAs over 50 years old, path analytic modelling was used to assess the interrelationships among ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life. Compared with female PLWHAs, male PLWHAs had a higher level of resilience and coping. There were no significant differences in the scores of quality of life, ageism, family support, HIV knowledge, and duration since HIV diagnosis between males and females. The following relationships were statistically significant in the path analysis: (1) family support → resilience [β (standardised coefficient) = 0.18], (2) resilience → ageism (β = -0.29), (3) resilience → coping (β = 0.48), and (4) coping → quality of life (β = 0.24). In addition, male PLWHAs were more resilient than female PLWHAs (β = 0.16). The findings indicate that older PLWHAs do not only negatively accept adversity, but build their adaptability to positively manage the challenges. Family-based interventions need take this adaptability to adversity into consideration.

  3. Analysis of computer-aided techniques for virtual planning in nasoalveolar moulding. (United States)

    Loeffelbein, D J; Ritschl, L M; Rau, A; Wolff, K-D; Barbarino, M; Pfeifer, S; Schönberger, M; Wintermantel, E


    We compared two methods of planning virtual alveolar moulding as the first step in nasoalveolar moulding to provide the basis for an automated process to fabricate nasoalveolar moulding appliances by using computer-assisted design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). First, the initial intraoral casts taken from seven newborn babies with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were digitised. This was repeated for the target models after conventional nasoalveolar moulding had been completed. The initial digital model for each patient was then virtually modified by two different modelling techniques to achieve the corresponding target model: parametric and freeform modelling with the software Geomagic(®). The digitally-remodelled casts were quantitatively compared with the actual target model for each patient, and the comparison between the two modified models and the target model showed that freeform modelling of the initial cast was successful (mean (SD) deviation n=7, +0.723 (0.148) to -0.694 (0.157)mm) but needed continuous orientation and was difficult to automate. The results from the parametric modelling (mean (SD) deviation, n=7, +1.168 (0.185) to -1.067 (0.221)mm) were not as good as those from freeform modelling. During parametric modelling, we found some irregularities on the surface, and transverse growth of the maxilla was not accounted for. However, this method seems to be the right one as far as automation is concerned. In addition, an external algorithm must be implemented because the function of the commercial software is limited.

  4. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

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    Mukesh Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  5. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need. (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth


    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  6. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  7. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning utilization among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania. (United States)

    Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd


    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted.

  8. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  9. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components. (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  10. USAID's HIV / AIDS strategy for Asia: promoting early intervention. An inverview with Kerri-Ann Jones of the U.S. Agency for International Development's Asia Bureau about the USAID HIV / AIDS Strategic Plan for Asia. (United States)


    Although the World Health Organization estimates that $1.5-2.9 billion is needed per year to adequately support global HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, less than $200 million/year is being spent to prevent the transmission of HIV in the developing world. Worse still, US Agency for International Development (USAID) resources are shrinking. Two factors make HIV/AIDS prevention action in Asia a particularly urgent priority: more than half of the world's population lives in the region and the AIDS epidemic is still in its formative stages there. Rapid urbanization, high levels of migration, and large commercial sex and transportation industries are also typical in most countries of the region. In this context, the Asia Bureau of USAID adopted a strategic plan against HIV/AIDS in June 1993. In so doing, the bureau plans to work with the AIDSCAP program to coordinate prevention efforts and maximize the use of all available resources against the epidemic. Strategy focuses upon policy dialogue, communication to promote behavior change, improving the management of sexually transmitted diseases, improving access to condoms, monitoring and evaluation, and behavioral research. Interventions recommended by the plan, USAID coordination with other donors in the region, coordination with other AIDS prevention efforts already underway in a country, mission response to the plan, the interest of Asian governments in AIDS prevention, and the mechanism by which the plan is carried out are discussed.

  11. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests. (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem


    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  12. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power". (United States)


    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  13. Loneliness, social support and family function of people living with HIV/AIDS in Anhui rural area, China. (United States)

    Sun, Y-H; Sun, L; Wu, H-Y; Zhang, Z-K; Wang, B; Yu, C; Cao, H-Y


    The main purpose of this study was to investigate how loneliness was associated with social support and family function among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in an HIV-stricken area of China. Two hundred and nineteen PLWHA were surveyed using the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles)-Loneliness Scale, the Social Support Rate Scale and the Family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve) Index. The results indicated that the majority (84.5%) of PLWHA had moderate to high levels of loneliness, with a mean score of 47.62 and a standardized score of 59.53. The level of loneliness was significantly different in subjects' occupations, but not in other sociodemographic variables. Social support, family function and all dimensions except utilizations of support were significantly negatively associated with loneliness. Multiple regression revealed that less social support and poor family function were associated with more loneliness. In conclusion, loneliness prevails among PLWHA. It may limit PLWHA's ability or access to social relationship. These findings support the hypothesis that if PLWHA are better supported and cared for, their negative psychosocial consequences might be prevented or at least reduced.


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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both spacing and permanent birth control methods are the need of the hour. The popularity of male sterilization i.e. vasectomy is low compared to female sterilization ( T ubectomy. However, being safe, effective, cheap, and having less surgical complicatio ns no scalpel vasectomy (NSV is emerging as good option. AIMS: To study the various demographic and behavioural factors of NSV acceptors. SETTING & DESIGN: This is institution based retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kolkata during the time period of 1 st April ‘ 2009 to 31 st March’ 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The patients who accepted NSV for family pla nning were analysed with respect to their age, residence, occupation, literacy, number of issues and complications. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were represented as simple proportions or percentages and graphs by using micro soft excel . RESULTS: Out of 13, 0 48 sterilization operations, there were 3737(28.64% vasectomies and 9311(71.36% tubectomies. 67.08% of the couples selected sterilization for contraception. Tubectomies accounted for 2.5 times the vasectomies. The number of NSVs as a percentage of total sterilizations were 28.78% in 2009, rising to 36.96% in 2011 and gradually falling to 21.36% in 2015. Most of the clients (84% were ≥30 years of age. In 2009 - 10, only educated (71%, primary education accepted NSV. However, 74% were illiterate acceptors i n 2014 - 15 and 83% were labourers. In last 2 years the trend is NSV after the 3 rd child. CONCLUSION: NSV is emerging as a socially and culturally acceptable method of contraception in our society.

  15. Health promotion needs of Hammanskraal families with adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS


    N.C. van Wyk; M.D. Peu; A DH Botha


    Health promotion is regarded as the cornerstone of good health. It is the action expected from individuals and families in order to better their own health situation. Health promotion is an art and science (Edelman & Mandle, 2002:16) that is integrated into the primary health care to reduce existing health problems. The purpose of the research on which this article is reporting, was to explore and describe the health promotion needs of families with adolescents orphaned by human immu...

  16. Mothers- and Fathers-to-Be: The Next Generation of Planning and Career-Family Conflict (United States)

    Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie


    Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…

  17. Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya. (United States)

    Bradley, Janet


    COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…

  18. Basic Reference Sources in Population/Family Planning: An Annotated Bibliography, Number 2. (United States)

    Walker, Richard L.

    This "Bibliography Series" is a project of the Carolina Population Center Library/Technical Information Service, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of quality bibliographies on topics of current interest to librarians, researchers and students in the population/family planning field.…

  19. 45 CFR 286.75 - What must be included in the Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (United States)


    ... ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to specific populations, including teen parents and individuals who are transitioning off TANF... towards those goals; (6) Assurance that a 45-day public comment period on the Tribal TANF plan...

  20. Translating the Social-Ecological Perspective into Multilevel Interventions for Family Planning: How Far Are We? (United States)

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro


    Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…

  1. Individual and Familial Factors Influencing the Educational and Career Plans of Chinese Immigrant Youths (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.


    The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…

  2. The impact of franchised family planning clinics in poor urban areas of Pakistan. (United States)

    Hennink, Monique; Clements, Steve


    This study uses a quasi-experimental design to determine the impact of new family planning clinics on knowledge, contraceptive use, and unmet need for family planning among married women in poor urban areas of six secondary cities of Pakistan. Baseline (n = 5,338) and endline (n = 5,502) population surveys were conducted during 1999-2000 and 2001-02 in four study sites and two control sites. Exit interviews with clients identified the sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of clinic users. The results show that the clinics contributed to a 5 percent increase in overall knowledge of family planning methods and an increase in knowledge of female sterilization and the IUD of 15 percent and 7 percent, respectively. Distinct effects were found on contraceptive uptake, including an 8 percent increase in female sterilization and a 7 percent decline in condom use. Unmet need for family planning declined in two sites, whereas impacts on the other sites were variable. Although the new clinics are located within poor urban communities, users of the services were not the urban poor, but rather were select subgroups of the local population.

  3. The Use of Safety Plans with Children and Adolescents Living in Violent Families (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Paylo, Matthew J.; DeMarco, Carrie; Bradley, Nicole


    Counselors are regularly confronted with children and adolescents who reside in violent or potentially violent living environments. In this article, safety plans are presented as a tool that counselors can use to promote the safety of children living in unsafe family situations. Ethics-related counseling issues that should be considered when…

  4. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, Zoe; Padmadas, Sabu S.; Hutter, Inge; McEachran, Juliet; Brown, James J.


    Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, alt

  5. Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the United States. (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.

    The directory is intended to serve those working at providing migrant workers with family planning services. Covering 46 states, it lists agencies and their addresses, schedules, appropriate contacts, and birth control methods available and fees charged (if any). The directory should be of particular help in providing a continuity of service to…

  6. Exploring Type and Amount of Parent Talk during Individualized Family Service Plan Meetings (United States)

    Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia; McWilliam, R. A.


    We discuss the utility of a coding system designed to evaluate the amount and type of parent talk during individualized family service plan (IFSP) meetings. The iterative processes used to develop the "Parent Communication Coding System" (PCCS) and its associated codes are described. In addition, we explored whether PCCS codes could be…

  7. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari


    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  8. Family planning decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania: A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosha, I.H.; Ruben, R.; Kakoko, D.


    Background: Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning (FP) decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania. Methods: Twelve focus group di

  9. [Role of men in family planning decisions in Mali]. (United States)

    Maiga, O S; Poudiougou, B; Kéita, T F D; Ronse, I; Boundy, F; Bagayoko, D; Diallo, D


    The birth control program was in place and functional since 1970, and it was integrated with maternal and infant health activities in 1978: knowledge about contraception is increasing among women and men respectively 75.6% and 87.6% according to EDSM II, 2001. Nevertheless, only 5.7% of women and 10% of men reported the use of one of the modern contraceptive methods. This is a transversal descriptive and analytic study which included men of 14 years old and above residing in Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Sikasso and Bamako. We used a random choice of 6 out of the 9 regions in Mali (Bamako and the 5 regions supported by partners funding the present study) followed by a non-random choice at different degrees. Data were uniformly collected from One thousand and four men. The mean age was 37.6 +/- 15.6 years, 44.7% of the men were monogamous whereas 23.1% were polygamous and 30.6% were either single or had a fiancé. Most of the men in the study group had more than 2 children compared to 34.2% without children and 19.9% with either one or two children. Among them, 89.1% reported to have heard about birth control program and 70.3% had listed Planned Parenthood as an objective of birth control. The most used methods of birth control the most used are contraceptives (66.7%), condoms (60.5%) and injections (30.8%). However, only 30.6% of men used one birth control method with their partners; among those studied in the cohort, 40.8% used birth control method with their wives. Condom was the main method used by 86% of the men compared to utilization of contraceptive pills and injections respectively 66.7% and 25.6%. Birth control methods were used mainly to protect against sexually transmitted diseases (20.7%), then maternal and infant health respectively 6.0% and 5.8%. 60.7% of men think that the decision to use birth control method should be made by them whereas 25.7% think that the decision should be made by the couples. Many strategies are being proposed to involve men in the

  10. Family welfare planning programmes in Tamil Nadu: an appraisal of fertility trends. (United States)

    Kumaran, T V; Norbert, S A


    Over the past few years advancements in family welfare programs have occurred in India. One state in the Indian Union, Tamil Nadu, has had significant success in its family planning strategies. Examined is the fertility trends over a period of years within this area. Focus is on fertility decline, calculated from changing birthrates. Decline was differentiated in terms of crude birth rates. Chosen were standardized birth rates adjusted for age (females 15-49 years old), and standardized birth rates adjusted for both age structure and marital status. Family planning programs in Tamil Nadu were classified according to periods of years - 1956-1971 as the pre-intensive program period, and 1971-1986 as the intensive program period. Methodology included simple correlation and regression with additional computations, and multilinear regression measuring impacts on fertility decline of a small number of various factors. Conclusions drawn showed a swift decline in fertility in Tamil Nadu from 1971-1988, more so than during the period of 1956-1971. Family welfare programs were examined as well as through 4 key variables: infant mortality rates, female employment, female educational attainment, and family planning utilization. All 4 variables have shown a positive influence on fertility decline in Tamil Nadu. Both crude and standardized birth rates, as shown by measuring births averted during 1986, can be effectively used in producing births averted in any particular future time period.

  11. Women Knowledge, Attitude, Approval of Family Planning and Contraceptive Use in Bangladesh.

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    Shahidul Islam


    Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.

  12. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean. (United States)


    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  13. Knowledge attitude and practices of family planning methods among postnatal mothers-A hospital based study

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    Rekha Udgiri


    Full Text Available Background: All the couple have the basic rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. In developing countries, especially in India where deep rooted belief, customs and superstition regarding pregnancy, child birth, are still widely prevalent and women with poor socioeconomic background are more vulnerable to the health risks associated with child bearing in quick succession. Hence the present study provides excellent opportunities to educate the mother in postnatal ward regarding family planning method and help them to adopt birth spacing in the face of changing circumstances. Objectives: a To assess the knowledge, attitude & practices regarding family planning methods among postnatal mothers. b To educate them to use one of the family planning method. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one month. A total of 162 postnatal mother who were admitted in postnatal general ward of OBG Dept., Shri.BM.Patil medical college constitutes the sample size. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute, the mothers were interviewed after taking verbal consent. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Statistical test like percentage, chi-square test was applied to know the association. Result: In the present study 65.4% of mothers knew about family planning methods. Significant association was found in relation to education (p= 0.000, religion (p= 0.055 and parity (p= 0.01. Conclusion: The literacy level will definitely help to gain the information regarding family planning.

  14. Computer aided planning of open cast coal. Planificacion informatizada cielo abierto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Ester, J.L.; San Miguel, J.M. (Hullera Vasco Leonesa, Madrid (Spain))


    The paper describes the planning, highly automated, and obtaining the functions relating costs with ashes and ratios, allowing to select the best working. It is remarkable for its versatility for manual design studies and the high degree of automatism reached in Planning and the getting of results oriented toward the Annual Plan definition and decision making in the future exploitation.

  15. Family Information Guide to Assistive Technology and Transition Planning: Planned Transitions Are Smooth Transitions! (United States)

    Hess, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Ana Maria


    The purpose of this guide is to help families prepare for those times during which their child moves from one environment to another and from one developmental stage to another. The focus of the guide is on the role of assistive technology (AT) during those times--how to consider a child's evolving AT needs, how to identify and address the AT…

  16. Improving Demand-oriented Quality Care in Family Planning--A Review of Practice and Experience in Family Planning Programme of Qianjiang, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-yuan LIAO; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO


    @@ With the mainstreaming being the demand from the people at reproductive age, we systematically analyzed the ideas and ways to implement quality care (QC) in family planning (FP) in Qianjiang, including advocating the conception of quality care, carrying out health education and counseling, strengthening capacity building of service system and reforming measurement of the evaluation and other aspects. The demand-oriented QC in FP has met personalized and verified demands from people of reproductive age satisfactorily, and kept the fertility rate at a lower level while uplifting satisfaction of the public. The demand-oriented QC in FP in Qianjiang county proved to be a successful and great worth practice.

  17. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location.

  18. Formal computer-aided product family architecture design for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars; Clarkson, John


    With product customization companies aim at creating higher customer value and stronger economic benefits. The profitability of the offered variety relies on the quality of the developed product family architectures and their consistent implementation in configuration systems. Yet existing methods...... the limitation of the informal approach. Drawing on thereto established best practises, this paper evaluates and extends the relevant methods and modelling techniques, to create a consistent and formal approach for the design and customization of entire product families. To validate it’s applicability...

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Steinfeld


    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  20. A Comparison of School-Based and Community-Based Adherence to Wraparound during Family Planning Meetings (United States)

    Nordness, Philip D.


    A number of recent studies have begun to examine how the wraparound approach is adhered to during family planning meetings in community-based settings. However, no studies have compared wraparound family planning meetings across community-based and school-based settings. The purpose of this study was to examine adherence to the wrap-around process…

  1. Relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the mediating effect of bullying victimization in a prospective sample of South African children and adolescents. (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D


    South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention.

  2. Manual de Salud Familiar y Primeros Auxilios (Family Health and First Aid Manual). (United States)

    Torres De Leon, Juana Maria

    This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This textbook is designed to strengthen reading and writing skills while teaching basic principles and techniques to improve family health.…

  3. "In the driver's seat": the Health Sector Strategic Master Plan as an instrument for aid coordination in Mongolia. (United States)

    Ulikpan, Anar; Narula, Indermohan; Malik, Asmat; Hill, Peter


    In 2005, the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Mongolia initiated the process of developing its Health Sector Strategic Master Plan (HSSMP), using a wide-ranging consultative process, driven by the MoH, and requiring participation from all levels of health facilities, other ministries, donor agencies and NGOs. Among other objectives, the MoH sought to coordinate the disparate inputs from key donors through the HSSMP, aligning them with the Plan's structure. This research explores the extent to which the HSSMP process served as a mechanism for effective aid coordination while promoting ownership and capacity building and the lessons learned for the wider international development community. The study is based on document review, key-informant interviews and authors' experience and participation in the MoH planning processes. The HSSMP process improved alignment and harmonisation. It enabled a better local understanding of the benefits of aid coordination, and the recognition that aid coordination as not only a mere administrative task, but a strategic step towards comprehensive management of both domestic and external resources. The process was not challenge free; the fractious political environment, the frequent turnover of key MoH staff, the resistance of some donors towards MoH scrutiny over their programmes and the dismantling of the central coordination and return of seconded staff following completion of the HSSMP, has slowed the pace of reform. Despite the challenges, the approach resulted in positive outcomes in the areas of ownership and better aid coordination, with HSSMP development emphasising ownership and capacity building. This contrasted with the usual outcomes focus, and neglect of the capacity building learning processes and structural and policy changes needed to ensure sustainable change. The largest and most influential programmes in the health sector are now largely aligned with HSSMP strategies, enabling the MoH to utilize these opportunities to

  4. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)]. (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi


    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available : Lower level of community perceptions on family planning still exist in many parts of India. Further there is dearth of state level information for the same. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning among eligible couples. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Hatta, Imphal east, Manipur. Duration: Sept.2007 to August 2008. Participants: Eligible couples. Results: 825 eligible couples participated in the study with a response rate of 99.28%. Mean age at marriage of wives and husbands were 19.12 and 24.14 years (SD±7.179 and 8.491 respectively. Majority of husbands (85.8% and wives (84.6% knew of family planning and media was the main source of information. 54.42% of husbands disapproved family planning (p=0.000 and only 16.73% of the couples were using family planning methods. Main reasons for not adopting family planning methods were family disharmony (19.5%, religious prohibition (17.8% and adverse effects (8.0%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that one year increase in age of wives there was likelihood of having 4% increases in adopting family planning methods. Similarly, occupations of wives other than housewife had 27% and from illiterate to literate 3% more chance of adopting family planning methods. CONCLUSION: Adopting low family planning methods among the eligible couples was mainly due to husband’s disapproval thinking that it may cause family disharmony, religion prohibition and fear of adverse effects. And also other important associated factors were their attitude, education and occupation

  6. Impact of an in-built monitoring system on family planning performance in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.

  7. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)]. (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés


    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  8. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation. (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh


    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  9. Multivariate areal analysis of the impact and efficiency of the family planning programme in peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Tan Boon Ann


    The findings of the final phase of a 3-phase multivariate areal analysis study undertaken by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in 5 countries of the Asian and Pacific Region, including Malaysia, to examine the impact of family planning programs on fertility and reproduction are reported. The study used Malaysia's administrative district as the unit of analysis because the administration and implementation of socioeconomic development activities, as well as the family planning program, depend to a large extent on the decisions of local organizations at the district or state level. In phase 1, existing program and nonprogram data were analyzed using the multivariate technique to separate the impact of the family planning program net of other developmental efforts. The methodology in the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth investigation of selected areas in order to discern the dynamics and determinants of efficiency. The insights gained in phase 2 regarding dynamics of performance were used in phase 3 to refine the input variables of the phase 1 model. Thereafter, the phase 1 analysis was repeated. Insignificant variables and factors were trimmed in order to present a simplified model for studying the impact of environmental, socioeconomic development, family planning programs, and related factors on fertility. The inclusion of a set of family planning program and development variables in phase 3 increased the predictive power of the impact model. THe explained variance for total fertility rate (TFR) of women under 30 years increased from 71% in phase 1 to 79%. It also raised the explained variance of the efficiency model from 34% to 70%. For women age 30 years and older, their TFR was affected directly by the ethnic composition variable (.76), secondary educational status (-.45), and modern nonagricultural occupation (.42), among others. When controlled for other socioeconomic development and environmental indicators, the

  10. Formulating Rural Development Programmes to Aid Low-Income Farm Families


    Findeis, Jill L; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.


    Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...

  11. Advice about Life Plans from Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings in Always-Married and Divorced Families during Late Adolescence. (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Barber, Bonnie L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.


    Investigated the frequency of advice about life plans that older adolescents in always-married (n=544) and divorced (n=95) families received from mothers, fathers, and siblings. Findings suggest that adolescents from both types of families rely on mothers for advice, but adolescents from divorced families depended less often on fathers and…

  12. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Pal


    Full Text Available Background: Unmet need for family planning signifies the gap between the reproductive intentions of couples and their actual contraceptive behaviour. The National Family Health Surveys carried out in India in 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2004-2005 have revealed that for a sizable proportion of the population in the reproductive age group, the need for contraceptive services are not met with despite the existence of a National Policy on family planning since 1983. This study was carried out to assess the extent of unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban slums of Lucknow and identify the various factors affecting it. Study design: Cross sectional Setting: four urban slums of Lucknow Participants: 414 married women in the age group of 15- 44 years Study variables: age, education, occupation, religion, parity Statistical analysis: chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, fisher’s exact test Results: the extent of unmet need among married women of reproductive age group was 53.1%. The unmet need was found to be significantly associated with age, number of living sons, discussion of family planning with husband, perception of husband’s view on family planning and husbands’ behaviour towards use of family planning method. Logistic regression analysis of unmet need showed that the lower age of the woman, lesser number of living sons and husband’s discouragement towards the use of FP method were correlated with the unmet need for Family Planning.

  13. A Model-Based Approach for Planning and Developing a Family of Technology-Based Products


    V. Krishnan; Rahul Singh; Devanath Tirupati


    In this paper, we address the product-family design problem of a firm in a market in which customers choose products based on some measure of product performance. By developing products as a family, the firm can reduce the cost of developing individual product variants due to the reuse of a common product platform. Such a platform, designed in an aggregate-planning phase that precedes the development of individual product variants, is itself expensive to develop. Hence, its costs must be weig...

  14. Como preparar un programa de informacion sobre la asistencia economica (Planning a Financial Aid Awareness Program). (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…

  15. Assessing Pricing and Aid Strategies: Rethinking Planning and Evaluation Practices. AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper. (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…

  16. Integrated Computer Aided Planning and Manufacture of Advanced Technology Jet Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Subhas


    Full Text Available This paper highlights an attempt at evolving a computer aided manufacturing system on a personal computer. A case study of an advanced technology jet engine component is included to illustrate various outputs from the system. The proposed system could be an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive CAD/CAM workstations.

  17. A reconfigurable digital filterbank for hearing-aid systems with a variety of sound wave decomposition plans. (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Debao


    Current hearing-aid systems have fixed sound wave decomposition plans due to the use of fixed filterbanks, thus cannot provide enough flexibility for the compensation of different hearing impairment cases. In this paper, a reconfigurable filterbank that consists of a multiband-generation block and a subband-selection block is proposed. Different subbands can be produced according to the control parameters without changing the structure of the filterbank system. The use of interpolation, decimation, and frequency-response masking enables us to reduce the computational complexity by realizing the entire system with only three prototype filters. Reconfigurability of the proposed filterbank enables hearing-impaired people to customize hearing aids based on their own specific conditions to improve their hearing ability. We show, by means of examples, that the proposed filterbank can achieve a better matching to the audiogram and has smaller complexity compared with the fixed filterbank. The drawback of the proposed method is that the throughput delay is relatively long (>20 ms), which needs to be further reduced before it can be used in a real hearing-aid application.

  18. Illinois State Plan: Adult Education and Family Literacy. Under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (United States)

    Illinois Community College Board, 2014


    This document contains Illinois' State Plan for Adult Education and Family Literacy under Title II of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 for July 1, 1999, through June 30, 2015. The plan is comprised of the following sections: (1) Eligible agency certifications and assurances; (2) Description of the steps to ensure direct and equitable access;…

  19. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya. (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth


    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya.

  20. Training of opinion leaders in family planning in India: does it serve any purpose? (United States)

    Sharma, V; Sharma, A


    Community leaders are known to play a crucial role in the diffusion of innovations. The government of India started an ambitious programme for the training of opinion leaders in family planning, so as to provide a boost to its National Family Planning (Welfare) Programme. The present study attempts to analyse the knowledge, attitudes and practices of opinion leaders who had been trained in such Orientation Training Camps, vis a vis their untrained counterparts from the same geopolitical region. There was a highly significant difference between the knowledge of the two groups (p opinion leaders from both the groups were identical, thus pointing to a significant KAP-gap in the trained group. Opinion leaders from both the groups were engaged in minimal or negligible motivational work among their followers for acceptance of contraception, and only a very limited few from both the groups had themselves adopted any method of modern contraception.

  1. Low-cost generic drugs under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief drove down treatment cost; more are needed. (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carpenter, Charles C J


    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was originally authorized in 2003 with the goal of supporting HIV prevention, treatment, and care within fifteen focus countries in the developing world. By September 2011 nearly 13 million people around the world were receiving HIV/AIDS-related care through PEPFAR, and 3.9 million were receiving antiretroviral treatment. However, in the early years of the program, access to antiretroviral drugs was hampered by the lack of a licensing process that the US government recognized for generic versions of these medications. Ultimately, the obstacle to approval of generic antiretroviral drugs was removed, which led to PEPFAR's considerable success at making these treatments widely available. This article outlines PEPFAR's evolving use of generic antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV in the developing world, highlights ongoing initiatives to increase access to generic antiretrovirals, and points to the need for mechanisms that will speed up the approval of new generic drugs. The striking decline in antiretroviral treatment costs, from $1,100 per person annually in 2004 to $335 per person annually in 2012, is due to the availability of effective generic antiretrovirals. Given growing resistance to existing drugs and the planned expansion of treatment to millions more people, access to newer generations of generic antiretrovirals will have to be expedited.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  3. University of Venda’s male students’ attitudes towards contraception and family planning

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    Nanga R. Raselekoane


    Full Text Available Background: Many young men continue to disregard the importance of contraception and family planning in South Africa. The fact that even university students also do not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to their own health and well-being.Aim: This paper aims at investigating the attitudes of male students towards contraception and the promotion of female students’ sexual health rights and well-being at the University of Venda.Methods: Quantitative research method is used to determine how attitudes of 60 male students towards contraception can jeopardise the health and well-being of both male and female students.Results: This study reveals that the majority of 60 male students at the University of Venda have a negative attitude towards contraceptives. As a result, male students at the University of Venda are not keen on using contraceptives. Male students’ negative attitude and lack of interest in contraceptives and family planning also limit progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals on primary health care, especially with regard to sexual and reproductive health and well-being of female students at the University of Venda.Conclusion: The fact that more than half of the male students interviewed did not take contraception and family planning seriously poses a serious threat to health and well-being of students, including violation of female students’ sexual and reproductive health rights in South Africa. This calls for radical health promotion and sexual and reproductive rights programmes which should specifically target male students at the University of Venda.

  4. The use of family planning methods in an administrative district of Istanbul. (United States)

    Ince, N; Ayhan Ozyildirim, B; Irmak Ozden, Y


    In Turkey, the first population and family planning law was accepted by the government in 1965, and this law was revised in 1982. This study was carried out to evaluate the family planning methods of women who applied to rural health centers of Küçükçekmece and were willing to use the health-care service and consultancy about birth control methods. The data of the study were gathered by means of an appropriate inquiry form and face-to-face interview with the women willing to use the family planning service between September 1998 and June 1999 at the health-care centers of Küçükçekmece of Istanbul. There were 699 women participants in the study. The last pregnancy of 27.2% (n = 175) of the women had been undesired; 86.8% of all the women who participated in the study declared that they did not desire any more children, but only 81.3% (n = 568) out of these were using a method to protect from pregnancy. The most frequently known (84.8%) and used (45.9%) method of the participants was an intrauterine device (IUD), and 80.8% of the women using an IUD wanted to continue using that method. A total of 223 women (39.3%) using any method protecting from pregnancy became pregnant. Approximately half (57.8%) of those occurred during the use of withdrawal. According to the findings of this study, the level of knowledge about family planning and the consequent behavior of the women within the fertile age group are better than the average of Turkey, but still not satisfactory.

  5. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal. (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri


    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  6. Application of social science theories to family planning health education in the People's Republic of China. (United States)

    Wang, V L


    The transformation of the Chinese society was political and economic by revolution; it was also social and cultural through mass education. Group decisions have been used to induce social change in the Chinese society and applied extensively to the family planning program. The methods which Kurt Lewin developed to change food habits, have been perfected on a grand scale of myriad ways by the Chinese.

  7. Computer-aided planning for zygomatic bone reconstruction in maxillofacial traumatology

    CERN Document Server

    Maubleu, S; Chabanas, M; Payan, Y; Boutault, F; Maubleu, Sylvain; Marecaux, Christophe; Chabanas, Matthieu; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck


    An optimal planning procedure has been proposed to define the target position of the zygomatic bone following a fracture of the mid-face skeleton. The protocol has been successfully tested on healthy subjects, and ensures the global symmetry of the face could be obtained after the reconstruction surgery. Now that the planning procedure is available, the next step of this project will be to develop an intra-operative guiding system to help the surgeon to follow the planning. This procedure will mainly rely on the intra-operative registration of the zygomatic bone fragment, and the design of specific surgical ancillaries for cranio-maxillofacial surgery.

  8. Nationalism, race, and gender: the politics of family planning in Zimbabwe, 1957-1990. (United States)

    West, M O


    In line with a general tendency of nationalists to hold pro-natalist views, African nationalists in Zimbabwe took a hostile position to family planning upon its introduction in 1957, arguing that it was part of a conspiracy to control the black population. However, it was only after the unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 by the white settlers under Ian Smith that an official policy aimed at reducing African fertility emerged. The African nationalists waged a consistent propaganda campaign against this policy, and the facilities that were established under it, as well as their personnel, became military targets during the guerrilla war in the late 1970s. After independence in 1980, the triumphant nationalists tried to maintain their pro-natalist position. But, with a postwar 'baby boom' pushing the birth rate close to four per cent by the mid-1980s, the officials in charge of economic and social development concluded that society could not sustain such a high fertility rate. Consequently, there was a reversal of policy, and by 1990 Zimbabwe had become an internationally recognized leader of family planning among developing countries. For the most part, however, these changes have taken place without any real input by African women, who remained largely excluded from the male-dominated circles in which decisions about family planning were made.

  9. Situation analysis: assessing family planning and reproductive health services. Quality of care. (United States)


    This issue of Population Briefs contains articles on researches conducted by the Population Council concerning the delivery of quality of care, contraceptive development, safe abortion, family planning, demography, and medical anthropology. The cover story focuses on a systematic data collection tool called Situation Analysis that helps managers in program evaluation. This tool has a handbook entitled "The Situation Analysis Approach to Assessing Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services" that contains all the information needed to conduct a Situation Analysis study. The second article reports about a new contraceptive method, the two-rod levonorgestrel, which was developed at the Population Council and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The third article reports on a medical abortion procedure that was proven to be safe, effective, and acceptable to women in developing countries. Moreover, the fourth article presents initial findings of the Community Health and Family Planning Project conducted in Northern Ghana. The fifth article discusses the paper written by the Population Council demographer, Mark Montgomery entitled "Learning and lags in mortality perceptions". Finally, the sixth article deals with another paper that reports on women's health perceptions and reproductive health in the Middle East.

  10. The minorities of Bukidnon. Roots and leaves remain the acceptable family planning device. (United States)

    Consignado, L S


    When the villagers of Kalasugay in Bukidnon (Philippines), who still subsist on planting small plots with rice and root crops and hunting and foraging for food, talk about family planning, they talk about the use of the "kilala" or the "salumaya"--2 of the many leaves and roots they use for fertility, child spacing, or contraception. The use of roots and leaves to this day remains the acceptable family planning device among the minorities of Bukidnon. The "kilala" and the "huwag"--a variety of the "rattan" tree--are the most popular plants used by the minorities. The experiences of villagers with these traditional methods are recounted. Folk methods of family planning are not limited to roots and leaves only. Another method used by minorities is incantation. The traditional methods continue to rate high due in part to the fact that sex continues to be a taboo conversation topic. The users of modern contraceptive methods are mostly those couples who live along the highways, for they are more exposed to innovations such as birth control devices. To the minorities in the hinterlands, modern contraceptive methods continue to be foreign objects.

  11. [Results of a representative survey of family planning behavior in West Germany 1985]. (United States)

    Döring, G; Baur, S; Frank, P; Freundl, G; Sottong, U


    A report on the result of a representative survey of family planning behavior in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985. Interviewers from the EMNID Institute questioned 1267 German women aged between 15 and 45. Of the women interviewed, 6.1% had been sterilized, while in 1.3% of cases, their partner had been sterilized. Regarding the use of reversible methods of contraception, the following figures were established: pill, 37.1%; IUD, 10.3%; condom, 5.9%; rhythm method, 3.9%; withdrawal 3.4%; vaginal diaphragm, 2.1%; mini-pill, 1.3%; locally effective chemical substances, 0.8%. A few women (1.9%) stated that they used a mixture of methods. No information about family planning methods was offered by 13.4% of the women interviewed. The figures obtained were further differentiated according to age, marital status, school education, religion, number of children, desire for more children, profession, and net income. The authors' own questions concerned the early use of contraceptives, the reasons for abandoning a particular method, the reasons for choosing a certain type of contraceptive, sources of information about family planning, the frequency of changes from one type of contraceptive to another, and opinions about the rhythm method. Finally, the result of the EMNID survey is compared with that of known studies both at home and abroad.

  12. Aligning goals, intents, and performance indicators in family planning service delivery. (United States)

    RamaRao, Saumya; Jain, Anrudh K


    A flurry of policy initiatives in the fields of both population and development and reproductive health, many addressing the provision of family planning services, are currently underway: FP2020, the ICPD Beyond 2014, and the post-2015 development agenda, among others. This is an opportune time, therefore, to reflect upon and take into consideration what five decades of family planning programs can teach us about ensuring that policies and programs integrate their underlying intents, concrete goals, and performance indicators. The family planning field has encountered instances in its history when inconsistencies between goals, intents, and indicators arose and adversely affected the delivery of services. This commentary presents our observations concerning potential misalignments that may arise within the many promising initiatives underway. We examine the relationship between the intent, goal, and indicators of FP2020 as a case study highlighting the need for ensuring a tight alignment. We offer suggestions for ensuring that this and other initiatives use carefully calibrated indicators to guide the achievement of explicit program goals without undermining their underlying intent--namely, promoting well-being and reproductive rights.

  13. Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women. (United States)

    Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (peducational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.

  14. A study of socioeconomic determinants of family planning practice based on cross cultural regressions. (United States)

    Rao, V V; Yuan, T


    It has been traditional in demographic research to undertake studies based on cross country regression analyses of crude birth rate (CBR), its correlates, or even marital fertility rates (MFR), on various socioeconomic indicators. The general conclusion to emerge from these studies has been that there exists a relationship between fertility and certain significant socioeconomic correlates. This conclusion does not go much beyond observations based on demographic transition theory or differential fertility studies. These multiple regression studies do not come close to the dynamics and underlying processes that generate the actual observations. It seems that cross country regression analyses of the prevalence of family planning may be more useful for policy purposes. Certain correlates of the level of family planning practice have been identified: foremost among these are per capita income, adult literacy, and the period of family planning advocacy. From a policy standpoint, the literacy of the population seems to be the most amenable to intervention by policy making bodies interested in achieving optimal demographic and socioeconomic conditions within a society.

  15. Critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in family-team conflicts related to treatment plans. (United States)

    Edwards, Marie Patricia; Throndson, Karen; Dyck, Felicia


    Conflict over treatment plans is a cause of concern for those working in critical care environments. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in situations of conflict between family members and health-care providers in intensive care units. Using a qualitative descriptive design, 12 critical care nurses were interviewed individually and 4 experienced critical care nurses participated in focus group interviews. The roles described by the nurses were as follows: providing safe, competent, quality care to patients; building or restoring relationships of trust with families; and supporting other nurses. The nurses highlighted the level of stress when conflict arises, the need to be cautious in providing care and communicating with family members, and the need for support for nurses. More research related to working in situations of conflict is required, as is enhanced education for critical care nurses.


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    Muhammad Ismail


    Full Text Available The present research article deals with an economic reliability efficient group acceptance sampling plan for time truncated tests which are based on the total number of failures assuming that the life time of a product follows the family for Pareto distribution. This research is proposed when a multiple number of products as a group can be observed simultaneously in a tester. The minimum termination time required for a given group size and acceptance number is determined such that the producer and consumer risks are satisfied for specific standard of quality level, while the number of groups and the number of testers are pre-assumed. Comparison studies are made between the proposed plan and the existing plan on the basis of minimum termination time. Two real examples are also discussed.

  17. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for polymer injection molds manufacturing


    J. Tepić; V. Todić; Lukić, D.; Milošević, M.; Borojević, S.


    Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-...

  18. The contextual effects of gender norms, communication, and social capital on family planning behaviors in Uganda: a multilevel approach. (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Lee, Byoungkwan; Salmon, Charles T; Witte, Kim


    This study hypothesized a multilevel model to examine the contextual effects of gender norms, exposure to health-related radio programs, interpersonal communication, and social capital on family planning behavior in Uganda. The results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that all of the four variables were significant predictors of family planning behavior. The authors found that gender norms as a contextual factor significantly interacted with the individual-level perceived benefit. The significant cross-level interaction effect was also observed between individuals' interpersonal communication and contextual variation in listening to a health-related radio program. Practical implications for family planning communication campaigns are discussed.

  19. MObile Technology for Improved Family Planning Services (MOTIF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (United States)


    Background Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia, owning a mobile phone and not wishing to have a child at the current time are randomised to the mobile phone-based intervention or control (standard care) with a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention comprises a series of six automated voice messages to remind clients about available family planning methods and provide a conduit for additional support. Clients can respond to message prompts to request a phone call from a counsellor, or alternatively to state they have no problems. Clients requesting to talk to a counsellor, or who do not respond to the message prompts, receive a call from a Marie Stopes International Cambodia counsellor who provides individualised advice and support regarding family planning. The duration of the intervention is 3 months. The control group receive existing standard of care without the additional mobile phone-based support. We hypothesise that the intervention will remind clients about contraceptive methods available, identify problems with side effects early and provide support, and therefore increase use of post-abortion family planning, while reducing discontinuation and unsafe method switching. Participants are assessed at baseline and at 4 months. The primary outcome measure is use of an effective modern contraceptive method at 4 months post abortion. Secondary outcome measures include contraception use, pregnancy and repeat abortion over the 4-month post-abortion period. Risk ratios will be used as

  20. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

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    Braga Cynthia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The

  1. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil). (United States)

    De Zordo, Silvia


    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  2. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities. (United States)

    Nicassio, P M


    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  3. Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria. (United States)

    McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi


    One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative.

  4. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need. (United States)

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care.

  5. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

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    Deborah L Jones


    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  6. Readiness to participate in advance care planning: A qualitative study of renal failure patients, families and healthcare providers. (United States)

    Hutchison, Lauren A; Raffin-Bouchal, Donna S; Syme, Charlotte A; Biondo, Patricia D; Simon, Jessica E


    Objectives Advance care planning is the process by which people reflect upon their wishes and values for healthcare, discuss their choices with family and friends and document their wishes. Readiness represents a key predictor of advance care planning participation; however, the evidence for addressing readiness is scarce within the renal failure context. Our objectives were to assess readiness for advance care planning and barriers and facilitators to advance care planning uptake in a renal context. Methods Twenty-five participants (nine patients, nine clinicians and seven family members) were recruited from the Southern Alberta Renal Program. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using interpretive description. Results Readiness for advance care planning was driven by individual values perceived by a collaborative encounter between clinicians and patients/families. If advance care planning is not valued, then patients/families and clinicians are not ready to initiate the process. Patients and clinicians are delaying conversations until "illness burden necessitates," so there is little "advance" care planning, only care planning in-the-moment closer to the end of life. Discussion The value of advance care planning in collaboration with clinicians, patients and their surrogates needs reframing as an ongoing process early in the patient's illness trajectory, distinguished from end-of-life decision making.

  7. Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience. (United States)

    Phawaphutanond, P


    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community

  8. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

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    Gray Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report

  9. "Fewer children, better life" or "as many as God wants"? Family planning among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in Isfahan, Iran. (United States)

    Tober, Diane M; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad


    In the West it is often assumed that religion (esp. Islam) and contraception are mutually exclusive. Yet, the Islamic Republic of Iran has one of the most successful family-planning programs in the developing world, and is often looked to as a potential model for other Muslim countries. Although Iran's family-planning program has been extremely successful among Iranians, it has been far less successful among Afghan refugees and other ethnic groups. Afghans and Iranians both seek services in Iran's public health sector for family health care, treatment of infectious disease, and childhood vaccinations. On these occasions, all adult married patients are strongly encouraged to use family planning to reduce the number of offspring. In this article, we explore how Iran's family-planning program is differentially perceived and utilized among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in rural and urban locations. Particular attention is given to how different interpretations of Islam may or may not influence reproductive health-related behaviors and how cultural factors influence reproductive strategies.

  10. Meeting demand for family planning within a generation: prospects and implications at country level

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    Yoonjoung Choi


    Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs


    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...


    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...


    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...


    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  15. Planning of Combat Operations and Command of Troops with the Aid of Network Graphs, (United States)


    Accession For Country of origin: USSR R ---- V This document is a machine translation. NTIS GAi Requester: FTD/TQFO DTIC TAB Approved for public release...V. Proskuryakov . Network planning and control. Publ. of MVTU [MBTY - Moscow Higher Technical School] im. Baumann. 7. Basic condition/positions on

  16. Human Capital: DOD Should Fully Develop Its Civilian Strategic Workforce Plan to Aid Decision Makers (United States)


    DOD’s 2013-2018 Workforce Plan 22 functional communities 32 mission-critical occupations (series) Medical Psychology Series (0180) Social Work...Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at Contact: Website: E-mail: fraudnet


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    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among Antenatal women attending OPD and to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among them. METHOD: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Andhra Medical College Visakhapatnam which is a tertiary center for three districts Visakhapatnam , Vijayanagaram , and Srika kulam. 499 antenatal women attending the OPD were included in the study. Their knowledge , attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall awareness of permanent methods of family plannin g 96.3% and that of temporary methods is only 62.9% (314. 69.9% of women became aware of contraceptive method , by obtaining information from relatives and friends and 23.2% from media (television. 42.1% are of the opinion that these contraceptive methods are available in the medical shops and only 13% know that they are available in the government hospitals. 99.8% are aware of female sterilization , and 92.8% are aware of vasectomy. But awareness of temporary methods is very poor. CONCLUSION: The study hig hlights that knowledge and awareness doesn’t always lead to the use of contraceptives. There is still a need to educate and motivate the couples and improve family planning services to achieve more effective and appropriate use of contraceptives and to arr est the trend towards increase in population

  18. Does early childbearing and a sterilization-focused family planning programme in India fuel population growth?

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    Zoë Matthews


    Full Text Available Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearing trajectories in India and quantifies the potential implications stemming from the neglect of strategies that encourage delaying and spacing of births. The effects of adopting a 'later, longer and fewer' family planning strategy are compared with the continuation of fertility concentrated in the younger age groups. Results from the cohort component population projections suggest that a policy encouraging later marriage and birth spacing would achieve a future total population which is about 52 million less in 2050 than if the current early fertility trajectory is continued.

  19. [Accepted Manuscript] Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.


    Palmer, J.J.; Storeng, K.T.


    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are par...

  20. Affordable Care Act Qualified Health Plan Enrollment for AIDS Drug Assistance Program Clients: Virginia's Experience and Best Practices. (United States)

    McManus, Kathleen A; Rodney, Robert C; Rhodes, Anne; Bailey, Steven; Dillingham, Rebecca


    With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014, many safety net resources, including state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), incorporated ACA Qualified Health Plans (QHPs) into their healthcare delivery model. This article highlights the benefits of the ACA for persons living with HIV. It also describes the range of strategies employed by state ADAPs to enroll patients in QHPs. The Virginia ADAP ACA implementation experience is described to illustrate one ADAP's shift to purchasing QHPs in addition to providing direct medications. Virginia ADAP is in a Medicaid nonexpansion state and funds the full costs of the QHP premiums, deductibles, and medication copayments. Virginia's experience is applicable to other Medicaid nonexpansion states and to state ADAPs in Medicaid expansion states, who are looking for options for their Medicaid ineligible clients. This article provides practical details of Virginia ADAP's ACA implementation as well as insights and best practices at both the state and clinic level.

  1. Reproductive Health Aid: A Delicate Balancing Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Micevska Scharf, M.; Kulczycki, A.


    In this contribution the authors show that development assistance targeting reproductive health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS at the expense of family planning elements. Data on financial contributions disbursed by governments and private foundations are used as collected by the Resource F

  2. Generation Of Manufacturing Routing And Operations Using Structured Knowledge As Basis To Application Of Computer Aided In Process Planning (United States)

    Oswaldo, Luiz Agostinho


    The development of computer aided resources in automation of generation of manufacturing routings and operations is being mainly accomplished through the search of similarities between existent ones, resulting standard process routings that are grouped by analysis of similarities between parts or routings. This article proposes the development of manufacturing routings and operations detailment using a methodology which steps will define the initial, intermediate and final operations, starting from the rough piece and going up to the final specifications, that must have binunivocal relationship with the part design specifications. Each step will use the so called rules of precedence to link and chain the routing operations. The rules of precedence order and prioritize the knowledge of various manufacturing processes, taking in account the theories of machining, forging, assembly, and heat treatments; also, utilizes the theories of accumulation of tolerances and process capabilities, between others. It is also reinforced the availability of manufacturing databases related to process tolerances, deviations of machine tool- cutting tool- fixturing devices—workpiece, and process capabilities. The statement and application of rules of precedence, linking and joining manufacturing concepts in a logical and structured way, and their application in the methodology steps will make viable the utilization of structured knowledge instead of tacit one currently available in the manufacturing engineering departments, in the generation of manufacturing routing and operations. Consequently, the development of Computer Aided in Process Planning will be facilitated, due to the structured knowledge applied with this methodology.

  3. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo


    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (, a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  4. Advance Care Planning. (United States)

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J


    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper discribes the importance and necessity of the study on the data structures for displaying the mining field using the interactive technology in open pit design and planning,based upon the grid block model. The commonly used data structures--rectangular array structure and quadtree structure ,are analyzed. Two compressed data structures--compressed circular link array structure and compressed doubly-linked circular array structure,are proposed,which are much more suitable for displaying the regularly gridded block model. When the two compressed data structures are adopted,the storage space can be tremendously saved and the algorithms are simple,while the requirements of the accuracy and the manipulating speed will be both satisfied for the interactive open pit short range plan formulation.

  6. CT-Based Brachytherapy Treatment Planning using Monte Carlo Simulation Aided by an Interface Software

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    Vahid Moslemi


    Full Text Available Introduction: In brachytherapy, radioactive sources are placed close to the tumor, therefore, small changes in their positions can cause large changes in the dose distribution. This emphasizes the need for computerized treatment planning. The usual method for treatment planning of cervix brachytherapy uses conventional radiographs in the Manchester system. Nowadays, because of their advantages in locating the source positions and the surrounding tissues, CT and MRI images are replacing conventional radiographs. In this study, we used CT images in Monte Carlo based dose calculation for brachytherapy treatment planning, using an interface software to create the geometry file required in the MCNP code. The aim of using the interface software is to facilitate and speed up the geometry set-up for simulations based on the patient’s anatomy. This paper examines the feasibility of this method in cervix brachytherapy and assesses its accuracy and speed. Material and Methods: For dosimetric measurements regarding the treatment plan, a pelvic phantom was made from polyethylene in which the treatment applicators could be placed. For simulations using CT images, the phantom was scanned at 120 kVp. Using an interface software written in MATLAB, the CT images were converted into MCNP input file and the simulation was then performed. Results: Using the interface software, preparation time for the simulations of the applicator and surrounding structures was approximately 3 minutes; the corresponding time needed in the conventional MCNP geometry entry being approximately 1 hour. The discrepancy in the simulated and measured doses to point A was 1.7% of the prescribed dose.  The corresponding dose differences between the two methods in rectum and bladder were 3.0% and 3.7% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Comparing the results of simulation using the interface software with those of simulation using the standard MCNP geometry entry showed a less than 1

  7. On government aid for lose the only child family%论失独家庭的政府救助

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Lose the only child family as an inevitable problem of the family planning system, become a serious social problem. As an increasingly large social groups of the problems, the problems are always difficult to be solved. Briefly analysze present situation of lose the only child, puts forward facing their real old-age, medical, poverty and other issues, and the corresponding solution measures are discussed from the point of government view.%  失独家庭作为计划生育制度的必然遗患,成为了严重的社会问题。作为一个日益庞大的社会群体他们所面临的问题却始终难以得到解决。本文对失独群体的现状进行了浅显的分析,提出了他们现实中所面临的养老、医疗、返贫等多种问题,并从政府角度探讨了相应的解决措施。

  8. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

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    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed


    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural

  9. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Dept. Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, 78 - Chatou (France); Schmitzberger, E. [Institut National Polytechnique, CRAN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)


    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  10. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

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    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  11. Reproductive health services for refugees by refugees in Guinea I: family planning

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    Newey Claire


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive studies of family planning (FP in refugee camps are relatively uncommon. This paper examines gender and age differences in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Sierra Leonean and Liberian refugees living in Guinea. Methods In 1999, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of 889 reproductive-age men and women refugees from 48 camps served by the refugee-organised Reproductive Health Group (RHG. Sampling was multi-stage with data collected for socio-demographics, family planning, sexual health, and antenatal care. Statistics were calculated for selected indicators. Results Women knew more about FP, although men's education reduced this difference. RHG facilitators were the primary source of reproductive health information for all respondents. However, more men then women obtained information from non-health sources, such as friends and media. Approval of FP was high, significantly higher in women than in men (90% vs. 70%. However, more than 40% reported not having discussed FP with their partner. Perceived service quality was an important determinant in choosing where to get contraceptives. Contraceptive use in the camps served by RHG was much higher than typical for either refugees' country of origin or the host country (17% vs. 3.9 and 4.1% respectively, but the risk of unwanted pregnancy remained considerable (69%. Conclusion This refugee self-help model appeared largely effective and could be considered for reproductive health needs in similar settings. Having any formal education appeared a major determinant of FP knowledge for men, while this was less noticeable for women. Thus, FP communication strategies for refugees should consider gender-specific messages and channels.

  12. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生


    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  13. Adolescents in planned lesbian families in the U.S. and the Netherlands: Stigmatization, psychological adjustment, and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, L.


    From the studies in this dissertation, it can be concluded that adolescents in planned lesbian families do not differ in terms of their perceived quality of life and exhibit less problem behavior than adolescents in matched heterosexual families. Some adolescents experienced negative reactions from

  14. 阿热勒托别镇计生办2015年人口和计划生育工作总结%Aretuobie town family planning 2015 population and family planning work summary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    family planning is one of the basic national policy of China. China has played a positive role in population control and economic development since the birth of family planning. The implementation of family planning can achieve the coordinated development of population and economy, society, resources and environment, and promote family happiness, national prosperity and social progress. We will family planning family planning policy to actively implement, and constantly improve the management system in practice.%计划生育是我国的基本国策之一。我国在开展计划生育以来,对人口控制和经济发展方面起到了积极的作用。推行计划生育可以实现人口与经济、社会、资源、环境的协调发展,促进家庭幸福、民族繁荣与社会进步。我们计生办要将计划生育政策积极落实,加大宣传,增强意识,并在实践中不断完善管理制度。

  15. Beyond denomination: The relationship between religion and family planning in rural Malawi

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    Jenny Trinitapoli


    Full Text Available Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual- and congregational-level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  16. Beyond Denomination: The Relationship between Religion and Family Planning in Rural Malawi. (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara E; Trinitapoli, Jenny


    Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual and congregational level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.

  17. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings II: results. (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Huang, Shuyuan; Noznesky, Elizabeth


    An estimated 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict in 2012. Already vulnerable from the insecurity of the emergency, women must also face the continuing risk of unwanted pregnancy but often are unable to obtain family planning services. The ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, has provided contraceptives, including long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), to refugees, internally displaced persons, and conflict-affected resident populations in Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan. The project works through the Ministry of Health in 4 key areas: (1) competency-based training, (2) supply chain management, (3) systematic supervision, and (4) community mobilization to raise awareness and shift norms related to family planning. This article presents data on program results from July 2011 to December 2013 from the 5 countries. Project staff summarized monthly data from client registers using hard-copy forms and recorded the data electronically in Microsoft Excel for compilation and analysis. The initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries, ranging from 575 in Djibouti to 21,191 in Chad. LARCs have predominated overall, representing 61% of new modern method users. The percentage of new users choosing LARCs varied by country: 78% in the DRC, 72% in Chad, and 51% in Mali, but only 29% in Pakistan. In Djibouti, those methods were not offered in the country through SAFPAC during the period discussed here. In Chad, the DRC, and Mali, implants have been the most popular LARC method, while in Pakistan the IUD has been more popular. Use of IUDs, however, has comprised a larger share of the method mix over time in all 4 of these countries. These results to date suggest that it is feasible to work with the public sector in fragile, crisis-affected states to deliver a wide range of quality

  18. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. (United States)

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T


    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  19. An Examination of the Predictive Relationships of Self-Evaluation Capacity and Staff Competency on Strategic Planning in Hong Kong Aided Secondary Schools (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.


    This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests…

  20. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of soldiers in a gendarmerie command headquarters about family planning and venereal diseases. (United States)

    Oguzoncul, A Ferdane; Deveci, S Erhan; Acik, Yasemin


    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of young male soldiers about family planning. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Gendarmerie Command Headquarters, Elazig City, eastern Turkey, carried out on 14 April 2004. One hundred ninety-one of 209 soldiers who were present at the Gendarmerie Command Headquarters were included in the study. A questionnaire, developed by the researchers evaluating the goals of the study, was filled out by the subjects prior to the Family Planning Seminar given to the soldiers. Data were assessed using SPSS and the chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Defining family planning correctly, being familiar with planning methods and a knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and their prevention was found to be at low levels among soldiers. A knowledge of family planning, birth control methods, identification and prevention of STD was higher with higher levels of education. The most familiar family planning methods were condom and oral contraceptive use. Soldiers constitute one of the most significant target groups for education programs.

  1. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

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    Sally Rafie


    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  2. Predictors of Contraceptive Adherence among Women Seeking Family Planning Services at Reproductive Health Uganda, Mityana Branch

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    Richard Muhindo


    Full Text Available Poor adherence is one of the main causes of unintended pregnancies among women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to establish the predictors of contraceptive adherence. A total of 211 women were enrolled and interviewed while seeking family planning services at reproductive health Uganda facility. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between adherence and the independent variables. Most of the respondents (83.4% were currently using a hormonal contraceptive. Of the participants who were using contraceptives, 43% had discontinued use at some time for reasons other than pregnancy, 53.1% reported having short birth interval less than 2 years, and 7% reported having more children than desired. The predictors of poor contraceptive adherence included lower education level (OR 2.484, 95% CI 1.403–4.397 and lower self-efficacy (OR 1.698, 95% CI 1.959–3.004. Lack of male partner support (OR 2.014, 95% CI 1.140–3.557 and low education level (OR 2.103, 95% CI 1.196–3.699 were predictive of reporting short birth interval less than 2 years. The findings point to a number of predictors of contraceptive adherence that may have implications for designing and evaluating family planning programs. In the Ugandan context, studies to evaluate effective adherence improvement strategies are needed.

  3. Self-esteem, stress and self-rated health in family planning clinic patients

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    Young Rodney


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.

  4. Gender norms and family planning decision-making in Tanzania: a qualitative study

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    Sidney R. Schuler


    Full Text Available Experience suggests that the incorporation of gender approaches into family planning (FP and reproductive health (RH programs may increase their impact and sustainability, but further work is needed to examine the interactions between gender norms and family planning and to incorporate this understanding into behavior change communication (BCC in specific social contexts. We conducted open-ended, in-depth interviews with 30 young currently married men, 30 young married women and 12 older people who influenced FP decisions. Six focus group interviews were also conducted. The interviews focused on the role of gender norms in reproductive decision-making and contraceptive use among young married men and women in Tanzania. The findings suggest that gender factors, such as men’s dominance in decision-making do function as barriers to the use of modern contraceptives, but that fear of side effects, by both men and women, may be even more important deterrents. Results from this research will inform the development of BCC interventions to be tested in a subsequent intervention study in which gender factors and poor information about contraceptive methods will be addressed.

  5. The application of high resolution fluxgate gradiometery as an aid to excavation planning and strategy formulation

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    James Lyall


    Full Text Available The excavation of the Late Roman and Anglian settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, has been one of the largest excavations undertaken in England in the last twenty years. It has been the setting for a number of developments and experiments in the application of 'the new technology' to field archaeology. Parts of the site, which extended over c.20 Ha., proved to have high magnetic susceptibility and were ideally suited for magnetic prospection techniques. Feature visibility contrasts were, however, frequently low and therefore a series of experiments were undertaken using high resolution fluxgate gradiometer surveys following removal of the topsoil. The results of the high resolution surveys undertaken on the cleaned excavation surface proved highly successful in providing an enhanced pre-excavation plan, adding considerable detail to the surveys undertaken prior to the start of the excavation. The careful examination of the results, using G-Sys geographic data management software, which enabled the magnetic data, finds plots and digitised plans to be fully integrated, indicated areas where stratigraphic relationships could be tested and assisted in the development and re-definition of the excavation strategy as it progressed. Following initial small area tests in 1991, nearly two hectares were documented in this way during 1995 facilitating the completion of a targeted sampling operation which ensured the completion of the excavation within the limited budget available. The approach proved highly successful and offers great potential for use on sites which have a high magnetic susceptibility and are liable to large area destruction as occurs in the case of mineral extraction or subsoil ploughing operations.

  6. An examination of the problem of unwanted population growth in Africa and the existing facilities for training family planning personnel. (United States)

    Kumekpor, M L; Kumekpor, T


    Population planning is as important as economic planning and should be applied both at the national and personal levels. Population control and socioeconomic development are intrinsic to each other. Proverty, illiteracy, political instability, and social retardation are found in the countries with high birth rates. Most African nations tend to think of the population in terms of density rather than growth potential. Family planning programs should be accorded the same priority as maternal-child health, but African countries are often not equipped financially or professionally to support family planning workers under the same conditions as other medical personnel could be accomplished locally rather than overseas, thus saving about $204,000 in the East African Region and $213,000 in the West African Region. The success of the trainees' program will depend on the degree to whichf amily planning programs are integrated with other medical services; insight into traditiona l sexual patterns, and tact and skill of personnel.

  7. Psychosocial risk factors for obesity among women in a family planning clinic

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    Rohland Barbara M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.

  8. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS. (United States)


    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  9. Women’s Opinion about Women’s Rights regarding Family Planning in Hegarmanah Village, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java in 2013

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    Suzanne Saw


    Full Text Available Background: Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that all mankind have equal right and dignity. Both woman and man have rights regarding family planning. It is often assumed that in developing country, women do not consider their rights in family planning decision making process. This study was carried out to determine the opinion of women regarding women’s rights in family planning. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to 99 respondents during the period of August to October 2013, in Hegarmanah village, Jatinangor subdistrict. The inclusion criteria were women aged 15–49 years old, able to speak Bahasa Indonesia, and agreed to participate. Variables for this study were the opinions of the respondents regarding woman’s rights in family planning which were represented in 12 questions. Collected data were presented as percentages shown in tables. Results: Most of the respondents stated that they had the rights in family planning decision making, including choosing contraceptive methods, number of children, and spacing of each child. However, all of the respondents agreed that men should be involved in it. More than half of the respondents stated that they asked opinion from family member regarding family planning especially their mothers. Cultural norms did not influence the family planning decision making. However, religion influenced the family planning decision making. Conclusions: Majority of the women in Hegarmanah village have the role to make decision on family planning by considering the opinions of their spouses, other family members, friends and their religions.

  10. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study

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    Thompson Sandra C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%. However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52% than females (25% who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046, or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000, not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000, and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025. Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing

  11. Simulation-aided planning of quality-oriented personnel structures in production systems. (United States)

    Zülch, Gert; Krüger, Jan; Schindele, Hermann; Rottinger, Sven


    This paper presents research activities associated with the development of a simulation tool for modelling human reliability in production systems. This dynamic model enables the planner to determine the consequences of changes in human reliability on the quality of the production processes and the products. The model is built upon the basis of a tool for human reliability analysis ESAT (Experten-System zur Aufgaben-Taxonomie; Aufgabentaxonomie: Ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung der menschlichen Leistung bei der Durchführung von Aufgaben, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm, Ottobrunn, 1990.) and a personnel-oriented simulation programme ESPE (Engpassorientierte Simulation von Personalstrukturen; Ein engpassorientierter Ansatz zur simulationsunterstützten Planung von Personalstrukturen, Dissertation, Karlsruhe University, 1994), developed at the ifab-Institute of Human and Industrial Engineering at the University of Karlsruhe. In addition to the definition and the calculation of the human error probabilities, the consequences of the human errors (i.e. rework and waste) for the quality of the processes and the products were also implemented. This method is able to systematically plan quality-oriented assignments of personnel to functions and workplaces (personnel structures) in production systems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by a case study.

  12. Challenges for the implementation of the Family Planning Program in a low-income community in aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil

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    Bárbara de Alcântara Brito Maia


    Full Text Available A study on the reproductive characteristics and the meaning of family planning for childbearing age women and for the health team providing care to them was conducted in a low-income community in Aracaju - SE. In the descriptive stage of the study structured questionnaires were applied to 90 users of a Primary Care Unit random-selected from the family files containing personal data and information about the reproductive life of the women. This stage was followed by a qualitative approach in focal groups with six users and the health team applying semi-structured questionnaires for assessing the practice of family planning. The study showed that knowledge and offer of contraceptive methods are no guarantee of proper family planning. More than 97% of the participants related knowing about the condom, the pill and the contraceptive injection. 73,6% of the sexually active women practiced contraception but 76% of those who already had had a pregnancy referred to one or more unintended gestations. The focal groups revealed the need for other approaches to family planning such as preconception care, access to the partners and education in health to be developed by the team in order to help the users to better plan their offspring.

  13. Collaborating With an Urban Community to Develop an HIV and AIDS Prevention Program for Black Youth and Families (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; McKay, Mary McKernan; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl


    This article describes a collaboration between academic researchers and residents of a low-income, inner-city community to develop and deliver an HIV and AIDS prevention program for Black youth. The Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) Program was developed and implemented to decrease HIV and AIDS risk exposure among…

  14. How do national strategic plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa address gender-based violence? A women's rights perspective. (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Mushinga, Mildred; Crone, E Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve


    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant human rights violation and a key driver of the HIV epidemic in southern and eastern Africa. We frame GBV from a broad human rights approach that includes intimate partner violence and structural violence. We use this broader definition to review how National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) in southern and eastern Africa address GBV. NSPs for HIV and AIDS provide the national-level framework that shapes government, business, donor, and non-governmental responses to HIV within a country. Our review of these plans for HIV and AIDS suggests that attention to GBV is poorly integrated; few recognize GBV and program around GBV. The programming, policies, and interventions that do exist privilege responses that support survivors of violence, rather than seeking to prevent it. Furthermore, the subject who is targeted is narrowly constructed as a heterosexual woman in a monogamous relationship. There is little consideration of GBV targeting women who have non-conforming sexual or gender identities, or of the need to tackle structural violence in the response to HIV and AIDS. We suggest that NSPs are not sufficiently addressing the human rights challenge of tackling GBV in the response to HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa. It is critical that they do so.

  15. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta (United States)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo


    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and

  16. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

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    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLHIV have diverse family planning (FP needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL.The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting. Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting, making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI = .397 (.204-.771] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI = 2.531 (1.689-9.290] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI = 3.616(1.869-6.996] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP.There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.


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    Full Text Available Introduction: Population growth and its difficulties is one of the most important health problems in the world especially in developing countries. so the studies in this field are necessary and useful in IRAN. This study was done to find out the workers population specificities and their opinion about family planning programs. Methods: This descriptive study was held in the factories with more than 1000 workers in 1375. nearly 10 percent of the workers were chosen from 7 factories through the systematic random sampling The sample was about 1096 workers. They answered to multiple choise questionnaire during 3 months and the data were analysed by the descriptive statistical methods and also x2 and pierson correlation tests. Results: Most of workers (80 percent were under 40 years old and 0.5 percent were single and others were married. The illiterates were 6 percent and about 82 percent were studied 8 grades and less. The mean of the number of their children was 3.7 and 33 percent had 5 children or more. The family planning methods were used by them as follows: Tubal ligation and Vasectomy 32 percent, Natural methods 22.3 percent, OCP 19.8 percent, Candom 11.1 percent, IUD 10 percent and Lactation as a method 0.53 percent. About 4.2 percent had used more than one birth control method. Disussion: Result showed that there was a reverse correlation between the age of marriage and number of existing children (P < 0.001 and also between the literacy status and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.001 there was relation between the age of the workers and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.01. the reverse correlation between the literacy status and the number of existing children was stables even after the control of the age rariable as a confonder. Study of birth control methods shows that the use of family planning method is different between the groups with different literacy levels.

  18. Lessons from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: from quick ramp-up to the role of strategic partnership. (United States)

    Simonds, R J; Carrino, Constance A; Moloney-Kitts, Michele


    In its first five years, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)--the largest commitment ever by any nation to combat a single disease--succeeded in getting 2.1 million people on antiretroviral treatment and 10.1 million people in care; prevented an estimated 237,600 HIV infections in infants; and saved an estimated 3.28 million adult years of life. Much of the global program's success can be attributed to early decisions to implement new structures and approaches designed to meet its ambitious targets quickly, overcome bureaucratic inertia, and ensure continued progress. A unified US government program was created with a single coordinator. There was a focus on quick ramp-up, strategic partnerships, and sustainable local ownership. Accountability and performance were emphasized. These new approaches played critical roles in translating the unprecedented resources and political support for PEPFAR into improved health for millions of people. Successful aspects of the way in which PEPFAR was organized and implemented, along with less successful or deficient ones, offer lessons for any large, complex international health initiative.

  19. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China. (United States)

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming


    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  20. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents. (United States)

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D


    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children.

  1. Africa takes a more male-friendly approach to family planning. (United States)

    Omuodo, D O


    It has been demonstrated that men are more likely to support family planning (FP) and to use a method themselves if services and educational programs are targeted to them. Because men fear that contraception reduces their control over their wives' sexuality, male-friendly approaches can enhance gender equality in reproductive health decisions. In Togo, the media is being used to encourage positive attitudes towards FP in specific male groups. In Ghana, FP services targeted to men have resulted in increased male involvement. In Swaziland, male audiences are targeted with FP education. In Sierra Leone, men have met in groups to learn about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and about the benefits of FP, and in Kenya, three male-only clinics exist to provide FP services to men.

  2. Family Planning for Strangers: An Experiment on the Validity of Reported Contraceptive Use.

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    Guy Stecklov

    Full Text Available Sterilization levels reported in the Dominican Republic appear well above what we would normally expect given prevailing patterns in the region. We suspect that the use of strangers as interviewers--the normative approach in data collection in both developed and developing country settings--may be partly responsible for this result, and may underlie a long history of bias in family planning data. We present findings from a field experiment conducted in a Dominican town in 2010, where interviewer assignment was randomized by level of preexisting level of familiarity between interviewer and respondent. In our data, sterilization use is higher when the interviewer is an outsider, as opposed to someone known to the respondent or from the same community. In addition, high sterilization use is correlated with a propensity of respondents to present themselves in a positive light to interviewers. These results call into question the routine use of strangers and outsiders as interviewers in demographic and health surveys.

  3. China Population and Development——National Population and Family Planning Commission of China September 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An International Forum on Population and Development was held during, September 7-9 in Wuhan, capital city of central China's Hubei Province, to mark the lOth anniversary of both the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Partners in Population and Development (PPD). Jointly organized by PPD, the National Population and Family Planning, Commission of China and the Population, Resources and Environment Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the forum was attended by about 400 participants front member countries of the Partners, international organizations, NGOs and donor institutions. Following is a full text of the cottntry report submitted by China to the conference.

  4. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy? (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H


    Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy

  5. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. (United States)

    Fehring, Richard J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce.

  6. Case Study: Does training of private networks of Family Planning clinicians in urban Pakistan affect service utilization?

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    Qureshi Asma M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. Results In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00 relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00, franchise affiliation (P = 0.01, providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02 and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00. In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00. Conclusions These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.

  7. The value of spatial analysis for tracking supply for family planning: the case of Kinshasa, DRC. (United States)

    Hernandez, Julie H; Akilimali, Pierre; Kayembe, Patrick; Dikamba, Nelly; Bertrand, Jane


    While geographic information systems (GIS) are frequently used to research accessibility issues for healthcare services around the world, sophisticated spatial analysis protocols and outputs often prove inappropriate and unsustainable to support evidence-based programme strategies in resource-constrained environments. This article examines how simple, open-source and interactive GIS tools have been used to locate family planning (FP) services delivery points in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and to identify underserved areas, determining the potential location of new service points, and to support advocacy for FP programmes. Using smartphone-based data collection applications (OpenDataKit), we conducted two surveys of FP facilities supported by partner organizations in 2012 and 2013 and used the results to assess gaps in FP services coverage, using both ratio of facilities per population and distance-based accessibility criteria. The cartographic outputs included both static analysis maps and interactive Google Earth displays, and sought to support advocacy and evidence-based planning for the placement of new service points. These maps, at the scale of Kinshasa or for each of the 35 health zones that cover the city, garnered a wide interest from the operational level of the health zones' Chief Medical Officers, who were consulted to contribute field knowledge on potential new service delivery points, to the FP programmes officers at the Ministry of Health, who could use the map to inform resources allocation decisions throughout the city.

  8. Applying lessons learned from the USAID family planning graduation experience to the GAVI graduation process. (United States)

    Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel


    As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a

  9. "But I wasn't told to": lack of education and workplace policy as barriers in the provision of family planning information. (United States)

    Bell, Melissa M


    Access to family planning has been identified as critical to public health. Improving the linkage between medical and social services could result in improved access to care for those most at risk of unintended pregnancy. This study used a survey based on Alfred Bandura's social cognitive theory (1986) to increase the understanding of the barriers social workers confront in the provision of family planning information to clients. Although moral disagreement with family planning presented a barrier for some, workplace policy, participation in family planning trainings, and working in an urban setting were of greater value in understanding barriers.

  10. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

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    Sennen Hounton


    Full Text Available Background: The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.. The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design: Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC, childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics

  11. 人力资源规划计算机辅助预测模型的设计%Computer Aided Prediction Model Design of Human Resources Planning

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    俞明; 余浩洋


    From the current situation of human resource planning, combined with the content and process of human resources plan, it designs the model of computer aided design prediction, and explains the basic structure and mathematic model. It designs an application model of human resources planning. It has done a total and classified planning, and has analyzed the results.%  从人力资源规划现状出发,结合人力资源规划的内容和步骤,进行了计算机辅助预测模型的设计,说明了其基本结构和数学模型。设计了人力资源规划的应用示例,进行了总量规划和分类规划,并对规划结果进行了分析,提出解决策略。

  12. Shifting Resources and Focus to Meet the Goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013. (United States)

    Flores, Stephen A; Purcell, David W; Fisher, Holly H; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N; Galindo, Carla A; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D; Mermin, Jonathan


    In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals.

  13. Social Franchising: A Blockbuster to Address Unmet Need for Family Planning and to Advance Toward the FP2020 Goal. (United States)


    Social franchising has scaled-up provision of voluntary family planning, especially long-acting reversible contraceptives, across Africa and Asia at a rapid and remarkable pace. The approach should be pursued vigorously, especially in countries with a significant private-sector presence, to advance the FP2020 goal of providing access to modern contraception to 120 million additional clients by 2020.

  14. Access to "Jiggasha program: a family planning communication approach" and its exposure to the selected background characteristics. (United States)

    Hossain, M W; Khan, H T; Begum, A


    This paper studies the effectiveness of "Jiggasha," an innovative communication approach for the promotion of family planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data from the 1996 Jiggasha follow-up survey were used, which gathered information by interviewing a network sample of 1862 married women and a subsample of 608 men. The study used the sample constituted by women respondents and included data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their knowledge, attitude and practice relating to contraceptives. Findings showed that Jiggasha respondents have more access to radio than television. All respondents reported having a radio in their homes and they emphasized the importance of broadcasting more family planning messages via both electronic media. Only 16% of the women in the study setting were exposed to group meetings. Of the respondents reporting participation in group meetings, 38.25% joined in a Jiggasha meeting, 23.15% in a Grameen Bank group meeting, and 4.70% in a Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee group meeting. Logistic regression analysis indicated more access to Jiggashas among women over 30 years of age than among the younger age groups. Religion and education levels of respondents have significant impact on access to Jiggashas. Husbands' approval plays an important role among the Jiggasha respondents in using family planning method. This study provides important information for policy-makers to make family planning program a success.

  15. Stigmatization and Promotive Factors in Relation to Psychological Health and Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Planned Lesbian Families (United States)

    van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…

  16. The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya (United States)

    Temmerman, M.; Kidula, N.; Tyndall, M.; Rukaria-Kaumbutho, R.; Muchiri, L.; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.


    OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions. 


  17. Сost assessment of HIV prophylaxis of mother to child transmission and family planning program among HIV infected women

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    A. V. Samarina


    Full Text Available The manuscript provides comparative cost assessment of HIV PMTCT and family planning program among HIV infected women.Materials and Methods: calculation is based on the state healthcare system costs of complex/combined 3-stage perinatal HIV prophylaxis, follow up antiretroviral therapy and social costs related to rehabilitation and education HIV infected children. Cost benefit analysis is conducted on utility per 1 RUB of budget investment.Results and discussion: HIV PMTCT cost benefit is 3,33 per 1 RUB of investment in long-term perspective. Analysis stated average family planning expenditure will be 3,69 K RUB despite 21,72 K RUB per patient without family planning service. As result cost benefit family planning program among HIV infected women is 4,89 RUB per 1 RUB of investment.Conclusion. Broad access to reproductive health service is key milestone of quality of life among HIV infected patients and it would be positioning as economically reasonable HIV prevention and cost containment measure.

  18. Sri Lanka: sterilization bonus announced in Sri Lanka; new CBD experiments in Sri Lanka; orchids and family planning. (United States)


    The government of Sri Lanka will give a minimum bonus of SRs 100 ($US6.00) to anyone voluntarily being sterilized. Women will be given 7 days leave and men 3. Many public and private corporations pay sterilization bonuses; the new bonus was set to compete with generous maternity benefits. The average daily wage is about SRs 120. Currently the demand for sterilization is greater than the health services' ability to meet it. Depo-provera is becoming increasingly popular in Sri Lanka, especially among the Muslim communities. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka is to test new forms of social marketing of contraceptives to provide wider coverage through community-based distribution. One system will use the route of a commercial firm, Reckitt and Coleman Ltd., and another system will use a network of provincial organizers, commission agents, and local retailers. To create an awareness in young people of their responsibility toward society the Family Planning Association organized an orchid cultivation and family planning propaganda project. 40 young boys are being taught orchid culture and the benefits of family planning. Orchids can be grown in the back yard without any capital investment. There is a steady market for the orchids, and the training program lasts 6 months for each cohort of boys.

  19. Knowledge and practice of family planning methods among married women of reproductive age of Kakani VDC, Nuwakot district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sushmita


    Full Text Available Background: Family Planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily to contribute effectively to the social development of a country. CPR of Nuwakot district is less than that of National level. The Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on family planning methods among married women of Kakani VDC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was done with quantitative methods. Likewise, PPS sampling procedure was used and sample size was 109. Structured questionnaires as a tool and Interview technique was used to obtain necessary information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS, and computed mean, standard deviation, tables, cross tabulation and chi – square. Results: The study shows that more than one fifth of the respondents (23.9% were of age group 28-32 years and more than half of the respondents (51.4% had marriage at the age of 15-19 years. Depo-Provera was the device known by all respondents and Implant was the least known device. However, more than half (56.9% MWRAs had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents were currently using FP devices. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning use of FP devices is low. Conclusion: The study population had good knowledge towards FP devices; however the use of FP devices was low. It was mainly due to husband being abroad and side effects of the devices.

  20. Strengthening Government Leadership in Family Planning Programming in Senegal: From Proof of Concept to Proof of Implementation in 2 Districts. (United States)

    Aichatou, Barry; Seck, Cheikh; Baal Anne, Thierno Souleymane; Deguenovo, Gabrielle Clémentine; Ntabona, Alexis; Simmons, Ruth


    Given Senegal's limited resources, the country receives substantial support from externally funded partner organizations to provide family planning and maternal and child health services. These organizations often take a strong and sometimes independent role in implementing interventions with their own structures and personnel, thereby bypassing the government district health system. This article presents findings from the Initiative Sénégalaise de Santé Urbaine (ISSU) (Senegal Urban Health Initiative) that assessed in 2 districts, Diamniadio and Rufisque, the extent to which it was feasible to create stronger government ownership and leadership in implementing a simplified package of family planning interventions from among those previously tested in other districts. The simplified package consisted of both supply- and demand-side interventions, introduced in October 2014 and concluding at the end of 2015. The interventions included ensuring adequate human resources and contraceptive supplies, contraceptive technology updates for providers, special free family planning service days to bring services closer to where people live, family planning integration into other routine services, household visits for family planning education, religious sermons to clarify Islam's position on family planning, and radio broadcasts. District leadership in Diamniadio and Rufisque were actively involved in guiding and implementing interventions, and they also contributed some of their own resources to the project. However, reliance on external funding continued because district budgets were extremely limited. Monitoring data on the number of contraceptive methods provided by district facilities supported by a sister project, the Informed Push Model project, indicate overall improvement in contraceptive provision during the intervention period. In Diamniadio, contraceptive provision increased by 43% between the 6-month period prior to the ISSU interventions (November 2013 through

  1. Perceived family support, depression, and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

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    Rachel M Amiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicidal thinking occur frequently alongside HIV/AIDS, triggering profound detrimental impacts on quality of life, treatment adherence, disease progression, and mortality. Yet the psychosocial factors contributing to these psychiatric comorbidities remain underexplored, particularly in the developing country context. This study thus examined different dimensions of perceived family support in relation to depression and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 322 adult PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal was conducted. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions for correlates of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia-defined depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the past 2 weeks. Perceived family support, measured using the 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale, was entered into separate models, in turn, as a composite score, for each sub-scale (emotional, instrumental, and negative support, and for each individual item. RESULTS: Overall, 25.5% of participants registered BDI-Ia-defined depression, with significantly lower rates among those with perceived family support scores in the highest (AOR = 0.19; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.55 and middle (AOR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.86 tertiles relative to those with lowest-tertile scores. Meanwhile, 14.0% reported suicidal thinking, with significantly lower rates among those in the highest perceived family support tertile relative to the lowest (AOR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.91. Broken down by support sub-scale, only negative support (i.e. family difficulty was significant in its correlations with both outcomes - a trend similarly reflected in the item-wise analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight an important role for family support in determining experiences of depression and suicidality among PLWHA. Incorporating family counseling and support services

  2. The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community

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    Jacobson Janet C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta

  3. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

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    Malini M Bhattathiry


    Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.

  4. A thought on the integration of poverty relief with family planning. (United States)

    Yang, K


    This article discusses the relationship between population growth and poverty in China, the issue of overpopulation in poor areas, and the need for programs that integrate population control with economic development. The number of Chinese living in poverty declined from about 250 million in 1978 to 80 million in 1993. In March 1994, the government initiated a poverty relief program that aimed to eliminate all poverty by 2001. By 1995, the number of poor declined to 65 million. The causes of poverty are numerous, but include overpopulation. Over the decades, demographic trends in poor areas reveal higher fertility, lower mortality, and higher growth. Poverty appears to be concentrated in 18 provinces and autonomous regions. Poor areas have higher rates of early marriage, early childbirth, and multiple children. Poor areas also have higher rates of disabilities and disease and lower levels of education. Poor areas have double the national percentage of illiterates. Many people living in poor areas are disadvantaged by poor transportation, remote locations, backward production methods, and a lack of a social security system. Scientific knowledge about contraception and quality child care are difficult to diffuse in poor areas. The size of the population denominator directly affects per capita income and per capita grain production. Increases in population put pressure on investment resources for production and development. A larger work force adds to the problem of unemployment. A large population size puts pressure on arable land. Poor areas need a better educated population. Sustainable development requires fertility decline. Integrated family planning programs popularize slogans such as "stabilize grain yield, increase income, and control population growth." Integrated programs have had variable success. Countermeasures must be taken to prevent the association of large families with wealth. Leadership is essential.

  5. [To develop the family planning work deeply through following the working method of "taking three as the keys"]. (United States)


    In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates.

  6. Planning tools for environmental-orientated technology management - computer aided lifecycle analysis; Planungshilfsmittel fuer das oekologieorientierte Technologiemanagement - Computer Aided Lifecycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlke, U.H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Produktionstechnologie, Aachen (Germany); Eversheim, W.; Albrecht, T.


    The high pressure on prices in the automotive industry as well as the aim to improve the ecological tolerance of the individual motor car traffic requires a considerate employment of natural ressources. In this connection the selection of material is of special improtance. Due to the systematic recording and evaluation of appropriate requirements of ressources, decissions concerning the selection of material and technology can be supported with a product-related and comprehensive balance in kind. The EDV-prototype CALA (Computer Aided Lifecycle Analysis) was developed in order to reduce the effort of a balance in kind to a minimum. CALA supports the user in capturing data and data processing through a dialogue-oriented display mask and through providing of relevant ecological master data. (orig.) [Deutsch] Sowohl der hohe Kostendruck in der Automobilbranche als auch das Ziel die oekologische Vertraeglichkeit des Individualverkehrs zu verbessern, erfordern einen schonenden Einsatz der natuerlichen Ressourcen. Eine besondere Bedeutung kommt dabei der Werkstoffauswahl zu. Mit einer produktbezogenen, ganzheitlichen Sachbilanzierung koennen, durch die systematische Erfassung und Bewertung entsprechender Ressourcenbedarfe und Umweltbelastungen, Entscheidungen bei der Werkstoff- oder Technologieauswahl unterstuetzt werden. Um den Aufwand bei der Durchfuehrung einer Sachbilanzierung zu minimieren, wurde der EDV-Prototyp CALA (Computer Aided Lifecycle Analysis) entwickelt. Der Anwender wird bei CALA durch dialogorientierte Bildschirmmasken und die Bereitstellung oekologisch relevanter Stammdaten bei der Datenerfassung und Auswertung effektiv unterstuetzt. (orig.)

  7. Economic analysis of scaling up access to modern family planning methods in low and middle-income countries; case studies for Indonesia and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Cao, Q.; Setiawan, D.; Roijmans, F.; Postma, M.J.


    Objectives: Family planning is one of the initial strategies to improve maternal health in low and middle-income countries (L-MICs), where unmet need can still be high. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of improved access to family planning in L-MICs, with Indonesia and Ug

  8. Examining trends in family planning among harder-to-reach women in Senegal 1992–2014 (United States)

    Cavallaro, Francesca L.; Benova, Lenka; Macleod, David; Faye, Adama; Lynch, Caroline A.


    Recent increases in family planning (FP) use have been reported among women of reproductive age in union (WRAU) in Senegal. However, trends have not been monitored among harder-to-reach groups (including adolescents, unmarried and rural poor women), key to understanding whether FP progress is equitable. We combined data from six Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Senegal between 1992/93 and 2014. We examined FP trends over time among WRAU and subgroups, and trends in knowledge of FP and intention to use among women with unmet need for FP. Our results show that percent demand satisfied is lower among rural poor women and adolescents than WRAU, although higher among unmarried women. Marked recent increases have been observed in all subgroups, however fewer than 50% of women in need of FP use modern contraception in Senegal. Knowledge of FP has risen steadily among women with unmet need; however, intention to use FP has remained stable at around 40% since 2005 for all groups except unmarried women (75% of whom intend to use). Significant progress in meeting the need for FP has been achieved in Senegal, but more needs to be done particularly to improve acceptability of FP, and to strategically target interventions toward adolescents and rural poor women. PMID:28106100

  9. Perceptions and attitudes regarding sexually transmitted infection and family planning among adolescents in Northern Madagascar. (United States)

    Klinger, Amanda; Asgary, Ramin


    The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and early pregnancy are high among adolescents in Madagascar. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate perceptions, attitudes, and misconceptions regarding STIs and contraception among female and male adolescents ages 15-19 years (n = 43) in Northern Madagascar in 2014 using focus group discussions with open-ended questions. Data were coded and analyzed for major themes. Participants were in grades 6 to 12 in school; 53% were female. Despite high levels of awareness, significant stigma against and misconceptions about STIs, condom use, and sexual practices existed. Many participants did not know how to use condoms and felt uncomfortable suggesting condoms with regular partners, despite acknowledging infidelity as a frequent problem. Male participants were more willing to use condoms as contraception for unwanted pregnancy than for prevention of STIs. Most participants held misconceptions about side effects of contraceptives, including infertility, cancer, and preventing bad blood from leaving the woman's body. Systematic and community-wide health education and formal reproductive health curricula in schools may improve attitudes and stigma regarding STIs and family planning. These strategies need to be developed and employed via collaboration among faith-based, community, and non-governmental organizations, schools, and governmental health and social service agencies.

  10. Dynamics of IUD use in Vietnam: implications for family planning services at primary health care level. (United States)

    Park, Min Hae; Nguyen, Thang Huu; Ngo, Thoai Dinh


    This study describes the dynamics of intrauterine device (IUD) use in Vietnam and implications for family planning services. A retrospective study was conducted among women who received IUD services in 2006-2009 at six commune health stations in three provinces. Women were interviewed about IUD use and switching behaviors. Of 1316 participants, 12.1% had discontinued IUD use at 12 months after insertion, 19.4% at 24 months, and 26.9% at 36 months. The highest rates of discontinuation were among older women and farmers/manual workers. Among 434 women who had an IUD removed, 49% cited health concerns as the main reason. Following removal, 70% switched to another contraceptive method (n = 306); of these, 15% switched to withdrawal, and 12% waited >2 months before adopting a new method. Dissatisfaction with IUD services was associated with high rates of discontinuation. Early discontinuation, delays in adopting new methods, and switching to withdrawal may contribute to unintended pregnancy among commune health station users in Vietnam.

  11. Catholics using contraceptives: religion, family planning, and interpretive agency in rural Mexico. (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S


    Research on how religion shapes contraceptive practices and fertility has paid insufficient attention to how people interpret religious teachings. This study draws on ethnographic fieldwork in Degollado, Mexico, to describe generational and social-contextual differences in how women interpret and use religious doctrine to achieve their fertility desires without jeopardizing their standing as devout Catholics. Contrasting the family planning beliefs and practices of young Mexican women with those of older women (many of whom are the younger women's parents and in-laws), in a rural town in which the religious regulation of everyday life is pervasive, reveals how a common set of religious teachings and principles can be used to guide two different generational strategies for fertility regulation. The ethnographic data presented here highlight the creativity with which people use religious frameworks to justify their behavior. Research exploring how religion--and culture more broadly--influences fertility and contraceptive use should give greater attention to the dynamic interplay between cultural beliefs and institutions, social context, and interpretive agency. (STUDIES

  12. Family planning and sexual health organizations: management lessons for health system reform. (United States)

    Ambegaokar, Maia; Lush, Louisiana


    Advocates of health system reform are calling for, among other things, decentralized, autonomous managerial and financial control, use of contracting and incentives, and a greater reliance on market mechanisms in the delivery of health services. The family planning and sexual health (FP&SH) sector already has experience of these. In this paper, we set forth three typical means of service provision within the FP&SH sector since the mid-1900s: independent not-for-profit providers, vertical government programmes and social marketing programmes. In each case, we present the context within which the service delivery mechanism evolved, the management techniques that characterize it and the lessons learned in FP&SH that are applicable to the wider debate about improving health sector management. We conclude that the FP&SH sector can provide both positive and negative lessons in the areas of autonomous management, use of incentives to providers and acceptors, balancing of centralization against decentralization, and employing private sector marketing and distribution techniques for delivering health services. This experience has not been adequately acknowledged in the debates about how to improve the quality and quantity of health services for the poor in developing countries. Health sector reform advocates and FP&SH advocates should collaborate within countries and regions to apply these management lessons.

  13. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania. (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin


    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  14. Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections? (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W


    This is a study of 189 women attending a family planning clinic in rural South Africa to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized genital tract infections. Genital samples were taken from these women to diagnose infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV, and to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. Among the 189 women, 41 (22%) reported having had an STD treated in the preceding 12 months. By direct questioning, 74 women stated the following symptoms: genital itch -- 38 (20%); vaginal discharge -- 56 (30%); dysuria -- 33 (18%); dyspareunia -- 22 (12%); and genital ulcers -- 4 (2%). 45 (24%) women had more than one symptom. 119 (63%) women had at least one genital infection, and 49 (26%) had multiple infections. Most of the infections were asymptomatic; while those that were symptomatic, were unrecognized or not reported. Results showed a high prevalence of genital tract infection among the participating women, with most of their infections remaining asymptomatic or unrecognized. Thus, strategies to detect and treat genital tract infections in rural South Africa need to be developed.

  15. AIDS models grow in use -- and controversy. (United States)

    Barron, T


    Policy and program planners use information gained from computer-based statistical models to develop interventions against AIDS. Models of the epidemic's effect, however, show widely differing impacts on population. With the recent entry of a British researcher's view of the impact of AIDS on the population of Africa, the debate between researchers has only intensified. While the World Health Organization (WHO) has conservatively estimated that 40 million people will be infected with HIV by the year 2000, Roy Anderson of the University of London and Robert May of Oxford University expect AIDS to cause population decline in Africa after the year 2002. Major donors and researchers feel that while population growth rates will decline, growth rates will not turn negative due to AIDS. The British researchers, however, do not consider their views to differ greatly from those of US researchers, but they do have problems with overly conservative WHO projections. Their research assumes a higher degree of transmission between core groups of HIV-positive people, including prostitutes, IV drug users, and general populations in Africa's hardest hit areas. They project infection prevalence to reach 50% or more in some areas. Greater levels of prostitution and poverty, as well as the tendency for males to have sex with increasingly younger females, will lead to higher HIV incidence and prevalence in Africa. Family planning experts are voicing their concern over the integrity of these models and question whether they are more than simply educated guesses of what the future holds. Even though projections are uncertain and extremely data-dependent, family planning efforts must continue. Whether or not the AIDS pandemic eventually levels off in certain areas, critics must remember that family planning improves maternal and child health in addition to contributing to lower growth rates and prevent AIDS.

  16. Population, Population and Family Education, and Family Planning: A Bibliography, Supplement to Bibliography, and Accessions List, February-June 1973. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This is a bibliography of books, periodical articles and pamphlets on population and family education which are available in the library of the Population Education Clearing House Service of the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia, Bangkok. Most of the documents cited were published in the 60's and 70's with the exception of a few which…

  17. 'Our Families are Killing Us': HIV/AIDS, Witchcraft and Social Tensions in the Caprivi Region, Namibia. (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity


    The importance of exploring 'indigenous' constructions of illness is vital when explanatory models of ill health differ markedly from dominant biomedical paradigms. In the Caprivi region of Namibia, an upsurge of witchcraft accusations can be seen as a direct reaction to increasing AIDS-related illness and deaths, and to changes in socio-economic attitudes and expectations. The mobilization of witchcraft narratives provides a socially acceptable explanation for illness, and can positively influence decisions regarding the care and identity of the ill person. However, drawing upon data collected at kin and village level, this paper demonstrates that while witchcraft accusations can avert stigma and blame away from the ill person, they can also result in significant disruption to livelihoods, and place considerable tension upon key social capital networks at a time when the household is particularly vulnerable. Such findings have significant implications for the effectiveness of HIV prevention and AIDS mitigation initiatives, and for livelihood security.

  18. 民办高职院校家庭经济困难学生职业生涯规划现状探析%Status quo of Career Planning of Students from Economically Disadvantaged Family in Private Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the implementation of China's college students subsidy policy system, fostering students from economically disadvantaged families moving into a new era, starting with the main economic aid to development aid over, focusing on the difficulties of individual students grow up taught. In the current employment situation, the importance of career planning is increasingly well known, this paper aims to combine the contents of career planning, to explore training channels of family economic difficulties higher vocational school students.%随着我国高校学生资助政策体系的实施,家庭经济困难学生的培养工作步入一个新时期,开始由以经济援助为主向发展援助过度,注重对困难学生个人成长、成才的培养。在当前的就业形势下,职业生涯规划的重要性日益为人所熟知,本文旨在结合大学生职业生涯规划内容,探索新时期高职院校家庭经济困难学生的培养渠道。

  19. Family doctor-driven follow-up for adult childhood cancer survivors supported by a web-based survivor care plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, R.; Barf, H. A.; Groenier, K. H.; Kremer, L. C.; van der Meer, K.; Tissing, W. J. E.; Postma, A.


    To facilitate family doctor-driven follow-up for adult childhood cancer survivors, we developed a survivor care plan (SCP) for adult survivors and their family doctors. The SCP was accessible for survivors and their family doctors on a secure website and as a printed booklet. It included data on dia

  20. Making the 2007-2010 Action Plan work for women in family medicine in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coles Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract The Wonca Working Party for Women and Family Medicine (WWPWFM was organized in 2001 with the following objectives: to identify the key issues for women doctors; to review Wonca policies and procedures for equity and transparency; to provide opportunities to network at meetings and through the group's listserve and website; and to promote women doctors' participation in Wonca initiatives. In October 2008, at the Asia Pacific Regional conference, the Wonca Working Party on Women in Family Medicine (WWPWFM held a preconference day and conference workshops, building on the success and commitment to initiatives which enhance women's participation in Wonca developed in Ontario, Canada (2006 and at the Singapore World Congress (2007. At this meeting fifty women workshopped issues for women in Family Medicine in the Asia Pacific. Using the Action Plan formulated in Singapore (2007 the participants identified key regional issues and worked towards a solution. Key issues identified were professional issues, training in family medicine and women's health. Solutions were to extend the understanding of women's contributions to family medicine, improved career pathways for women in family medicine and improving women's participation in practices, family medicine organizations and academic meetings.

  1. 26 CFR 1.125-3 - Effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on the operation of cafeteria plans. (United States)


    ...) on the operation of cafeteria plans. 1.125-3 Section 1.125-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... operation of cafeteria plans. The following questions and answers provide guidance on the effect of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., on the operation of cafeteria plans:...

  2. Interdisciplinaridade no enfoque intersubjetivo habermasiano: reflexões sobre planejamento e AIDS Interdisciplinarity from intersubjectivity habermasian approach: reflections about planning and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Artmann


    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a discutir a interdisciplinaridade na perspectiva de Habermas por ser este enfoque considerado relevante e bastante promissor para a área da saúde, na medida em que permite uma abordagem mais ampla e ao mesmo tempo integradora das diversas racionalidades/especializações que perpassam este objeto tão complexo. São apresentados alguns conceitos básicos do paradigma habermasiano para discutir a possibilidade de construção de um projeto interdisciplinar na área da saúde, destacando o papel assumido pela linguagem na qualidade de articuladora da ação em geral e de todas as formas de saber ligadas à atuação sobre o mundo, considerado em seu conceito tríplice ampliado e em relação ao mundo vital. Nesta discussão toma-se, ainda, como referência, conceitos do Planejamento Estratégico Situacional e o exemplo do processamento parcial de um problema de aumento de incidência da AIDS a partir do olhar da secretaria de saúde de um município de médio porte.This paper is aimed to discuss interdisciplinarity from Habermas approach, which importance is due to the possibility of a wider and integrated view of different rationalities within health field. Some basic concepts from the habermasian paradigm are presented in order to explore the possibility of an interdisciplinarity project in health field. Special emphasis is given to the role of language as an articulator of the action in general and all the knowledge related to the action or performance in the world. Concepts from the Strategic-Situational Planing approach are also taken as reference to discuss and an example of the problem of an increase of AIDS incidence, from the point of view interdisciplinary from the Health Department's perspective in a medium size municipality.

  3. And in Kenya, an ambitious effort: AIDS cases multiplying despite attacks on problem. (United States)

    Momanyi, R; Ngugi, J


    The existence in Kenya of 750,000 individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 41,000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impelled state officials and nongovernmental organizations to develop a more comprehensive approach to AIDS prevention. For example, PLAN Kiambu's AIDS Education, Prevention, and Community Support Program is providing emergency assistance (food, medical care, financial support) to those with AIDS and their families, facilitating school attendance of children orphaned by AIDS, establishing AIDS support groups, conducting outreach to prostitutes and other high-risk groups, and developing educational materials for children 7-16 years of age. Traditional media, such as drama, songs, and dance, are the preferred communication channels for AIDS education. People with AIDS are recruited to serve as peer counselors. Another nongovernmental organization has targeted female children for educational campaigns aimed at raising their self-esteem and capacity to be assertive.

  4. Offering extended use of the combined contraceptive pill: a survey of specialist family planning services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U


    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Sue Mann,2 Nataliya Brima,3 Judith Stephenson21Reproductive and Sexual Health, Enfield Community Service, Enfield, 2Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Group, Institute for Women’s Health, 3Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes to, and provision of, extended regimens for taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC by specialist contraception practitioners from three contrasting specialist contraception services in London.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was administered to all doctors and nurses, who counsel, provide, or prescribe the oral contraceptive pill at each clinic.Results: A total of 105 clinicians received the questionnaire and 67 (64% responded. Only one of three clinics initiated and maintained guidelines for extended COC use. In that service, 60% of staff prescribing COC advised more than 50% of patients regarding alternative COC regimens. In the other two services, this was discussed with 20% and 6% of patients, respectively (P < 0.001. The reasons for prescribing extended use included cyclic headaches, menorrhagia, patient request, menstrual-related cramps, and endometriosis, and did not differ between the three different settings. The most common extended regimens were 63 pills or continuous use until bleeding occurs, followed by a hormone-free interval. Concerns highlighted by providers and patients were “unhealthy not to have a monthly bleed”, “future fertility”, and “breakthrough bleeding”. Such comments highlight the need for further information for providers and patients.Conclusion: There is growing evidence, backed by national guidance, about extended COC use, but routine provision of this information is patchy and varies ten-fold, even within specialist family planning services. Targeted training, use of service guidelines, and implementation research will be

  5. Informed push distribution of contraceptives in Senegal reduces stockouts and improves quality of family planning services. (United States)

    Daff, Bocar Mamadou; Seck, Cheikh; Belkhayat, Hassan; Sutton, Perri


    Contraceptive use in Senegal is among the lowest in the world and has barely increased over the past 5 years, from 10% of married women in 2005 to 12% in 2011. Contraceptive stockouts in public facilities, where 85% of women access family planning services, are common. In 2011, we conducted a supply chain study of 33 public-sector facilities in Pikine and Guediawaye districts of the Dakar region to understand the magnitude and root causes of stockouts. The study included stock audits, surveys with 156 consumers, and interviews with facility staff, managers, and other stakeholders. At the facility level, stockouts of injectables and implants occurred, on average, 43% and 83% of the year, respectively. At least 60% of stockouts occurred despite stock availability at the national level. Data from interviews revealed that the current "pull-based" distribution system was complex and inefficient. In order to reduce stockout rates to the commercial-sector standard of 2% or less, the Government of Senegal and the Senegal Urban Reproductive Health Initiative developed the informed push distribution model (IPM) and pilot-tested it in Pikine district between February 2012 and July 2012. IPM brings the source of supply (a delivery truck loaded with supplies) closer to the source of demand (clients in health facilities) and streamlines the steps in between. With a professional logistician managing stock and deliveries, the health facilities no longer need to place and pick up orders. Stockouts of contraceptive pills, injectables, implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs) were completely eliminated at the 14 public health facilities in Pikine over the 6-month pilot phase. The government expanded IPM to all 140 public facilities in the Dakar region, and 6 months later stockout rates throughout the region dropped to less than 2%. National coverage of the IPM is expected by July 2015.

  6. Increasingly artful. Applying commercial marketing communication techniques to family planning communication. (United States)

    Williams, J R


    Family planning (FP) and social marketing messages must utilize the rules concerning artfulness developed in the private sector for effective communication in the mass media around the world. They have to compete for the attention of television program viewers accustomed to receiving hundreds of 30-second messages. There are some rules essential to any effective communication program: 1) Command attention. In the US over 1350 different mass media messages vie for attention every single day. FP messages are sensitive, but dullness and passivity is not a requisite. 2) Clarify the message, and keep it simple and direct. Mixed messages equal less effective communication. 3) Communicate a benefit. Consumers do not only buy products, they buy expectations of benefits. 4) Consistency counts. The central message should remain consistent to allow the evaluation of its effectiveness, but execution should vary from time to time and medium to medium. 5) Cater to the heart and the head. Effective communication offers real emotional values. 6) Create trust. Words, graphics, sounds, and casting in the campaign should support 1 central key promise to a single prime prospect. 7) Call for action. Both commercial and social marketing campaigns can calculate results by quantifiable measurement of sales (of condoms) transactions (the number of IUD insertions), floor traffic (clinic visits), attitude shifts, and behavior change. The PRO-PATER Vasectomy Campaign of 1988 in Sao Paulo, Brazil successfully used the above rules for effective communication. During the 1st 2 months of the campaign, phone calls increased by over 300%, new clients by 97%, and actual vasectomies performed by 79%.

  7. On the Outside Looking in: An African American Family's Experience in an Individualized Education Plan Meeting (United States)

    Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.


    The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…

  8. The Influence of Family Planning Policies on Marriage and Families and Countermeasures%生育政策对婚姻家庭的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A family is the most basic organizational form of social life and the stability of a family directly affects social stability. China's series of family planning policies with the purpose of lowering the birth rate, especially the one-child policy, have had a strong impact on marriage and families and led to a gradual weakening of family functions of raising children and caring for the aged, thereby resulting in difficulties carrying out the conventional family function of supporting family members. Therefore, as regards slowing down population growth, the main emphasis of China's childbearing policy shall move from reducing population growth to maintaining the intactness and enabling the traditional functions of a family. At the same time, due to the integrality of public policies, they can only be fully effective with mutual coordination. In order to reduce existing and potential negative effects towards marriage and family, public policies and public services related to childbearing shall be improved along with the existing system of childbearing.%家庭是社会生活最基本的组织形式,家庭的稳定直接关系到社会的稳定.以降低出生率为核心内容的计划生育政策,尤其是独生子女政策,对婚姻家庭造成了较大影响,导致家庭在抚幼、养老等方面的功能逐渐弱化,难以发挥传统家庭对家庭成员的支持作用.因此,随着人口增速的放缓,我国生育政策的重心应从降低人口出生率转向维系家庭的完整及其功能的实现.同时,因公共政策是一个整体,各项政策之间需要互相协调才能发挥最佳效果,消减计划生育政策对婚姻家庭已经产生和将来可能产生的负面影响,不仅要修正现有的生育政策,也要完善与生育相关的公共政策和公共服务.

  9. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning among Girls and Young Women in the Philippines (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole


    This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; pwomen in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.

  10. Supporting Client and Family Engagement in Care Through the Planning and Implementation of an Online Consumer Health Portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Maxwell BScOT, MSc


    Full Text Available Web-based portals and electronic health records are making it easier for clients and families to access health information. This improved transparency and access to information has the potential to promote activation and improve outcomes, but to realize these benefits, the information needs to be valuable, meaningful, and understandable. Engagement of the end users in the planning and implementation will ensure that the product meets the needs of the consumers. The purpose of this case study is to describe the client and family engagement strategies that were employed to support the process of planning and implementing an online consumer health portal at a pediatric rehabilitation hospital to support the successful launch of this new information-sharing technology platform.

  11. Analysis on the Attitude of the Family Planning staff toward the Contraception Service Delivery to the Unmarried Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周利锋; 王炳顺; 涂晓雯; 高尔生


    Objective To analyze the attitude of family planning staff on providing contracep tives to unmarried youthcontraceptives providers or deliverymen in 3 cities and 3 countries chosen form 8 provinces of China, were enrolled into this study. The Methods of structural questionnaire, focus group discussion and in-depth interview were used to investigate their attitude.Results Those who agree,who disagree and who were uncertain to the matter account for 69. 64%, 27. 14% and 3. 22% of total respectively. The influencing factors included the length of working years, area of household register, their awareness and attitude to premarital sexual behavior and so on.Conclusion The staff of family planning should take a positive attitude and pay enough attention to reproductive health needs of unmarried youth.

  12. billingsMentor: Adapting natural family planning to information technology and relieving the user of unnecessary tasks. (United States)

    Smith, Audrey D; Smith, John L


    BillingsMentor is an automated Web-based service for the Billings Method of natural family planning in which the guidance and interpretation previously communicated from teacher to student is provided by programmed algorithms. There are two functions: (1) to instruct the client to generate proper descriptions of her fertility symptoms; and (2) to interpret the symptoms efficiently according to the Billings Method and to communicate the results to the client. The efficiency of billingsMentor was tested by using the historical records of students who were under the guidance of a teacher to emulate their experience under the guidance of billingsMentor. The results indicate that billingsMentor performs as well as the teacher/student in recognizing the peak of fertility but it is slightly less efficient than the teacher/student in establishing the basic infertile pattern. Advantages that arise from adapting natural family planning to information technology are discussed.

  13. Role Of Family Planning Practices In The Control And Prevention of Uterine Cervical Cancer- A Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S


    Full Text Available Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area â€" Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.

  14. Role of Advance Care Planning in Proxy Decision Making Among Individuals With Dementia and Their Family Caregivers. (United States)

    Kwak, Jung; De Larwelle, Jessica A; Valuch, Katharine O'Connell; Kesler, Toni


    Health care proxies make important end-of-life decisions for individuals with dementia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the role of advance care planning in proxy decision making for 141 individuals with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other types of dementia. Proxies who did not know the preferences of individuals with dementia for life support treatments reported greater understanding of their values. Proxies of individuals with dementia who did not want life support treatments anticipated receiving less support and were more uncertain in decision making. The greater knowledge proxies had about dementia trajectory, family support, and trust of physicians, the more informed, clearer, and less uncertain they were in decision making. In addition to advance care planning, multiple factors influence proxy decision making, which should be considered in developing interventions and future research to support informed decision making for individuals with dementia and their families.

  15. Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among rural young Chinese: the effect of suicide death by a family member or friend. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Li


    Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts have been found to be predictors of suicide. This study aims to estimate the suicidal behaviors in rural China. We studied 784 respondents as informants of suicide and 1,247 respondents as informants of community living controls, with the NCS-R measures on suicidal behaviors. The lifetime prevalence of ideation, plans, and attempts among the informants of suicide was 18.1, 4.1, and 1.7%, and the 12-month prevalence was 12.1, 2.2, and 0.4%, respectively. The prevalence scores were higher for the family members than for friends of suicide. The risk factors for suicidal behaviors include being parents or spouse of the suicide, female gender, low education level, and being never married. As suicidal behaviors are more observed among those who have a suicide death in the family or among close friends, suicide screening and intervention efforts should be focused on this type of population.

  16. [Parliament and the demographic question: a study of the debate over birth control and family planning in the National Congress]. (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I


    The author explores the involvement of Brazil's Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate in issues of population policy, family planning, and birth control. The focus is on the period 1960-1985, with special attention to actions taken by the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission. The debate within the National Congress on these issues is described, and the opinions of members of Parliament are outlined. Data are from official and other published sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Elena Planas

    Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  18. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives



    Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any i...

  19. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members


    Kimberly Ramsbottom; Mary Lou Kelley


    Long term care (LTC) homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP) important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descript...

  20. Effects of ethnic attributes on the quality of family planning services in Lima, Peru: a randomized crossover trial. (United States)

    Planas, Maria-Elena; García, Patricia J; Bustelo, Monserrat; Carcamo, Cesar P; Martinez, Sebastian; Nopo, Hugo; Rodriguez, Julio; Merino, Maria-Fernanda; Morrison, Andrew


    Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry) profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1) or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2), with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23) between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.

  1. Screening for Chlamydial Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics—Evaluation of Presumptive Indicators for Therapy


    Schachter, Julius; Stoner, Eileen; Moncada, Jeanne


    Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from the cervices of 9.8 percent (268/2,729) of women attending seven family planning clinics. The infection rate varied from 5.5 percent to 22.5 percent in different clinics. Chlamydial infection could be associated with younger age, nulliparity, being black and use of oral contraceptives. Most (70 percent) of the chlamydial infections were inapparent and presumptive indicators for antichlamydial therapy that are useful for symptomatic women will not make ...

  2. Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study


    Thompson Sandra C; Li Jianghong; Nattabi Barbara; Orach Christopher G; Earnest Jaya


    Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interview...

  3. Effect of TV and radio family planning messages on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim; Zainiddinov, Hakim


    This study evaluates the effects of family planning message broadcast on radio and TV on the probability of modern contraception utilization in post-Soviet Central Asia. Viewing family planning messages on TV improves the chances of using modern contraception for a woman who actually saw the messages by about 11 and 8 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. If every woman in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had an opportunity to watch a family planning message on TV, then the likelihood of using modern contraception would have improved by 10 and 7 per cent in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, respectively. By contrast, the effect of hearing family planning messages on radio is not significant in both countries. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Haddad

    Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  5. Log Linear Models for Religious and Social Factors affecting the practice of Family Planning Methods in Lahore, Pakistan

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    Farooq Ahmad


    Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.

  6. Providers’ Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya

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    Sara J. Newmann


    Full Text Available Objective. To inform an intervention integrating family planning into HIV care, family planning (FP knowledge, attitudes and practices, and perspectives on integrating FP into HIV care were assessed among healthcare providers in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods. Thirty-one mixed-method, structured interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of healthcare workers (HCWs from 13 government HIV care facilities in Nyanza Province. Structured questions and case scenarios assessed contraceptive knowledge, training, and FP provision experience. Open-ended questions explored perspectives on integration. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Results. Of the 31 HCWs interviewed, 45% reported previous FP training. Few providers thought long-acting methods were safe for HIV-positive women (19% viewed depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as safe and 36% viewed implants and intrauterine contraceptives as safe; fewer felt comfortable recommending them to HIV-positive women. Overall, providers supported HIV and family planning integration, yet several potential barriers were identified including misunderstandings about contraceptive safety, gendered power differentials relating to fertility decisions, staff shortages, lack of FP training, and contraceptive shortages. Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of selective screening criteria for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending Colorado family planning clinics. (United States)

    Humphreys, J T; Henneberry, J F; Rickard, R S; Beebe, J L


    Women attending family planning clinics in Colorado during 1988 were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Chlamydiazyme, Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). Cervical specimens from 11,793 women attending 22 family planning clinics were analyzed. Patient history and physical exams were used to assess risk factors for infection. A total of 913 individuals (7.7%) had positive culture results for C. trachomatis. Multivariate analysis showed that infection was significantly related to endocervical bleeding, cervical mucopurulent discharge, a new sexual partner in the last 3 months or multiple previous sexual partners (greater than 3) in the last year, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, and age. Increased odd ratios were observed for the combination of endocervical bleeding and mucopurulent discharge and sexual history that included partners over the previous year as well as the most recent 3 months. A combination of these criteria was used to selectively screen women attending Colorado family planning clinics on an ongoing basis. A cost-benefit analysis employing a model reported previously showed a significant financial benefit associated with universal screening over either selective screening or no screening for C. trachomatis in this population.

  8. Factors Related to Family Therapists' Breaking Confidence When Clients Disclose High-Risks-to-HIV/AIDS Sexual Behaviors. (United States)

    Pais, Shobha; Piercy, Fred; Miller, JoAnn


    Through a national survey of marriage and family therapists, this study examines what therapists do when their HIV-positive clients disclose that they are engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Participants (N=309) were more likely to break confidence when their clients were male, young, gay, or African American. Describes characteristic of…

  9. Messages on pregnancy and family planning that providers give women living with HIV in the context of a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention intervention in Mozambique

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    Hilliard S


    Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health

  10. Computer-aided planning and surgical guiding system fabrication in premolar autotransplantation : a 12-month follow up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Jansma, Johan; Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos


    This case report describes the autotransplantation of maxillary right second premolar into the contralateral position in a 14-year-old female using computerized tomographic data and a customized guiding system produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology. Using innovati

  11. Research on the Psychological Aid for Female Victims of Family Violence%家庭暴力受虐妇女心理援助初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The psychological aid for family violence victims can be divided into professional and non-professional. Women's federations, public organizations, psychological clinics and consulting companies throughout the country play their roles in proving professional aid for mistreated women. Non-professional psychological aid can help them resume confidence by relieving their responses. A whole atmosphere of social support and correct opinion orientation are needed to comfort and support the female victims.%  家庭暴力受虐妇女的心理援助分为专业心理援助和非专业心理援助。全国及各地妇联、民间公益组织、医院中的心理门诊、心理咨询公司分别在受虐妇女的专业心理援助中发挥着作用。非专业心理援助中的情感支持能够帮助受虐妇女缓解应激反应,恢复信心。正式干预则通过形成社会支持的整体氛围和正确的舆论导向给受虐妇女提供心理安抚和支持。中国受虐妇女的心理援助还缺乏社会性别理论的指导,其解决之道在于社会性别主流化。

  12. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Adelmo Gian Martino Mazzocchi


    Aids are only one of the instruments with which the disabled person can often reach a good level of autonomy,he can improve his conditions of life and prevent the aggravating of his situation.Aids serve also to facilitate care on the part of the family.The rights confirmed by Law 104 can also be achieved through the use of aids.The Italian state has planned a system of care with regards to aids so that some of them can be purchased with different tax concessions but essential aids,those necessary for the reaching of autonomy goals and prevention defined by an individual rehabilitative project,are supplied free of charge.In Italy essential aids are part therefore of a rehabilitation plan that is identified for each person with disabilities by a team made up of different professionals.

  13. Quality of care and family planning drop-outs in Bukidnon province: a survey study. (United States)

    Palma-sealza, L


    A study was undertaken in the province of Bukidnon in the Philippines to determine the actual percentage of family planning (FP) acceptors who become dropouts, the reasons they drop out, and the factors most strongly associated with this phenomenon. Data were collected through interviews with married women of reproductive age who had been recorded as being a FP acceptor during 1992. The sample size was set at 400 using a probability-proportionate-to-size sampling technique. In examining the extent of the drop-out problem, it was found that the actual FP status of each respondent agreed with the clinic records in 73.4% of cases and that 22% of those thought to be dropouts had actually switched methods. Most of the women who stopped using oral contraceptives said they did so because of side effects. The drop-out problem was most acute among women who were poorer, less educated, and of higher parity. The attitude of a husband towards use of a method was a better predictor of continuation than the wife's attitude. Clients who felt their provider was approachable and friendly were significantly less likely to drop out. Despite the fact that the FP program is modeled on a "cafeteria" approach which provides choices to acceptors, 9.5% of acceptors in this survey claimed they were not offered a choice. Women who received limited information were more likely to become drop-outs. Clients who had to return to clinics frequently for resupply of OCs or condoms were most likely to become drop-outs. While the number of dropouts identified in this study was only half the official estimate for the province, the short time between FP acceptance and the survey may have reduced the number of dropouts. The program implications of these findings are that 1) the occurrence of side effects needs study, 2) groups characterized by high drop-out rates should receive immediate attention, 3) favorable attitudes should be fostered in husbands, 4) women must receive more information on their

  14. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

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    Annet Nanvubya

    Full Text Available Fishing communities (FCs in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP. Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda.Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18-49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use.The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8% being females while more than half (58.6% had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688; significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61], among older respondents (25-29 years [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99] compared to younger ones (18-24 years and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688 reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%, fear of side effects (12.2% and partner refusal (5.2%.Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods.

  15. Development of a computerized aid to integrated land use planning (CAILUP) at regional level in irrigated areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoanh, C.T.


    The problem - Objectives of the studyLand use planning is an essential activity in any country, because the demands for different land uses usually exceed the available resources. Land use planning implies weighting of trade-offs among conflicting goals, as different interest

  16. Uptake of family planning methods and unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals: a cross-sectional survey among clients at HIV clinics in Uganda

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    Wanyenze Rhoda K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT, but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but available data has not been disaggregated by HIV status. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of family planning and unintended pregnancies among HIV-infected people in Uganda. Methods We conducted exit interviews with 1100 HIV-infected individuals, including 441 men and 659 women, from 12 HIV clinics in three districts in Uganda to assess the uptake of family planning services, and unplanned pregnancies, among HIV-infected people. We conducted multivariate analysis for predictors of current use of family planning among women who were married or in consensual union and were not pregnant at the time of the interview. Results One-third (33%, 216 of the women reported being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses and 28% (123 of the men reported their partner being pregnant since their HIV diagnoses. Of these, 43% (105 said these pregnancies were not planned: 53% (80 among women compared with 26% (25 among men. Most respondents (58%; 640 reported that they were currently using family planning methods. Among women who were married or in consensual union and not pregnant, 80% (242 were currently using any family planning method and 68% were currently using modern family planning methods (excluding withdrawal, lactational amenorrhoea and rhythm. At multivariate analysis, women who did not discuss the number of children they wanted with their partners and those who did not disclose their HIV status to sexual partners were less likely to use modern family planning methods (adjusted OR 0.40, range 0.20-0.81, and 0.30, range 0.10-0.85, respectively. Conclusions The uptake of family planning

  17. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It (United States)

    Khajapeer, M.


    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  18. Growing up with HIV/AIDS: a study on adolescents with HIV/AIDS and their family caregivers Creciendo con VIH/SIDA: un estudio con adolescentes portadoras de VIH/SIDA y sus cuidadoras familiares Crescendo com HIV/AIDS: estudo com adolescentes portadoras de HIV/AIDS e suas cuidadoras-familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Antunes Lima


    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, which looks at the adolescent process with HIV/AIDS. The purpose is to identify how the adolescent process occurs, from the perspective of these teenagers and their family caregivers. The investigation was performed in Porto Alegre, RS between May and July 2005, and the subjects were four adolescents and three caregivers. Data were collected by means of interviews, which were subject to the content analysis technique. The study revealed that both teenagers and family caregivers did not show concern with the changes typical of the period, especially regarding sexuality questions. Yet, the underlying diagnosis and coping with HIV remain in the family core in order to protect these agents against the stigma of the disease.Es un estudio exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, que trata del proceso de desarrollo de la adolescencia en portadoras de VIH/SIDA, con el objetivo de identificar cómo ocurre el proceso de la adolescencia, en la visión de estas adolescentes y de sus cuidadoras familiares.La investigación se realizó en Porto Alegre-RS, entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2005; los sujetos fueron cuatro adolescentes y tres cuidadoras. La colecta de las informaciones se hizo por medio de entrevistas que fueron sometidas a la técnica de análisis de contenido. El estudio reveló que las adolescentes y sus cuidadoras familiares, manifestaron preocupación con los cambios propios de ese período, especialmente en asuntos relacionados a la sexualidad. Se hizo evidente que el diagnóstico y la convivencia con el VIH permanecen ocultos en el contexto familiar, con el objetivo de proteger, a estos actores, del estigma de la enfermedad.Estudo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, que trata do processo de adolescer de portadoras de HIV/AIDS, com o objetivo de identificar como ocorre o processo da adolescência, na ótica dessas adolescentes e de suas cuidadoras-familiares. A investiga

  19. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  20. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India. (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita


    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  1. The impact of official development aid on maternal and reproductive health outcomes: a systematic review.

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    Emma Michelle Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning. DISCUSSION: This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid.

  2. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  3. National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research (United States)

    ... Contact Us Main Navigation for the Office of AIDS Research Homepage ABOUT OAR SCIENTIFIC AREAS STRATEGIC PLAN ... HIV/AIDS INFORMATION Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research. Welcome to the Office of AIDS Research ...

  4. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  5. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International (United States)

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia


    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  6. Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan. (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Storeng, Katerini T


    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict. In addition to customary norms, these processes are shaped by two powerful institutions - ethnic movements and global humanitarian actors - who tend to take opposing stances on reproductive health. Drawing on document review, observations of the media and policy environment and interviews conducted with 54 key informants between 2013 and 2015, the paper shows that during the civil war, the Sudan People's Liberation Army and Movement mobilised customary pro-natalist ideals for military gain by entreating women to amplify reproduction to replace those lost to war and rejecting family planning and abortion. International donors and the Ministry of Health have re-conceptualised such services as among other modern developments denied by war. The tensions between these competing discourses have given rise to a range of societal responses, including disagreements that erupt in legal battles, heated debate and even violence towards women and health workers. In United Nations camps established recently as parts of South Sudan have returned to war, social groups exert a form of reproductive surveillance, policing reproductive health practices and contributing to intra-communal violence when clandestine use of contraception or abortion is discovered. In a context where modern contraceptives and abortion services are largely unfamiliar, conflict around South Sudan's nation

  7. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias. (United States)

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  8. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act. (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Ortíz Boza


    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe purpose of this paper it’s to analyze the stereotypes managed in the campaign 1988-2000 of family planning, produced by National Council of Population (CONAPO and emitted by mexican television in all the modalities; open and payperview. This campaign it’s one of the last that the state, through the CONAPO, has been put in the massive communication media, specifically in television. The campaign was designed specially for this media and was transmitted since 1998 to 2004, in which it was reprogrammed as part of the festivity for the 30 years of reproductive health campaigns of Mexican state. After this campaign, practically none of them has been emitted through the televise media. Another thing that makes it interesting to be the object of study is the fact that for first time the masculine stereotype is included as decisive part of family planning. This audiovisual material constitute a good source of information in its kind to analyze those messages produced by the State and are included as well stereotypes such as urban, and rural. The model taken was the social representations, from Sergei Moscovici, as well as some elements from the techniques of content analysis. All 22 messages of television that integrate the campaign 1998-2000 were analyzed. Of them, 11 directed to urban zones and 11 to rural zones. In both were quantified the times that man and women in which they take part, the way the take part: alone or in couple and a positive or negative value was assigned to the stereotype present in messages, taking as criteria of this assignment or evaluation, the measurement in which (trough the textual or visual speech it is fomented or not of equitable way the masculine and feminine participation in relation with the decision to plan the family. 10 charts were elaborated were the exercise is done by each of the thematic approached in the messages of the campaign and from the results obtained inferences were realized from two

  10. Berufsbiografie und Familiengründung im methodischen Korsett Occupational Biography and Family Planning in a Methodical Corset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechthild Veil


    Full Text Available In der Studie werden die ambivalenten Beziehungen zwischen Berufsbiografie und Familiengründung bei jungen Erwachsenen mit abgeschlossener beruflicher Ausbildung untersucht. Geschlechtsspezifische Fragestellungen spielen insofern eine Rolle, als zwischen dem Handeln und den Erwartungen von Männern und Frauen unterschieden wird. Vorherrschend sind jedoch methodische Fragen und das Ziel, Typologien zu entwickeln.The study focuses on the ambivalent relationship between occupational biography and family planning for young adults with certified occupational training. Gender-specific modes of inquiry play a role to the extent that the actions and expectations of men and women are differentiated. However, methodical questions and the goal of developing typologies are paramount.



    Atilla Senih MAYDA; Tugba ARSLAN; Hakan Bahadir BOZKURT; Ilker DEDELI; Meryem Ozlem OZKAN


    The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the ca...

  12. Impact and Cost of the HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plan for Mozambique, 2015-2019--Projections with the Spectrum/Goals Model.

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    Eline L Korenromp

    Full Text Available Mozambique continues to face a severe HIV epidemic and high cost for its control, largely born by international donors. We assessed feasible targets, likely impact and costs for the 2015-2019 national strategic HIV/AIDS plan (NSP.The HIV epidemic and response was modelled in the Spectrum/Goals/Resource Needs dynamical simulation model, separately for North/Center/South regions, fitted to antenatal clinic surveillance data, household and key risk group surveys, program statistics, and financial records. Intervention targets were defined in collaboration with the National AIDS Council, Ministry of Health, technical partners and implementing NGOs, considering existing commitments.Implementing the NSP to meet existing coverage targets would reduce annual new infections among all ages from 105,000 in 2014 to 78,000 in 2019, and reduce annual HIV/AIDS-related deaths from 80,000 to 56,000. Additional scale-up of prevention interventions targeting high-risk groups, with improved patient retention on ART, could further reduce burden to 65,000 new infections and 51,000 HIV-related deaths in 2019. Program cost would increase from US$ 273 million in 2014, to US$ 433 million in 2019 for 'Current targets', or US$ 495 million in 2019 for 'Accelerated scale-up'. The 'Accelerated scale-up' would lower cost per infection averted, due to an enhanced focus on behavioural prevention for high-risk groups. Cost and mortality impact are driven by ART, which accounts for 53% of resource needs in 2019. Infections averted are driven by scale-up of interventions targeting sex work (North, rising epidemic and voluntary male circumcision (Center & South, generalized epidemics.The NSP could aim to reduce annual new HIV infections and deaths by 2019 by 30% and 40%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Achieving incidence and mortality reductions corresponding to UNAIDS' 'Fast track' targets will require increased ART coverage and additional behavioural prevention targeting key risk

  13. 河南省农村艾滋病流行地区HIV/AIDS150例家庭功能状况及影响因素分析%Analysis on Family Function of 150 Cases with HIV/AIDS and Its Influential Factors in AIDS Epidemic Rural Area of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉霞; 章涵


    目的 评价河南省农村地区HIV感染者/AIDS患者(HIV/AIDS)对家庭关怀的满意度,并了解其影响因素.方法 选取河南省周口汤庄乡的6个行政村150例HIV/AIDS患者进行问卷调查,采用自编的家庭功能相关因素调查表及家庭关怀度指数问卷(APGAR问卷),对数据进行x2检验和有序多项分类Logistic回归分析.结果 HIV/AIDS的家庭功能平均得分为7.04分.64.67%的HIV/AIDS家庭功能良好,平均8.39分;25.33%家庭功能中度障碍,平均5.37分;10.00%家庭功能严重障碍,平均2.56分.夫妻关系、子女态度、周围人的态度和社会支持是影响家庭功能的重要指标,夫妻关系亲密、子女孝顺、感觉周围人的态度好及对各方面社会支持满意的家庭功能好于夫妻关系不好、子女不孝顺、感觉周围人的态度不好及对各方面社会支持不满意的家庭功能.结论 应积极倡导开展适合农村HIV/AIDS的家庭关怀与支持.%Objective To understand the satisfied degree of family care in the persons infected HIV or AIDS in the rural area of Henan province, as well as analyzes its related influencing factors. Methods The 150 residents infected with HIV/AIDS from 6 administrative villages at Tangzhuang town in Zhoukou city of Henan Province were selected to complete questionnaire survey on family function related factor and Adaptation Partnership Growth Affection Resolve ( the APGAR questionnaire). The chisquare test and multiple-sorting logistic regression analysis were used. Results The total average score of family function was 7.04. 64. 67% was good and the average score was 8.39; 25. 33% had moderate barrier and the average score was 5.37; 10. 00% had serious barrier and the average score was 2. 56. The couple relationship, the children manner, periphery person's manner and the social support were the important factors which affected family function. The family function of the couple inmate relationship, the children

  14. 基于ArcGIS的三维辅助规划设计%3D Aided Plan Design Based on ArcGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚珍; 吴浩; 黎华


    从B/S架构入手,对城市规划进行三维辅助设计研究,给出了2D GIS与3D GIS相结合的GIS系统框架,实现了2D GIS与3D GIS之间的切换.同时,针对未建设区域的城市规划,根据已测得的数据点,建立了Delaunay三角网,然后将拟建设的3D模型放置在该区域进行辅助设计,为城市规划方案探讨提供了具有真实感的效果图.除此之外,建立了城市的3D GIS预警系统,对洪水淹没过程进行了模拟,为三维城市辅助规划提供了可行的设计思路和实施方案,具有一定的实用价值.%The B/S structure was discussed. Then the city design based on 3D aid design was conducted. And GIS system was constructed by 2D GIS and 3D GIS. The 2D GIS and the 3D GIS could switch into each other. Base on measured data, Delaunay triangulation network was constructed for wasteland in city; then 3D model was plaeeed in the area to aid the design. It offered designer the effect diagram with a sense of reality. Furthermore, a 3D early warning system of city was established to simulate the process of flooding. A practical design and implementation plan was proposed to 3D city design plan.

  15. Factors influencing pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use: an exploration of the 'unmet need for family planning' in Tanzania. (United States)

    Rusibamayila, Asinath; Phillips, James; Kalollela, Admirabilis; Jackson, Elizabeth; Baynes, Colin


    Estimation of unmet need for contraception is pursued as a means of defining the climate of demand for services and the rationale for family planning programmes. The stagnation of levels of unmet need, as assessed by Demographic and Health Surveys, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has called into question the practical utility of this measure and its relevance to policies and programmes in settings where evidence-based guidance is needed the most. This paper presents evidence from qualitative research conducted in rural Tanzania that assesses the diverse context in which pregnancy intentions and contraceptive behaviours are formed. The multi-level sets of influences on intentions and behaviours - that is, the dichotomous components used to calculate unmet need for family planning - are reviewed and discussed. While results lend support to the concept that unmet need exists and that services should address it, they also attest to the synergistic influences of individual, spousal, organisational and societal factors that influence the implementation of childbearing preferences. Altogether, the analysis suggests that ways for assessing and addressing unmet need in Tanzania, and similar settings, be revised to reflect contextual influences that not only shape individual preferences, but constrain how individuals implement them.

  16. A facility birth can be the time to start family planning: postpartum intrauterine device experiences from six countries. (United States)

    Pfitzer, Anne; Mackenzie, Devon; Blanchard, Holly; Hyjazi, Yolande; Kumar, Somesh; Lisanework Kassa, Serawit; Marinduque, Bernabe; Mateo, Marie Grace; Mukarugwiro, Beata; Ngabo, Fidele; Zaeem, Shabana; Zafar, Zonobia; Smith, Jeffrey Michael


    Initiation of family planning at the time of birth is opportune, since few women in low-resource settings who give birth in a facility return for further care. Postpartum family planning (PPFP) and postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) services were integrated into maternal care in six low- and middle-income countries, applying an insertion technique developed in Paraguay. Facilities with high delivery volume were selected to integrate PPFP/PPIUD services into routine care. Effective PPFP/PPIUD integration requires training and mentoring those providers assisting women at the time of birth. Ongoing monitoring generated data for advocacy. The percentages of PPIUD acceptors ranged from 2.3% of women counseled in Pakistan to 5.8% in the Philippines. Rates of complications among women returning for follow-up were low. Expulsion rates were 3.7% in Pakistan, 3.6% in Ethiopia, and 1.7% in Guinea and the Philippines. Infection rates did not exceed 1.3%, and three countries recorded no cases. Offering PPFP/PPIUD at birth improves access to contraception.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem Faraz


    Full Text Available Millions of women in developing countries would prefer to avoid a pregnancy by not using any form of contraception. Hence unmet need can be powerful concept for family planning programmes. Today, more than 220 million women in developing countries report having an unmet need for family planning at different stages of their reproductive lives. “Unmet need can be powerful concept for family planning programmes. First, it is based on women’s own statements, an answer to survey question. Second, it identifies the group most likely to be interested in contraception. Third, it poses a clear challenge to reach and serve these women”. OBJECTIVES : 1 To assess the magnitude of Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group (15 – 44 years. 2 To identify the socio - demographic factors associated with unmet need for family planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS : A cross - sectional study was carried out in the Urban and Rural health training Centers of Department of Community Medicine. The study population included 563 married women from rural and 924 married women from urban area aged 15 - 44 years. The data was collected using pre tested proforma and was analyzed using percentages and Chi - Square test. RESULTS : The unmet need for family planning was 28.9% in urban and 40.5% in rural study populations. The overall unmet need is low at the beginning of reproductive age, but it increased and reached a peak in the mid - twenties & then declined. CONCLUSION : Despite a fair knowledge about the family planning methods, various socio - cultural and problems were responsible for the gap between a woman’s expressed need and utilization of contraceptives. Addressing these problems and barriers would help in the long run to reduce the unmet need. KEYWORDS : Unmet needs; Contraception; Spacing; Limiting.

  18. Individualized Education Program (IEP)/Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Facilitation: Practical Insights and Programmatic Considerations (United States)

    Hedeen, Timothy; Peter, Marshall; Moses, Philip; Engiles, Anita


    Over 6.5 million youth and their families are eligible for early intervention or special education services (Data Accountability Center, 2011) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA). The principal mechanism by which goals, objectives, services, and placements are determined for Part B of the IDEA are Individualized…

  19. Family Hotel Businesses: Strategic Planning and the Need for Education and Training (United States)

    Peters, Mike; Buhalis, Dimitrios


    Small businesses dominate the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide and are of critical importance for the competitiveness of destinations. Small family hotel businesses are characterised by a number of specific business processes which generate particular training and educational needs. It is increasingly clear that small businesses are not…

  20. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa

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    Maseapo P. Mthobeni


    Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information.Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering

  1. 高收入家庭的理财规划方案%The Financial Planning of High Income Mr.Liu Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    刘先生家庭年度结余77万余元,为典型的421型高收入家庭.刘先生是做磷矿生意的,收入高风险也大,刘太太是农行柜员,收入较稳定,家有女儿读幼儿园,还有四老需要赡养.本理财规划方案在介绍刘先生家庭成员及资产情况基础上,编制家庭资产负债表和收入支出表,分析各项资产比率,指出刘先生家庭现阶段资产配置的不合理之处,旨在对该家庭进行现金规划、教育规划、住房规划、保险规划和投资规划.通过规划,该家庭的理财目标得以实现.%For Mr. Liu family is a typical 421 type of high income family. Its annual balance is more than 770000 yuan. Mr. Liu is doing phosphate rock business, and his income is high with high risk; his wife is an agriculture bank clerk, and her income is stable. His family members are a daughter who is in kindergarten, mother and father, mother in law and father in law. Based on introduction of Mr. Liu' s family and his asset, the paper works out the family balance sheet and income expenditure table, analyzes the assets ratio, and points out the unreasonable place in asset allocation of Mr. Liu's family, aiming to make cash planning, education planning, housing planning, insurance planning and investment planning for the family. Through the planning, the family's financial management target can be realized.

  2. Capturing What Matters Most: Engaging Students and Their Families in Educational Planning (United States)

    Espiner, Deborah; Guild, Diane


    Many authors in the self-determination literature purport that students must be given every opportunity to be part of decision-making that impacts on their lives. Students with high support needs are often not afforded this opportunity. This article describes a student-centred educational planning strategy called the 3EPlan. The 3 E's of the…

  3. A 2nd generation static model for predicting greenhouse energy inputs, as an aid for production planning

    CERN Document Server

    Jolliet, O; Munday, G L


    A model which allows accurate prediction of energy consumption of a greenhouse is a useful tool for production planning and optimisation of greenhouse components. To date two types of model have been developed; some very simple models of low precision, others, precise dynamic models unsuitable for employment over long periods and too complex for use in practice. A theoretical study and measurements at the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed development of a new static model named "HORTICERN", easy to use and as precise as more complex dynamic models. This paper demonstrates the potential of this model for long-term production planning. The model gives precise predictions of energy consumption when given greenhouse conditions of use (inside temperatures, dehumidification by ventilation, …) and takes into account local climatic conditions (wind radiative losses to the sky and solar gains), type of greenhouse (cladding, thermal screen …). The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and requires less...

  4. Developing Strategies to Improve Advance Care Planning in Long Term Care Homes: Giving Voice to Residents and Their Family Members

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    Kimberly Ramsbottom


    Full Text Available Long term care (LTC homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descriptive study conducted 34 individual semistructured interviews in two LTC homes, located in Canada. The participants were 31 family members and three staff, consisting of a front line care worker, a registered nurse, and a nurse practitioner. All participants perceived ACP conversations as valuable to provide “resident-centred care”; however, none of the participants had a good understanding of ACP, limiting its effectiveness. Strategies generated through the research to improve ACP were as follows: educating families and staff on ACP and end-of-life care options; better preparing staff for ACP conversations; providing staff skills training and guidelines; and LTC staff initiating systematic, proactive conversations using careful timing. These strategies can guide quality improvement of palliative care and development of ACP tools and resources specific to the LTC home sector.

  5. Successful Succession in Family Businesses : Individual Level Factors and Succession Planning Models.


    Aleem, Majid; Islam, Md. Shariful


    Individual level factors related to the successor have a central role to play in the succession process of the business. When these factors are viewed in relation to succession planning models, these factors have a direct relation to the succession models in terms of success or failure of the succession process. The major contributing factor to the success or failure of the succession process is that of the leadership provided to the organization by the predecessor. These leadership qualities...

  6. Rural environmental planning in a family farm: education, extension and sustainability

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    Dayana Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Developing research, teaching and extension in university programs is fundamental to capacitate professionals for the challenging endeavors. Considering the importance of these three university functions as relevant learning practices, the objective of this study was to analyze qualitatively the development of teaching project proposals associated with extension activities, directed to the rural environmental planning in an Agricultural Production Unit, in order to identify the issues and their degree of applicability. Twenty project proposals were developed in the "Rural Environmental Planning" course to plan an Agricultural Production Unit, which were subsequently evaluated by the farmer. This discipline is part of the Bachelor's degree course in Environmental Management and Analysis of the Universidade Federal de São Carlos. The projects followed qualitative research methods using the systemic and participatory approach. At the end of the process the farmer answered an evaluation matrix of the projects. Development of the projects was particularly important for the students and for their knowledge on the various topics covered, which also resulted in factual improvement perspectives in the Agricultural Production Unit. Construction of knowledge was participatory and integrated between the students and farmer.

  7. Propuesta General y Flexible para Planificación de Procesos Asistida por Computador General and Flexible Methodology and Architecture for Computer-Aided Process Planning

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    F. González


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una metodología y una arquitectura apropiada para la generación de sistemas flexibles para la planificación de procesos asistidos por computador (CAPP en piezas mecanizadas. En la metodología del trabajo se da importancia a los siguientes factores: la arquitectura del sistema, la metodología de planificación y los modelos de información utilizados para almacenar datos y conocimiento. Los resultados han sido aplicados en el sistema GF-CAPP. Se concluye que el desarrollo del prototipo GF-CAPP, basado en esta propuesta y probado sobre distintos entornos productivos y diferentes piezas, ha demostrado ser viable y con buenas cualidadesThe present study proposes a methodology and architecture appropriate for the generation of flexible systems for computer-aided process planning systems (CAPP for mechanized parts. The method proposed gives importance to the following factors: system architecture, planning methodology, and information modules used for storage of data and knowledge. The results have been applied to the GF-CAPP system. It is concluded that the development of the GF-CAPP prototype, based on the present proposal and applied over a great variety of parts and production media, has proven to be viable and to have useful characteristics

  8. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis of Sexual Communication and Relationship/Family Planning Factors Among Immigrant Latino Couples in the United States. (United States)

    Matsuda, Yui


    The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.

  9. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda. (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario


    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with, number [NCT02244398].

  10. Does a wife's education influence spousal agreement on approval of family planning?: Random-effects Modeling using data from two West African Countries. (United States)

    Hossain, Mian; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Rogers, Laurencia


    Spousal approval of family planning is critical for contraceptive use. Both contraceptive use rates and women's education are low in many West-African countries and this study examines the role of wives' education in spousal agreement on approval of family planning in two sub-Saharan West African countries. We used couples' data from Demographic Health Surveys in Senegal and in Niger, conducted in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results using multilevel modeling show that the odds of spousal agreement on approval of family planning were slightly over three times [OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.32 to 7.57] in Senegal and were about three times [OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.64 to 5.76] in Niger higher for women with more than primary education. Findings suggest that improvement in women's education could lead to spousal agreement on approval of family planning, which may lead to use of family planning in sub-Saharan African countries.

  11. The impact of external donor support through the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on the cost of red cell concentrate in Namibia, 2004-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Bocking, Adele; Wilkinson, Robert; Postma, Maarten J.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Mataranyika, Mary; Marfin, Anthony A.; Lowrance, David W.; Smit Sibinga, Cornelis


    BACKGROUND: External assistance can rapidly strengthen health programmes in developing countries, but such funding can also create sustainability challenges. From 2004-2011, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) provided more than $8 million to the Blood Transfusion Service of

  12. Improving Healthcare Transition Planning and Health-Related Independence for Youth with ASD and their Families (United States)


    included marriage and family in their responses. Discussing current relationships was part of a more complex conversation. Many young adults (n=22...topic].” Other participants were more direct. Sam said he did not want a relationship because he did not want children . Amber, a 25 year old female...who was a lesbian, I had her take me down to Kansas City, and they had a group for gays , transsexuals, lesbians, all the others. I was like, “Holy cr*p

  13. Succession Planning in Malaysian Family Owned Business– Case Studies in Malaysian Chinese Owned Business


    Jade Li, Chong


    Transferring a business to the next generation can pose serious challenges, especially in the SMEs sector. In many cases, the owner of the SMEs is the pillar of the company and he/she is responsible for most of the functions in the business. Some are near irreplaceable, thus, making succession even more difficult. According to research, about two-thirds of all family businesses fail to make it from the first generation to the second, and even less make it to the third. Researchers believe tha...

  14. Reform of the Evaluation Indicator System and Reproductive Health and Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Evaluation indicators, used for assessing work in a specific time period, play a guiding role in every area and are vital for making work plans. GDP, an important economic indicator, is often used to measure the strength of a country. It is also an indicator used in China to evaluate the performance of local governments This practice has proven to be effective in stimulating economic growth within a certain time period.However, the consequences of focusing only on economic indicators are beginning to loom large as time passes. It comes at the cost of social and public interest and sustainability of economic development.

  15. Son Preference and Family Planning Practices among Married Men in Mumbai, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To study son preferences and the contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practices of Indian Male Subjects & Methods The data was obtained through a semi-structured interview schedule caried out in 2 687 married men at Mumbai City, India in 1999.Results About 80% of men felt two children as their ideal family size, while 82%desired two children i.e. one son and one daughter. 8. 2% of men had strong prefer ence for two or more sons because of family lineage, old age support and to support each other.23. 1% of the couples had used contraceptives in the past, 48% of couples were not using any contraceptive method at the time of survey. Male participation in spacing contraceptive methods was 23% i.e. condom 21.9% and withdrawal 1.1%. Though awareness (99. 9% ) and knowledge (95. 2% ) of condom was high, only 42. 8% of subjects knew use the correct of the method. Only 2. 4% of them thought about accept ing vasectomy, while others reported various misconception.Conclusion This study suggests a pressing need for effective intervention strategies,both at the community level and the clinic level, backed with efficient motivation, coun seling and provision of quality services in urban areas.

  16. Estimating causal effects from family planning health communication campaigns using panel data: the "your health, your wealth" campaign in Egypt.

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    Paul L Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns - involving mass media and interpersonal communication - have long been utilized by national family planning programs to create awareness about contraceptive methods, to shift social norms related to fertility control, and to promote specific behaviors, such as the use of condoms, injectable methods or permanent sterilization. However, demonstrating the effectiveness of these campaigns is often complicated because the infeasibility of experimental designs generally yields statistically non-equivalent samples of campaign-exposed and unexposed individuals. METHODS: Using data from a panel survey of reproductive age women in Egypt, we estimate the effects of the multimedia health communication campaign "Your Health, Your Wealth" ("Sahatek Sarwetek" on precursors to contraceptive use (e.g., spousal communication, birth spacing attitudes and on modern contraceptive use. Difference-in-differences and fixed effects estimators that exploit the panel nature of the data are employed to control for both observed and unobserved heterogeneity in the sample of women who self-report recall of the messages, thereby potentially improving upon methods that make no such controls or that rely solely on cross-sectional data. FINDINGS: All of the estimators find positive effects of the "Your Health, Your Wealth" campaign on reproductive health outcomes, though the magnitudes of those effects diverge, often considerably. Difference-in-differences estimators find that exposure to the campaign increases the likelihood of spousal discussions by 14.4 percentage points (pp. (SE= .039, p<0.001 but has no effect on contraceptive use. In contrast, the fixed effects, instrumental variables estimator, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity, finds a large, statistically significant effect on modern contraceptive use (27.4 pp., SE=0.135, p=0.043. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulties of evaluating family planning communication programs may

  17. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

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    Islam MR


    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  18. Prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: a history of achievements and lessons learned. (United States)

    Ryan, Caroline A; Conly, Shanti R; Stanton, David L; Hasen, Nina S


    HIV prevention in the President's Emergency Plan for