Asiedu, Elizabeth; Nanivazo, Malokele; Nkusu, Mwanza
The Mexico City Policy (MCP) prohibits the United States Agency for International Development from providing aid to international non-governmental organizations that provide abortion-related services. This paper employs a panel data of 151 developing countries over the period of 1988 - 2010, to examine the effect of the MCP on the allocation of family planning aid to developing countries. We find that the MCP has a negative and robust effect on family planning aid. We also find that family pl...
Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L’Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa
Abstract To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by
Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa
To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors
Day, Randal D.; And Others
A study compared perceptions of pharmacy students in three different cultures (Malaysia, Thailand, United States) concerning pharmacist counseling about contraceptive use for family planning and AIDS prevention. Results indicate students in each culture, by gender, had different comfort levels with such counseling, implying need for different…
Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978
800 government-employed family planning community-based distributors distributed the pill throughout Zimbabwe's rural areas. The door-to-door service is one of the main factors that make Zimbabwe's family planning program successful. Zimbabwe boasts a contraceptive prevalence rate of 43% of adult women, considerably higher than Africa's average of 14%. This has caused Zimbabwe's total fertility rate to decline from 6.7 at Zimbabwe's independence (1980) to 5.3 in 1994. The total fertility rate for sub-Saharan Africa is 6.5. At independence, Zimbabwe's annual population growth rate was more than 3% and now it is down to 2.3%. Through the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council, the government pays the salaries of the roving rural distributors. It is estimated that the government bears more than half the cost of the family planning council's budget of $2.5 million. During the war to end white minority rule in the 1970s, President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union was adamantly opposed to the population control efforts. However, in 1985, the shift toward encouraging smaller families was endorsed at the national convention of Mugabe's party. In 1981, about 14% of women were using modern contraceptive methods. By 1988, up to 36%, and a new survey shows that 45% are currently using contraceptives. The family planning council has also launched a Male Motivation Campaign enlisting endorsements from Zimbabwe's popular national soccer team. Zimbabwe has seen a dramatic increase in condom use as a protective measure against AIDS. Currently more than 800,000 Zimbabweans are HIV positive. There are some opponents to Zimbabwe's encouragement of family planning, chiefly the Roman Catholic Church, which claims about 1 million adherents in Zimbabwe. A full range of birth control methods is offered by the family planning council, including diaphragms, IUDs, injectables, implants, and surgical tubal ligations. The pill is used by more than 70% of Zimbabwean women
It is the position of the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) that family planning advice and assistance should be readily available to all residents of Canada. This is viewed as a responsibility of practising physicians that is to be shared with other health and educational agencies. CMA has recommended the establishment of facilities in addition to physicians' offices for the dissemination of advice on family planning. These facilities should be developed in consultation with and under the s...
Wadia, A B
The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575
Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly
China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.
This Master's thesis focuses on family financial planning and emphasizes its importance in our lives. It's divided into several chapters that are logically linked to each other and form a complex whole. The main part consists of an overview of basic financial products, which everyone should have at least basic awareness of. Description of financial products is mainly focused on its functioning, specifics, advantages and disadvantages. In the next chapter is shown a few examples of how to crea...
According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys
... per 100 women in a year Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods Implant Reversible Intrauterine Device (IUD) Permanent Male ... for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, ...
The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result
At the turn of the century, Taiwan's population was increasing slowly, then later grew during a period of high fertility after the end of World War II and the accordance of independence in 1946. This growth in fertility came together with increasing life expectancy and a general desire by couples to have families comprised of 5-6 children. Taiwan was therefore poised to experience a major population explosion. In this context, a family planning program was established in the country which has since evolved into one of the world's most successful such programs. By 1990, the preferred family size was 2-3 children and of couples which already had 2 children, 70% of those without any sons were nonetheless practicing contraception. While in 1965, no married women used contraception until they had some children, by 1990, 27% of married women without children used contraception. Increasing age at marriage has been an important factor in Taiwan's declining fertility, with the average age at marriage increasing from 20 years in the 1950s to approximately 27 in the 1970s. Few mothers, however, want only one child. The fertility trends observed in Taiwan have been made possible through the provision of contraception, which used to be universally free, but which is now provided free to only people of low income or the disabled. Oral contraception, condoms, and IUDs are used, although 30% of couples depend upon sterilization. PMID:9741982
Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H
An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner. PMID:9866586
Derzko, Christine M.
Natural Family Planning (NFP) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “methods for planning or avoiding pregnancies by observation of the natural signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phase of the menstrual cycle. It is implicit in the definition of natural family planning, when used to avoid conception that drugs, devices and surgical procedures are not used, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle, and the act of int...
In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037
Natural family planning (NFP) is based on the knowledge *largely nonexistent) of a women as to whether she is in her fertile period or not. In contrast to the calendar method, the Billings method consists of observing bodily functions, whereby women learn about the fertile and infertile period during the menstrual cycle. This method is very safe as long as the woman has been instructed thoroughly. The Pearl index (the number of pregnancies/100 woman years) can be 1. In a Swedish province, 7/1000 population used this method and had an abortion rate of .5/1000, a fact contradicting the allegation of mass abortion as a result of the method. Only well-trained NFP instructors can teach women, and at the University of Umea such training has been available for some years. The biological basis of the Billings method rests on the fact that every release of an egg is preceded by a ripening process of a follicle in the ovary. This follicle secretes increasing amounts of estrogen which stimulates the cervix to produce secretions for the sperm. Right before ovulation, the follicle reduces estrogen production and noradrenaline takes over, stimulating the peak-day secretion (P-secretion) for further selection of sperm. Ovulation usually occurs on the peak day, which is the day of maximum fertility and the last day of mucous symptoms. For 3 days after peak day until menstruation, the risk of becoming pregnant diminishes successively until it is as low as after sterilization. The instructor is trained to recognize and overcome certain factors that make it more difficult to identify the mucous symptoms, such as the previous use of oral contraceptives, certain illnesses, drugs, and life styles. NFP can also be used for attaining pregnancy by identifying the peak day; women with premenstrual syndrome can calculate when their symptoms start, and sportswomen can predict the time of their menstruation. NFP is fascinating when it is compared to other methods because of its human dimension
Chabanas, M; Payan, Y; Boutault, F; Chabanas, Matthieu; Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck
A computer aided maxillofacial sequence is presented, applied to orthognatic surgery. It consists of 5 main stages: data acquisition and integration, surgical planning, surgical simulation, and per operative assistance. The planning and simulation steps are then addressed in a way that is clinically relevant. First concepts toward a 3D cephalometry are presented for a morphological analysis, surgical planning, and bone and soft tissue simulation. The aesthetic surgical outcomes of bone repositioning are studied with a biomechanical Finite Element soft tissue model.
Buehler, Cheryl; Hogan, M. Janice
Although family management scholars have identified family life cycle stages and educational and occupational status as factors that may influence planning in families, the influence of the family's life cycle stage and socioeconomic status on the planning process has not been empirically tested. Planning styles, family characteristics, and…
This thesis reports on a study on lesbian families in which the children were born to the lesbian relationship (planned lesbian families). How strong is the desire of lesbian mothers to have a child, and what are their motivations? How do lesbian mothers experience parenthood? What do they strive for in child rearing? How do they experience the relationship with their partner, and do they feel supported by others? What is the quality of the parent-child relationship in lesbian families? Do le...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the possibility of preventing many cases of HIV, malaria and unplanned pregnancy, protective measures are often not taken by those at risk in Uganda. The study aim was to explore young people’s perspectives on the reasons why this is so. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 100 secondary school and college students in Kanungu, Uganda in 2011. Three parallel groups considered HIV, malaria and family planning, and common messages were then explored jointly in a workshop based on the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance. Results Participants identified various reasons why preventive action was not always taken. They worried about the effectiveness and side effects of several key interventions: condoms, antiretroviral treatment, various contraceptives and impregnated mosquito nets. Cost, rural isolation and the quality and availability of health services also limited the extent to which people were able to follow health advice. Although there was respect for policy supporting abstinence and fidelity, it was seen as hard to follow and offering inadequate protection when gender imbalance put pressure on women to have sex. Conclusions There is an opportunity to improve the uptake of preventive measures by tackling the misconceptions and fears that participants reported with clear, evidence-based messages. This should be done in a way that encourages more open communication about reproductive health between men and women, that reaches out to isolated communities, that draws on both voluntary and government services and enlists young people so that they can shape their future.
Maureen E Lyon
Full Text Available Maureen E Lyon1, Patricia A Garvie2, Linda Briggs3, Jianping He4, Robert Malow5, Lawrence J D’Angelo1, Robert McCarter41Children’s National Medical Center and George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia; 2St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee; 3Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin; 4Children’s Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia; 5Florida International University, Miami, FloridaPurpose: To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+ adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE planning intervention.Patients and methods: We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76. Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five Wishes©. The Healthy Living Control (HLC received: Developmental History, Healthy Tips, Future Planning (vocational, school or vocational rehabilitation. Three-month post-intervention outcomes were: completion of advance directive (Five Wishes©; psychological adjustment (Beck Depression, Anxiety Inventories; quality of life (PedsQL™; and HIV symptoms (General Health Self-Assessment.Results: Adolescents had a mean age, 16 years; 40% male; 92% African-American; 68% with perinatally acquired HIV, 29% had AIDS diagnosis. FACE participants completed advance directives more than controls, using time matched comparison (P < 0.001. Neither anxiety, nor depression, increased at clinically or statistically significant levels post-intervention. FACE adolescents maintained quality of life. FACE families perceived their adolescents as worsening in their school (P = 0.018 and emotional (P = 0.029 quality of life at 3 months, compared with controls.Conclusions: Participating
The medical profession has played an important role in family planning. The program includes education for family life, marriage-guidance, marriage counseling, treatment of sterility, and control of fertility. A happy family needs children, but an excess of them causes many problems and collectively becomes a national problem. In socialist countries, where abortions have been permitted more liberally, a large number of women have sought aid from doctors who have actively participated in the programs. These doctors have developed better techniques. In developed countries, churches and governments have been forced to fall in line with the prevailing trend of thought even against the Papal edict in Catholic countries and among Catholic people elsewhere. In the still underdeveloped countries, only methods that do not require repetitive and sustained motivation can achieve the desired result in fertility reduction. The Government of India was the 1st to launch a nationwide family planning program. A major handicap to the central Government has been its inability to utilize general practitioners for this purpose. However, they need to be trained in the techniques. The government should enlist their services and keep them informed of developments in this field. The whole medical profession must be included. PMID:12254323
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...
In this interview, Mechai Viravaidya shares how he harnessed the media and various other distribution channels in Thailand to launch nationwide programs aimed at changing attitudes, beliefs, and health behavior in very controversial and difficult areas, such as sexual behavior in the context of population control and HIV/AIDS. He provides insight into the leadership skills required to change cultural beliefs in order to achieve public health objectives. And finally, he describes how his thinking has evolved and broadened to include poverty alleviation and improved management and sustainability models for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as the most effective way to improve health status in the long run. PMID:17895259
40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting. PMID:12309355
... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...
In February 1990, the Mexican award winning director and animator, Carlos Carrera, went to Tokyo to oversee the photographing of the color frames (brought from Mexico) of the sex education animated film "Music for Two". The film begins with a warning that it should be shown as part of a sex education program. Further, a trained advisor guides the audience during the recommended discussion following the film. "Music for Two" is set in a large city and features a young female teen who daydreams about imaginary lovers. She soon discovers that her young male next door neighbor is interested in her. The moral of the story is that, once a woman is an adolescent, she must consider her future and have lifelong goals. In order for her to do so, however, she must know her mind and body, appreciate them, and not renounce them. This animated short feature includes both English and Spanish versions targeted to adolescents in their mid to late teens, especially females, in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mr. Carrera predicted that conservative older individuals will most likely not approve of "Music for Two". The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and the UNFPA sponsored this animated film and the Mexican Family Planning Foundation (MEXFAM) participated in its production. The Sakura Motion Picture Company in Japan and Kinam SCL International in Mexico coproduced it. The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs underwrote the English version and the UNFPA and IPPF underwrote the Spanish version. Further, in 1989, Mr. Carrera played a major role in a successful sex education animated feature titled "Blue Pigeon". This film was geared to youth in their early to mid teens, however. PMID:12283080
After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289
The Humanae Vitae posits that periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse enriches one with spiritual values. The discipline required in natural family planning brings peace and serenity to the family, helps solve other problems, helps both spouses to be less selfish, and deepens one's sense of responsibility. Parents acquire the capacity to have a deeper influence in the education of their children, and the children grow up with a sound appraisal of human values. The case study of a married couple, however, suggests that only frustration and resentment will result from periodic abstinence. The couple was advised by their physician to use the basal temperature method combined with the calendar method. Repeated pregnancies and births ensued. The couple eventually had to resort to three-week periods of abstinence from sexual intercourse. While pregnancy has been avoided for three years, the practice of periodic abstinence from sexual intercourse for such long periods is very difficult for both the husband and wife. The relationship has become tense and mutually damaging. The husband argues that the rhythm method transforms sexual intercourse from a spontaneous expression of spiritual and physical love into a simple release of bodily energy. He is obsessed with sex throughout the long period of abstinence, his marital fidelity is at risk, his disposition toward his wife and children is adversely affected, and he must avoid all affection toward his wife for three weeks at a time. The husband sees periodic abstinence as a diabolical, immoral, and deeply unnatural method of fertility control. The wife is sullen and resentful toward her husband when the time for sexual relations finally arrives. She finds it difficult to respond to her husband's advances after the three-week periods during which he reserves his affection. The wife's dreams and unguarded thoughts are invariably sexual. Periodic abstinence and the Roman Catholic Church are discussed. PMID:12178862
Oommachan, Mathew; Khan, Shaukat Saeed
A preliminary survey was conducted during the years 1978-’79 at Bhopal and its neighbourhood to find out the medicinal plants and their utility. From among a total number of 850 angiospermic plant species of this region, about 10% of them were found having poisonous principles. One fourth of these poisonous plants can be used for safe termination of pregnancy. Certain of these plants are used by the villagers for criminal abortions and even for suicidal purpose. A good number of them can be u...
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
This edition combines two previous publications of the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library into one volume: the Family Planning Library Manual, a guide for starting a family planning and population library or information center, and the Family Planning Classification, a coding system for organizing book and non-book materials so that they can be…
Richter, Linda M; Sherr, Lorraine; Adato, Michele; Belsey, Mark; Chandan, Upjeet; Desmond, Chris; Drimie, Scott; Haour-Knipe, Mary; Hosegood, Victoria; Kimou, Jose; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Mathambo, Vuyiswa; Wakhweya, Angela
This paper provides an overview of the arguments for the central role of families, defined very broadly, and we emphasise the importance of efforts to strengthen families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS. We draw on work conducted in the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS's Learning Group 1: Strengthening Families, as well as published data and empirical literature to provide the rationale for family strengthening. We close with the following recommendations for strengthening families to ameliorate the effects of HIV and AIDS on children. Firstly, a developmental approach to poverty is an essential feature of responses to protect children affected by HIV and AIDS, necessary to safeguard their human capital. For this reason, access to essential services, such as health and education, as well as basic income security, must be at the heart of national strategic approaches. Secondly, we need to ensure that support garnered for children is directed to families. Unless we adopt a family oriented approach, we will not be in a position to interrupt the cycle of infection, provide treatment to all who need it and enable affected individuals to be cared for by those who love and feel responsible for them. Thirdly, income transfers, in a variety of forms, are desperately needed and positively indicated by available research. Basic economic security will relieve the worst distress experienced by families and enable them to continue to invest in the health care and education of their children. Lastly, interventions are needed to support distressed families and prevent knock-on negative outcomes through programmes such as home visiting, and protection and enhancement of children's potential through early child development efforts. PMID:22380973
... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...
... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Planning Aid Report is based on information gathered from: 1 Kings River, 2 Tonsina River Tributary, 3 Placer River, 4 Bear Creek, and 5 Windy River. Specific....
Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Habib, Tufail
of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning of...... sometimes also dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing......To enable product configuration of a product family, it is important to develop a model of the selected product family. From such a model, an often performed practice is to make a product configurator from which customers can specify individual products from the family. To get further utilisation...
Mitin, S.; Bochkarev, P.
This paper presents new approaches to organization of manufacturing preparation and mathematical models related to development of the computer-aided multi product process planning (CAMPP) system. CAMPP system has some peculiarities compared to the existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems: fully formalized developing of the machining operations; a capacity to create and to formalize the interrelationships among design, process planning and process implementation; procedures for consideration of the real manufacturing conditions. The paper describes the structure of the CAMPP system and shows the mathematical models and methods to formalize the design procedures.
Lyon, Maureen E.; Garvie, Patricia A.; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D’Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert
Purpose To determine the safety of engaging HIV-positive (HIV+) adolescents in a Family Centered Advance Care (FACE) planning intervention. Patients and methods We conducted a 2-armed, randomized controlled clinical trial in 2 hospital-based outpatient clinics from 2006–2008 with HIV+ adolescents and their surrogates (n = 76). Three 60–90 minutes sessions were conducted weekly. FACE intervention groups received: Lyon FCACP Survey©, the Respecting Choices® interview, and completion of The Five...
A fuel exchange plan is prepared based on intelligence bases such as a method of zoning a reactor core, a fuel arrangement rule and a procedure for fuel exchange, as well as initial data. Then, the fuel exchange plans are patterned to several groups based on the intelligence bases such as patterning of fuel arrangement. A typical pattern is analyzed by a reactor core analyzing code and allowance or rejection for the analyzed patterns is judged based on intelligence bases regarding life time of the reactor core, thermal limit value of fuels, burning of fuel for irradiation test. The result of the judgement is fed-back as an estimation information and the initial data and the intelligence data are added to prepare a plan again. A similar analysis is also conducted for the plan of the rejected group. The allowance or rejection is judged for all of the plans in the same manner. The intelligence bases are used and the result of the judgement is fed-back as a condition for estimation, thereby enabling to remarkably save labors and time and prepare non-typical exchange plans. (N.H.)
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Family planning services. 441.20 Section 441.20... General Provisions § 441.20 Family planning services. For recipients eligible under the plan for family... free to choose the method of family planning to be used....
Green, Cynthia P.
Program management has received insufficient attention among family planning leaders, possibly because of medical or demographic background of many leaders, a focus on other program priorities (such as sheer survival), the pressure to expand programs rapidly, and limited donor interest in the subject. As programs grow in complexity, the problems resulting from weak management systems become more obvious, and organizations are compelled to introduce rational systems. The more successful family...
Talpallikar, M B
The apathy of Indians regarding family planning acceptance is compared with that displayed with respect to other programs designed to induce changes in behavior to achieve socioeconomic development. It is felt that understanding motivation would provide the key to making any such venture a success. Motivation is defined and discussed in detail, including its relationship to the success of educational activities. In that context, learning theories and their relationship to family planning behavior are discussed. The need for a high degree of insight into human behavior and a high level of skill in interpreting it on the part of the effective educator or agent of change is noted. PMID:12259435
Klerman, Lorraine V.
Family planning services are necessary for the widespread adoption of preconception care for two reasons. First, preconception care is more likely if pregnancies are planned, and family planning services encourage pregnancy planning. Second, family planning services usually include counseling, and counseling provides an opportunity to discuss the advantages of preconception care. However, the potential of family planning services to promote preconception care is limited by underutilization of...
ZHAO YONGQIN; HUANG JIAN
@@ Beginning September when the new semester began for schools all over China,grantsin-aid will be given to 20% of the 5.6 million students from poverty-stricken families who were recruited through the 2007 national college entrance examinations in June.This compared with 3% for students recruited through last year's examinations.In concrete terms,each recipient will be entitled,on an average,to some 2,000 yuan each year from now to 2010 when they finish their study at universities and colleges.The authors work with China Central Television (CCTV).
A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
As a monthly classified review of literature, this annotated bibliography offers a selection of books and articles recently received by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library relative to family planning in the United States. Divided into two parts, the first contains book reviews from a variety of sources. They cover the subjects fund raising,…
Goff, Susan B.
Factors which mediate the life decisions of college men and women were examined. Undergraduates (N=107) completed questionnaires about career and family plans, notions of success and failure, integration of two potentially conflicting roles, and the relationship between personal values, life goals, and choices. Results indicated that: (1) women…
Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from
After a generation of partial neglect, renewed attention is being paid to population and voluntary family planning. Realistic access to family planning is a prerequisite for women's autonomy. For the individual, family, society, and our fragile planet, family planning has great power.
Apte, J S
The article begins with a brief history of family planning in India and points out that from 1951 to 1963, the program was clinic centered. This approach could reach only a small fraction of the population. The 1962-63 Report recommended extension education with the objectives of group acceptance of the small family norm, knowledge about family planning, and easy availability of contraceptives and adequate service facilities. The Family Planning Program is being implemented at 3 levels, governmental, voluntary agencies, and local self-government bodies. Creating an awareness of the urgency of the program, disseminating knowledge and information about methods, and motivating and educating local leaders and lay workers or volunteers for accepting some responsibility in the implementation of the program are all phases of citizen participation if the program. The author provides a list of agencies and organizations from which voluntary services may be drawn, and also enumerates the personal qualities desired in volunteers. There are recommendations as to the training of volunteers, and the specific tasks which they may be assigned. PMID:12338668
Winn, M; Lucas, D
In 1984, women in Fiji, Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Tonga wanted culture-specific, educational resources on sexuality, family planning, contraception, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Family Planning Australia [FPA] found video to be the most appropriate means to present information on these topics, since video continues the story-telling tradition of the Pacific. Women worked with FPA to produce videos addressing these topics. They were filmed in Fiji, which has a broad cross-section of South Pacific people. FPA took into account women's concerns and cultural and religious sensitivities. The English language videos were Better Safe, a story about STDs, condom use, and male sexual responsibility; Taboo Talk, a documentary about women's attitudes on menstruation, sex education, and family planning; AIDS and the South Pacific, about AIDS transmission and prevention; a d Down There, an animated documentary on reproduction and contraceptive methods. A project evaluation revealed that the videos would have received wider acceptance had they been in local languages. Local men and women debated each work of a translation of the list of reproductive health terms, eventually resulting in 20 culturally and linguistically appropriate video translations. A cross section of national language speakers modified and improved the draft translation of the 4 scripts. This whole process resulted in incorporation of the 88 reproductive health terms into the Booklet of South Pacific Reproductive Health Words and Phrases. The project showed that Pacific women were able to compile a booklet of culturally and linguistically acceptable terms and to successfully translate the scripts of health videos. In conclusions, people tend to be more willing to accept sexuality information and frank and explicit material than is usually believed if they are allowed to determine the context in which they receive it. PMID:12318840
Surekha Kishore; B S Garg; P R Deshmukh; Pradeep Aggarwal
Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3...
Cernada, G P
Areas of family planning promotion which need to be further researched are identified. The effectiveness of diverse information, education, and communication approaches needs to be evaluated, feasible ways to increase contraceptive continuation rates must be identified, the relative merits of providing fieldworkers with salaries or incentives should be assessed, different styles of interactions between providers and clients should be identified and evaluated and research directed toward improving training programs, field supervision, and supply logistics should be undertaken. A number of more detailed research suggestions with special reference to Taiwan and other Asian and Pacific countries are also provided. Little is known, for example, about provider and user interaction patterns in Asia, and the impact of these patterns on contraceptive acceptance and continuance. These patterns could be analyzed using diverse research techniques ranging from observation to experimental manipulation. Despite the fact that approximately 50% of all acceptors discontinue use within 2 years, researchers tend to focus on identifying acceptor characteristics while ignoring the discontinuation process. Researcher should 1) identify the best time for providing postacceptance followup services, 2) identify training strategies which provide fieldworkers with the highest level of confidence in specific contraceptive methods, 3) experiment with the use of newspaper columns and telephone advisory services to provide users with information about side effects, 4) assess the merits of involving both partners in the contraceptive counseling process, 5) develop and evaluate postacceptance educational materials, and 6) assess the impact of various supply systems on contraceptive continuance. Another neglected area of research is the public's attitude toward different contraceptive knowledge sources. For example, receptivity to family planning messages may vary depending on wether the message is
Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M
A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local
A land reclamation plan is a basic and complex work for land reclamation engineering. This paper introduces the technique of a computer-aided subsided land reclamation plan (CASLRP) and focuses on the suitability evaluation of subsided land. Through suitability evaluation, how much land is suitable for development can be determined and the border of different land utilization and the program chart of land use can be drawn by computer. A practical example is given in which the CASLRP technique is applied to a mined area of Jiangsu Province
Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others
Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)
Childre, Amy; Chambers, Cynthia R.
Given the documented benefits of family involvement in educational planning, engaging families throughout the school years is strongly advocated. However, barriers continue to impede families from collaborative partnering in educational planning. In this qualitative study the perceptions of six families were examined prior to and after the…
Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.
A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…
Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.
Marecaux, Christophe; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck
This paper suggests a full protocol of Computer Aided Surgery as previously recommended in literature addressing the challenging task of primary or secondary reconstruction of orbito-zygomatic dislocation. First, on a specifically developed planning software, the best zygoma reduction and orbital boundaries reconstruction to achieve skeletal symmetry are determined. This treatment plan is then transferred to the 3D Navigation Systems within the operating room. After patient's anatomy registration to his preoperative CT scan data, the navigation system allows zygomatic guiding to its planned reduced location and bone orbital volume restoration control. The feasibility of this technique was checked in 3 patients with major orbito-zygomatic deformities. Preliminary clinical results are presented.
This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:8722141
Abstract Family-centred services in the context of HIV/AIDS acknowledge a broad view of a "family system" and ideally include comprehensive treatment and care, community agencies and coordinated case management. The importance of family-centred care for children affected by HIV/AIDS has been recognized for some time. There is a clear confluence of changing social realities and the needs of children in families affected by HIV and AIDS, but a change of paradigm in rendering services to childre...
The present situation of energy supply is characterized by a great variety of interrelated problems such as depletion of reserves, import dependency, financing difficulties, environmental impacts, ect. Consequently those models allowing for the complex reciprocal effects involved, play an important role as decision making aids for energy planning. An energy model for the Federal Republic of Germany is presented as an example of application, which particularly illustrated the feedback processes between energy, economy, environment and society. In this connection, possibilities for development are pointed out, analysed and discussed on the basis of both conservative assumptions and crisis conditions. (orig.)
Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU
Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.
Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO
Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.
In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting. PMID:12334205
Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza
Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.
Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.
Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…
... Emergencies › Pets Pets Your Plan Should Include All Family Members The best way to protect your household ... About Us Latest News Search for Jobs Military Families Disaster Relief International Services National Celebrity Cabinet Mission & ...
The marketing theory has important guidance and reference value in many fields in modern society, and is applied widely in practice. The study shows that the family planning work also has various attributes of the marketing, so the marketing can be widely used to carry out the marketing of family planning. Its basic framework is the 6Ps marketing mix of the family planning policy marketing.
Aniceto C. Orbeta
This paper looks at the interaction of poverty, fertility preferences and family planning practice in the Philippines using the series of nationally representative Family Planning Surveys conducted annually since 1999 augmented by census and other survey data. Its contribution lies on providing recent and nationally representative empirical evidence on the long running but largely unresolved debate in the country on the relationship between fertility preferences and family planning and socioe...
Fried, Bruce; Nelson, Wendy
Family physicians at Sunnybrook Medical Centre were engaged in a strategic planning process to develop a practice philosophy, mission statement, short-term goals, and plan for future programming. Numerous issues were identified in relation to the need for planning, the successful involvement of family physicians in the planning process, and the traditional relationship between physicians and managers which, in the past, has inhibited productive collaboration. Strategies were developed to over...
In Latin America, many rural people build dwellings in settlements on the cities' fringes without permission from the authorities. The authorities make several unsuccessful attempts to drive them away, but eventually ignore them. In the 1960s, family planning (FP) associations were concerned about how they can serve the shantytowns, which needed their services but had no social services at all, e.g., water supply and sanitation. In the early 1970s, PROFAMILIA Colombia began a new form of FP service delivery in rural areas by training someone from the community who believed in FP to distribution (CBD) programs provided more FP than all of PROFAMILIA's 60 clinics. In 1973, PROFAMILIA started its URBAN CBD program in the slums of Bogota and learned that the people wanted FP. The CBD movement spread throughout urban and rural Latin America. Brazil's BEMFAM developed the world's largest CBD program. By 1985, 10,365 distribution posts operated in Latin America and, by 1991, there were 26,423. In urban slums in the 1980s, Mexico's MEXFAM began using community doctors, who tend to be new medical graduates. Often the community and the doctors respect each other so much that many doctors remain in the shantytowns beyond their required time. The residents' acceptance of FP provided by people who understand the community shows how they want to plan their lives and better themselves. In addition, they have taken the chance to seek a better life by leaving hopeless situations in rural areas and by building dwellings for themselves, even though they had no money, land, or even basic necessities. In Peru, shantytown residents were moved to the desert and supplied with basic construction materials. They built a community, Villa El Salvador, now complete with tree-lined streets, shops, schools, and movies. Shantytown dwellers may have the solution to Latin America's problems. PMID:12179848
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...
Hearing impairment is a common disability which can often be minimized by the use of hearing aids. Various types of hearing aids have been developed which are appropriate for most hearing losses that are not medically or surgically treatable, and these devices have been variously applied. Potential benefits and limitations of amplification need to be considered for each patient. Changes in technology, assistive devices, and the development of the cochlear implant have improved the ability of ...
Kim, Young Mi; Kols, Adrienne; Mwarogo, Peter; Awasum, David
Comparisions of family planning sessions in Kenya found distinct gender differences in reasons for visiting the clinics and communication styles of both the clients and the counselors. These communication patterns may be a result of Kenyan gender roles and men's and women's different reasons for seeking family planning services. Implications of…
This article examines the impact of the campaign known as "Bringing New Marital and Reproductive Styles into Tens of Thousands of Households" on family planning in China. The awareness campaign, which started in October 1998, was established to increase the effectiveness of family planning and introduce progressive lifestyles among the population through an interactive and service-oriented approach focusing on the needs of human beings. The program emphasizes the following elements: 1) late marriage; 2) late childbirth; 3) fewer childbirth; 4) gender equality; 5) male participation in family planning; 6) dissemination of family planning and reproductive health knowledge; 7) healthier births and quality of education; 8) enhanced self-care capabilities; 9) higher quality of life; and 10) healthier lifestyles. A face-to-face approach was used to encourage public participation and increase the appeal of family planning programs to ordinary people. Efforts are also being made to expose rural residents to new ideas and lifestyles. PMID:12319745
Alcalay, Rina; Caldiz, Laura
The document addresses communication problems between Anglo-American family planning counselors and Latin-American clients. Cultural differences in attitudes toward family, work, and sexuality are examined. The extended family provides the Latin-American woman with positive self-identity and serves as a source of social relations; it also favors…
Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico. PMID:12267250
Ruggles, Patricia; Michel, Richard C.
This report examines participation rates in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TRIM2, a microsimulation model that simulated the eligibility and benefit rules of the AFDC program on a state-by-state basis, showed that there had been a dramatic decline after 1981 in the rate at which AFDC families were applying for and…
American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.
This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…
Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values. PMID:12280740
Macqueen, I A
Recommendations on community family planning services are made by an Aberdeen Medical Health Officer. It is noted that: 1) both GPs and clinics have their value in contraceptive treatment; 2) clinics should be conveniently located and might be set up in buildings which are used for other health purposes at other times; 3) most women work so there should be evening sessions; 4) arrangements should be made which include both an appointments system and emergency visits; 5) reception at the clinic should be courteous and without moral judgements; 6) domiciliary services should be used only as a last resort; and 7) payment of prescription charges is now required, but there might be advantages in changing this to a free service. The ideal person for motivating people to use the service is the health visitor. More health visitors are needed, salaries and promotions must be raised, and enrolled nurses should be recruited to act as assistants to health visitors. Benefits of the Aberdeen community family planning services are described. Such services increase the happiness of the community and save the community a considerable amount of money. PMID:4428028
Many people with dementia are cared for by family members, who may receive little advice or support. This article describes a course developed to help carers deal with frustrating and challenging behaviour. PMID:26647481
Røpke, Stefan; Cordeau, Jean-Francois; Laporte, Gilbert
We present a computer program that helps the user discovering new families of valid inequalities for any integer program. It does so by finding simple valid inequalities that are violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these inequalities further....... We present new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....
Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen
The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.
This statement was made by the director of CPIRC in China. Opening remarks focused on the admirable achievement in the reduction of births over 20 years by about 300 million, which is more than the combined populations of Canada and the USA. Family planning programs are considered as providing the means for couples to have fewer children and as promoting social progress and the advancement of women. IEC programming for family planning is extensive and country wide. Home visitation for family planning is part of programming within the All China Women's Federation and the China Family Planning Association. IEC programs include information about population, reproductive health, and family planning for millions of families. The opportunity is available for Chinese women to acquire knowledge and make decisions that balance individual needs with social responsibility and to have access to information on modern methods, on healthy childrearing patterns, and on maternal health. Chinese women are considered able to have an equal say with their husbands in determining the size and spacing of children. The maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning network is described as including 374 MCH hospitals, over 2800 MCH clinics and stations, 2300 county family planning service stations, and millions of medical professionals in mobile medical teams. Jiangsu is identified as a particularly successful province in achievement of health and family planning. State family planning policy and related regulations are understood within the context of integrated programs combining family planning with economic development, poverty alleviation, popularization of modern scientific knowledge, and betterment of social security systems. The example is given of Henan province where girls are enthusiastic about learning and bring productive skills as a form of dowry to the marriage. Rural women are encouraged to participate in training, and urban women are encouraged to serve as public role
Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo; Daniel Dall'Igna Ecker
In this paper we approached a study about the legal contexts of the Brazilian Constitution which we find the notion of family and family planning, as well as the laws regarding family planning that were promulgated after the 1988 Constitution. Guided through the Foucault’s perspective we questioning how the rationalities that underlie such legislations may produce effects in the organization and management of the population nowadays. We selected the material analyzed through systematic resear...
When designing a branch-and-cut method for a specic problem class it is important to know classes of valid inequalities for the problem. We present a computer program that helps the user discovering new families of valid inequalities. It does so by finnding simple valid inequalities that are...... violated by a fractional solution supplied by the user. It is up to the user to generalize these examples further. We will present examples of new families of inequalities for the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the traveling salesman problem with pickup and deliveries found using the program....
Warwick, D P
Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action. PMID:3284022
It is imperative to make family planning more accessible in low resource settings. The poorest couples have the highest fertility, the lowest contraceptive use and the highest unmet need for contraception. It is also in the low resource settings where maternal and child mortality is the highest. Family planning can contribute to improvements in maternal and child health, especially in low resource settings where overall access to health services is limited. Four critical steps should be taken...
Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program. PMID:12282138
This article presents the result of a study conducted by Miriam N. Jato on the impact of multimedia family planning communication campaigns on contraceptive use. The study was conducted in Tanzania, where a government program integrated family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988, while in 1992 a private-sector condom-marketing program begun and a national population policy for wider distribution of family planning information was adopted by the government. In less than 3 years, contraceptive use was found to have doubled to a level of 11.3% and the total fertility rate declined from an average of 6.3 to 5.8 live births. The result of the study indicates that exposure to media sources of family planning messages was directly associated with increased contraceptive use. Moreover, the use of modern methods increased among women who were exposed to a greater number of media sources, as did discussion of family planning with spouses and attendance of health facilities. The programmatic implications of the results confirm that utilization of multiple media channels in the promotion of family planning and other reproductive issues must be continued, with emphasis on media sources that reach large audiences. PMID:12349449
Richey, Lisa Ann
the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? What have these meant for women's rights, including reproductive rights? The book presents detailed case studies from various countries ranging from India and China, to Egypt......, Tanzania, Uganda and across Africa to Argentina, Peru and throughout Latin America, as well as overarching themed essays. From the politics of abortion and immigration to rising levels of fundamentalist violence and sex selective abortions, the volume explores a range of issues from several vantage points....... It offers startling new insights into these issues by linking them to neo-liberal economic policies that have profoundly shaped health policies globally. This book is essential reading for students of gender studies, public health and demography, as well as policy-makers and activists....
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
A mass moving of the population from the contaminated regions is the feature of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences . In result it in families has changed customary a way of life, a gap of family and friendly ties has taken place, prosperity has changed, family traditions have begun to vary and etc.. The correction of the family relations as the form of the psychological aid to the children is widely used by clinical psychologists, psycho physicians, psychiatrists, but last time by school psychologists and social teachers too. For achievement of the therapeutic effect it is necessary to decide two problems - both understanding by the members of family of a role of own personality features in a distortion of operation of family and correction of inadequate reactions of the members of family
Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling. PMID:26395237
Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.
Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.
Abstracts of current publications in the fields of population and family planning are contained in this monthly acquisitions list of the Katherine Dexter McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood, New York. Organized in two parts, Part 1 contains an annotated list of the books most recently acquired by the Library, marked with its Library call number,…
Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.
Susana Barbeito Roibal; Gerardo Domínguez Feijoó; Manuel Martínez Carballo; Eduardo Guillén Solórzano
A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurr...
Kuric, Ivan; Kuba, Jozef
Classification of engineering parts is a very demanding activity especially in process planning. It is one of the important methods utilised in the group technology approach to computer aided process planning. This paper deals with a new method of classification, which extends the possibility of engineering part classification, especially for the process planning of non-cutting processes (forging, casting, etc.)
The purpose of the study was to develop a business plan for a family logistics company in Finland. The work investigated the logistics business in Finland, and created the business plan according to the needs of the industry. The information was gathered from literature, newspapers and Internet. The empirical study contains the business plan. The survey was made using the qualitative method. It discusses the opinion of other logistics companies on today’s situation on the market. The st...
Perna, Laura W.
This article describes what is known from prior research about the impact of student financial aid program design, operations, and marketing on the formation of family (including parents' and children's) college-going aspirations, expectations, and plans, and the resulting college-going behaviors of potential students. The review focuses on the…
Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo
Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about the legal contexts of the Brazilian Constitution which we find the notion of family and family planning, as well as the laws regarding family planning that were promulgated after the 1988 Constitution. Guided through the Foucault’s perspective we questioning how the rationalities that underlie such legislations may produce effects in the organization and management of the population nowadays. We selected the material analyzed through systematic research in the Brazilian Constitution and in the Portal of Legislation of the Presidency of Brazil. The results obtained indicate that the idea of family and family planning compose legal tools which constitute elements of retrenchment and disciplining of subjects by regulations that they establish. Thus, the jurisdictions operate as strategies to the Brazilian government that include goals that put the employment as the base of everything, and from this, directs people through the policies that produce.
Wunderink, S R
This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report from the General Accounting Office reviews selected aspects of Wisconsin's Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. Chapter 1 describes AFDC and specifies the scope of the program review. In Chapter 2 the potential for increasing child support collections from parents is explored. Actions which could increase collections…
Green, Lisa Katherine
This study aimed to systematically describe the decision-making phase of family formation in German lesbians planning to parent via donor insemination, to assess the issues pertinent to each mother role and those involved in donor type choice using a retrospective, structured questionnaire. Data was collected from 105 self-identified lesbian women, 55 of whom were birthmothers and 50 of whom were social mothers. The process of planning a lesbian-headed family created by donor insemination ...
Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide
There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning
Rix, B A
An April 1994 workshop involving 13 men associated with European Family Planning Associations emphasized the need for greater male involvement in family planning and sex education. The redefinition of traditional sex roles currently underway in Europe provides a basis for men to discuss sexuality more openly and assume a more active part in family planning activities. This will not occur under existing family planning clinic models, however. Family planning associations must train male educators to train their counterparts and consider the establishment of special facilities to reach and meet the needs of men. In countries such as Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Ireland, where male-specific services (e.g., sex education clinics for boys, courses on male sexuality for teachers and other role models, special educational materials) have been made available, the response has been overwhelming. Other suggested programs include peer-led boys' discussion groups, educational programs at sites such as sports clubs and army barracks, and open discussions of sensitive issues such as homosexuality, masturbation, and pornography. Also in need of revision is condom information. Such training should include advice to first try to masturbate with a condom and the experience of condom purchase. Realistic information on the difficulties of condom use should be offered, and young men should be given suggested phrases to use in situations when condom use is being negotiated with a partner. PMID:12289090
Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao
In China, an estimated 780,000 people have been infected with HIV (China AIDS, 2012 ). Even as this stigmatized population rapidly grows, with the majority of reproductive age (20-40 years old), information about their daily experiences in the domestic sphere has been scarce. Because the family remains a central unit of social and ethical organization in China, the current qualitative study examines family relations among people living with HIV (PLWH) with the goal of identifying the effect of HIV on family relations and, conversely, the effect of family relations on those with HIV. We analyzed data from 90 in-depth interviews with PLWH and people around them (i.e., their children, health care providers, other community members) in southwest China (Guangxi province). Through analyzing the families' experiences with illness, three themes emerged: how individuals with HIV interact with their community; how they cope with stigma alongside and against their family; and how families can support those with HIV. Our data ultimately showed the critical role of family in the quality of PLWH's well-being. Because concealment of their serostatus was the primary coping strategy, stigma manifestation was most obvious in the domestic spheres. Yet, when help was received, PLWH regarded family support as the most helpful, as those who received empathy from their families remained more optimistic. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing efficacious intervention programs that could lead to maximize family support, involving the families of PLWH, with a particular attention to family dynamics in daily interactions. Despite our awareness of the significance of family in China, this study reveals a particular kind of role of family that has rarely been considered, namely the role of family in healing and sustaining social bonds within the context of stigmatization, when those bonds might otherwise be broken. PMID:27160680
In Japan, the condom is the method of choice of 82% of all contraceptive users. The Japan Family Planning Association covers about 3% of the total condom market through a well-organized social marketing scheme. Mobile guidance teams, equipped with a vehicle, supply contraceptives to health centers, independent midwives, and maternity hospitals in 17 prefectures and collect payment for condoms distributed after their previous visit. As an incentive, organizations and health institutions receive a commission for the condoms they supply. Japan's largest condom manufacturer provides supplies to the Family Planning Association at a very low price. The contraceptive social marketing program pays for its own promotion, and the Family Planning Association is able to support its other activities from the income it earns. The program was designed to complement rather than compete with commercial marketing channels such as pharmacies, which supply 60% of the 660 million condoms purchased in Japan each year. PMID:12341264
Susana Barbeito Roibal; Gerardo Domínguez Feijoó
A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurr...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements must be met by a family planning... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.5 What requirements must be met by a family planning project? (a) Each project supported under this part must:...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to
Dumitrache, F; Gheorghiţă, E
Female hormonal contraceptives, introduced commercially in 1959, contained 10 mg of norethynodrel and .15 mg of mestranol. The estrogen and progesterone doses were progressively reduced over time. In 1989, approximately 60 million couples used oral contraceptives (OCs) ranging from 1% in Japan to 40% in the Netherlands. The monophasic pill contains .01 - .04 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE), and the biphasic pill contains increasing doses of progesterone and estroprogesterone in the course of the menstrual cycle. Triphasic combined pills contain an initially dominant estrogen dose. In oral sequential pills, estrogen is given on days 14-16 followed by a estroprogesterone for 5-7 days. Micropills with progesterone, injectables with medroxyprogesterone, and 3rd-generation OCs such as gestoden with a low progesterone dose of .04 mg/day and reduced androgenic activity are among other OCs. The OCs are administered in 21-22 day packets. Absolute contraindications include history of venous thrombosis, atherogenic lipid profile, hormone-dependent cancer, and allergy. Relative contraindications include arterial ailments, smoking, hypertension, older age, obesity, and familial history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular accidents. Interactions with antibiotics (ampicillin and tetracycline) occur as the modified intestinal flora reduces the level of deconjugated EE. Most frequent side effects are depression, modification of libido, ocular disorders, headache, and urinary infection. Benefits include favorable modification of menstrual cycle, and reduction of endometriosis and endometrial and ovarian cancer. Systemic risks such as cardiovascular and blood coagulation effects occur mainly with high-dose OCs. Further topics addressed are the cancer risk and protective effect of OCs, postcoital OCs, traditional contraception, the IUD, RU-486, implants, vaccination with the human antigonadotropine, and the vaginal ring. PMID:1823414
This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning) The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM). Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marke...
To improve the nursing care quality in acute care hospitals in Taiwan after the 2003 SARS epidemic, the Taipei City Government Department of Health has allocated about US dollars 6 million for nurse aides' salaries and costs for recruitment, training, and administration of this program. Yet, there have been no corresponding changes in payments for nursing services by the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan such as increasing nurse fees for inpatient services. This article examines the roles of nurse aides and family members in providing acute patient care in Taiwan and discusses issues of nursing care quality as related to nurse staffing in acute care hospitals. PMID:15077835
Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures. PMID:12316308
Koukoufilippou J; Koinis A.
Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Goog...
Bakibinga, Pauline; Mutombo, Namuunda; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva; Ezeh, Alex; Muga, Richard
The role of sociocultural factors such as religion and ethnicity in aiding or hampering family planning (FP) uptake in rural Western Kenya, a region with persistently high fertility rates, is not well established. We explored whether attitudes towards FP can be attributed to religious affiliation and/or ethnicity among women in the region. Findings show that religion and ethnicity have no impact; the most significant factors are level of education and knowledge about the benefits of FP for the mother. FP interventions ought to include strategies aimed at enhancing women's knowledge about the positive impacts of family planning. PMID:25763505
The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs. PMID:12314467
Jean Valeria; Surilena; Yanto Budiman; Samsuridjal Djauzi; Haridana Indah
Background Women with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) have a complex psychosocial burden and a tendency to negative self-esteem, possibly resulting in mental and emotional problems. They need family support to deal with the HIV/AIDS infection and its psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine chacteristics of family support, self-esteem, and depression of WLWHA and the relationship between family support and self-esteem and depression. Method This was a cross-sectional study o...
Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong
The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families. PMID:26130963
Ayten Senturk Erenel
Full Text Available Use of an family planning method during the postpartum period is important both to space births, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Under-utilization of family planning services during this period not only leads to adverse conditions caused by excessive fertility, but also has negative effects on both maternal and infant health. Women are in close contact with health care providers before, during, and after childbirth, when they are most likely to be impressed by the services they receive. Effective provision of health care services in these periods is therefore of great importance. Literature indicates high rates of success and compliance with family planning services provided during these periods. Many women neglect to use a modern contraceptive method in the postpartum period believing that breastfeeding alone ensures sufficient protection against pregnancy. Indeed, breastfeeding can be 98% effective as a contraceptive method; however, this is only true if certain criteria are observed. There are three basic criteria for the lactational amenorrhea method to be effective: the baby must be less than six months old, must be exclusively or almost exclusively breast-fed, and the mother must not be menstruating. In a conference held in Bellago in August 1988 by the World Health Organization and other international agencies, a consensus was developed for effective use of lactational amenorrhea method, and it was agreed to adopt breastfeeding as a potential family planning method in maternal and child health programs. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(4.000: 383-390
Population Council, New York, NY.
This paper presents the findings of a study of K. C. Chan, Research Officer of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong, whose purpose was to determine whether IUD retention rates could be increased by home visits to acceptors. Concern with this problem has mounted in many countries where the IUD is the main contraceptive method offered and…
Leon, Federico, R.; Rios, Alex; Zumaran, Adriana
This study investigated the effects of introducing a family planning counseling model at clinics of Peru's Ministry of Health. Providers trained in the model presented greater quality of care and longer counseling sessions than did controls. The main effects, however, were misleading. Nearly all of the quality improvements were contributed by 37%…
Susana Barbeito Roibal
Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.
Manish; Kumar; Sunil; Rajotia
Process planning and scheduling are two major plann in g and control activities that consume significant part of the lead-time, theref ore all attempts are being made to reduce lead-time by automating them. Compute r Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a step in this direction. Most of the existin g CAPP systems do not consider scheduling while generating a process plan. Sched uling is done separately after the process plan has been generated and therefore , it is possible that a process plan so generated is e...
Engum, Erlend Agoy; Racheva, Zornitza; Daneva, Maya
Managing the product’s backlog is a major task in agile projects. This case study reports on one organization’s experiences from the transition to a backlog management tool and its contribution to improving sprint planning.. Our key lessons learnt are that a tool is particularly appropriate to organ
Pascale, Pietro J.
The development and implementation of a behavior modification plan based on token learning schemes is described for use in teaching basic computational skills to low ability, poorly motivated fifth graders. The token system with its reward schedule is outlined; reinforcing activities such as team games, quizzes, and drills are discussed. A brief…
Before 1971, when Idaho became the 1st state to authorize expanded scope of functions for registered nurses, nearly all states made it illegal for any nurse to perform diagnosis or prescribe treatment, creating an ambiguity as more and more nurses were equipped by education and technology to perform new tasks. Today 30 states have liberalized the scope of nursing functions, making it possible for nurses and nurse-midwives to assume, among other tasks, family planning functions. A table gives the status of legislation and regulations governing nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives in each state. The area of greatest controversy is the prescription of oral contraceptives. In some states it is allowed under doctor's supervision or in rural areas or in areas where clear need exists for a nurse to dispense such medication. Usually this dispensing is limited to a single course of treatment. Nurse-midwives are rapidly being accepted as extensions of scarce medical facilities. Generally nurse-midwives are authorized to provide prenatal and postpartum care, to handle normal deliveries, and do family planning work including fitting diaphragms and inserting and removing IUDs. An innovation is the family planning nurse practitioner. Several courses for such practitioners have been set up across the U.S. Graduates may, with medical direction, perform bimanual pelvic examinations and breast examinations, take blood pressure, prescribe contraception, fit diaphragms, insert IUDs, examine vaginal secretions microscopically, and refer patients with problems to physicians. In a California program both registered and nonregistered nurses are being trained as women's health specialists who may make routine examinations in both pregnant and nonpregnant women and give family planning advice. Non-RN family planning specialists being trained include licensed vocational nurses, baccalaureate degree holders in nonnursing fields, and qualified persons with less formal education. The 24-week
Stevens, Lindsay M
A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care. PMID:26151389
Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-Yong
The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared...
Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.
赵鹏飞; 周颖燕; 高尔生
Objective To assess the impact of pamphlet distribution and counseling on STI/HIV/condom knowledge, attitudes towards STI / AIDS patients and condom use intention of married couples in Shanghai and explore the effective way of integrating STI/HIV prevention with family planning services.Methods Four hundred and five married women aged 20～39 and their husbands were recruited from 14 family planning stations at 7 administrative districts of Shanghai. They were randomly divided into two groups, the counseling intervention (CI) group with 199 couples and the pamphlet distribution (PD) group with 206 couples. For the PD group, only pamphlets containing information on STI/AIDS/ condom were distributed and condoms given free of charge, whereas for the CI group,they were provided with not only full counseling on STI /AIDS /condom and free condoms, but also followed by demonstration of correct condom use. The two modes of interventions were conducted following the baseline survey, and the follow-up data were collected one month later.Results 1. There was no statistical difference between the two groups on STI/AIDS/condom knowledge level, attitudes towards STI /AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline. 2. The follow-up findings indicated that: ① A significant enhancement in knowledge level was observed in the CI group, with 20% increase for husbands and 24% for wives. While for the PD group, only slight increase was observed : 2% for husbands and 3% for wives ; ② 93% husbands and 76% wives of the CI group changed their discriminatory attitudes towards STI patients, and towards AIDS patients, the percentages were 73% and 78%, respectively; ③ 68% husbands and 64% wives of the CI group expressed their intention for condom use; ④ For the PD group, however, there was no difference in attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline and follow-up. 3. The knowledge scores and attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients were mainly
Canning, David; Schultz, T Paul
We consider the evidence for the effect of access to reproductive health services on the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, and 3, which aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, and promote gender equality and empower women. At the household level, controlled trials in Matlab, Bangladesh, and Navrongo, Ghana, have shown that increasing access to family planning services reduces fertility and improves birth spacing. In the Matlab study, findings from long-term follow-up showed that women's earnings, assets, and body-mass indexes, and children's schooling and body-mass indexes, substantially improved in areas with improved access to family planning services compared with outcomes in control areas. At the macroeconomic level, reductions in fertility enhance economic growth as a result of reduced youth dependency and an increased number of women participating in paid labour. PMID:22784535
Barreras, Ricardo E.; Drucker, Ernest M.; Rosenthal, David
Substance use (SU), criminal justice involvement (CJI), and HIV/AIDS co-occur in many urban families, but little is known about their intergenerational prevalence and the impact of their conjunction on these families. We determined lifetime prevalence of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS in 62 families with a member (the index case) on parole or probation for a drug offense and enrolled in the direct service arm of Family Justice, La Bodega de La Familia—a community support program in New York City’s Low...
The extent to which China's family planning policy has driven its fertility transition over the past decades is debatable. The disagreement is partly sourced from the different ways of measuring the policy. Most existing measures, constructed on the policy history, generally, do not include complete secular and cross-sectional policy variations, fail to heterogeneously reflect people's exposure to the policy, and often suffer from endogeneity. This paper reviews the entire history of China's ...
Lukyanova, Valentina Vladimirovna
The goal of this study is to assess the quality of family planning services in rural areas of Virginia. Through interviews with the public and not-for profit clinics, I collected various facts and through client survey, I obtained women's perceptions and feeling about the services provided to them. The goal was to reconcile responses wherever possible, and furthermore, identify differences between facts provided by the clinics and perceptions of clients. From the client surveys, I found th...
Ana Paula Alexandre Bié; Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura
Pregnancy during adolescence occurs almost always unexpectedly,and it might be related to the lack of information about contraceptive methods.The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge of adolescents about family planning and contraceptive methods,to describe the sources of information about the matter and verify the benefits of sexual education for adolescents.It was a descriptive research,with a qualitative approach,carried out from March through April 2005,with ten adolescents fro...
This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979. PMID:12341203
Masoumeh Dejman; Hossein Malekafzali Ardakani; Bahareh Malekafzali; Ghobad Moradi; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya; Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari1; Seyed Ahmad Seyed Alinaghi; Minoo Mohraz
Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran. Methods: In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities ...
Omar H. Alhazmi
Full Text Available Information Technology Disaster Recovery Plans (DRPs are becoming an essential component for any organization with IT infrastructure. However, DRPs varies in performance and cost; therefore, based on requirements and resources, an organization can design their DRP. Typically, DRPs depends on data and/or system replication, data needs to be backed up frequently, and a plan to restore the system to running state within the allowed time. Hence, DRP designer must know the needed business requirements in terms of recovery time objective (RTO and recovery point objective (RPO. Then, the appropriate technical requirements will be set. At the same time, the cost factor can play a role in choosing the appropriate DRP. The industry has a widely accepted seven-tier system of how DRP can be designed. In this work, we design and implement a software tool that can simulate the IT DPR systems and therefore help designers to design, optimize, and test their design before it is physically implemented. This tool will run a simulated system with DRP specific design and the designer can exercise with the system to show it’s RTO, RPO, and cost that can significantly improve DRP design.
ZHAO Chunhua; WU Zhengjia; ZHOU Chengjun; ZHU Dalin; LI Haoping
Computer aided process planning system played a key role for integrating design and manufacturing or assembly systems properly considering available resources and design constraints. To take advantage of the enterprise resource, the web CAPP framework was established. Case based reasoning and multi agent system were integrated in the system. The multi agent mechanism was discussed in the paper. And an instance of case base was introduced. They made the system run independently and continuously in the network environment of process planning problems.
Sotolongo-Grau, O; Santos-Miranda, J A; Desco, M M; Sotolongo-Costa, O; Antoranz, J C
It is possible to find the optimized radiation dose per session for a radiotherapy (RT) treatment, using a population dynamics model. This has already been done in a previous work for a protocol with 30 sessions and a fixed dose per session. Extending this model to other protocols, with a variable number of sessions, we could change the radiation dosage while keeping the success probability of treatment at its maximum value. This could help the RT oncology service managers to plan the sequence of patients and treatments adapting it to the facilities of the oncology service. Besides, if tumor surrounding tissue is not able to afford a high dosage, it could be useful to extend the treatment to a higher number of low dose radiation sessions, keeping an optimal treatment.
The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of
Lybech Thoegersen, Morten; Nielsen, Per; Soerensen, Mads V. [Energi- og Miljoedata (EMD) Aalborg (Denmark); Toppenberg, Per [County of Northern Jutland, Aalborg (Denmark); Soee Christiansen, Erik [Municipality of Nibe, Nibe (Denmark)
The demand for an environmental impact analysis (environmental assessment study) in any major Danish wind farm project has initiated the development for a set of computer-aided tools for wind turbine planning purposes. This paper gives an introduction to the newly developed computer-aided tools integrated in the wind farm design and planning tool WindPRO. The new module WindPLAN includes three interrelated spatial planning models: a weighted visibility calculation model, a conflict check calculation and a wind resource weighted planning module. The application of the models is exemplified through a case study covering the municipality of Nibe - situated in the Northern Jutland, Denmark. The different analysis are heavily dependent on detailed GIS-data - showing objects such as local housing, leisure areas, preservation areas etc. Finally, a brief presentation of other valuable computer-aided tools integrated in the WindPRO/WindPLAN module is given, such as rendering of terrain profiles, user defined map composing and saved pollution calculation.
Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2010 - (Lianos, I.; Kokkoris, I.), s. 521-535 ISBN 978-90-411-2692-4 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : state aid * EU control Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T.
A series of facility-based surveys that mapped all sites providing family planning services and that assessed readiness to provide services, using mobile phones, was feasible in a low-resource setting, contributing to mobilization of partners and increased donor support. Between 2012 and 2013, readiness to provide services increased from 44% of sites to 63%. Three factors most associated with productivity: type of facility (clinics more than hospitals or health centers), more years in operati...
Zhang, Linda; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri
Abstract Planning production processes for product families has been well recognized as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product family. This paper addresses process family planning for product families. In view of the advantages of Petri nets (PNs) for modeling large systems, the potential of knowledge-based...
Smith, Kimberly G.; Gilliam, Melissa L.; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Neustadt, Amy; Stulberg, Debra
Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion) and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation. Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology. Results: Students desired education in family planning but per...
Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.
SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.
Halawa, M.; And Others
Describes a study of the impact of a nurse training program for family planning that stresses the development of nurses' counseling skills. Found an association between improved family planning training for nurses and positive changes in family planning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among women attending Egyptian Ministry of Health clinics.…
... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR... scientific topics, including antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and adherence/retention issues. The...
Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.
ZHANG Zhiying; LI Zhen; JIANG Zhibin
Computer-aided block assembly process planning based on rule-reasoning are developed in order to improve the assembly efficiency and implement the automated block assembly process planning generation in shipbuilding. First, weighted directed liaison graph (WDLG) is proposed to represent the model of block assembly process according to the characteristics of assembly relation, and edge list (EL) is used to describe assembly sequences. Shapes and assembly attributes of block parts are analyzed to determine the assembly position and matched parts of parts used frequently. Then, a series of assembly rules are generalized, and assembly sequences for block are obtained by means of rule reasoning. Final, a prototype system of computer-aided block assembly process planning is built. The system has been tested on actual block, and the results were found to be quite efficiency. Meanwhile, the fundament for the automation of block assembly process generation and integration with other systems is established.
Anand Mohan Dixit
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%. IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men. TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.
Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D
Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate
Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.
Feasibilities of the 'OS3D plan' three-dimensional planning system for remote gamma-therapy with the aid of personal computer were described. The 'OS3D plan' system was made in the form of working place for medical radiologist. The system consists of modules and intended for patient general and diagnostic data acquisition as well as for development, analysis and storage of the remote gamma-therapy plans. The 'OS3D plan' system was realized on the basis of IBM PC/AT-286/287 computer. The calculation of isodose distribution is conducted taking into account the heterogeneous structures of dose distribution according to the pixel-by-pixel algorithm
Rapid population growth is a serious problem in many developing countries and family planning policies developed in response to the problem raise many ethical issues; home economists can help the citizens in their respective countries increase their knowledge of population dynamics and help them assess the ethical implications of population and family planning policies. Most developing countries have high population growth rates. The annual population growth rates for 1975-79 were 2.8% for Africa, 2.6% for Latin America, and 2.1% for Asia. Population grows exponentially: a population growing at an annual rate of 3% increases. 1900% in a century. If current population trends continue the world's population will stablize toward the end of the 21st century at about 10 billion persons, compared to the world's present population of 4.3 billion. Rapid population growth not only threatens the future welfare of society as a whole, but currently impedes the economic development of the world's poorest nations. Consequently, the governments in many developing countries have adopted vigorous family planning programs. It is difficult to reduce population growth in developing countries because these countries have a high proportion of young people in their populations, i.e., a high number of persons of reproductive age. Barriers to family planning acceptance include 1) high illiteracy rates 2) high infant mortality rates 3) the high economic and socialvalue placed on children in developing countries and 4)religious beliefs. Methods used by governments to alter population growth include 1) manipulating access to contraceptives, 2)developing programs to alter social determinants of fertility, 3) using propaganda to encourage or discourage birth control and repressing information contrary to the government's policies, 4) offering incentives to those who further government policies and imposing disincentives on those who do not comply with government policies, and 5) exerting
Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.
The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…
Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.
The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change. PMID:16689916
On June 14, 1994, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Vehbi Koc, President of the Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation (TFHPF) received 1994 UN Population Awards for outstanding work in increasing public awareness of population problems and their solutions. Mubarak was chosen for his national and international leadership in population issues, and the TFHPF was chosen for its achievements in improving the quality of family planning services in Turkey. In his presentation address, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali noted that the awards not only honor the individual recipients but also signal the continuing concern of the UN about achieving a peaceful balance among concerns of population, the environment, and development. Thus, the 20-year International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action will seek to integrate population concerns into every area of development. Mubarak accepted the award as recognition of Egypt's success in confronting population problems by striving for comprehensive development and by introducing policies to persuade people to participate freely in population programs. Koc reported that the TFHPF supports alternative and innovative solutions to the social and economic problems caused by rapid population growth and constructively influences national population programs and policies. PMID:12179003
Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.
Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.
El-mouelhy, M T
The Government of Egypt is introducing policies to reduce the mortality of women of reproductive age. However, family planning and maternal-child health care programs are unlikely to have the desired impact without corresponding improvements in the status of Egyptian women. Women's status in the areas of education, health, poverty, employment, the family, government, and the community is a crucial determinant of their willingness and ability to accept a smaller family size ideal and become contraceptive users. At present, only 6% of Egyptian women are a part of the work force and 60% are illiterate. In a society in which women are valued on the basis of the number of children they produce for their husbands, those practice birth control risk abandonment and isolation. The powerlessness and insecurity that lead Egyptian women to have an average of at least 5 children impeded national development and thus delay creation of the socioeconomic conditions that could liberate women from their domestic role. Equal opportunities in education and employment would represent a first step toward improving women's status by giving them a source of income and increased independence. Also needed are modifications in archaic marriage, divorce, and custody laws. PMID:12317075
Rodgers, Philip D.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A multi-objective linear program (MOLP) using goal programming is developed as a decision support aid in determining optimal levels of those areas of Navy enlisted strength planning which are subject to centralized management control. Over a multi-year period these decisions include monthly inventories in each paygrade, monthly total inventories, monthly advancements in the top six paygrades, and monthly recruiting goals. The mod...
Meister H; Grugel L; Meis M
Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behav...
This paper provides guidance in the definition, documentation, measurement, enhancement of processes, and validation of a strategic plan for configuration management (CM). The approach and methodology used in establishing a strategic plan is the same for any enterprise, including the Department of Energy (DOE), commercial nuclear plants, the Department of Defense (DOD), or large industrial complexes. The principles and techniques presented are used world wide by some of the largest corporations. The authors used industry knowledge and the areas of their current employment to illustrate and provide examples. Developing a strategic configuration and information management plan for DOE Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID) facilities is discussed in this paper. A good knowledge of CM principles is the key to successful strategic planning. This paper will describe and define CM elements, and discuss how CM integrates the facility's physical configuration, design basis, and documentation. The strategic plan does not need the support of a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. However, the use of the CASE tool provides a methodology for consistency in approach, graphics, and database capability combined to form an encyclopedia and a method of presentation that is easily understood and aids the process of reengineering. CASE tools have much more capability than those stated above. Some examples are supporting a joint application development group (JAD) to prepare a software functional specification document and, if necessary, provide the capability to automatically generate software application code. This paper briefly discusses characteristics and capabilities of two CASE tools that use different methodologies to generate similar deliverables
Harrison, Abigail; Short, Susan E.; Tuoane-Nkhasi, Maletela
Gender and HIV risk have been widely examined in southern Africa, generally with a focus on dynamics within sexual relationships. Yet the social construction of women’s lives reflects their broader engagement with a gendered social system, which influences both individual-level risks and social and economic vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS. Using qualitative data from Lesotho, we examine women’s lived experiences of gender, family and HIV/AIDS through three domains: 1) marriage; 2) kinship and soc...
Harvey, P D
In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife. PMID:6701954
Furnas, Hannah E
In a transitioning fertility climate, preferences and decisions surrounding family planning are constantly in flux. Malawi provides an ideal case study of family planning complexities as fertility preferences are flexible, the relationship context is unstable, and childbearing begins early. I use intensive longitudinal data from Tsogolo la Thanzi-a research project in Malawi that follows young adults in romantic partnerships through the course of their relationship. I examine two questions: (1) What are the typical patterns of family planning as young adults transition through a relationship? (2) How are family planning trajectories related to individual and relationship-level characteristics? I use sequence analysis to order family planning across time and to contextualize it within each relationship. I generate and cluster the family planning trajectories and find six distinct groups of young adults who engage in family planning in similar ways. I find that family planning is complex, dynamic, and unique to each relationship. I argue that (a) family planning research should use the relationship as the unit of analysis and (b) family planning behaviors and preferences should be sequenced over time for a better understanding of key concepts, such as unmet need. PMID:27517867
Choi, Yoonjoung; Fabic, Madeleine Short; Adetunji, Jacob
Expanding access to family planning (FP) is a driving aim of global and national FP efforts. The definition and measurement of access, however, remain nebulous, largely due to complexity. This article aims to bring clarity to the measurement of FP access. First, we synthesize key access elements for measurement by reviewing three well-known frameworks. We then assess the extent to which the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)-a widely used data source for FP programs and research-has information to measure these elements. We finally examine barriers to access by element, using the latest DHS data from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss opportunities and limitations in the measurement of access, the importance of careful interpretation of data from population-based surveys, and recommendations for collecting and using data to better measure access. PMID:27285425
Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU
Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.
Ow, Andrew; Tan, Winston; Pienkowski, Lukasz
The use of virtual surgical planning and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing has been reported to enhance the planning for the reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects. This case report illustrates the use of this technology in the fabrication of a custom-made titanium prosthesis to restore a segmental mandibular defect. The design specifications and sequence of the custom-made titanium prosthesis are discussed. Although successful in this case, there are limitations in its application and case selection is of vital importance. PMID:27516841
Chen, E C
Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception. PMID:12222468
Page, S B; Larner, M B
This journal issue discusses the policy challenges of helping parents move from welfare to work. As a foundation, this introductory article explains the federal-state program of cash assistance called Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), to which the term welfare refers in most of these articles. While a number of other social programs are sometimes included under the umbrella of welfare-such as the Supplemental Security Income program for the disabled, food stamps, and Medicaid-the program that has drawn the most public scrutiny and negative attention, and the centerpiece of the 1996 welfare reform legislation, is AFDC. This article explains the basic structure of the AFDC program, including eligibility criteria and benefits; discusses the characteristics of families that have received AFDC; describes trends in the program's size and cost from the 1970s to 1996; and indicates the major ways in which the block grant established in the 1996 welfare reform legislation compares to the AFDC program that it replaced. PMID:9170729
Meltem Demirgöz Bal
Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause. The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.
Molebatsi, Tshegofatso Queen
Introduction: Unmet need for family planning is high in most African countries including South Africa and Malawi as witnessed by high levels of teenage pregnancies, unwanted births and unsafe abortion. As such unmet need for family planning was added to the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) as an indicator for tracking progress on improving maternal health. Objective: The primary objective of the study is to determine the correlates of unmet need for family planning among women of re...
Kohan, Shahnaz; Simbar, Masoumeh; Taleghani, Fariba
Background: Nowadays, the concept of family planning has been detached from the population control and it is expressed as an essential element in women’s reproductive rights, empowering them and promoting their status in society. Family planning services have an important role in fertility decisions using contraception methods in women. This study was carried out to explore the experience of women from the role of health centers in empowering them for family planning. Materials and Methods: T...
Farmer, DB; Berman, L.; Ryan, G.; Habumugisha, L; Basinga, P.; Nutt, C; Kamali, F.; Ngizwenayo, E; Fleur, JS; Niyigena, P; Ngabo, F; Farmer, PE; Rich, ML
Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...
Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; Fleur, Jacklin St; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E.; Rich, Michael L.
Background: While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda’s southe...
A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in Assosa Town, Ethiopia (2001-2002) to investigate what proportion of couples were discussing about family planning, if there was any association between husband wife communication and contraception, and couple’ s opinion about the subject. Among the 264 couples interviewed 10% had never heard about family planning. Among those who had heard about family planning in 98% of couples both wife and husband...
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005, was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-square tests and at the multivariate level using logistic regression.Results: Key myths and misinformation about family planning having significant negative effects on contraceptive use included: “contraception makes women become promiscuous”, “it is expensive to practice family planning”, and “family planning causes cancer”. Factual information having significant positive effects on contraceptive use includes the messages that family planning methods are effective and not against religious teaching. The type of people with whom respondents discussed family planning had a significant effect on use of contraception. Respondents who discussed family planning with their spouse, friends, and health workers were more likely to use contraception than those who discussed it with religious leaders. Other significant predictors of contraceptive use were region of residence, gender, and socioeconomic status.Conclusion: Family planning programs should focus on eliminating myths and misinformation, while strengthening factual information. Contraception programs should factor in the role of significant others, particularly spouses and friends.Keywords: contraceptive use, family planning, logistic regression, misconceptions, myths
Saima Nazir, Anshu Mittal, Bhupinder K Anand, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Arshad Rashid
Conclusion: Education, income, occupation, knowledge about contraception, communication with partner regarding family planning, media accessibility, gender preference were identified as the contributing factors for Unmet Need."
Conclusions: It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.
Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray; Ground, Larry; Rebbapragada, Lakshmi; Langston, John
Use of intelligent decision aids can help alleviate the challenges of planning complex operations. We describe integrated algorithms, and a tool capable of translating a high-level concept for a tactical military operation into a fully detailed, actionable plan, producing automatically (or with human guidance) plans with realistic degree of detail and of human-like quality. Tight interleaving of several algorithms -- planning, adversary estimates, scheduling, routing, attrition and consumptio...
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…
Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348
Fraser, S E
The limitation of population growth in China to about 1.7% annually is, in large part, the result of changing sexual norms which have been brought about by community-wide sexual education. These changes include elevating the status of women, dismissing the traditional striving for male children as "old fashioned," and emphasizing responsible parenthood. About 6% of China's population is made up of minority peoples, some 54 distinctive groups including a few such as the Khalkhas and Sibos who have virtually been saved from extinction during the past 25 years. For these groups the growth rate is 6% and the central government in Peking stresses to visitors that for minorities there is no limitation of family size but that health of the mother is stressed. Conversations with Chinese health workers indicate that rural women are much more in favor of family planning than their husbands and are much more willing to be sterilized when the acceptable family size of 2 or 3 children is reached. However, men are becoming more willing to use condoms which are available without cost from village health workers. There is little sex education in the schools. Physiology is included as a minor part of general biology. Young people are cautioned not to "fall in love" at too early an age or else they will not keep their minds on their studies and will get married too early. Emphasis is on late marriage, 25 for women and 27 for men. Only a modest glance at population or sexually oriented topics are encouraged until marriage is contemplated. Then sex education is given in great variety and detail. It is the opinion of doctors and health workers that sex education is a matter for the married, not the single. Chinese society has little external sexual stimuli, nudity or seminudity is not acceptable except at the beach or the swimming pool, and the young people are generally taught to be circumspect. There is none of the advertising which permeates Western culture. It is understandable
Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.
De La Fuente, M
Using Bolivia as the example, the author critiques international organization and health professional emphasis upon providing family planning services as inadequate to meet the needs and interests of poor women. The feminist and women's movements should be expected to fight to regain the right of self-determination, and to demand integral health care for women. Contraception will constitute but a component of this holistic approach. Poverty, natalism, development, and population policies are all interrelated issues in Bolivia as the country proceeds through a period of democratization. Where total fertility averages 5 children/women as it does in Bolivia, women should certainly have the right to choose contraception in the control of fertility. Simple provision of such services and supplies will not, however, suffice to solve more deeply rooted social and economic problems faced by those women. The author further fears that some parts of the feminist movement have forgotten that population and related policies developed and imposed by other cultures have little interest in respecting the self-determination of women as individuals. Support for these policies by movement members only reinforces and helps to reproduce existing conditions of poverty and unequal rights. PMID:12284538
Examines the roles and influence of grandmothers with respect to nutrition, breastfeeding, quality of child care and family planning usage; the maternal grandmother is much more involved with grandchildren than the paternal grandmother. Accordingly this category may be a target for programmes and activities to promote child welfare and family planning.
Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.
In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…
Hudson, Lucy; Almeida, Connie; Bentley, Dawn; Brown, Josie; Harlin, Daria; Norris, Judy
Family reunification is not always possible for children who have been removed from the care of their biological parents because of abuse or neglect. Concurrent planning puts into place a secondary plan for a permanent home should family reunification prove to be impossible. Working in four diverse communities around the country in an innovative…
The International Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Alliance, a London based nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a 1994 income of $3.5 million, is funding small organizations in developing countries via locally governed linking organizations, which review applications and provide technical support. The Alliance is headed by Jeff O'Malley, the founding executive director of Harvard's Global AIDS Policy Coalition and executive director of its 1992 "AIDS in the World" report. The result of a Rockefeller Foundation initiative, the Alliance has been operational since the beginning of 1994. 2 years of research, which focused on Mexico, the Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Egypt, indicated that the ideal funding arrangement was one where a northern NGO funded a southern NGO in a partnership. However, the southern NGOs soon outgrew this relationship. Critics suggest existing networks should be used instead of the new linking organizations. O'Malley cites 2 reasons for this new method of empowering the south: 1) smaller community groups are reached and 2) national debate on AIDS is catalyzed. Research shows that groups on the edge of being considered NGOs have little access to funds; however, they often are in a position to do important work on AIDS prevention and care. After piloting programs in Burkina Faso and the Philippines, the Alliance released a provisional 3-year plan for networks to be established in 14 countries (9 in 1994, 5 in 1995). Linking organizations are being formed in Bangladesh, Ecuador, and Senegal. Pakistan and Sri Lanka will be next. Work ranges from prevention and care to social science research and small scale drug supply. Staff have a variety of backgrounds: health, AIDS, development, the private sector, government, and NGOs. Linking organizations are bound by a Statement of Vision and Values. Whether a new linking organization is established (Philippines) or an existing network used (Bangladesh) varies
Damiani, Victoria B.
This article describes Project Mandela, a federally funded enrichment and family support program for special populations (such as culturally diverse and economically disadvantaged) of gifted learners. Eighty-seven families participated in development of Individual Family Support Plans to enhance children's educational progress. The project found…
Withrow-Robinson, Brad; Sisock, Mary; Watkins, Susan
Succession planning is an important step for families owning woodlands and farms that wish to maintain the character of the land and continue the families' connection to it. We introduce Ties to the Land, an educational curriculum that helps families communicate more effectively about the fate of their land and how to transition to future…
Kim, Kyeong-Hwa; Turnbull, Ann
The transition from high school to adulthood is a major life change for most young adults and their families, and generally it is depicted as an especially stressful time for young people with disabilities and their families. Adequate planning is required to address the challenging impact of this stage of life on families. The purposes of this…
Susanna M Ellis; Van der Merwe, Stephan; Venter, Elmarie
This study highlights the importance of management succession planning in small and medium-sized family businesses. The primary objective of this study is twofold : firstly to identify the potential influence of selected variables (determinants) on the management succession planning process in small and medium-sized family businesses, and secondly to make practical recommendations for actions that families can take to improve their chances of a successful succession and thereby ensure the sus...
Aguayo Hernandez, J R
This work discusses various views of abortion and presents data on the legal aspects and incidence of abortion in Mexico as a contribution to a more productive dialogue on the problems of abortion. It is very difficult to deter women who have decided to seek an abortion, regardless of whether the procedure is legal or even safe. In the state of Sinaloa, Mexico, an abortion has not been punishable since 1939 if it caused by "imprudence", if the woman is a victim of rape, or if the woman's life is endangered by pregnancy. The penal codes of most Mexican states and the Federal District contain similar provisions. In October 1990, the state of Chiapas decriminalized abortion for most indications in the 1st 90 days of pregnancy on the basis that the fertility and growth rates were too high, many children were in situations of extreme poverty, and the widespread practice of illegal abortion led to high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. The decree legalizing abortion in Chiapas was suspended in early 1991 by the Congress of Chiapas and is currently under further study by the National Commission on Human Rights. UNICEF estimates that in 1990, some 100,000 illegal abortions occurred daily in the world. 150,000-200,000 women may die each year as a result of illegal abortions. Today some 300 million couples throughout the world do not want more children but lack access to family planning. UNICEF estimates that the world rate of population growth would decline by 30% if all couples not desiring children practiced effective contraception. A large number of illegal abortions are believed to occur annually in Mexico. Abortions in Mexico are most common among married women of lower or lower middle class who already have children and who wish to avoid the economic hardships of a new baby. Perhaps because of their illegality, abortions represent a significant expense for a household. Unsafe abortions may cause serious health and fertility problems for women. The Mexican
Family planning (FP) programs in various villages in Shandong Province, China are discussed in terms of Minister Peng Peiyun's inspection. The visit by the State FP Commission officer was conducted with the Vice Governor and the Provincial FP Committee Director. 8 townships and villages in Yantai and Waihai prefectures were involved in the visits: Nanche Village of Shitou Town of Rongchen City, Zhangjia Township of Wendeng City, Yujia Village of Penglai County, and Xibeizhang Village of Pinglidian Town of Laizhou City. FP efforts and Minister Peng's comments are provided for these areas. IN Nanche village, Minister Peng said that farmers will support FP when the vast masses of the people of childbearing age are served. FP is important to political and social stability and economic development. In Zhangjia, Minister Peng visited a subcenter on education and said a solid basis for implementing FP is derived from paying sufficient attention to education on the basic principles of FP. In Yujia Village where there were no unplanned births, the village head answered the inquiry about FP success by saying the community persevered in developing the economy while simultaneously controlling population reproduction. A collective economy was formed with 7 small factories and 3 orchards. Annual income/capita in 1990 was 1,400 RMB Yuan. 300,000 RMB Yuan is devoted to the establishment of a kindergarten and primary school. An insurance system is operable. Childbearing desires changed with the relief from worries and the intensified education on population and FP. In Xibeizhang Village, which was designated a model for FP by governments in Shandong Province and Laizhou City, a provincial FP worker spoke directly to Minister Peng about the local activities. Encouragement on developing the 3 (educational and publicity, contraception, and daily management) to a new level and on surging ahead to bring about new achievement in FP was provided by Minister Peng to FP workers. PMID
Viswa Mohan Pedagopu; Manish Kumar
The field of solid modeling has created numerous techniques for unambiguous computer representations of three-dimensional objects. Its data structures and algorithms have been used in a broad range of applications: Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/ CAM), robotics, computer vision, computer graphics and visualization, virtual reality, etc. This research paper is used to generate process plan from feature-based modeling, based on an integrated geometric modeling syste...
Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens
Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa
Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…
Alahdal, Alhosain Abdullah
Recent years have seen increasing acknowledgment that aircraft accidents affect not only those who are killed or injured, but also the families and friends of victims. Survivors, victims and their families require sensitive treatment in order to help them cope with what has occurred. Following high profile accidents including USAir 427 and TWA 800, the United State of America started a new program which they call it Family Assistance after Air Disaster. After that a several ...
BAUER, LANCE O.
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of HIV/AIDS on cognitive control and to determine if the effect is modified by familial risk for either alcohol or mood disorders. Sixty HIV-1 seropositive and 75 seronegative volunteers were assigned to 4 subgroups defined by the crossing of a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the biological father with diagnoses of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in the biological mother. Cognitive control was evaluated during a tas...
Zheng Jinqiao; Wang Yilin; Li Zhigang
Process planning for large complicated stampings is more complicated, illegible and multiform than that for common stampings.In this paper, an intelligent master model of computer aided process planning (CAPP) for large complicated stampings has been developed based on knowledge based engineering (KBE) and feature technology. This innovative model consists of knowledge base ( KB), process control structure (PCS), process information model (PIM), multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO), model link environment (MLE) and simulation engine (SE), to realize process planning, optimization, simulation and management integrated to complete intelligent CAPP system. In this model, KBE provides knowledge base, open architecture and knowledge reuse ability to deal with the multi-domain and multi-expression of process knowledge, and forms an integrated environment. With PIM,all the knowledge consisting of objects, constraints, experience and decision-makings is carried by object-oriented method dynamically for knowledge-reasoning. PCS makes dynamical knowledge modified and updated timely and accordingly. MLE provides sev eral methods to make CAPP system associated and integrated. SE provides a programmable mechanism to interpret simulation course and result. Meanwhile, collaborative optimization, one method of MDO, is imported to deal with the optimization distributed for multiple purposes. All these make CAPP system integrated and open to other systems, such as die design and manufacturing system.
Li, Bin; Lu, Hongbing; Cai, Wenli; Li, Xiang; Meng, Jie; Liang, Zhengrong
The developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a congenital malformation affecting the proximal femurs and acetabulum that are subluxatable, dislocatable, and dislocated. Early diagnosis and treatment is important because failure to diagnose and improper treatment can result in significant morbidity. In this paper, we designed and implemented a computer aided system for the diagnosis and treatment planning of this disease. With the design, the patient received CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan first. A mixture-based PV partial-volume algorithm was applied to perform bone segmentation on CT image, followed by three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of the segmented image, demonstrating the special relationship between the acetabulum and femurs for visual judgment. Several standard procedures, such as Salter procedure, Pemberton procedure and Femoral Shortening osteotomy, were simulated on the screen to rehearse a virtual treatment plan. Quantitative measurement of Acetabular Index (AI) and Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA) were performed on the 3D image for evaluation of DDH and treatment plans. PC graphics-card GPU architecture was exploited to accelerate the 3D rendering and geometric manipulation. The prototype system was implemented on PC/Windows environment and is currently under clinical trial on patient datasets.
Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.
This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…
Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça
Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905
Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.
It is probably not possible to implant a family planning program that will have a reasonable demographic impact in areas lacking awareness of the disadvantages of overly high fertility. Rural-urban migration, increasing educational levels, women's labor force participation, and declining infant mortality are all factors that have been found to correlate with demand for family planning services. It has been recognized since the Bucharest World Population Conference in 1974 that development and family planning are both required for the fertility transition to begin. Where these conditions exist, a family planning program appropriate to the needs, limitations, preferences, and expectations of the target population has an excellent chance of success. Expanded and improved coverage results from tailoring programs to the specific groups served. Most programs are directed toward women. It has been found most effective to provide services for men in separate sessions. It is also useful to distinguish between services for adolescents, who require more information and fewer services, for mature women who require more services than information, and for premenopausal women whose needs for information and services are both declining. Contraceptive preferences vary with social class, but family planning programs in developing countries should concentrate on the lower middle and lower classes which comprise 80% of the population. Rural areas and marginal urban areas require special attention. In order to provide services that will attract all potential users, the maximum possible variety of methods should be available. A family planning program offering a variety of methods throughout the country and financially accessible to the population should be successful. Family planning programs, whether public or private, require adequate financial resources and the support or at least tolerance of the government. Knowledge of contraception is now almost universal. A major challenge of
Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi
This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.
Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes
This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that ...
Lundgren Rebecka; Sinai Irit; Jha Priya; Mukabatsinda Marie; Sacieta Luisa; León Federico R
Abstract Background Introducing a new method into family planning programs requires careful attention to ensure it meets an actual need and has a positive effect on program goals. The Standard Days Method® is a fertility awareness-based method of family planning that is being introduced into family planning programs in countries around the world. It is different from other methods offered by programs, and may bring new couples into family planning, and increase contraceptive prevalence. The s...
Alpay Çakmak; Melikşah Ertem
Family planning is an important tool to avoid maternal deaths. But unfortunately women have no chance to reach family planning services particularly in developing countries. All contacts with health professionals of women should be evaluate a opportunity for family planning education. In this study we aimed to show the fact that children hospital is also an important opportunity for family planning education. We interviewed 352 women with a child hospitalized in Children Governmental Hospita...
Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S
Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide. PMID:26181061
Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180
Kuate Defo Barthelemy
Full Text Available Abstract Background The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Methods Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4 950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1 765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%. For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2 028 unmarried youths aged 12 - 29 years was utilized. Results Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. Conclusions This paper evidenced the limited
Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613
Creanga, Andreea A.; Galavotti, Christine; Wamalwa, Emmanuel
Introduction Use of family planning (FP) is powerfully shaped by social and gender norms, including the perceived acceptability of FP and gender roles that limit women’s autonomy and restrict communication and decision-making between men and women. This study evaluated an intervention that catalyzed ongoing community dialogues about gender and FP in Siaya county, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Specifically, we explored the changes in perceived acceptability of FP, gender norms and use of FP. Methods We used a mixed-method approach. Information on married men and women’s socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy intentions, gender-related beliefs, FP knowledge, attitudes, and use were collected during county-representative, cross-sectional household surveys at baseline (2009; n11 = 650 women; n12 = 305 men) and endline (2012; n21 = 617 women; n22 = 317 men); exposure to the intervention was measured at endline. We assessed changes in FP use at endline vs. baseline, and fitted multivariate logistic regression models for FP use to examine its association with intervention exposure and explore other predictors of use at endline. In-depth, qualitative interviews with 10 couples at endline further explored enablers and barriers to FP use. Results At baseline, 34.0% of women and 27.9% of men used a modern FP method compared to 51.2% and 52.2%, respectively, at endline (p<0.05). Exposure to FP dialogues was associated with 1.78 (95% CI: 1.20–2.63) times higher odds of using a modern FP method at endline for women, but this association was not significant for men. Women’s use of modern FP was significantly associated with higher spousal communication, control over own cash earnings, and FP self-efficacy. Men who reported high approval of FP were significantly more likely to use modern FP if reporting high approval of FP and more equitable gender beliefs. FP dialogues addressed persistent myths and misconceptions, normalized FP discussions, and increased its
Ponce, E.; Sloan, N; Winikoff, B.; Langer, A; Coggins, C; Heimburger, A.; Conde-Glez, C.; Salmeron, J
Objectives: This study measured the effect of information about family planning methods and STD risk factors and prevention, together with personal choice on the selection of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by clients with cervical infection.
Smith, C.; Vannak, U; Sokhey, L; Ngo, TD; Gold, J; Khut, K; Edwards, P.; Rathavy, T; Free, C
BACKGROUND Providing women with contraceptive methods following abortion is important to reduce repeat abortion rates, yet evidence for effective post-abortion family planning interventions are limited. This protocol outlines the evaluation of a mobile phone-based intervention using voice messages to support post-abortion family planning in Cambodia. METHODS/DESIGN A single blind randomised controlled trial of 500 participants. Clients aged 18 or over, attending for abortion at four Mari...
van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.
Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality, whether contraceptives are used after each birth, and birth intervals. Infant mortality is determined by the preceding birth interval and other covariates (such as socio-economic status). The decis...
Apanga, Paschal Awingura; Adam, Matthew Ayamba
Introduction Usage of family planning services in developing countries have been found to avert unintended pregnancies, reduce maternal and child mortality, however, it's usage still remains low. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the decision of women in fertility age to go for family planning services. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Talensi district in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Systematic random sampling ...
Besera, Ghenet; Moskosky, Susan; Pazol, Karen; Fowler, Christina; Warner, Lee; Johnson, David M; Barfield, Wanda D
Although both men and women have reproductive health care needs, family planning providers traditionally focus services toward women (1,2). Challenges in providing family planning services to men, including preconception health, infertility, contraceptive, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) care (3,4), include their infrequent use of preventive health services, a perceived lack of need for these services (1,5), and the lack of provider guidance regarding men's reproductive health care needs (4). Since 1970, the National Title X Family Planning Program has provided cost-effective and confidential family planning and related preventive health services with priority for services to low-income women and men. To examine men's use of services at Title X service sites, CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Population Affairs (OPA) analyzed data from the 2003-2014 Family Planning Annual Reports (FPAR), annual data that are required of all Title X-funded agencies. During 2003-2014, 3.8 million males visited Title X service sites in the United States and the percentage of family planning users who were male nearly doubled from 4.5% (221,425 males) in 2003 to 8.8% (362,531 males) in 2014. In 2014, the percentage of family planning users who were male varied widely by state, ranging from ≤1% in Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama to 27.2% in the District of Columbia (DC). Title X service sites are increasingly providing services for males. Health care settings might want to adopt the framework employed by Title X clinics to better provide family planning and related preventative services to men (3). PMID:27309884
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt
Indonesia's family planning program has been one of the most effective in the developing world in promoting contraceptive use and contributing to fertility transition. In evaluating why the program has worked, analysts have given much credit to a network of village family planning groups that developed from the 1970s to the 1990s and that blanketed the archipelago. These groups, composed primarily of female volunteers, made contraception available to women in even the most remote parts of the country, and acted as agents of family planning motivation. They have been labeled by the Indonesian state family planning agency as an example of effective community participation on a national scale. In this paper, I investigate this claim and find it to be simplistic. I provide extensive evidence that the creation of this network was orchestrated by the Indonesian state. On the other hand, I show that these groups are not fully state entities, as they have several characteristics that mark them as socially embedded institutions. They are best labeled as unusual state-society hybrids. In my investigation I draw on one of the newest paradigms in the discipline of political science--the state-society approach--to uncover the odd nature of this family planning network. More deeply, I argue that the state-society approach ought to be adopted in family planning analysis on a comprehensive basis. The traditional organizational and social-demographic approaches that have dominated the field offer only limited understanding of the nature of family planning programs in developing countries. The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. PMID:11989957
Azimi, Y Nor; Atiya, A S
The role of husband-wife communication in the practice of family planning was studied among the rural Malay couples in Mukim Rusila, Terengganu. It was a cross-sectional study in which a cluster sampling was used to select the study sample. A total of 193 (100.0%) wives and 74 (38.3%) husbands responded to a face-to-face interview. Visual Analogue Scale was used to measure the level of husband-wife communication. Husband-wife communication score was lower on family planning compared to other matters. There was a significant fair agreement on the scores between the husbands and the wives (p > 0.05) on family planning. There was a significant association between husband-wife communication on family planning and the current practice of family planning (p = 0.002). The 'likelihood' that couples who had had good husband-wife communication to practice family planning was about 2.8 times higher compared to those couples with poor husband-wife communication (95% C.I.: 1.4, 5.3). Further research need to be carried out, as the study was limited by certain constraints. PMID:14569742
Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…
In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in heal
Keeny, S. M., Ed.
An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…
Wiley, Angela R.; Bogg, Timothy; Ringo Ho, Moon-Ho
Previous scholarship on farm families emphasizes the importance of socializing children to become farmers. This study is the first to focus on the parental socialization factors that are associated with preadolescent children's attachment to, and plans to take over, the family farm. Forty-seven 7- to 12-year-old children and their farming parents…
Full Text Available Hartmut Meister,1 Linda Grugel,1 Markus Meis2 1Jean Uhrmacher Institute for Clinical ENT Research, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Hoerzentrum Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany Objective: To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Design: The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample: Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results: The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion: The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking. Keywords: hearing aid uptake, motivation, attitude, subjective norm, behavioral control
The report on hand presents possible applications of a project planning and coordination system for projects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle, with special regard to waste management. The relevant licencing procedures applied to said projects as well as basic elements of project planning systems, e.g. project structure plan, ''milestone-plan'' and network plan are dealt with in this report. For the licensing procedure under atomic law, a possible project structure is indicated. Furthermore, processes and occurances to be considered in the elaboration of particular network plans are listed. In addition, particulars for the schedules degree of specifications are given. To round up the report, recommendations are given for future lines of proceeding in the introduction of computer-aided information systems for use in projets on the nuclear fuel cycle. (orig.)
Mauldin, W P
) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data. PMID:21279762
Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki
Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…
Male responsibility with regard to family planning and its practice is a major action focus of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The campaign has been aimed at developing programs to educate men about family planning, encouraging men to practice contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Since the African male's opinion is paramount within the family unit, the village, and the broader society, this approach is considered essential to the success of family planning efforts in Africa. Although a wide range of programs in Anglophone Africa are now oriented toward men, little progress has been made in the Francophone countries. Obstacles include traditionalism, pro-natalism, illiteracy, religion, and a hostility to Western concepts. Efforts have further been hindered by the way that family planning has been promoted in the region in the past: as a birth spacing method to improve maternal and child health. Medical and paramedical personnel in the region have been trained to treat only mothers and children, not couples or families. However, women's changing status and increased awareness of the connection between demography and development have created an atmosphere more favorable to well designed family welfare programs that are integrated with other development activities. If family planning is to become entrenched in the African region, attention must be given to 3 areas: information and education, integrated development, and research and training. Within the framework of educational activities, men can be made aware that they may practice contraception without any threat to their virility. Given the complexity of the task of introducing family planning on a broad scale in Africa, an integrated appraoch (social, cultural, health, economic, political, and legislative), involving both governments and voluntary organizations as well as the population, is required. Decision makers must be convinced to give family planning a central
Author highlights the necessity to draw international financial aid for Ukraine, identify similarities and differences of "Marshall Plan" for post-war Europe and current financial aid for Ukraine. She explains the investment levers of "Marshall Plan" which are extremely important for reconstruction of the Ukrainian economy and modernization of its production basis. Author elaborates the key principles of formation and allocations of the foreign financial aid for Ukraine, which are related to ...
Makoae, Mokhantso G; Jubber, Ken
In the context of poor access to antiretroviral therapies in sub-Saharan Africa, the minimum treatment package intended to treat opportunistic infections common with HIV infection is inadequate but appealing, since it presumes universal coverage of medical care for patients living with HIV and AIDS. The overall objective of this study was to analyse the challenges which family caregivers encountered in home-based care when they tried to access medical treatment for home-based AIDS patients in the context of confidentiality and limited medical care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews with a sample of 21 family caregivers -16 females and 5 males aged between 23 and 85 years was conducted with the assistance of health personnel in two hospitals in Lesotho. Using the concept of continuity of care, this article discusses the experiences of family caregivers about home care, including their experiences of adherence to confidentiality by health care professionals and non-disclosure of AIDS as the context of illness, the circumstances under which the caregivers initiated caregiving and sought medical care, and how these factors could be stressors in caregiving. There was continuity of care where the caregivers obtained hospital support. However, when confidentiality was adhered to the caregivers were frustrated by lack of information, disrupted treatment, exclusion of their perspectives in medical care, failure to secure hospitalisation, ambiguous goals and non-responsiveness, so that continuity of care was jeopardised. Thus it can be concluded that professional-assisted disclosure benefited the patients because it facilitated continuity of care through the caregivers. PMID:18496618
Full Text Available Joan S Grant,1 David E Vance,1 Worawan White,2 Norman L Keltner,1 James L Raper3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 2Department of Nursing, Pensacola State College, Pensacola, Florida, 3School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Abstract: Health professionals can gain a better understanding of key elements of social support by examining reasons why people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH exclude individuals from their chosen families (ie, families of choice. Our study identified reasons why PLWH excluded specific individuals from their chosen families. This mixed-method design was drawn from a larger study of 150 PLWH, in which 94 self-reported why they excluded individuals from their chosen families. Physical and emotional distance (n = 64; 68.1%; nonsupport, nonacceptance, and harm (n = 25; 26.6%; conditional caring and trust (n = 22; 23.4%; and no blood/familial relationship (n = 13; 13.8% were the reasons PLWH excluded individuals from their chosen families. Demographic and personal characteristics were unrelated to these themes, supporting the conclusion that reasons for excluding family members are universal and not dependent on particular participant characteristics. For chosen family relationships to develop and exist, these findings emphasize the value of physical and emotional contact between individuals.Keywords: families, stigma, social networks, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Park, Dong Hwan; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.
In general, deep drawing products have various cross-section shapes such as cylindrical, rectangular and non-axisymmetric shapes. The application of the surface area calculation to non-axisymmetric deep drawing process has not been published yet. In this research, a surface area calculation for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed for a design of blank shape of deep drawing products by using an AutoLISP function of AutoCAD software. A computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for rotationally symmetric deep drawing products has been developed. However, the application of the system to non-axisymmetric components has not been reported yet. Thus, the CAPP system for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed by using process sequence design. The system developed in this work consists of four modules. The first is recognition of shape module to recognize non-axisymmetric products. The second is a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling module to calculate the surface area for non-axisymmetric products. The third is a blank design module to create an oval-shaped blank with the identical surface area. The forth is a process planning module based on the production rules that play the best important role in an expert system for manufacturing. The production rules are generated and upgraded by interviewing field engineers. Especially, the drawing coefficient, the punch and die radii for elliptical shape products are considered as main design parameters. The suitability of this system was verified by applying to a real deep drawing product. This CAPP system constructed would be very useful to reduce lead-time for manufacturing and improve an accuracy of products.
Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi; Hari Basuki
Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in...
Olbrecht, Alexandre M.; Romano, Christopher; Teigen, Jeremy
In this paper, we leverage detailed, individual-level student data to understand the relationships between family finances, merit-based aid, and first-year student retention. With three cohorts of student data that comprise family financial status, institutional merit scholarships, and many of the other known correlates of student retention, we…
S M Kang′ethe
Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to explore the dangers of involving children as family caregivers of palliative care and home-based-care to advanced HIV/AIDS patients, while its objective is to discuss the dangers or perfidiousness that minors especially the girl children face as they handle care giving of advanced HIV/AIDS patients. The article has relied on eclectic data sources. The research has foundminors disadvantaged by the following: being engulfed by fear and denied rights through care giving; being emotionally and physiologically overwhelmed; being oppressed and suppressed by caring duties; being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS; and having their education compromised by care giving. The paper recommends: (1 strengthening and emphasizing on children′s rights; (2 maintaining gender balance in care giving; (3 implementation and domestication of the United Nations conventions on the rights of children; (4 community awareness on equal gender co participation in care giving; (5 and fostering realization that relying on child care giving is a negative score in fulfilling global Millennium Development Goals.
Schölmerich, Vera L N; Kawachi, Ichiro
Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have translated these concepts into practice in the field of family planning-and generally in public health-remains scarce. This article seeks to review the current definitions of multilevel interventions and their operationalization in the field of family planning. First, we highlight the divergent definitions of multilevel interventions and show the persistent ambiguity around this term. We argue that interventions involving activities at several levels but lacking targets (i.e., objectives) to create change on more than one level have not incorporated a social-ecological framework and should therefore not be considered as "multilevel." In a second step, we assess the extent to which family planning interventions have successfully incorporated a social-ecological framework. To this end, the 63 studies featured in Mwaikambo et al.'s systematic review on family planning interventions were reexamined. This assessment indicates that the multilevel or social-ecological perspective has seldom been translated into interventions. Specifically, the majority of interventions involved some form of activity at the community and/or organizational level, yet targeted and measured intrapersonal change as opposed to explicitly targeting/measuring environmental modification. PMID:27105643
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the awareness, attitude and participation of men in family planning program in Abyek, Iran.Methods: This descriptive study was done on 400 men and women in Abyek, Iran. Data regarding awareness and attitude of men in family planning program and their participation rate were gathered. The descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test were used for analyzing data.Results: The mean awareness, attitude and participation score of men in family planning was7.40±2.37, 54.68±6.12 and 8±2.52 respectively. The percentage of awareness, attitude and participation was 52.8%, 84% and 66.6% respectively. A significant relationship was observed between knowledge and participation (r=0.293, p=0.005 and attitude and participation (r=0.328, p=0.005.Conclusion: Awareness and participation of men in family planning program was not good, however; their attitude was acceptable. It seems that the knowledge and practice of men about family planning should be increased by educational programs.
Hamdan-Mansour, A M; Malkawi, A O; Sato, T; Hamaideh, S H; Hanouneh, S I
Men's participation in family planning has become a cornerstone in women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning of Jordanian men in southern Jordan. In a cross-sectional descriptive study in 2012, structured interviews were made with 104 married men in Aqaba and Ma'an governorates. Although 93.5% of the men had heard about family planning-most commonly the intrauterine device (IUD) and oral contraceptives-only 45.1% reported that they and their wife currently used it. Most men agreed about a minimum 2 years' child spacing (93.3%) and starting contraception after childbirth (71.2%) and that husband and wife should share decisions about family planning (90.2%) and the number of children (89.5%). Level of education significantly affected current use of contraception, while number of children significantly affected previous use of contraception. Although married men had positive attitudes and good knowledge about family planning, this did not translate into practice of contraceptive use. PMID:27180740
On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening
Burley, Jarred L.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Randall, Robb M.; Bartell, Richard J.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.
This study demonstrates the development of a high energy laser tactical decision aid (HELTDA) by the AFIT/CDE for mission planning High Energy Laser (HEL) weapon system engagements as well as centralized, decentralized, or hybrid predictive avoidance (CPA/DPA/HPA) assessments. Analyses of example HEL mission engagements are described as well as how mission planners are expected to employ the software. Example HEL engagement simulations are based on geographic location and recent/current atmospheric weather conditions. The atmospheric effects are defined through the AFIT/CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model or the High Energy Laser End-to-End Operational Simulation (HELEEOS) model upon which the HELTDA is based. These models enable the creation of vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, water vapor content, optical turbulence, and atmospheric particulates and hydrometeors as they relate to line-by-line layer extinction coefficient magnitude at wavelengths from the UV to the RF. Seasonal and boundary layer variations (summer/winter) and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentile conditions are considered to determine optimum efficiency in a specific environment. Each atmospheric particulate/hydrometeor is evaluated based on its wavelength-dependent forward and off-axis scattering characteristics and absorption effects on the propagating environment to and beyond the target. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, correlated optical turbulence profiles in probabilistic (percentile) format are included. Numerical weather model forecasts are incorporated in the model to develop comprehensive understanding of HEL weapon system performance.
Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas
Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives. PMID:16488063
Colorado Parent Teacher Association, Wheat Ridge.
In line with the National PTA's support of various health topics in the school curricula, the Colorado PTA and Colorado Department of Education formulated this educational booklet for parents and parent groups. Included is general information on the nature of HIV/AIDS and how it is transmitted. Current statistics on AIDS cases in Colorado and the…
Place, J L
This article discusses the spread and impact of AIDS in Southern Africa, as well as government responses to the pandemic. A with a total of 14,325 reported AIDS cases as of September 1990, the countries the Southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) now account for 20% of all AIDS cases in Africa. This represents an eightfold increase in just over 2 years. Because of the young age structure of the population, which in the next few years will become sexually active, experts fear rapid increases in the rate of infection. With the exception of South Africa, AIDS has struck men and women alike. The region has also witnessed a growing number of HIV-infected babies and children orphaned by the disease. Besides its cost in human lives, the spread of AIDs threatens the economic development of the region, as it effects the most productive segment of the population, and as the resources to combat the disease dwindle, while its destructive potential grows. Surveillance of the disease has proven difficult, especially among refugees and returning exiles. Government responses to the pandemic have differed. In Zambia, where President Kaunda's own son died of the disease, the government has adopted an extensive AIDS program. Kaunda has appealed for a compassionate treatment of people with AIDS. The South African response, however, has met great skepticism. Most of the AIDS cases have been among blacks and homosexuals, 2 groups that have been marginalized by society. Nonetheless, the region has seen a bright note with the formation of the Southern Africa Network of AIDS Service Organization, which is designed to promote cooperation in combating the spread of AIDS. PMID:12284198
Brinkman, William B.; Epstein, Jeffery N.
William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary...
Zoë Matthews; Padmadas, Sabu S; Inge Hutter; Juliet McEachran; Brown, James J.
Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearin...
Ankomah A; Anyanti J; Oladosu M
Augustine Ankomah1, Jennifer Anyanti1, Muyiwa Oladosu21Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2MiraMonitor Consulting Ltd, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: This paper examines myths, misinformation, factual information, and communication about family planning and their effects on contraceptive use in Nigeria.Methods: A nationally representative sample of 20,171 respondents from two waves of a multiround survey (one in 2003 and the other in 2005), was analyzed at the bivariate level using Chi-squ...
Raccurt, C P; Pannier Stockman, C; Eyma, E; Verdier, R I; Totet, A; Pape, J W
Intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major health problems in Haiti. Both entities are known to interact strongly with cell-mediated immunity. The purpose of this study undertaken in Port-au-Prince, Haiti was to evaluate the risk of enteric parasite transmission between HIV-infected patients and family members. Routine examination of stool specimens for parasites was conducted in 90 HIV-infected undergoing treatment for intestinal disorders due mainly to Cryptosporidium sp. (62%) and 123 healthy family member volunteers. A stool sample preserved in 10% formalin solution was examined to detect protozoa (MIF, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Uvibio fluorescence technique, Weber stain) and helminth ova (Bailenger technique). In addition to Cryptosporidium sp., 14 parasitic species were identified: 6 Rhizopoda, 3 Flagellata (including Giardia duodenalis), 1 Coccidia (Cyclospora cayetanensis), 3 Nematoda (mainly Ascaris lumbricoides) and 1 Cestoda (Hymenolepis nana). This is the first time that 5 protozoa, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, E. polecki, Chilomastix mesnili, and Enteromonas hominis, have been reported in Haiti. As expected, enteric parasites were less common in HIV-infected subjects undergoing medical treatment (11.1%) than in uninfected family members (41.5%) (p = 0.0000). Multiple intestinal parasitism (infection by 2 to 4 parasites) was observed in 19.5% of family members. The findings of this study indicate that detecting and treating intestinal parasites in subjects living in close contact with HIV-infected patients as well as informing family members of the importance of personal hygiene in Haiti are highly recommended measures to preserve the health of AIDS patients. PMID:17201290
The estate and tax planning problems that are commonly encountered by private individuals who own mines and minerals situated in Saskatchewan were discussed. The basic concepts of legal ownership of mines and minerals, petroleum and natural gas leases, drilling licenses and spacing regulations were reviewed, followed by a summary of basic estate and tax planning strategies. These strategies emphasized the three fundamental objectives of estate and tax planning for family mineral holdings, namely (1) eliminating estate tax, (2) income splitting to minimize tax payable from year to year, and (3) title consolidation to simplify ownership. The various means by which an 'Estate Freeze' can be effected - sale/transfer to spouse and/or children, trust, incorporation, and subsequent sale of mineral assets to the corporation, and the basic tax planning instruments available to to the family mineral owner also have been addressed
Torres De Leon, Juana Maria
This textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This textbook is designed to strengthen reading and writing skills while teaching basic principles and techniques to improve family health.…
Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise; And Others
This 60-item bibliography, a compilation of abstracts of books, articles, handbooks, conference proceedings, and newsletters published from 1978 through 1989, addresses various aspects of groups, programs and other self-help resources for parents and other family members of people with disabilities. Literature in the first section provides…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both spacing and permanent birth control methods are the need of the hour. The popularity of male sterilization i.e. vasectomy is low compared to female sterilization ( T ubectomy. However, being safe, effective, cheap, and having less surgical complicatio ns no scalpel vasectomy (NSV is emerging as good option. AIMS: To study the various demographic and behavioural factors of NSV acceptors. SETTING & DESIGN: This is institution based retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kolkata during the time period of 1 st April ‘ 2009 to 31 st March’ 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The patients who accepted NSV for family pla nning were analysed with respect to their age, residence, occupation, literacy, number of issues and complications. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were represented as simple proportions or percentages and graphs by using micro soft excel . RESULTS: Out of 13, 0 48 sterilization operations, there were 3737(28.64% vasectomies and 9311(71.36% tubectomies. 67.08% of the couples selected sterilization for contraception. Tubectomies accounted for 2.5 times the vasectomies. The number of NSVs as a percentage of total sterilizations were 28.78% in 2009, rising to 36.96% in 2011 and gradually falling to 21.36% in 2015. Most of the clients (84% were ≥30 years of age. In 2009 - 10, only educated (71%, primary education accepted NSV. However, 74% were illiterate acceptors i n 2014 - 15 and 83% were labourers. In last 2 years the trend is NSV after the 3 rd child. CONCLUSION: NSV is emerging as a socially and culturally acceptable method of contraception in our society.
Kimani, J; C. Warren; Abuya, T; Mutemwa, R.; Integra Initiative, (inc Howard, N; ); Mayhew, S.; Askew, I
Background Enabling women living with HIV to effectively plan whether and when to become pregnant is an essential right; effective prevention of unintended pregnancies is also critical to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality as well as vertical transmission of HIV. The objective of this study is to examine the use of family planning (FP) services by HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Kenya and their ability to achieve their fertility desires. Methods Data are derived from a random samp...
Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D
South African children and adolescents living in HIV/AIDS-affected families are at elevated risk of both symptoms of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Poverty and HIV/AIDS-related stigma are additional risk factors for these negative mental health outcomes. Community level factors, such as poverty and stigma, are difficult to change in the short term and identifying additional potentially malleable mechanisms linking familial HIV/AIDS with mental health is important from an intervention perspective. HIV/AIDS-affected children are also at increased risk of bullying victimization. This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether prospective relationships between familial HIV/AIDS and both anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms operate indirectly via bullying victimization. Adolescents (M = 13.45 years, 56.67 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up one year later (n = 3,401, 96.70 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces, and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Familial HIV/AIDS at baseline assessment was not directly associated with mental health outcomes 1 year later. However, significant indirect effects operating via bullying victimization were obtained for both anxiety and depression scores. Importantly, these effects were independent of poverty, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, and baseline mental health, which highlight bullying victimization as a potential target for future intervention efforts. The implementation and rigorous evaluation of bullying prevention programs in South African communities may improve mental health outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents and this should be a focus of future research and intervention. PMID:24996836
A conference was called in the hope that by applying the knowledge science can give, family planners can improve the form and efficiency of their programs. A summary of the major points made by the participants is presented. Philip Huaser urger employing a full battery of social scientists to do basic research into the theory and methodology of surveys. Michael Young proposed shifting the focus from individual use of contraception to social policies designed to reduce birthrates. Le Bogart commented on the ignorance about the psychological relationship between sexuality and procreation. Brewster Smith suggested a psychological perspective from which to examine questions involved in family planning. Orville Brim, Jr., argued that sociological theorists must learn to work with technologists to develop contraceptive devices and other tools of family planning programs. Richard Bell reported on the physical and mental impairments in children from large families with short birth intervals. Reuben Hill focused on family studies which see man as an initiator in the social process, as opposed to the passive picture painted by demographers. A lively discussion on the use of mass communications in the spread of family planning was ushered in by Daniel Lerner. Dr. Freedman wondered if family planning communications should be designed primarily for education or persuasion, seeing greater numbers of recruits in the former. Cultural innovations from an anthropological point of view were discussed by George Foster, who suggested that people are so pragmatic that they will accept any innovation that meets a need in their lives. Everett Rogers reported on research in the diffusion of agricultural innovations. A discussion on barriers to effective organization was introduced by Nicholas Demarath. PMID:12255222
Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and
Findeis, Jill L; Reddy, Venkateshwar K.
Rural development programmes may facilitate the off-farm employment of low-income farm families and provide additional public suppon beyond traditional US farm income and price support programmes. To examine the implications of alternative rural development strategies for low-income farmers, joint off-farm labour participation models are developed for farm operators and spouses. Univariate and bivariate probit models are estimated. based on 1985 Current Population Survey farm household data. ...
Mukaba, Thibaut; Binanga, Arsene; Fohl, Sarah; Bertrand, Jane T.
Building on expressed support from the Prime Minister to the Ministries of Health and Planning, the country’s new family planning commitment grew out of: (1) recognition of the impact of family planning on maternal mortality and economic development; (2) knowledge sharing of best practices from other African countries; (3) participatory development of a national strategic plan; (4) strong collaboration between stakeholders; (5) effective advocacy by champions including country and internation...
The essential task of family life education is to harmonize the conflict between natural drives and society's restrictions and to direct the individual nature so that it may contribute to personal happiness and advance the society. The reason for introducing sex education in the primary schools is because at that age children are not interested in the emotional or abstract idea of love but how or why sex is necessary to produce a family. This paper, presented to the Family Planning and Population Education Seminar for Teachers, describes a population education syllabus and explains the intentions of the program. For separate boys' and girls' programs 3 topics are covered: 1) puberty changes, 2) emotional and social implications arising out of the changes, and 3) parenthood and family planning. The lessons are intended to provide the young with a healthy approach to sex and enable them to control their emotions and have socially acceptable behavior. In the area of human reproduction, the approach should deal with the biological and psychological aspects, with parenthood and family planning as the central focus. Some approaches which are suggested are: 1) films, 2) relating sex to science lessons, 3) using a story angle, 4) cassette tapes, 5) questionnaires, and 6) news articles. PMID:12338649
Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Kawachi, Ichiro
Scholars and practitioners frequently make recommendations to develop family planning interventions that are "multilevel." Such interventions take explicit account of the role of environments by incorporating multilevel or social-ecological frameworks into their design and implementation. However, research on how interventions have…
Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari
Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…
Cho, Hyunyi; Oehlkers, Peter; Mandelbaum, Juan; Edlund, Karen; Zurek, Melanie
This article focuses on psychosocial barriers to sexual health and their implications on the design and delivery of mass media-based public health campaigns. A family planning campaign that attempted to address barriers to seeking sexual health information and services by promoting positive attitudes toward couple's communication about sexual…
Fiebig, Jennifer Nepper; Braid, Barbara L.; Ross, Patricia A.; Tom, Matthew A.; Prinzo, Cara
A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the associations between the role of acculturation, perception of educational barriers, need for family kin support, vocational planning, and expectations for attaining future vocational goals against the demographic variables (gender, age, being the oldest child, the first to attend…
Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie
Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…
Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.
The authors explore how individual and familial factors predict educational and career aspirations, plans, and vocational outcome expectations of urban, Chinese immigrant youths. Participants were 265 Chinese immigrant high school students in New York City. The results indicated that higher self-reported English language fluency and career-related…
Hess, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Ana Maria
The purpose of this guide is to help families prepare for those times during which their child moves from one environment to another and from one developmental stage to another. The focus of the guide is on the role of assistive technology (AT) during those times--how to consider a child's evolving AT needs, how to identify and address the AT…
Full Text Available This paper attempted to examine the effects of women knowledge on attitude and family planning approval on contraceptive use of married women. The primary data was collected from Narsingdi municipality and the cluster sampling techniques had been adopted for collecting the data. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of factors that haveinfluence on contraceptive use. The result showed that the attitude and knowledge on contraception, and family planningapproval has significant effects on the use of contraceptive. The study also revealed that media exposure significantly effects on family planning approval, increase the positive attitude on contraceptive, and significantly increase the knowledge on contraception and STDs diseases. Women education and mass media can also be considered as potential factors to influence the contraceptive use.
The benefits of various-sized families in Malaysia were discussed by several women and supplemented with official statements on family planning (FP). The Director of the National Population and Family Development, Dr. Raj Karim, advised that maternal health is jeopardized when women have more than five children. About 30% of reproductive age women in Malaysia have five or more children. A Federation of FP Associations spokesperson agreed that women should be advised of the dangers of bearing over five children, of the importance of spacing births two to four years apart, and of the ideal age of childbearing (21-39 years). The government lacks an official policy on family size. The government position is, however, compatible with Islamic teachings on spacing in order to protect the health of the mother and child. Islamic law does not permit sterilization or abortion. The "fatwas" of Islamic teaching may have been misconstrued by those not using any form of contraception. Dr. Karim, who has five children, reported that having a large family can be difficult for a woman with a job, a career, and a husband or when both parents work. Most Malays desire large families. The average Malay family size was 4.1 children in 1990; Malaysian Chinese have fertility of 2.3 children and Malaysian Indians have 2.6 children. People say that the benefits outweigh the hardships of a large family. PMID:12287219
Full Text Available More assertive political leadership in the global response to AIDS in both poor and rich countries culminated in June 2001 at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS. Delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. This points the way to achievable progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Evidence of success in tackling the spread of AIDS comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. It also comes from diverse countries, including India, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. Similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in Brazil and holds great potential for sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. Success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. Work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. Accompanying attention to the conditions for success against HIV/AIDS is global consensus on the need for additional resources. The detailed estimate of required AIDS spending in low- and middle-income countries is US$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. Additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. Commitment and capacity to scale up HIV prevention and care have never been stronger. The moment must be seized to prevent a
Modern reversible contraceptive methods currently approved in Vanuatu are: oral hormonal contraceptives (OCs), the intrauterine device (IUD), and condoms. These are used by about 9% of all women in childbearing age. A study was undertaken to determine profiles of average current modern FP users in order to identify some of the factors influencing FP use and facilitate better program management. FP records from 3 hospitals were reviewed in 1992, and user profiles were constructed in terms of age, parity, and length of use for the OC and the IUD (used nationally by 60% and 3)% of all modern methods users, respectively). The results involving 513 current OC and 438 IUD users showed that 61% of OC and 6% of IUD user groups were aged 22-30 years and had 2 or 3 children. The 1st finding was that few women with just 1 child use either OCs or the IUD; they represent a potentially under-served target group for the FP programs. Service providers could specifically counsel such women and their partner on planned parenthood and through targeted health education material. The 2nd finding was that the average length of use of the IUD was significantly longer than that of OCs. In a country where access to FP services is frequently difficult and having children (even for single women) socially acceptable, the decision to discontinue OCs is often made by default. In contrast, discontinuation of an IUD requires a more active decision to be made, usually to have another child or because of unacceptable side effects. Hence, the significantly shorter length of use of OCs compared to IUDs by FP users. This finding underlines the importance of promoting IUDs among parous women in Vanuatu. The FP user profiles can be valuable for program planners by identifying groups using FP services, and any significant differences in the pattern of use among acceptors. PMID:8356742
Nath, D H; Sapru, R
In 1973-74, NIHAE, an organization established primarily to improve the general administration of health services by imparting inservice training in modern management concepts and techniques to senior health administrators in India, conducted a study to determine the training needs of district level family planning administrators, according to their actual managerial roles and functions and the problems and difficulties they face. 331 district family planning officials were mailed a Blake and Mouton grid questionnaire. 5 major styles located in the 4 corners and the mix point of the grid have been used as the representative managerial styles of 5 major sets of underlying assumptions. The distribution of district family planning administrators in 1973 is based upon a pooled estimate of around 286 of the 331 district family planning officers. Their managerial styles are as follows: 44.2% of the respondents revealed a managerial style that shows a high potential for team management and the ability to generate a climate of mutual interdependence, trust and confidence by integrating organizational purpose with the creation of sound and healthy human relationships; 2) 29.6% showed a style that focuses on the needs of people in an attempt to maintain interpersonal relationships leading to a friendly organizational climate and work tempo; 3) 10.7% represented the task management approach, showing primary concern for performance; 4) 12.2% strove to strike a balance between concern for performance and the human element; and 5) 5.4% of the managers showed a lack of concern for either task performance or human relationships. Although around 50% of the district family planning officers revealed managerial potential, the study findings indicate that individual respondents were dispersed in all the 5 typical styles, irrespective of age. However, the organizational pressures in existing State Health Administrations were by and large tending to make the officers resort to levels of
Full Text Available Background: All the couple have the basic rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so. In developing countries, especially in India where deep rooted belief, customs and superstition regarding pregnancy, child birth, are still widely prevalent and women with poor socioeconomic background are more vulnerable to the health risks associated with child bearing in quick succession. Hence the present study provides excellent opportunities to educate the mother in postnatal ward regarding family planning method and help them to adopt birth spacing in the face of changing circumstances. Objectives: a To assess the knowledge, attitude & practices regarding family planning methods among postnatal mothers. b To educate them to use one of the family planning method. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one month. A total of 162 postnatal mother who were admitted in postnatal general ward of OBG Dept., Shri.BM.Patil medical college constitutes the sample size. After obtaining ethical clearance from the institute, the mothers were interviewed after taking verbal consent. The data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Statistical test like percentage, chi-square test was applied to know the association. Result: In the present study 65.4% of mothers knew about family planning methods. Significant association was found in relation to education (p= 0.000, religion (p= 0.055 and parity (p= 0.01. Conclusion: The literacy level will definitely help to gain the information regarding family planning.
Jia-yuan LIAO; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO
@@ With the mainstreaming being the demand from the people at reproductive age, we systematically analyzed the ideas and ways to implement quality care (QC) in family planning (FP) in Qianjiang, including advocating the conception of quality care, carrying out health education and counseling, strengthening capacity building of service system and reforming measurement of the evaluation and other aspects. The demand-oriented QC in FP has met personalized and verified demands from people of reproductive age satisfactorily, and kept the fertility rate at a lower level while uplifting satisfaction of the public. The demand-oriented QC in FP in Qianjiang county proved to be a successful and great worth practice.
Lauffenburger, Jean-Philippe; Basset, Michel; Coffin, Frank; Gissinger, Gérard
The Navigation Aided Intelligent Cruise Control (N.A.I.C.C.) system acts in the field of the lateral and longitudinal control of a car. This paper only describes the lateral part of this new driver-aid system. Once the vehicle is located on the road, it determines the distance to the next bend and predicts a reference path to negotiate this bend considering the road profile, the vehicle characteristics and the driver's profile. The use of polar curves for the description of a turn eliminates ...
Nordness, Philip D.
A number of recent studies have begun to examine how the wraparound approach is adhered to during family planning meetings in community-based settings. However, no studies have compared wraparound family planning meetings across community-based and school-based settings. The purpose of this study was to examine adherence to the wrap-around process…
Sanford, Timothy R.
The relationship between aid received and activities pursued after college (attending graduate school, career choice, forming a family, and forming personal values) was examined. Results imply that the self-help forms of aid (loans and work) are not detrimental to the future plans of recipients. (Author/LB)
Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
This booklet, written in Spanish, is intended to be used with a set of slides as part of a presentation to students on "How To Apply for Federal Student Aid" ("Como Solicitar la Asistencia Economica Federal para Estudiantes"). The first part of the book is a script based on the slides. After the script is a guide to hosting a financial aid…
St. John, Edward P.
This paper explores the need for a better understanding of the influences of prices and student aid on student enrollment and college budgets. The theory of net price has not been found to adequately explain changes in enrollment. Based on a critical review of recent research on student price response, this paper develops an alternative approach…
B. K. Subhas
Full Text Available This paper highlights an attempt at evolving a computer aided manufacturing system on a personal computer. A case study of an advanced technology jet engine component is included to illustrate various outputs from the system. The proposed system could be an alternate solution to sophisticated and expensive CAD/CAM workstations.
Linsk, Nathan L.; Marder, Reggi E.
This study was conducted to identify efforts by hospital discharge planners to refer clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to nursing homes; to determine the responses of the facilities contacted; and to identify gaps in services, discharge planner practices, and relationships between…
Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) will utilize its internally developed Computer Aided Pictorial Process Planning or CAPPP (pronounced open-quotes cap cubedclose quotes) system to create a paperless manufacturing environment for the Collider Quadruple Magnets (CQM). The CAPPP system consists of networked personal computer hardware and software used to: (1) generate and maintain the documents necessary for product fabrication, (2) communicate the information contained in these documents to the production floor, and (3) obtain quality assurance and manufacturing feedback information from the production floor. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various components of the CAPPP system and explain their applicability to product fabrication, specifically quality assurance functions
During the Joint Conference of African Ministers of Planning and Finance, hosted by the UN Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa on May 6-8, 1999, HIV/AIDS was highlighted as one of the major agendas for development planning. AIDS was considered to have a major impact on the household economy, the private sector, and at the macroeconomic level. Aside from the emotional impact of losing a loved one, the families of deceased HIV-infected individuals suffer an almost 50% reduction of income. This would consequently lead to cutting down on educational expenditures. On the other hand, national economies and private sectors suffer from a decreased purchasing power and loss of competitiveness in the global economy due to illiteracy. Furthermore, 50% of the national budget would be allocated for AIDS treatment, while private companies would experience a 7-20% decrease in profits as a result of high cost of medical treatment. In addition, the reduced pool of skilled labor and high expense of training would eventually bring about a decrease in high quality foreign investment. At the macroeconomic level, AIDS would result in a 1% reduction of gross domestic product growth per capita annually. It was suggested that strong political support, broad institutional participation and carefully selected program intervention, as well as openness about the disease and information dissemination on its cause and spread are deemed effective in the plan of eliminating the spread of the disease. PMID:12349447
Full Text Available : Lower level of community perceptions on family planning still exist in many parts of India. Further there is dearth of state level information for the same. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of family planning among eligible couples. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Hatta, Imphal east, Manipur. Duration: Sept.2007 to August 2008. Participants: Eligible couples. Results: 825 eligible couples participated in the study with a response rate of 99.28%. Mean age at marriage of wives and husbands were 19.12 and 24.14 years (SD±7.179 and 8.491 respectively. Majority of husbands (85.8% and wives (84.6% knew of family planning and media was the main source of information. 54.42% of husbands disapproved family planning (p=0.000 and only 16.73% of the couples were using family planning methods. Main reasons for not adopting family planning methods were family disharmony (19.5%, religious prohibition (17.8% and adverse effects (8.0%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that one year increase in age of wives there was likelihood of having 4% increases in adopting family planning methods. Similarly, occupations of wives other than housewife had 27% and from illiterate to literate 3% more chance of adopting family planning methods. CONCLUSION: Adopting low family planning methods among the eligible couples was mainly due to husband’s disapproval thinking that it may cause family disharmony, religion prohibition and fear of adverse effects. And also other important associated factors were their attitude, education and occupation
Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh
ABSTRACT In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a “pull” system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with
[The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].
Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés
This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. PMID:23541879
Ground, Larry; Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray
Use of knowledge-based planning tools can help alleviate the challenges of planning a complex operation by a coalition of diverse parties in an adversarial environment. We explore these challenges and potential contributions of knowledge-based tools using as an example the CADET system, a knowledge-based tool capable of producing automatically (or with human guidance) battle plans with realistic degree of detail and complexity. In ongoing experiments, it compared favorably with human planners...
De Souza, Roger-Mark
For the many individuals and communities experiencing natural disasters and environmental degradation, building resilience means becoming more proficient at anticipating, preventing, recovering, and rebuilding following negative shocks and stresses. Development practitioners have been working to build this proficiency in vulnerable communities around the world for several decades. This article first examines the meaning of resilience as a component of responding to disasters and some of the key components of building resilience. It then summarises approaches to resilience developed by the Rockefeller and Packard Foundations, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, USAID and DFID, which show how family planning services can contribute to resilience. Next, it gives some examples of how family planning has been integrated into some current environment and development programmes. Finally, it describes how these integrated programmes have succeeded in helping communities to diversify livelihoods, bolster community engagement and resilience, build new governance structures, and position women as agents of change. PMID:24908458
Ostfield, M L; Romocki, L S
The steps in designing and producing effective AIDS prevention educational materials are outlines, using as an example a brochure originated in St. Lucia for clients at STD clinics. The brochure was intended to be read by clients as they waited for their consultation, thus it was targeted to a specific audience delimited by age, sex, language, educational level, religion and associated medical or behavioral characteristics. When researching the audience, it is necessary to learn the medium they best respond to, what they know already, what is their present behavior, how they talk about AIDS, what terms they use, how they perceive the benefits of AIDS prevention behavior, what sources of information they trust. The minimum number of key messages should be selected. Next the most appropriate channel of communication is identified. Mass media are not always best for a target audience, "little media" such as flyers and give-always may be better. The draft is then pre-tested by focus groups and interviews, querying about the text separately, then images, color, format, style. Listen to the way the respondents talk about the draft. Modify the draft and pre-test again. Fine-tune implications of the message for realism in emotional responses, respect, self-esteem, admiration and trust. To achieve wide distribution it is a good idea to involve community leaders to production of the materials, so they will be more likely to take part in the distribution process. PMID:12316892
Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor
This study explores challenges and obstacles in providing effective family planning services to HIV-positive women as described by staff of maternal and child health (MCH) clinics. It draws upon data from a survey of service providers carried out from late 2008 to early 2009 in 52 MCH clinics in southern Mozambique, some with and some without HIV services. In all clinics, surveyed providers reported that practical, financial, and social barriers made it difficult for HIV-positive clients to f...
Shannon Harris,1 Laura Reichenbach,2 Karen Hardee2 1Public Health Consultant, Seattle, WA, USA; 2The Evidence Project, Population Council, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Despite decades of emphasis on quality of care, qualitative research continues to describe incidents of poor quality client–provider interactions in family planning provision. Using an emerging framework on disrespect and abuse (D and A) in maternal health services, we reviewed the global published literature for qu...
Harris S; Reichenbach L; Hardee K
Shannon Harris,1 Laura Reichenbach,2 Karen Hardee2 1Public Health Consultant, Seattle, WA, USA; 2The Evidence Project, Population Council, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Despite decades of emphasis on quality of care, qualitative research continues to describe incidents of poor quality client–provider interactions in family planning provision. Using an emerging framework on disrespect and abuse (D and A) in maternal health services, we reviewed the global published literature for quanti...
Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...
Zhou, Yuanzhong; Xiong, Chengliang; Xiong, Jinwen; Shang, Xuejun; Liu, Guohui; Zhang, Meimei; Yin, Pin
Background Status of premarital sex, unintended pregnancy and associated factors among Chinese graduate students remain unclear. And unmarried graduate students’ needs of family planning services seem to be ignored. In the present study, we ascertained the prevalence rate of premarital sex and unintended pregnancy, as well as estimated the possible factors associated with unintended pregnancy among unmarried Chinese graduate students, and evaluated their reproductive health needs. Methods We ...
Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri
Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake. PMID:27446891
Young Rodney; Rohrer James E
Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Fiv...
Background: Social practices around marital sex and family planning in Indian societies often result in gendered inequities within households, such as husbands’ elevated alcohol use, poor gender equity ideologies, and wives’ intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from husbands. The resulting power imbalance women face may contribute to challenges in contraception use and exclude wives from pregnancy decision-making.Objective: To explore gendered inequities in relation to reproductive h...
Pekerti, R; Musa, R
"Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970
The viewpoint expressed in this article by the executive director of family planning in Guatemala is that Latin American men are interested in family planning. The "machismo" of the past is declining rapidly. Reference is made to studies since the 1970s that show that men are open to family planning and will permit their wives to use contraceptives. Men also, if properly informed and if their fears are dealt with, would accept vasectomy or other male methods. In fact, over 40 million Latin American men may be using condoms, and another 15 million practice periodic abstinence. The experiences of APROFAM in Guatemala have shown that males will accept vasectomy. The APROFAM program provides for presentations made to men in factories and in social groups. Announcements are made during football games. The program was successful in part because men's fears about the quality of services were removed. When services were provided in private by dedicated personnel, the acceptance of vasectomy increased. The program was also successful in bringing couples in together to discuss contraceptive services. The percentage of men who supported the use of contraceptives was greater than expected. It is argued that communication campaigns will continue to play an important role increasing male participation by increasing men's knowledge of methods, reducing men's fears about vasectomy, and reducing men's fears about female methods of contraception. PMID:12179851
Maubleu, S; Chabanas, M; Payan, Y; Boutault, F; Maubleu, Sylvain; Marecaux, Christophe; Chabanas, Matthieu; Payan, Yohan; Boutault, Franck
An optimal planning procedure has been proposed to define the target position of the zygomatic bone following a fracture of the mid-face skeleton. The protocol has been successfully tested on healthy subjects, and ensures the global symmetry of the face could be obtained after the reconstruction surgery. Now that the planning procedure is available, the next step of this project will be to develop an intra-operative guiding system to help the surgeon to follow the planning. This procedure will mainly rely on the intra-operative registration of the zygomatic bone fragment, and the design of specific surgical ancillaries for cranio-maxillofacial surgery.
Yapie, K H
The lack of united legal opinion has become a characteristic of Islam. The Islamic community's views on family planning are therefore diverse, ranging from those who strongly resist it to those who enthusiastically support and promote it. However, in order to smoothly introduce family planning into Indonesia, religious legal support was and remains crucial. Religion, especially Islam, is very important in the lives of Indonesian people. The need for religious support was stated explicitly in the guidelines of the First Five-Year Development Plan, as one of the considerations in carrying out the National Family Planning Program. That program, the first of its kind, was provided by the Legal Affairs Committee of Muhammadiyah in 1968. The major characteristics of the four formal religious decisions on family planning are described, followed by discussion of the current views of some ulama. PMID:12347301
Planning is what sustains an energy system. It is a process of analysis and ongoing decision making about what resources and energy technologies to use when supplying energy to society. This research focuses on integrated energy systems, i.e. systems that are comprised of several energy carriers – electricity, gas, hot water - and energy distribution networks. The planning of these kinds of systems is a complex process, influenced by many factors, among which the most important are the availa...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid population growth does not match with available resource in Ethiopia. Though household level family planning delivery has been put in place, the impact of such programs in densely populated rural areas was not studied. The study aims at measuring contraception and unmet need and identifying its determinants among married women. Methods A total of 5746 married women are interviewed from October to December 2009 in the Butajira Demographic Surveillance Area. Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need with their 95% confidence interval is measured among married women in the Butajira district. The association of background characteristics and family planning use is ascertained using crude and adjusted Odds ratio in logistic regression model. Results Current contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is 25.4% (95% CI: 24.2, 26.5. Unmet need of contraception is 52.4% of which 74.8% was attributed to spacing and the rest for limiting. Reasons for the high unmet need include commodities' insecurity, religion, and complaints related to providers, methods, diet and work load. Contraception is 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7, 3.2 times higher in urbanites compared to rural highlanders. Married women who attained primary and secondary plus level of education have about 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 2 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.9 times more risk to contraception; those with no child death are 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.5 times more likely to use contraceptives compared to counterparts. Besides, the odds of contraception is 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.6 and 1.5 (1.1, 2.0 times more likely among women whose partners completed primary and secondary plus level of education. Women discussing about contraception with partners were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.7 times more likely to use family planning. Nevertheless, contraception was about 2.6 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.2 more likely among married women whose partners supported the use of family planning. Conclusions The local government
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The
Full Text Available The present research article deals with an economic reliability efficient group acceptance sampling plan for time truncated tests which are based on the total number of failures assuming that the life time of a product follows the family for Pareto distribution. This research is proposed when a multiple number of products as a group can be observed simultaneously in a tester. The minimum termination time required for a given group size and acceptance number is determined such that the producer and consumer risks are satisfied for specific standard of quality level, while the number of groups and the number of testers are pre-assumed. Comparison studies are made between the proposed plan and the existing plan on the basis of minimum termination time. Two real examples are also discussed.
Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija
It has been widely documented in patrilocal and strongly patrilineal settings in India that the presence and influence of mothers-in-law in the household may affect fertility decisions made by young couples. However, not much is known about how intra-family relationships per se influence choice of contraceptive method and timing of use. To understand patterns of family planning decision-making, we carried out short, open-ended interviews in rural Madhya Pradesh in 2005 with 60 mothers-in-law, 60 sons and 60 daughters-in-law from the same families. Mothers-in-law were found to have an important influence on family decisions pertaining to activities within the household. They were also likely to influence the number of sons their daughters-in-law had and the timing of their daughters-in-law being sterilised, but they did not seem to have the same authority or influence with regard to decisions on the use of reversible contraceptive methods, which were mainly being made by young couples themselves. The findings show the flexibility and transformability of intra-family interactions, even within a hierarchically-ordered kinship system that is often considered an obstacle to improving reproductive health and gender equity. Given the right information, and availability of and access to reversible methods, young couples in rural Madhya Pradesh are increasingly making contraceptive choices for themselves. PMID:20541094
Garcia, Leila Posenato; Ocké-Reis, Carlos Octávio; de Magalhães, Luís Carlos Garcia; Sant'Anna, Ana Claudia; de Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana
Spending on health insurance represents an important share of private expenditure on health in Brazil. The study aimed to describe the evolution of spending on private health insurance plans of Brazilian families, according to their income. Data from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 were used. To compare the spending figures among the surveys, the Consumer Price Index (IPCA) was applied. The proportion of families with private health insurance expenses remained stable in both surveys (2002-2003 and 2008-2009), around 24%. However, the household spending on health insurance plans increased. Among those families who spent money oh health insurance plans, the average spending increased from R$154.35 to R$183.97. The average spending on health insurance plans was greater with increasing household income, as well as portions of the family income and total expenditure committed to these expenses. Spending on health insurance is concentrated among higher-income families, for which it was the main component of total health expenditure. PMID:26017945
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report
Dudas, Illes; Berta, Miklos; Cser, Istvan
Up-to-date manufacturing equipments of production of rotational parts in small series are lathe-centers and CNC grinding machines with high concentration of manufacturing operations. By the use of these machine tools it can be produced parts with requirements of increased accuracy and surface quality. In the lathe centers, which contain the manufacturing procedures of lathes using stationary tools and of drilling-milling machine tools using rotational tools, non-rotational surfaces of rotational parts can also be produced. The high concentration of manufacturing operations makes necessary the planning and programing of the measuring, monitoring and quality control into the technological process during manufacturing operation. In this way, taking into consideration the technological possibilities of lathe canters, the scope of computer aided technological planning duties significantly increases. It is trivial requirement to give only once the descriptions of the prefabricated parts and ready made parts. Starting taking into account these careful considerations we have been developing the planning system of technology of body of revolution on the base of GTIPROG/EC system which useful for programming of lathe centers. Out paper deals with the results of development and the occurring problems.
Full Text Available Recent stagnation in the reduction of infant mortality in India can arguably be attributed to early child bearing practices and the lack of progress in lengthening birth intervals. Meanwhile, family planning efforts have been particularly successful in the southern states such as Andhra Pradesh, although family limitation is almost exclusively by means of sterilisation at increasingly younger ages. This paper examines the population impact of the unprecedented convergence of early childbearing trajectories in India and quantifies the potential implications stemming from the neglect of strategies that encourage delaying and spacing of births. The effects of adopting a 'later, longer and fewer' family planning strategy are compared with the continuation of fertility concentrated in the younger age groups. Results from the cohort component population projections suggest that a policy encouraging later marriage and birth spacing would achieve a future total population which is about 52 million less in 2050 than if the current early fertility trajectory is continued.
China is facing a baby boom in the next ten years. Now is a perfect time to formulate legislature on family planning (FP) to strengthen the current policy and regulations in order to slow the momentum of excessive population growth. As a result of current economic reform and implementation of the rural household responsibility system, the migrant population has increased tremendously. The fact that millions of rural farmers are shifting to non-agricultural areas created new challenges to the effectiveness of traditional measures of the FP program. Promulgating laws and legislature will facilitate the job of FP. The law should stress the restriction of population growth and encouraging one child per couple. In the rural area it is not feasible to implement the one child policy indiscriminately. Under the policy of one child for a majority of the couples, no third birth is permitted. Local governments should be given the authorization to grant permission for second births for special cases within the birth planning quota. Allowing people living in poor and less developed areas to have more children and granting mothers of handicapped children permission to have an additional child were in fact facilitating the deterioration of the quality of the population. Some current policy in rural income distribution and social welfare was beneficial to large-sized family. Such policies should be changed to give incentives to small-sized families. PMID:12159316
Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...
Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...
Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...
Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...
Full Text Available Background: In order to track progress towards the target of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services of the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, a measure (demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods and a benchmark (at least 75% by 2030 in all countries have been recommended. Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the prospects of reaching the benchmark at the country level. Such information can facilitate strategic planning, including resource allocation at global and country levels. Design: We selected 63 countries based on their status as least developed according to the United Nations or as a priority country in global family planning initiatives. Using United Nations estimates and projections of family planning indicators between 1970 and 2030, we calculated percent demand for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods for each year and country. We then calculated the annual percentage point changes between 2014 and 2030 required to meet the benchmark. The required rates of change were compared to current projections as well as estimates between 1970 and 2010. Results: To reach the benchmark on average across the 63 countries, demand satisfied with modern methods must increase by 2.2 percentage points per year between 2014 and 2030 – more than double current projections. Between 1970 and 2010, such rapid progress was observed in 24 study countries but typically spanning 5–10 years. At currently projected rates, only 9 of the 63 study countries will reach the benchmark. Meanwhile, the gap between projected and required changes is largest in the Central and West African regions, 0.9 and 3.0 percentage points per year, respectively. If the benchmark is achieved, 334 million women across the study countries will use a modern contraceptive method in 2030, compared to 226 million women in 2014. Conclusions: In order to achieve the component of the SDGs
Bonneux, L; Zaadstra, B M; de Beer, J A A
Due to family planning, Dutch women are increasingly having their first child between 25 and 35 years of age. Compared to 13 other EU countries, Dutch women are having fewer children both earlier and later on in life. From 1970 onwards in the Netherlands, the mean age at first childbirth has increased by 5 years to 29.4 years. The main cause for the rising age at first childbirth is the decrease in the number of young mothers. In 2006, 7% of all childbearing women had their first child after the age of 36; this is just 4.7% higher than in 1970. The percentage of women remaining childless by delaying childbearing too long increased by 0.9%. Considering the social and medical problems in later life, it would not be wise to encourage women to have their babies at a young age, certainly not before the age of 23. Women planning a family should take into account the decline in natural fertility after the age of 35; the future mothers of the Netherlands seem to be planning and deciding wisely. PMID:18681359
Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Stulac, Sara N; Barrera, Amy Elizabeth; Mushashi, Christina; Beardslee, William R
In Rwanda, the dual vectors of HIV and legacy of the 1994 genocide have had devastating consequences for children and families. In this and other low-resource settings, extreme poverty, poor access to services, family conflict, and other adversities put children and families affected by HIV/AIDS at increased risk of mental health problems. However, even in the face of tremendous hardship, many children and families demonstrate better than expected outcomes. To design interventions that harness these natural sources of resilience, greater knowledge of local protective processes is needed. This study used free listing exercises (N = 68) and key informant interviews (N = 58) with adults and children (ages 10-17) to investigate strengths and sources of resilience in Rwandan children and families at risk for psychosocial difficulties due to HIV/AIDS. Clinician key informants (N = 10) were also interviewed. Five forms of protective resources emerged through this research: perseverance (kwihangana); self-esteem/self-confidence (kwigirira ikizere); family unity/trust (kwizerana); good parenting (kurera neza) and collective/communal support (ubufasha abaturage batanga). Operating within individual, family, and collective/community systems, these resources support children at multiple ecological levels. Study evidence suggests that these protective processes provide "leverage points" for strengths-based interventions designed to increase resilient outcomes and prevent mental health problems. This information on culturally-appropriate practices for building resilience, along with input from local community advisory boards and the government, has informed the development of a Family Strengthening Intervention, which has broad applications to many forms of adversity and trauma. PMID:21840634
Marcela Agudelo B
Objective: To approach the barriers to providing services of family planning in marginal areas of Iztapalapa and Tlalpan in the Federal District of Mexico City, from the perspective of health providers. Methodology: Qualitative exploration involved through focus groups with healthcare providers, both public and private, further topics such as socio-environmental, unmet needs in sexual and reproductive health (including family planning), relations gender, among others. Results:We found that ...
Niranjan Yadav; Patil, Rajan R.
Background: There are very few studies done among tribes that explore the contribution of changing social norms which influences the acceptance of family planning methods. Objective: To discover various changing traditional social norms that influence tribal people to accept contraceptive methods. Methodology: Ten in-depth interviews were conducted among Toda and Irula tribes of Nilagiri district, Tamil Nadu. Family planning acceptors were interviewed and sampling was purposive to get data ri...
Daniel Grossman; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Maricianah Onono; Steinfeld, Rachel L.; Newmann, Sara J.
This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV ...
Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo
At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.
This paper discribes the importance and necessity of the study on the data structures for displaying the mining field using the interactive technology in open pit design and planning,based upon the grid block model. The commonly used data structures--rectangular array structure and quadtree structure ,are analyzed. Two compressed data structures--compressed circular link array structure and compressed doubly-linked circular array structure,are proposed,which are much more suitable for displaying the regularly gridded block model. When the two compressed data structures are adopted,the storage space can be tremendously saved and the algorithms are simple,while the requirements of the accuracy and the manipulating speed will be both satisfied for the interactive open pit short range plan formulation.
Liu, Shi; Wu, Yu; Wooten, H Omar; Green, Olga; Archer, Brent; Li, Harold; Yang, Deshan
A software tool is developed, given a new treatment plan, to predict treatment delivery time for radiation therapy (RT) treatments of patients on ViewRay magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) delivery system. This tool is necessary for managing patient treatment scheduling in our clinic. The predicted treatment delivery time and the assessment of plan complexities could also be useful to aid treatment planning. A patient's total treatment delivery time, not including time required for localization, is modeled as the sum of four components: 1) the treatment initialization time; 2) the total beam-on time; 3) the gantry rotation time; and 4) the multileaf collimator (MLC) motion time. Each of the four components is predicted separately. The total beam-on time can be calculated using both the planned beam-on time and the decay-corrected dose rate. To predict the remain-ing components, we retrospectively analyzed the patient treatment delivery record files. The initialization time is demonstrated to be random since it depends on the final gantry angle of the previous treatment. Based on modeling the relationships between the gantry rotation angles and the corresponding rotation time, linear regression is applied to predict the gantry rotation time. The MLC motion time is calculated using the leaves delay modeling method and the leaf motion speed. A quantitative analysis was performed to understand the correlation between the total treatment time and the plan complexity. The proposed algorithm is able to predict the ViewRay treatment delivery time with the average prediction error 0.22min or 1.82%, and the maximal prediction error 0.89 min or 7.88%. The analysis has shown the correlation between the plan modulation (PM) factor and the total treatment delivery time, as well as the treatment delivery duty cycle. A possibility has been identified to significantly reduce MLC motion time by optimizing the positions of closed MLC pairs. The accuracy of
Daniell, K.A.; Ferrand, N.; Tsoukiàs, A.
Many current water resources management and planning problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty and conflict; so-called unstructured (Kolkman et al. 2005) or messy (Ackoff, 1974) problems. These problems, which used to remain the domain of technical water managers, are increasingly entering the public policy sphere as conflicts between water users and interest groups proliferate and add a previously over-looked social dimension. The realisation that there is a need to co...
During December 20-21, 2004, the UNFPA/China reproductive health and family planning project held a workshop to discuss HIV/AIDS prevention strategy and planning in Beijing. The workshop was attended by more than 50 experts from home and abroad as well as project managers, including UNAIDS representative Joel Rehnstrom and NPFPC Vice Minister Zhao Baige.
Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)
Shiva Raj Mishra
Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.
Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad R.; Restrepo-Méndez, María C.; Wong, Kerry L. M.; Victora, Cesar G.
Background Contraception is one of the most important health interventions currently available and yet, many women and couples still do not have reliable access to modern contraceptives. The best indicator for monitoring family planning is the proportion of women using contraception among those who need it. This indicator is frequently called demand for family planning satisfied and we argue that it should be called family planning coverage (FPC). This indicator is complex to calculate and requires a considerable number of questions to be included in a household survey. Objectives We propose a model that can predict FPC from a much simpler indicator – contraceptive use prevalence – for situations where it cannot be derived directly. Design Using 197 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys from 82 countries, we explored least-squares regression models that could be used to predict FPC. Non-linearity was expected in this situation and we used a fractional polynomial approach to find the best fitting model. We also explored the effect of calendar time and of wealth on the models explored. Results Given the high correlation between the variables involved in FPC, we managed to derive a relatively simple model that depends only on contraceptive use prevalence but explains 95% of the variability of the outcome, with high precision for the estimated regression line. We also show that the relationship between the two variables has not changed with time. A concordance analysis showed agreement between observed and fitted results within a range of ±9 percentage points. Conclusions We show that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of FPC using only contraceptive prevalence as a predictor, a strategy that is useful in situations where it is not possible to estimate FPC directly. PMID:26562141
涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生
Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10～ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.
L. van Gelderen
From the studies in this dissertation, it can be concluded that adolescents in planned lesbian families do not differ in terms of their perceived quality of life and exhibit less problem behavior than adolescents in matched heterosexual families. Some adolescents experienced negative reactions from
The basic elements of a successful family planning (FP) program are variable between countries. Providing better access to modern contraceptives, access to general and reproductive health care, and increasing economic and educational opportunities contribute to reducing fertility rates. Effective distribution is constrained by rural, isolated populations and cultural attitudes. Indonesia has used floating clinics located on boats to reach inaccessible areas; Norplant and hormonal injection availability also contribute to the 53% contraceptive prevalence rate. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has shipped bicycles to developing countries. The result has been improved status among peers and greater program success. Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) have been successful in some countries to distribute contraceptives through local channels such as shops and stalls; people seem willing to pay also. CSM has been successful in Egypt in increasing condom sales. IUD use increased from 11% to 42% between 1975-88 with CSM. Multimedia promotion that is carefully researched and targeted is another way to increase contraceptive prevalence (CP) rates. A Brazilian multimedia vasectomy campaign led to an 80% monthly increase in Pro-Pater male health clinics. 240,000 women in Turkey were encouraged through multimedia efforts to switch to modern methods. In Zimbabwe, men have been the target of efforts to educate them about the advantages of small families. Women are recruited to implement FP services in INdia and in poor neighborhoods; an increase from 12% to 61% was achieved. Highly motivated workers with a respect for the community's values is essential to any successful FP program as is government support. China's policy has drawn criticism; China has welcomed a UN program which provides financial motivation. Thailand has been successful due to the commitment between public and private sectors; in 17 years CP rose from 10% to
The vision of sustainable development entails new and complex planning situations, confronting local policy makers with changing political conditions, different content in decision making and planning and new working methods. Moreover, the call for sustainable development has been a major driving force towards an increasingly multi-stakeholder planning system. This situation requires competence in working in, and managing, groups of actors, including not only experts and project owners but also other categories of stakeholders. Among other qualities, such competence requires a working strategy aimed at integrating various, and sometimes incommensurable, forms of knowledge to construct a relevant and valid knowledge base prior to decision making. Consequently, there lies great potential in methods that facilitate the evaluation of strategies for infrastructural development across multiple knowledge areas, so-called multi-criteria decision aids (MCDAs). In the present article, observations from six case studies are discussed, where the common denominators are infrastructural planning, multi-stakeholder participation and the use of MCDAs as interactive decision support. Three MCDAs are discussed - NAIADE, SCA and STRAD - with an emphasis on how they function in their procedural context. Accordingly, this is not an analysis of MCDA algorithms, of software programming aspects or of MCDAs as context-independent 'decision machines'-the focus is on MCDAs as actor systems, not as expert systems. The analysis is carried out across four main themes: (a) symmetrical management of different forms of knowledge; (b) management of heterogeneity, pluralism and conflict; (c) functionality and ease of use; and (d) transparency and trust. It shows that STRAD, by far, seems to be the most useful MCDA in interactive settings. NAIADE and SCA are roughly equivalent but have their strengths and weaknesses in different areas. Moreover, it was found that some MCDA issues require further
The US Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee has advanced a health care reform plan that includes stronger and more complete coverage of reproductive health care than any other major proposal. It is likely to spark debates over coverage of abortion services, however. The Labor and Human Resources' health care reform plan (the Kennedy plan) expands the definition of family planning services to include counseling and education and coverage of contraceptive drugs and devices. The lack of specificity of coverage of prescription drugs in the Clinton plan worried reproductive health advocates. The Kennedy plan addresses contraceptive drugs and devices under the category family planning services, which, in essence, does not make them subject to the separate deductible. It also exempts all family planning services from any deductibles or copayments. The Kennedy plan refers to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) rather than calling them fertility related infectious illnesses as the Clinton plan does. The Kennedy plan would include syphilis. Both plans cover annual exams for women at risk of STDs. The Kennedy plan covers pap smears or pelvic exam every two years, while the interval of the Clinton plan is three years. No one challenged any of the above provisions during the first round of committee markups. There is likely to be no challenges after the 1994 Memorial Day recess. One was surprised that no challenges materialized over the provision for school-related health education and services. The committee approved this provision by a vote of 17-0. Even the antiabortion supporter did not object to it. The major challenge awaiting the committee after the Memorial Day recess is abortion. The Kennedy plan does not specifically include abortion but is intimated under the category of services for pregnant women. Antiabortion amendments are expected. It is unlikely this committee or any other committee will reach a consensus over the overall shape of a reform plan. PMID
Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed
Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural
Adedini, Sunday Adepoju; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice Ntwala; Ononokpono, Dorothy Ngozi
ABSTRACT There are gaps in evidence on whether unmet need for family planning has any implication for under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the effect of unmet need on under-five mortality. Cox regression analysis was performed on 28,647 children born by a nationally-representative sample of 18,028 women within the five years preceding the survey. Findings indicated elevated risks of under-five death for children whose ...
Ryder, R E
During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...
Full Text Available Despite the centrality of religion and fertility to life in rural Africa, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. The study presented here uses unique integrated individual- and congregational-level data from rural Malawi to examine religious influences on contraceptive use. In this religiously diverse population, we find evidence that the particular characteristics of a congregation-leader's positive attitudes toward family planning and discussion of sexual morality, which do not fall along broad denominational lines-are more relevant than denominational categories for predicting women's contraceptive use. We further find evidence for a relationship between religious socialization and contraceptive behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate forecasting of emergency department (ED attendances can be a valuable tool for micro and macro level planning. Methods Data for analysis was the counts of daily patient attendances at the ED of an acute care regional general hospital from July 2005 to Mar 2008. Patients were stratified into three acuity categories; i.e. P1, P2 and P3, with P1 being the most acute and P3 being the least acute. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA method was separately applied to each of the three acuity categories and total patient attendances. Independent variables included in the model were public holiday (yes or no, ambient air quality measured by pollution standard index (PSI, daily ambient average temperature and daily relative humidity. The seasonal components of weekly and yearly periodicities in the time series of daily attendances were also studied. Univariate analysis by t-tests and multivariate time series analysis were carried out in SPSS version 15. Results By time series analyses, P1 attendances did not show any weekly or yearly periodicity and was only predicted by ambient air quality of PSI > 50. P2 and total attendances showed weekly periodicities, and were also significantly predicted by public holiday. P3 attendances were significantly correlated with day of the week, month of the year, public holiday, and ambient air quality of PSI > 50. After applying the developed models to validate the forecast, the MAPE of prediction by the models were 16.8%, 6.7%, 8.6% and 4.8% for P1, P2, P3 and total attendances, respectively. The models were able to account for most of the significant autocorrelations present in the data. Conclusion Time series analysis has been shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for predicting emergency department workload that can be used to plan staff roster and resource planning.
Miller, Christopher A.; Levi, Keith R.; Druhan, Barry; Shalin, Valerie L.
DARPA and Lockheed's Pilot's Associate (PA) represents one of the largest and most complex artificially intelligent systems constructed to date. Its architecture of five modular, cooperative expert systems posses a knowledge engineering problem unique in its scope, though not in its basic nature. The knowledge bases for each of PA's modules will be very large, constantly changing (in response to new tactics and new technological capabilities), and highly specialized for the task of the specific module. For efficiency, each module must contain only that knowledge necessary for its task, yet for cooperation, each system's knowledge must be consistent with the others'. Machine learning approaches hold the promise of greatly reducing knowledge acquisition and knowledge engineering time and of making the entire PA system more flexible, more accurate, and more consistent. We present the results of a three-year program investigating an Explanation-Based Learning approach to acquiring new plans from a simulator-based learning scenario and then propagating this knowledge to two of the five PA modules--as a tactical plan which focuses on changing world states for the Tactics Planner module, and as a list of pilot information needs for the dynamic display configuration algorithm used in the Pilot-Vehicle Interface module.
King, Michael; Jones, Louise; Vickestaff, Victoria; Sampson, Elizabeth L.
= -0.52; CPR, k = -0.07; PABAK = -0.45; tube feeding; k = 0.20; PABAK = -0.22). However, both PWD and carers showed marked uncertainty about their preferences for end of life treatment choices. Relationship quality, carer distress and burden had no influence on agreement. Conclusions This study is the first to have used the LSPQ with PWD in the UK to consider treatment options in hypothetical illness scenarios. Key finding are that family carers had a low to moderate agreement with PWD on preferences for end of life treatment. This underscores how planning for care at the end of life is beset with uncertainty, even when the carer and PWD perceive the care-giving/receiving relationship is good. Families affected by dementia may benefit from early and ongoing practical and emotional support to prepare for potential changes and aid decision making in the context of the realities of care towards the end of life. PMID:27410259
Moliner Tena, M A; Moliner Tena, J
183 women attending the family planning clinic in Burriana, Castellon, were interviewed for this survey of the perceived quality of family planning services. The anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was adapted from two existing questionnaires, SERVQUAL and SERVPERF, developed for commercial marketing. Attitudes were measured using a 7-part Likert type scale. The first 20 items referred to different aspects of quality, the second 4 measured satisfaction, total quality, the importance of the service, and reported use, and the final 6 examined respondent characteristics. 28 incompletely completed questionnaires were eliminated, leaving 155. The results indicate that perceived quality and client satisfaction were both high. Using factorial analysis of principal components, 6 factors were identified that explained 63.3% of the variance. The components were high personal attention of services, limited bureaucracy, modern facilities and equipment, professionalism and competence of the staff, accessibility and easy transportation, and reputation and layout. The Cronbach alpha coefficients, which measure internal consistency, were not acceptable for 3 factors. The overall results suggest that marketing tools can be adapted to the needs of health services. PMID:8672645
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Union Health Minister Karan Singh have declared on numerous occasions that no coercion was employed in implementing the family planning programs in the country. The Prime Minister denied that government employees were refused promotions or raises unless they accepted sterilization. She said a "harsh attitude" is necessary to underscore the importance of the family planning program, and although there may have been some overzealous workers, the complaints brought to her were baseless. The Prime Minister assured the Lok Sabha that cases of harassment will be investigated, and felt that it would be accomplished best if political parties did not take advantage of the situation and people did not take matters into their own hands. Dr. Singh has written letters to the Chief Ministers of all states asking them to make sure that coercion was not used. He felt that some "gentle and civilized pressure" might be inevitable in order to be successful in a diverse country, and that efforts to distort the program on religious grounds would be sternly met. PMID:12277574
Rohrer, James E; Young, Rodney
Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11), but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively). Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332). Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status. PMID:15176984
Full Text Available Abstract Background The independent effects of stress on the health of primary care patients might be different for different types of clinic populations. This study examines these relationships in a low-income female population of patients attending a family planning clinic. Methods This study investigated the relevance of different sources of personal stress and social support to self-rated health, adjusting for mental health, health behavior and demographic characteristics of subjects. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 345 completed the form for a response rate of 72 percent. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that liking oneself was related to good self-rated health (Odds ratio = 7.11, but stress or support from children, parents, friends, churches or spouses were not significant. White non-Hispanic and non-white non-Hispanic respondents had lower odds of reporting good self-rated health than Hispanic respondents (odds ratios were 2.87 and 2.81, respectively. Exercising five or more days per week also was related to good self-rated health. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, and obese III were negatively related to good self-rated health (odds ratios were .19 and .22, respectively with corresponding p-values equal to .0043 and .0332. Conclusions Among younger low-income women, addressing low self-esteem might improve health status.
Full Text Available The excavation of the Late Roman and Anglian settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, has been one of the largest excavations undertaken in England in the last twenty years. It has been the setting for a number of developments and experiments in the application of 'the new technology' to field archaeology. Parts of the site, which extended over c.20 Ha., proved to have high magnetic susceptibility and were ideally suited for magnetic prospection techniques. Feature visibility contrasts were, however, frequently low and therefore a series of experiments were undertaken using high resolution fluxgate gradiometer surveys following removal of the topsoil. The results of the high resolution surveys undertaken on the cleaned excavation surface proved highly successful in providing an enhanced pre-excavation plan, adding considerable detail to the surveys undertaken prior to the start of the excavation. The careful examination of the results, using G-Sys geographic data management software, which enabled the magnetic data, finds plots and digitised plans to be fully integrated, indicated areas where stratigraphic relationships could be tested and assisted in the development and re-definition of the excavation strategy as it progressed. Following initial small area tests in 1991, nearly two hectares were documented in this way during 1995 facilitating the completion of a targeted sampling operation which ensured the completion of the excavation within the limited budget available. The approach proved highly successful and offers great potential for use on sites which have a high magnetic susceptibility and are liable to large area destruction as occurs in the case of mineral extraction or subsoil ploughing operations.
The family planning movement within the African Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Le mouvement pour la planification familiale dans la Region Afrique de la Federation Internationale pour la Planification Familiale.
Sozi, M K
The African Region of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was established in 1971 to: encourage and sustain voluntary groups, provide information about family planning as a basic right, provide limited family planning services where acceptable and needed, and eventually influence change in public opinion so that governments could accept some responsibility for family planning programs. Today almost all of Anglophone Africa is covered by IPPF-funded activities, progress is being made in Francophone Africa, and Lusophone Africa is a target for the 1980s. National family planning associations and the IPPF have laid a firm foundation for family planning and raised its credibility to acceptable levels. However, both inadequate logistic infrastructures for the smooth flow of services and overcaution in adopting innovative methods such as community-based delivery systems to those not easily reached by coventional delivery systems have led service to lag behind demand. Leaders at all levels must join efforts to solve this dilemma. Family planning associations are the best suited channels for family planning work in the African Region, but they lack the capacity to cover all needs. As a result, these associations are shiftingg their efforts toward supplementing government work in this area. Although the government response has been far from uniform, governments have shown an ability to accommodate the operations of family planning organizations and have integrated family planning into national health services. Although 19 governments in the Region consider the fertility levels in their countries to be satisfactory and a few consider fertility too low, family planning is accepted as an instrument for the promotion of family welfare. The importance of national leadership in promoting and implementing family planning programs is increasingly recognized. Parliamentarians can formulate national policies favorable to family planning, promote awareness among their
William B Brinkman
Full Text Available William B Brinkman, Jeffery N EpsteinDepartment of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USABackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common condition that often results in child and family functional impairments. Although there are evidence-based treatment modalities available, implementation of and persistence with treatment plans vary with patients. Family preferences also vary and may contribute to variability in treatment utilization.Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the evidence-based treatments available for ADHD, identify patterns of use for each modality, and examine patient and parent treatment preferences.Method: Literature review.Results: Treatment options differ on benefits and risks/costs. Therefore, treatment decisions are preference sensitive and depend on how an informed patient/parent values the tradeoffs between options. Literature on patient and parent ADHD treatment preferences is based on quantitative research assessing the construct of treatment acceptability and qualitative and quantitative research that assesses preferences from a broader perspective. After a child is diagnosed with ADHD, a variety of factors influence the initial selection of treatment modalities that are utilized. Initial parent and child preferences are shaped by their beliefs about the nature of the child's problems and by information (and misinformation received from a variety of sources, including social networks, the media, and health care providers. Subsequently, preferences become further informed by personal experience with various treatment modalities. Over time, treatment plans are revisited and revised as families work with their health care team to establish a treatment plan that helps their child achieve goals while minimizing harms and costs.Conclusions: Studies have not been able to determine the extent to which
Longwe, Abiba; Smits, Jeroen
We study how the availability and use of family planning services in African countries influences the family planning situation of households and through this the educational participation of young children. A district panel dataset is used for 441 urban and rural areas within 233 districts of 25 countries. Path analysis shows that a decrease in the number of births is associated with an increase in educational participation in the area. The number of births is negatively associated with acceptance, knowledge and actual use of contraceptives in the area. As reversed causality and selection bias seem unlikely, the identified relationship probably is at least partially causal. Hence, investments in family planning services in poor areas are not only important because they allow women to plan their births better, but also because they may lead to higher primary enrolment rates and thus contribute to the region's future economic growth. PMID:24069749
Rohland Barbara M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of obesity in primary care populations has not been thoroughly explored. This study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the relationship between obesity and different sources of personal stress, mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Five hundred women who attended family planning clinics were surveyed and 274 provided completed answers to all of the questions analyzed in this study. Exercise, self-rated mental health, stress, social support, and demographic variables were included in the survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results After adjusting for mental health, exercise, and demographic characteristics of subjects, analysis of the data indicated that that being having a large family and receiving no support from parents were related to obesity in this relatively young low-income primary care sample, but self-reported stress and most types of social support were not significant. Conclusion Obesity control programs in primary care centers directed at low-income women should target women who have large families and who are not receiving support from their parents.
Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625
Cheng, Eric C. K.
This article aims to examine the predictive relationships of self-evaluation capacity and staff competency on the effect of strategic planning in aided secondary schools in Hong Kong. A quantitative questionnaire survey was compiled to collect data from principals of the participating schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests…
Leonara Maria Souza da Silva
Full Text Available The study of HIV transmission and the implementation of AIDS prevention actions recognize the importance of social networks in the transmission of the disease, the adherence to treatment and the quality of life of those infected. For this relevance there was a review of articles on social support networks to people living with HIV /AIDS available in the Virtual Health Library (VHL were published in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. In this study 31 articles were used from journals covering the following áreas: Nursing (n = 15, Psychology (n = 6 and Science Health / Biomedica (n = 6, were included, which some principal authors were affiliated to higher education public institutions (n = 17. In relation to the methodology used, priority wasgiven to conducting: qualitative research (n = 18, cross-sectional studies (n = 19 and studies that involved talking to people living with HIV/AIDS (n = 13. Particular importance was placed on analytic categories related to: adherence to treatment (n = 6, the family (n = 4, vulnerability (n = 3 and support from social networks (n = 5. Within this paper we argue for more investments into studies that focus on the family, carers and their households, as well as deepening the theoretical study of the themes discussed and the use of developed theories for the analysis of Social Networks.
da Silva, Leonara Maria Souza; Tavares, Jeane Saskya Campos
The study of HIV transmission and the implementation of AIDS prevention actions recognize the importance of social networks in the transmission of the disease, the adherence to treatment and the quality of life of those infected. For this relevance there was a review of articles on social support networks to people living with HIV /AIDS available in the Virtual Health Library (VHL) were published in Brazil between 2002 and 2012. In this study 31 articles were used from journals covering the following áreas: Nursing (n = 15), Psychology (n = 6) and Science Health / Biomedica (n = 6), were included, which some principal authors were affiliated to higher education public institutions (n = 17). In relation to the methodology used, priority wasgiven to conducting: qualitative research (n = 18), cross-sectional studies (n = 19) and studies that involved talking to people living with HIV/AIDS (n = 13). Particular importance was placed on analytic categories related to: adherence to treatment (n = 6), the family (n = 4), vulnerability (n = 3) and support from social networks (n = 5). Within this paper we argue for more investments into studies that focus on the family, carers and their households, as well as deepening the theoretical study of the themes discussed and the use of developed theories for the analysis of Social Networks. PMID:25923622
Thompson Sandra C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%. However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52% than females (25% who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046, or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000, not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000, and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025. Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing
Manuel R. Borges Neto
Full Text Available Este trabalho traz o desenvolvimento de ferramenta computacional de auxílio ao planejamento energético na eletrificação rural, tendo como referência os principais softwares disponíveis no mercado mundial e citados na literatura científica. Após identificar as principais limitações dos mesmos, obteve-se um produto em português, que compara a extensão da rede convencional de energia elétrica às principais modalidades de geração elétrica de pequeno porte em uso no Brasil. Traz a inovação do dimensionamento e do uso da geração de energia elétrica a partir da produção de biogás no local. Para validação do programa, foram comparados os resultados obtidos pela mesma em dois estudos de casos reais de eletrificação rural.This paper brings the development of a computational tool to help the energy planning in rural electrification areas by using the main software available on the world market or cited in scientific literature, as in the reference. After identifying its main limitations, a product in Portuguese was obtained, which compares the extension of conventional electric grid to the main small size renewable energy sources under use in Brazil. It also brings the innovation in the dimensioning and in the use of electric energy generation by the local biogas production. For the program validation, the results obtained by the tool were compared in two real study cases of rural electrification.
Koshy, L M
The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Medical Termination of Pregnancy was legalized in India in 1971 with an intention to reduce maternal morbidity & mortality and to reduce the social stigma attached with it. However the clause of performing MTP in the event of “Failure of Contraception” provides a scope to almost everyone for getting an MTP done & its consequent misuse. OBJECTIVES: To study the follo wing attributes in the acceptors of family Planning with respect to MTP: Age of female, Monthly Income, Education status, Number of issues, & Age of last child. METHODOLOGY: Record Based Study which was conducted in the maternity home attached to the urban health center of the college. The records of 683 women who attended this Maternity Home for adoption of Family Planning in the form of either Copper T or Tubal Ligation, in the years 2010 & 2011 were analysed. RESULTS: out of 683 Family Planning acceptors , 272 (40% had accepted it after getting MTP. A majority of women who underwent MTP were in the age group of 25 - 34. Monthly Income, Age of last child & number of live issues were factors associated with MTP acceptance while education of the couple wasn’t associated. Conclusions: MTP is being used as a method of contraception which represents the unmet need of family planning that needs to be brought down. KEYWORDS : MTP; Unmet need; family planning.
Maryam NASR ISFAHANI
Full Text Available Introduction: Population growth and its difficulties is one of the most important health problems in the world especially in developing countries. so the studies in this field are necessary and useful in IRAN. This study was done to find out the workers population specificities and their opinion about family planning programs. Methods: This descriptive study was held in the factories with more than 1000 workers in 1375. nearly 10 percent of the workers were chosen from 7 factories through the systematic random sampling The sample was about 1096 workers. They answered to multiple choise questionnaire during 3 months and the data were analysed by the descriptive statistical methods and also x2 and pierson correlation tests. Results: Most of workers (80 percent were under 40 years old and 0.5 percent were single and others were married. The illiterates were 6 percent and about 82 percent were studied 8 grades and less. The mean of the number of their children was 3.7 and 33 percent had 5 children or more. The family planning methods were used by them as follows: Tubal ligation and Vasectomy 32 percent, Natural methods 22.3 percent, OCP 19.8 percent, Candom 11.1 percent, IUD 10 percent and Lactation as a method 0.53 percent. About 4.2 percent had used more than one birth control method. Disussion: Result showed that there was a reverse correlation between the age of marriage and number of existing children (P < 0.001 and also between the literacy status and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.001 there was relation between the age of the workers and the opinion about the number of children (P < 0.01. the reverse correlation between the literacy status and the number of existing children was stables even after the control of the age rariable as a confonder. Study of birth control methods shows that the use of family planning method is different between the groups with different literacy levels.
Nsengimana, D; Ndinkabandi, E
An important objective of Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) is to study psychosocial and cultural variables that encourage or impede family planning use and to define effective communication strategies based on them that can be carried out by ONAPO promoters. The definition and measurement of such variables are discussed in terms of theories of attitude changes and communication. Attitude is a hypothetical construction inferred from opinions and expressive behavior. The concept of attitude has 3 dimensions, the cognitive-evaluative, the affective-emotional, and the behavioral. The affective-emotional dimension is considered the most important by many theoreticians of attitude change. A basic characteristic of attitudes is stability. Communication theory furnishes a model for processes of attitude change, which postulates a source or emitter sending elements of information or messages to a recipient. Feedback from the recipient to the sender allows the efficacy of the message to be assessed and permits the sender to adjust actions until the objective is attained. Feedback is always possible in interpersonal communications between individuals in permanent contact, but becomes more difficult in mass communication. Among the many variables intervening in the formation or change of attitudes toward family planning are sex, age, residence, education, occupation, religion, marital status, and fertility. The psychosocial variables influencing family planning acceptance are at the level of the source, the message, and the recipient. 3 important factors at the level of the source are the credibility, attractiveness, and power or prestige of the source. The message should contain a suggestion that the desired behavior should be adopted and should follow a certain order in presenting information. Factors at the level of the receptor include susceptibility to persuasion, the way in which the message affects the recipient's needs, the selectivity necessary in
Full Text Available Background: Small families adopting family planning are usually considered happy families. They are expected to lead a better qualitative life. Quality-of-life (QOL is routinely assessed for knowing patients′ health status. Recently, the QOL concept has become increasingly popular for evaluating the impact of public health interventions. Hitherto, QOL is usually assessed by means of program achievements or indicators, which may sometimes be misleading. Hence, the new culture of QOL assessment by means of user perspectives is now becoming popular. Research Questions: 1 Is the quality-of-life of family planning (FP adopters better than that of non-FP adopters? 2 Are the user perspectives helpful in QOL assessment? Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 50 FP adopting families and 50 non-FP adopting families from the village of Vutoor and the city of Karimnagar in Andhra Pradesh. Sampling Methods: Random sampling, Proportions and Chi square test. Results: Program perspectives revealed a better standard of living for FP adopters because they have amenities like housing, television, and vehicles and less mortality and morbidity ( P < 0.001. However, they lack positive feelings towards life, general adaptation, personal relationships, and leisure opportunities. Finally, self-assessment by FP adopters themselves revealed no significant increase in their qualitative life after family planning ( P = 0.05. Conclusions: While assessing the impact of a health program on quality-of-life, multiple methods of assessments including user perspectives are better than program indicators alone.
The 1989 "Amsterdam Declaration," one of the first documents to refer explicitly to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the context of population policy, stressed the need for attention to the interrelationships among sexually transmitted disease control (including AIDS), maternal and child health, family planning, and population education and information activities. As of 1989, half of the Member States of the United Nations had identified AIDS as a major priority for mortality policy and over 80% had adopted specific measures to control the further spread of the AIDS epidemic. Demographers have long been aware that natural and man-made disasters such as plagues, smallpox, famine, and earthquakes can alter the birth-death equation. However, none of the mathematical models developed to forecast population trends over the short, medium, and long-term allows for the high incidence of mortality that AIDS is currently creating in many regions and countries. At present, there are 700,000 reported cases of AIDs worldwide, but this statistic is certainly an underestimate. PMID:12316751
Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D
This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children. PMID:2289541
An International Forum on Population and Development was held during, September 7-9 in Wuhan, capital city of central China's Hubei Province, to mark the lOth anniversary of both the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Partners in Population and Development (PPD). Jointly organized by PPD, the National Population and Family Planning, Commission of China and the Population, Resources and Environment Committee and Foreign Affairs Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the forum was attended by about 400 participants front member countries of the Partners, international organizations, NGOs and donor institutions. Following is a full text of the cottntry report submitted by China to the conference.
After stating the general principles supporting energy planning models, we classify them in order to identify the MARKAL family of models. The purpose of MARKAL is to optimise the energy system in the medium term, with a clear description of technologies used. Through the simplified example of the French electricity sector, we will illustrate the potentials of that tool and provide technical elements to understand how the MARKAL models are an interesting opportunity for orientating industries and decision-makers in their energy strategy choices, at regional, national and international levels. It is that prospect that a study of the use of the MARKAL models in France was initiated at the Centre de Mathematiques Appliquees of the Ecole des Mines de Paris in January 2003, with the support of the Institut Francais de l'Energie and in cooperation with the Centre de Recherches en Economie et Droit de l'Energie of the Economic Sciences School of Montpellier 1. (authors)
Objective: To determine the clinical value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation. Methods: Under the guidance of ultrasound monitoring, 522 cases with high risk and difficult uterine operation were undertaken in our department. Results: The abdominal endoscopic contraceptive uterine operation under real time ultrasound monitoring was carried out for 522 cases in 4 years, with successful rates for high risk pregnancy as 287/289 cases, high risk troublesome withdrawal of contraceptive ring as 129/130 cases and puzzling uterine operation as 103/103 cases. The total successful rate reached 99.42%, without uterine rupture and other complications. Conclusion: The former complex, blind and difficult uterine operations turn to be simple, safe and reliable under the guidance of real time ultrasound. (authors)
Barbara Elyan Edwige Vololonarivelo
Full Text Available Background: Recorded contraceptive prevalence may not represent all the women using contraceptives. Nevertheless, it serves as a fundamental tool in decision-making at Ministry and international level. This study aims to determine the actual contraceptive prevalence and identify factors determining users positions about modern contraception and local services deliveries in the district of Antananarivo Avaradrano. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, where an interviewer-administered questionnaire has been used to collect data. Targeted female respondents aged 18-39 were asked about their contraceptive use, knowledge and information sources on family planning, perception of social support and perception on the local health care providers. Results: Contraceptive prevalence is underestimated. Moreover, it is higher among women aged 35 to 39 and those having two children or more, but lower among those who have reached university level of education. Women who are able to tell two benefits of family planning, informed by the community health agents (CHA, and deciding with their partners on contraception use are more likely to use contraceptives on a regular basis. Women complain on their poor relationship with health care providers and doubt about their real competence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the evidence of an underestimation of contraceptive prevalence. The challenge is how to collect reliable data, thus recording systems have to be improved. Besides, government efforts in increasing contraceptive use ought to be targeted on adolescents and young people aged 20-25, the couple itself, health-care provider woman relationship, and on the CHAs activities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 204-211
Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming
This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China. PMID:21465720
Gebreeyesus Hadera, H; Boer, H; Kuiper, W A J M
Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To date, little attention has been given to the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS and about their preferences for HIV/AIDS curriculum design options. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of the motivation of youth to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention and to assess their curriculum design preferences. Students from a university in Tigray, Ethiopia, filled out a structured questionnaire, which assessed demographics, variables that according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour are related to the motivation to learn, and their preferences for independent, carrier and integrated HIV/AIDS curriculum designs. On average, participants were highly motivated to learn about HIV/AIDS. Motivation to learn was primarily related to social norms and was not related to self-efficacy to discuss HIV/AIDS in class. The often discussed reluctance to discuss sexuality and condom use in curricula in Sub-Saharan Africa, seems to be more related to existing negative social norms, than to lack of self-efficacy. Participants revealed a high preference for the independent, carrier and integrated curriculum design options. However, students with a higher motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS were more attracted to the independent course design. PMID:17712693
Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates
Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...
Sentot Imam Wahjono; Wahjoedi; Syafei Idrus; J.G. Nirbito
The aim of this paper is to determine the role of succession planning as part of economic education in improving family business performance. Research carried out by using qualitative approach with in-depth interview and outside observation as a technique. The data source is owner of 3 family businesses (6 peoples) as key informants and 6 experts as expertise informants. The data were processed using content analysis. The finding of this research is business start-up from own money and saving...
Qureshi Asma M
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether training of providers participating in franchise clinic networks is associated with increased Family Planning service use among low-income urban families in Pakistan. Methods The study uses 2001 survey data consisting of interviews with 1113 clinical and non-clinical providers working in public and private hospitals/clinics. Data analysis excludes non-clinical providers reducing sample size to 822. Variables for the analysis are divided into client volume, and training in family planning. Regression models are used to compute the association between training and service use in franchise versus private non-franchise clinics. Results In franchise clinic networks, staff are 6.5 times more likely to receive family planning training (P = 0.00 relative to private non-franchises. Service use was significantly associated with training (P = 0.00, franchise affiliation (P = 0.01, providers' years of family planning experience (P = 0.02 and the number of trained staff working at government owned clinics (P = 0.00. In this setting, nurses are significantly less likely to receive training compared to doctors (P = 0.00. Conclusions These findings suggest that franchises recruit and train various cadres of health workers and training maybe associated with increased service use through improvement in quality of services.
Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; DELİBAŞ, Leyla
Unintended pregnancy rates are still high in Turkey and family planning services have been directed mostly at women. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age on the usage of family planning methods by Turkish married men. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey research design was used, including 1352 men aged 20-52 years who lived in the southeast of Turkey and whose wives were fertile, not menopausal, and had at least 1 child. A questionnaire was used to collect da...
Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda
Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…
VK Wasnik; AK Jawarkar; DM Dhumale
Background: At present various active programmes on family planning are running over the few decades but considerate number of people yet not motivated to adopt the family planning in their practical life. The study was conducted to find out the unmet need of family planning among the married woman of reproductive age in a rural area. Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional type of descriptive study. Settings: The study was conducted at Rajurwadi village under Primary Health Unit. Subjects: Al...
Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun; Fatusi, Adesegun Olayiwola
Background Nigeria is one of the countries where significant progress has not been recorded in contraceptive uptake despite decades of family planning programs while there are indications that slum dwellers may differ significantly from other urban dwellers in their sexual and reproductive behavior, including family planning uptake. This study therefore examined local notions regarding male partners’ involvement in family planning (FP) adoption by women in two selected urban slums areas in Ni...
Shen, Angela K; Farrell, Marguerite M; Vandenbroucke, Mary F; Fox, Elizabeth; Pablos-Mendez, Ariel
As low income countries experience economic transition, characterized by rapid economic growth and increased government spending potential in health, they have increased fiscal space to support and sustain more of their own health programmes, decreasing need for donor development assistance. Phase out of external funds should be systematic and efforts towards this end should concentrate on government commitments towards country ownership and self-sustainability. The 2006 US Agency for International Development (USAID) family planning (FP) graduation strategy is one such example of a systematic phase-out approach. Triggers for graduation were based on pre-determined criteria and programme indicators. In 2011 the GAVI Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations) which primarily supports financing of new vaccines, established a graduation policy process. Countries whose gross national income per capita exceeds $1570 incrementally increase their co-financing of new vaccines over a 5-year period until they are no longer eligible to apply for new GAVI funding, although previously awarded support will continue. This article compares and contrasts the USAID and GAVI processes to apply lessons learned from the USAID FP graduation experience to the GAVI process. The findings of the review are 3-fold: (1) FP graduation plans served an important purpose by focusing on strategic needs across six graduation plan foci, facilitating graduation with pre-determined financial and technical benchmarks, (2) USAID sought to assure contraceptive security prior to graduation, phasing out of contraceptive donations first before phasing out from technical assistance in other programme areas and (3) USAID sought to sustain political support to assure financing of products and programmes continue after graduation. Improving sustainability more broadly beyond vaccine financing provides a more comprehensive approach to graduation. The USAID FP experience provides a
Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh
Background: Detailed knowledge of the present situation is needed in order to design and implement quality improvement programmes to achieve the national goal of planned and safe fertility for all in Iran. An understanding of the perspectives and views of clients and providers are also much needed. When this study was initiated there was a lack of studies on the quality of family planning and other primary reproductive health services in the country. Aim: To describe a...
Full Text Available Background: The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.. The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives: The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design: Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC, childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics
Mpangile, G S
This article contains the findings of a 1990 knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey conducted in Mgeta, a subdivision of the rural district of Morogoro, Tanzania. The Family Planning Association of Tanzania (UMATI) carried out the survey with the goal of obtaining baseline information with which to measure the success of an Integrated Family Planning, Nutrition, and Parasite Control (IP) Project, scheduled to be introduced in Mgeta following the survey. UMATI interviewed 310 people (113 males and 197 females) from Mgeta, who comprised 5% of the total target population. The majority of the respondents were between the ages of 20-45, had completed primary education, and made a living from farming. They were also predominantly Roman Catholic. With 4/5 of the respondents already having at least 1 child, the average number of preferred children was 6. 16.5% of the respondents reported that they or their partner had undergone at least 1 abortion. 1/3 (104) of the respondents were aware of a method--modern or otherwise--for preventing unwanted pregnancies. But only 13.8%of all those surveyed (41.3% of those who were aware of family planning) had ever used contraception, and only 6.7% of all the respondents were using contraception at the time of the survey. Despite the low contraceptive prevalence, the overwhelming majority of those with knowledge of family planning believed it is important for improving family and child health, and that is not contrary to their religious beliefs. These findings suggest that in addition to raising awareness, communication programs must also emphasize motivation. The survey also highlights the problem of abortion, which is more widely practiced than contraception, and reveals a positive attitude towards family planning. PMID:12284677
To assess level of awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women (15-49 years) of reproductive age at Urban Health Center, Azizabad Sukkur, Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2005 at Urban Health Care Center Azizabad Sukkur. Two hundred women of reproductive age group were interviewed by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire visiting the health care center during the study period. Information was obtained after taking informed consent regarding socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pattern of utilizing family planning services. The data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS version 13. About 75% of women and 42.5% husbands were found illiterate, 85% women were housewives, 69.5% were married before 18 years of age and 54% had nuclear family. Regarding desired number of children women responded one child (3%), 2-3 children (11%), 4-5 (37.5%), more than five children (36%), 5.5% said that children are God gifted and 7% did not answer. About 60% of women reported use of at least one contraceptive method and 40% had never used any contraceptive method. The women who received counseling from the health care provider were 48.5% and only 6% received information through media. Religious prohibition, shortage of female staff and cost of family planning contraceptive methods were the main reasons identified for not utilizing contraceptive methods. The unsatisfactory variables were long waiting hours at the center, non-availability of contraceptive, shortage of the female staff and cost. Limited number of women was aware and practice contraception in the area and utilization of family planning services were low. The efforts should be made for providing information to couple and improving quality of family planning services in the area. (author)
After independence in the 1960s, most African government inherited health structures that were curative oriented, costly, and directed toward the urban population. Primary health care, oriented toward prevention, promotion, improvement of the environment, cure, and rehabilitation, has since been adopteed as a better approach to health in Africa. This approach aims to integrate health care with thee activities of other seectors and places relicance on available community resources. An unexpected change has been the transformation of social and political attitudes toward family planning as a basic human right, a concomitant to heealth, and an integral part of socioeconomic development. Family planning is gradually being integrated into the maternal and child health services of all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. In some cases, the government has assumed service delivery responsibilities previously carried out by family planning associations, thereby changing the association's role to that of education and motivation. Other countries have faced duplication of services and wastage of resources as a result of integration. There is a need for an overall evaluation of the integrated family planning-maternal and child heath services to determine future priorities and strategies. Problems so far encountered have included coverage, acceptability, accessibility, quality and continuity of care, data collection, and limited resources. However, cost factors, the shortage of trained manpower, the lack of facilities, and prevailing cultural and religious attitudes suggest the advisibility of integrated rather than vertical health programs in Africa. For both planning and administrative purposes, it is necessary to have a central Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning unit within the Ministry of Health as well as regional and district units. PMID:12266426
The purpose of this article is to situate decision-making aids in the energy area in France and show how the tools have changed over time as a function of the changing economic and political context. The challenges faced, already important in the post-war era due to reconstruction, are now huge due to supply constraints and global warming. While it is the State's responsibility to address these issues, as the players in the energy area currently are mainly in the private sphere, we look at decisions taken both by the State and by companies. Schematically, we compare two major periods: that of post-war planning through the eighties, and that of risk management, which has been current practice since market deregulation. From the methodological standpoint, we show that decision-making aids borrow tools from varied disciplines ranging from economics through management to futurology and long range planning. (author)
Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Ng, Lauren; Kirk, Catherine M.; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William Rigby; Brennan, Robert Thomas; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara Nicole; Cyamatare, Felix R; Sezibera, Vincent
Objective The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Design Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. Methods The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child–caregiver relationships, family communication and ...
Kunica, Zoran; Vranješ, Božo; Hrman, Miljenko
The paper depicts some of the improved and newly implemented algorithms of the computer aided design (CAD) based system for the plan generation of automatic assembly (GPAS), relating to definitions of assembly sequence and paths, space structuring (layout) of the assembly process for bench assembly product orientation, connectivity, and treatment of identical parts in a product. In the approach, the parts of which are presented in the paper, the mechanical product to be assembled is, initiall...
Krug, Rachel; Karus, Daniel; Selwyn, Peter A.; Raveis, Victoria H.
This study compares the self-assessments of 67 late stage HIV/AIDS patients regarding their symptomatology, sense of self-worth and several other aspects of their health care situation, to assessments of that situation provided by their informal caregivers. As part of a dyadic study of care preferences, patients and caregivers independently completed nearly identical versions of the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS), a short ten-item measure of the patient’s current health, social, and psyc...
van Gelderen, Loes; Gartrell, Nanette N.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Hermanns, Jo M. A.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether stigmatization was associated with psychological adjustment in adolescents from planned lesbian families and, if so, to examine whether individual and interpersonal promotive factors influenced this association. Seventy-eight adolescents (39 girls, 39 boys; mean age = 17.05 years) completed an…
Full Text Available Emma Richardson,1 Kenneth R Allison,1,2 Dionne Gesink,1 Albert Berry3 1Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 2Public Health Ontario, 3Department of Economics, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Understanding the persistent inequalities in the prevalence rates of family planning and unmet need for family planning between indigenous and nonindigenous women in Guatemala requires localized explorations of the specific barriers faced by indigenous women. Based on social cognitive theory, elicitation interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of 16 young women, aged 20–24 years, married or in union, from the rural districts of Patzún, Chimaltenango, Guatemala. Content analysis was carried out using the constant-comparison method to identify the major themes. Based on this qualitative study, the following barriers are incorporated into the development of a self-efficacy scale: lack of knowledge about and availability of methods, fear of side effects and infertility, husbands being against family planning (and related fears of marital problems and abandonment, pressure from in-laws and the community, and the belief that using contraception is a sin. This is the first evidence-informed self-efficacy scale developed with young adult, indigenous women that addresses the issue of family planning in Latin America. Keywords: indigenous, marginalized populations, elicitation interviews, social cognitive theory
Full Text Available Background: Family Planning is a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily to contribute effectively to the social development of a country. CPR of Nuwakot district is less than that of National level. The Objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and practice on family planning methods among married women of Kakani VDC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design was done with quantitative methods. Likewise, PPS sampling procedure was used and sample size was 109. Structured questionnaires as a tool and Interview technique was used to obtain necessary information. Data was entered and analysed through SPSS, and computed mean, standard deviation, tables, cross tabulation and chi – square. Results: The study shows that more than one fifth of the respondents (23.9% were of age group 28-32 years and more than half of the respondents (51.4% had marriage at the age of 15-19 years. Depo-Provera was the device known by all respondents and Implant was the least known device. However, more than half (56.9% MWRAs had good knowledge on family planning and 51.38% of respondents were currently using FP devices. Despite more good knowledge towards family planning use of FP devices is low. Conclusion: The study population had good knowledge towards FP devices; however the use of FP devices was low. It was mainly due to husband being abroad and side effects of the devices.
Leon, Federico R.; Lundgren, Rebecka; Sinai, Irit; Jennings, Victoria
A nonrandomized experiment carried out in Jharkhand, India, shows how the effects of interventions designed to improve access to family-planning methods can be erroneously regarded as trivial when contraceptive use is utilized as dependent variable, ignoring women's need for contraception. Significant effects of the intervention were observed on…
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
This publication is a critical bibliography and assessment of scientific materials relating to family planning discontinuation rates. Most of the studies referenced were done in Asia, Africa, and South America. Chapter titles include: (1) Discontinuation: A Neglected Topic?; (2) Measuring Discontinuation; (3) What Happens After Termination; (4) A…
Malini M Bhattathiry
Full Text Available Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP, which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of "unmet need for FP" and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.
From the current situation of human resource planning, combined with the content and process of human resources plan, it designs the model of computer aided design prediction, and explains the basic structure and mathematic model. It designs an application model of human resources planning. It has done a total and classified planning, and has analyzed the results.% 从人力资源规划现状出发，结合人力资源规划的内容和步骤，进行了计算机辅助预测模型的设计，说明了其基本结构和数学模型。设计了人力资源规划的应用示例，进行了总量规划和分类规划，并对规划结果进行了分析，提出解决策略。
Flores, Stephen A; Purcell, David W; Fisher, Holly H; Belcher, Lisa; Carey, James W; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Dunbar, Erica; Eke, Agatha N; Galindo, Carla A; Glassman, Marlene; Margolis, Andrew D; Neumann, Mary Spink; Prather, Cynthia; Stratford, Dale; Taylor, Raekiela D; Mermin, Jonathan
In September 2010, CDC launched the Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning (ECHPP) project to shift HIV-related activities to meet goals of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Twelve health departments in cities with high AIDS burden participated. These 12 grantees submitted plans detailing jurisdiction-level goals, strategies, and objectives for HIV prevention and care activities. We reviewed plans to identify themes in the planning process and initial implementation. Planning themes included data integration, broad engagement of partners, and resource allocation modeling. Implementation themes included organizational change, building partnerships, enhancing data use, developing protocols and policies, and providing training and technical assistance for new and expanded activities. Pilot programs also allowed grantees to assess the feasibility of large-scale implementation. These findings indicate that health departments in areas hardest hit by HIV are shifting their HIV prevention and care programs to increase local impact. Examples from ECHPP will be of interest to other health departments as they work toward meeting the NHAS goals. PMID:26843670
Pfeffer, C; Engel, D; Jans, N; Clauss, S
513 adolescent females attending a family planning center administered by the French Movement for Family Planning in Strasburg completed anonymous questionnaires between December 1984-June 1985 to identify the sociological and clinical characteristics of the clinic users. About 80% were 16-19 years old. 314 came unaccompanied to the center, 149 came with a friend, and 25 came with their partner. It was the 1st consultation for 278 respondents. 126 had been coming for less than 1 year, 67 for 1-2 years, 31 for 2-3 years, and 11 for more than 3 years. 83% were students. 312 resided in Strasburg or its suburbs and 201 resided elsewhere. Anonymity was the principal reason why clients travelled long distances to attend the center. 372 knew of the center through friends or sisters, 44 through the media, 40 through school, 11 through parents, and 7 through a doctor. 121 reported that their parents knew they used contraception and 382 that they did not know. 318 preferred a woman doctor for a contraceptive consultation, 180 did not care, and 6 preferred a man. Over half had their 1st menstrual period between the ages of 12 and 13. 172 were virgins at the time of their 1st consultation. The age of 1st intercourse was 14-17 years old for 81% and 15 or 16 for 48%. 155 used no contraception before visiting the center, 114 used withdrawal, 73 used condoms, 20 used spermicides, 38 used oral contraceptives (OCs) prescribed elsewhere, and 9 used other methods. 66% of prescriptions were for standard dosed pills because less than 2 years had passed since menarche, the cycles were irregular, or the client had acne or feared forgetting a pill. At the 3-month follow-up the prescription was changed to a lowdose pill in 43 cases because of side effects, while a low dose pill was changed to standard dose in 20 cases because of acne or forgetting. 24 girls came for a morning after pill and 31 for a pregnancy test. 9 reported they had already had abortions. 163 did not smoke, 152 smoked
Jacobson Janet C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective meta-analysis (PMA is a collaborative research design in which individual sites perform randomized controlled trials (RCTs and pool the data for meta-analysis. Members of the PMA collaboration agree upon specific research interventions and outcome measures, ideally before initiation but at least prior to any individual trial publishing results. This allows for uniform reporting of primary and secondary outcomes. With this approach, heterogeneity among trials contributing data for the final meta-analysis is minimized while each site maintains the freedom to design a specific trial. This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD insertion in nulliparous women. Methods After the principal investigator developed a preliminary PMA protocol, he identified potential collaborating investigators at other sites. One site already had a trial underway and another site was in the planning stages of a trial meeting PMA requirements. Investigators at six sites joined the PMA collaborative. Each site committed to enroll subjects to meet a pre-determined total sample size. A final common research plan and site responsibilities were developed and agreed upon through email and face-to-face meetings. Each site committed to contribute individual patient data to the PMA collaboration, and these data will be analyzed and prepared as a multi-site publication. Individual sites retain the ability to analyze and publish their site's independent findings. Results All six sites have obtained Institutional Review Board approval and each has obtained individual funding to meet the needs of that site's study. Sites have shared resources including study protocols and consents to decrease costs and improve study flow. This PMA protocol is registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and data will be analyzed according to Cochrane standards for meta
Muoghalu, Caroline O; Jegede, Samuel A
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the worst epidemics that have been experienced by humankind. It is indeed a major event of our time. The pandemic has killed so many people around the world and Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit. The nature of the pandemic lent it to stigma and discrimination, which have made caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) a big problem. It has also brought so much suffering on PLWHA around the world. This article examines the role of culture and the family in the care for PLWHA in Anambra State. Quantitative and Qualitative data collection methods (questionnaire and in-depth interviews) are used to elicit information from respondents. A total of 1000 copies of a questionnaire were administered on adult males and females and 914 were completed and analyzed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were conducted on 10 opinion leaders using an interview guide. Data were analyzed in themes based on the objectives and the data from in-depth interviews were used to support data from the questionnaire. The results showed that certain cultural practices such as cultural obligations to sick, blood relations, collective ownership of children, affinity to blood relations, and strong marital bond enhance care and support for PLWHA. Also, the burden of care for PLWHA was found to be on the family in the study area. In conclusion, cultural practices and the family play major roles in the care for PLWHA in the area and should be harnessed in order to make life more comfortable for PLWHA. PMID:21113852
In recent years family planning work in China's Rongcheng County has been accomplished through "sudden attacks" on the problem, and although these concentrated work efforts have been successful, nevertheless there have been deleterious effects, e.g., a drain on the leadership such that work is affected, overburdened hospital workloads that lead to surgical mistakes, and pressure on the people's spirits. In order to ameliorate the situation, longterm planning was proposed in 1981 "to take three as the keys," i.e., to take propaganda education as the key in its relationship to economic measures, to take birth control as the key in its relationship to abortion, and to take longterm work as the key in its relationship to shortterm work. In 1981 Roncheng County increased its propaganda education efforts by making family planning the subject of numerous meetings, radio broadcasts, recordings, posters, and drama. It also emphasized positive education (i.e., teaching the good qualities of life conduct) and commended good people and good deeds. Family planning work also strengthened political education, making people aware of the policy of 1 child per family. Due to a sudden rise in unplanned 2nd pregnancies in Roncheng County, the number of abortions was high, so scientific knowledge of contraceptive use was widely disseminated to all fertile women. In order to make family planning function on a continous basis, one must grasp surely and carefully the primary work of organizations at all levels and be systematic in follow-ups. The results of "taking three as the keys" include: for the first 6 months of 1982 the single child rate was 95.63%; contraceptive use was more effective, causing the abortion rate to drop 10.3% from a comparable period in 1981; and 99.52% of 1-child-couples applied for Single Child Certificates. PMID:12159366
Fehring, Richard J
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P ratio analysis indicated that ever having an abortion, sterilization, and/or methods of contraception increased the likelihood of divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce. PMID:26912935
Hayford, Sarah R; Agadjanian, Victor
This study explores challenges and obstacles in providing effective family planning services to HIV-positive women as described by staff of maternal and child health (MCH) clinics. It draws upon data from a survey of service providers carried out from late 2008 to early 2009 in 52 MCH clinics in southern Mozambique, some with and some without HIV services. In all clinics, surveyed providers reported that practical, financial, and social barriers made it difficult for HIV-positive clients to follow protocols to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Likewise, staff were skeptical of their seropositive clients' ability to adhere to recommendations to cease childbearing and to use condoms consistently. Providers' recommendations to HIV-positive clients and their assessment of barriers to adherence did not depend on availability of HIV services. Although integration of HIV and reproductive health services is advancing in Mozambique, service providers do not feel that they can influence the behaviors of HIV-positive women effectively. PMID:21258608
Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin
Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems. PMID:27337850
This article presents some of the legal, social, cultural, and practical constraints facing women who attempt to enforce their right to maintenance (child support) payments in southern Africa. It is based on research by the Women and Law in Southern Africa Trust, a network of women who research women's legal rights in six countries: Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Statutes in all countries in the region provide that a man must support his legitimate and illegitimate children; there are, however, weaknesses in the laws on the books. The social and cultural constraints that influence the enforcement of maintenance laws include women's lack of knowledge of the law, attitudes toward child support influenced by customary law, allegations of women's abuse of maintenance payments, financial and practical problems, and fear of physical violence or other forms of retribution. Maintenance laws are relevant to family planning in that if such laws were more effectively enforced, so that the financial burden of children were more equally shared between women and men, men would have a financial stake in controlling their fertility. PMID:1412595
Full Text Available Iran’s significant success in implementing Family Planning (FP during the past 25 years, has made it a role model in the world. The Total Fertility Rate (TFR in Iran has dropped from 6.5 in 1960 to 1.6 in 2012, which is well below the targeted value of 2.2 for the country. Iran’s success story, however, did not merely root in the implementation of FP programs. In other words, families’ strong tendency to limit fertility and delayed marriages had an undeniable role in decreasing the TFR. On the other hand, Iranian policy-makers are very concerned about such a decrease and have recently restricted access to contraception, while outlawing any surgery that reduces fertility. This paper, tries to highlight the pros and cons of such restrictive policies, and argue that the policy-makers might be jeopardizing the success of Iran’s FP program by overestimating its role in the TFR reduction rate.
Drixler, Fabian F; Kok, Jan
Based on Dutch colonial registers (thombos), this paper reconstructs fertility for two districts in Ceylon, 1756-68. It overcomes challenges in data quality by establishing the outer bounds of plausible estimates in a series of scenarios. Among these, total fertility rates (TFRs) averaged 5.5 in one district, but only 2.7 in the other. These figures exclude the victims of infanticide, a custom noted in European travelogues between about 1660 and 1820. Sex ratios among children differed depending on the number of older siblings, and overall, 27 per cent of girls are missing in one district and 57 per cent in the other. There was little significant variation either in the TFR or the sex ratio by socio-economic status, suggesting that poverty was not a key factor in motivating infanticides. Instead, we argue that at least parts of Ceylon had a forward-looking culture of family planning in the eighteenth century, which was lost in subsequent decades. PMID:26988626
Guilhem, Dirce; Azevedo, Anamaria Ferreira
This study is an ethical reflection on the formulation and application of public policies regarding reproductive health in Brazil. The Integral Assistance Program for Women's Health (PAISM) can be considered advanced for a country in development. Universal access for family planning is foreseen in the Brazilian legislation, but the services do not offer contraceptive methods for the population in a regular and consistent manner. Abortion is restricted by law to two cases: risk to the woman's life and rape. This reality favors the practice of unsafe abortion, which is the third largest cause of maternal death in Brazil. Legal abortion is regulated by the State and the procedure is performed in public health centers. However, there is resistance on the part of professionals to attend these women. Prenatal care is a priority strategy for promoting the quality of life of these women and of future generations. Nonetheless, it is still difficult for these women to access the prenatal care services and to have the required number of consultations. Moreover, managers and health professionals need to be made aware of the importance of implementing the actions indicated by the public policies in the area of sexual and reproductive health, favoring respect for autonomy in a context of personal freedom. PMID:17614992
Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors. PMID:12320531
廖菁; 熊俊浩; 师庆科; 马渝根; 况伟宏; 肖远鸿
Objective To understand the social support situation to the HIV/AIDS patients and theirfamily members , to provide the objective basis of establishing a care mode for the HIV/AIDS patients andfamily members in Sichuan. Methods Social Support Score(SSS)questionnaire were selected for the in-vestigation,and data collected were analyzed by SPSS statistic software. Results The score getting byHIV infective person and AIDS patients are lower than the score getting by survival patients' fanily mem-bers and normal control group person. The family members of died patients got the lowest social supportscore. Conclusion HIV infective preson and AIDS patients and their family members are urgently need-ed the care, supports and understanding from the whole society, The establishment of comprehensive com-munity care mode for them are also urgently needed.
Jiang, Z; Li, P
Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase
Pais, Shobha; Piercy, Fred; Miller, JoAnn
Through a national survey of marriage and family therapists, this study examines what therapists do when their HIV-positive clients disclose that they are engaging in high-risk sexual behavior. Participants (N=309) were more likely to break confidence when their clients were male, young, gay, or African American. Describes characteristic of…
As DFID's new White Paper on poverty acknowledges, aid relationships are always about power, and despite the emphasis on country ownership in today's international aid system, the deck remains heavily stacked in favour of donors. For example, the Paris Declaration – the defining international statement on aid today – very much reflects prevailing Western ideas about governance, management effectiveness, and economic efficiency that may have little meaning or relevance in many developing country contexts. Despite aid's donor bias, at least some recipient countries, such as Tanzania and Vietnam, have nonetheless successfully introduced structures and mechanisms to help them set their own directions with less donor interference. Through impressive processes of stakeholder consultation that reflect indigenous social, cultural and political contexts rather than homogenised international norms, these two countries have also recently produced national strategies that are well-grounded in the principles of sustainable development. Such experiences offer a strong argument for a new approach to aid relationships, that gives recipients greater autonomy and flexibility and acknowledges the shortcomings in donor expertise and in homogenised approaches to aid.
Edwards, Caitlin C.; Da Fonte, Alexandra
Family-teacher collaboration is an important factor in the success of students with disabilities. Through partnering with families as help-givers, teachers have the unique chance to support students with disabilities and their families by collaborating and providing an open communication environment that will better support and enhance the…
Nell, Hilton Edwin
The objective of this study is to assess the role that succession planning plays in family businesses in the Sedibeng region of the Gauteng province in South Africa. According to Netsiande (2008:1) family businesses should anticipate, recognise, understand and work pro-actively on issues, learn from other businesses and find their own unique solution.to ensure sustainability. Management succession and succession planning is very important and it has a significant impact on family member...
The new child care and protection legislation (German Social Aid) emphasises the support of the parents' responsibility for education. In addition, it includes separate provisions and opportunities for counseling and supporting young children and adolescents in crisis situations. Finally, it requires the Youth Welfare Office to inform the Guardianship Court if a legal decision is required to avert a threat of the child's welfare. In the process of making the complex precise and responsible decision on the prognosis for the child, the experts from the Youth Welfare Office mus decide weather to respond to a threat to the child with family-oriented support, of with intervention concerning parental care that will usually lead to the separation of the child from its social setting. PMID:9011851
Margulies, R; Miller, L
To measure the use rates of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and oral contraceptives and compare the costs between the two methods to see whether these trends had impacted the pharmaceutical acquisition costs for a family planning program, we compared vendor invoice costs over three time periods, 1992, 1994, and 1999. Visit types and client demographic statistics were tabulated from existing encounter record data sources. A local pharmaceutical chain was queried about their acquisition costs for similar products. Since 1992, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use has increased from 3 to 17% while oral contraceptive use has decreased from 45 to 40% of contraceptive clients. The cost to our program for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is $4.75 for 28 days and the average pill package is purchased for $1.35. The cost to our program is 4 times greater for the injection contraceptive user than for the oral contraceptive user. Approximately 80% of our clients have household incomes less than 200% of the poverty level and obtain their services from our program for free. This combination of increasing popularity and the high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate has resulted in a great increase in the pharmacy acquisition cost. The oral contraceptive manufacturers make their products available at large discounts (20-fold reduction), but depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not provided at a similar discount (2.8-fold reduction). We believe this is because there is no generic or competing product. The high cost of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate could jeopardize our ability to offer this highly effective method of birth control to all women. PMID:11368987
O'Shea, Michele S; Rosenberg, Nora E; Tang, Jennifer H; Mukuzunga, Cornelius; Kaliti, Stephen; Mwale, Mwawi; Hosseinipour, Mina C
The objective of this study was to describe the pregnancy intentions of pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months prior to the current pregnancy, and to assess whether time on ART was associated with pregnancy intention. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected Malawian women receiving antenatal care at a government hospital with a survey assessing ART history, reproductive history, and family planning use at conception. We used Pearson's chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests to compare these parameters between women on ART greater than 24 months with those on ART less than 24 months. Modified Poisson regression was performed to assess the association between time on ART and pregnancy intention. Most women (75%) reported that their current pregnancy was unintended, defined as either Mistimed (21%) or Unwanted (79%). Women on ART for longer than 2 years were more likely to report an unintended pregnancy (79% versus 65%, p = .03), though there was no significant association between time on ART and pregnancy intention in multivariate analysis. Most women (79%) were using contraception at the time of conception, with condoms being most popular (91%), followed by injectables (9%) and the implant (9%). HIV-infected women on ART continue to experience high rates of unintended pregnancy in the Option B+ era. As Option B+ continues to be implemented in Malawi and increasing numbers of HIV-infected women initiate lifelong ART, ensuring that the most effective forms of contraception are accessible is necessary to decrease unintended pregnancy. PMID:26877194
Kwak, Jung; De Larwelle, Jessica A; Valuch, Katharine O'Connell; Kesler, Toni
Health care proxies make important end-of-life decisions for individuals with dementia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the role of advance care planning in proxy decision making for 141 individuals with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, or other types of dementia. Proxies who did not know the preferences of individuals with dementia for life support treatments reported greater understanding of their values. Proxies of individuals with dementia who did not want life support treatments anticipated receiving less support and were more uncertain in decision making. The greater knowledge proxies had about dementia trajectory, family support, and trust of physicians, the more informed, clearer, and less uncertain they were in decision making. In addition to advance care planning, multiple factors influence proxy decision making, which should be considered in developing interventions and future research to support informed decision making for individuals with dementia and their families. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(2):72-80.]. PMID:26020579
Full Text Available Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area â€" Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.
Growing up with HIV/AIDS: a study on adolescents with HIV/AIDS and their family caregivers Creciendo con VIH/SIDA: un estudio con adolescentes portadoras de VIH/SIDA y sus cuidadoras familiares Crescendo com HIV/AIDS: estudo com adolescentes portadoras de HIV/AIDS e suas cuidadoras-familiares
Ana Amélia Antunes Lima
Full Text Available This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, which looks at the adolescent process with HIV/AIDS. The purpose is to identify how the adolescent process occurs, from the perspective of these teenagers and their family caregivers. The investigation was performed in Porto Alegre, RS between May and July 2005, and the subjects were four adolescents and three caregivers. Data were collected by means of interviews, which were subject to the content analysis technique. The study revealed that both teenagers and family caregivers did not show concern with the changes typical of the period, especially regarding sexuality questions. Yet, the underlying diagnosis and coping with HIV remain in the family core in order to protect these agents against the stigma of the disease.Es un estudio exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, que trata del proceso de desarrollo de la adolescencia en portadoras de VIH/SIDA, con el objetivo de identificar cómo ocurre el proceso de la adolescencia, en la visión de estas adolescentes y de sus cuidadoras familiares.La investigación se realizó en Porto Alegre-RS, entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2005; los sujetos fueron cuatro adolescentes y tres cuidadoras. La colecta de las informaciones se hizo por medio de entrevistas que fueron sometidas a la técnica de análisis de contenido. El estudio reveló que las adolescentes y sus cuidadoras familiares, manifestaron preocupación con los cambios propios de ese período, especialmente en asuntos relacionados a la sexualidad. Se hizo evidente que el diagnóstico y la convivencia con el VIH permanecen ocultos en el contexto familiar, con el objetivo de proteger, a estos actores, del estigma de la enfermedad.Estudo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, que trata do processo de adolescer de portadoras de HIV/AIDS, com o objetivo de identificar como ocorre o processo da adolescência, na ótica dessas adolescentes e de suas cuidadoras-familiares. A investiga
Sunita; Neeraj; Shinde
BACKGROUND : Medical Termination of Pregnancy was legalized in India in 1971 with an intention to reduce maternal morbidity & mortality and to reduce the social stigma attached with it. However the clause of performing MTP in the event of “Failure of Contraception” provides a scope to almost everyone for getting an MTP done & its consequent misuse. OBJECTIVES: To study the follo wing attributes in the acceptors of family Planning with respect to MTP: Age of femal...
Wall, Kristin M.; Lisa Haddad; Bellington Vwalika; Naw Htee Khu; Ilene Brill; William Kilembe; Rob Stephenson; Elwyn Chomba; Cheswa Vwalika; Amanda Tichacek; Susan Allen
OBJECTIVE: We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. DESIGN: Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. METHODS: Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy amon...
Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.
Infertility due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be prevented by systematic screening of low genital tract infection. This screening is to be done systematically in women < 25 years old in Family Planning Centers. In France, according to Calmat's low, screening and treatment are anonymous and free of charges for adolescents and people without National Health care. In a foreseeable future, screening will be done for both sexes, by PCR or LCR, on first void urines. PMID:7613578
Pinar ERBAY DUNDAR; Mujde SERIFHAN ILGUN; Yakup Gokhan DOÐRAMACI; Akin DALCI; Gokhan GURGEN
Young adulthood is a period when concepts like family planning (FP) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD?s) become important. This cross-sectional study was performed to measure the knowledge level of Biology and Turkish Language / Literature students of Manisa Celal Bayar University about FP and STD?s. The questionnaire measures knowledge level of FP-STD?s and sociodemographic variables was performed to 299 students (73 % of the population) undar observation. The data is evaluated by chi s...
Kimberly Ramsbottom; Mary Lou Kelley
Long term care (LTC) homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP) important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descript...
Islam MR; Thorvaldsen G
M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP) knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from t...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women’s empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. Methods To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH, the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply–demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. Results In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow
Full Text Available This is cross sectional study based on 304 households (couples with wives age less than 48 years, chosen from urban locality (city Lahore. Fourteen religious, demographic and socio-economic factors of categorical nature like husband education, wife education, husband’s monthly income, occupation of husband, household size, husband-wife discussion, number of living children, desire for more children, duration of marriage, present age of wife, age of wife at marriage, offering of prayers, political view, and religiously decisions were taken to understand acceptance of family planning. Multivariate log-linear analysis was applied to identify association pattern and interrelationship among factors. The logit model was applied to explore the relationship between predictor factors and dependent factor, and to explore which are the factors upon which acceptance of family planning is highly depending. Log-linear analysis demonstrate that preference of contraceptive use was found to be consistently associated with factors Husband-Wife discussion, Desire for more children, No. of children, Political view and Duration of married life. While Husband’s monthly income, Occupation of husband, Age of wife at marriage and Offering of prayers resulted in no statistical explanation of adoption of family planning methods.
Marcela Agudelo B
Full Text Available Objective: To approach the barriers to providing services of family planning in marginal areas of Iztapalapa and Tlalpan in the Federal District of Mexico City, from the perspective of health providers. Methodology: Qualitative exploration involved through focus groups with healthcare providers, both public and private, further topics such as socio-environmental, unmet needs in sexual and reproductive health (including family planning, relations gender, among others. Results:We found that among the main obstacles to access to family planning services are misinformation, culture and population beliefs, the inadequate training of health professionals in related areas, the shortage methods o f contraception, the deficiency infrastructure and resources. The barriers perceived by providers are coming from the people, and seldom alluded to the barriers arising from service of their own profession and/or personal convictions. Conclusion: Although the study focused on a specific social environment, this could reflect a reality in other contexts with similar characteristics, so this work constitutes a contribution to both practical and methodological analysis of the phenomenon.
Hsu, S C
A report is made on the family planning program in Taiwan which emphasizes the integrated problems of population growth, nutrition and health, and food supplies. Nutrition and food supply have greatly improved in Taiwan since 1950, particularly in increases in food energy and protein availability. There has been a corresponding, though not necessarily resultant, decline in maternal and infant mortalities and deaths from gastrointestinal diseases. An official family planning program was instituted in Taiwan in 1964 with the goal of reducing the rate of natural increase from 3.0% to 1.5%. In 1971 the rate was 2.1%. Legalizing sterilization and abortion has been an important part of this program. A major goal is improvement in the quality of people. Reducing the size of the population results in more and better food and educational opportunities. A government study in Sui-Lin Township of Taiwan is investigating the effect of improved maternal health and nutrition on the quality of the offspring. The study is seeking to determine the minimum maternal food intake for proper health and which phase of the maternal diet (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, lactation) or of the infant' diet is the most important to offspring quality. Also being studied is the possible existence of a maximum level of maternal nourishment beyond which detrimental effects might occur. The answers to these questions may provide important information for national nutrition policies, which are important factors in the family planning program. PMID:12276465
Cleland, John; Shah, Iqbal H; Daniele, Marina
This article provides programmatic guidance and identifies future research priorities through a review of interventions to improve postpartum contraception. Thirty-five interventions in low- and middle-income countries were identified and classified according to timing and nature of administration: antenatal, postnatal, both ante- and postnatal, and integration with other services. With the exception of single, short antenatal interventions, the evidence of impact is positive but incomplete. A major gap in knowledge concerns demand for, and means of promoting, immediate postpartum family planning services in Asia and Africa. Counseling before discharge is likely to have an impact on subsequent contraceptive uptake. Integration of family planning into immunization and pediatric services is justified, but policy and program obstacles remain. A case for relaxing the strict conditions of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) is strong, but qualitative evidence on the perspectives of women on pregnancy risks is required. Despite the gaps in knowledge, the evidence provides useful guidance for strategies to promote postpartum family planning, in ways that take different contexts into account. PMID:26643491
Sara J. Newmann
Full Text Available Objective. To inform an intervention integrating family planning into HIV care, family planning (FP knowledge, attitudes and practices, and perspectives on integrating FP into HIV care were assessed among healthcare providers in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods. Thirty-one mixed-method, structured interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of healthcare workers (HCWs from 13 government HIV care facilities in Nyanza Province. Structured questions and case scenarios assessed contraceptive knowledge, training, and FP provision experience. Open-ended questions explored perspectives on integration. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Results. Of the 31 HCWs interviewed, 45% reported previous FP training. Few providers thought long-acting methods were safe for HIV-positive women (19% viewed depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as safe and 36% viewed implants and intrauterine contraceptives as safe; fewer felt comfortable recommending them to HIV-positive women. Overall, providers supported HIV and family planning integration, yet several potential barriers were identified including misunderstandings about contraceptive safety, gendered power differentials relating to fertility decisions, staff shortages, lack of FP training, and contraceptive shortages. Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas.
Lisa B Haddad
Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.
Finger, W R
The sexually transmitted disease (STD) program in Udorn, a popular Thai tourist city, has worked closely with 750 prostitutes for 15 years, incorporating the concerns of brothel managers and prostitutes into service delivery. The program in Udorn is part of a nationwide network of STD clinics. The level of person-to-person interaction was increased once it was determined by 1989 that HIV had infected 6% of prostitutes in the city's brothels. Outreach educators were recruited and trained to ensure that all prostitutes in Udorn had the basic facts about HIV and AIDS. Over the last 2 years, the STD program has trained outreach educators to work in 8 brothels, started a local AIDS prevention foundation supported by local businessmen, and taken other steps to incorporate AIDS prevention into its clinic structure. Such clinic-based programs are an important way of targeting groups at high risk of HIV transmission. PMID:12316886
Thomsen, Stine Skoett
This dissertation sets out to explore how two Ugandan NGOs, the Straight Talk Foundation and the Family Planning Association of Uganda have responded to and negotiated with the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Ascertaining a conflictual relation between the rights-based approach to HIV prevention for young people of the two NGO and the value-based approach by PEPFAR, it is demonstrated that this contradiction can to some degree be prevailed over through negotiation, assimi...
... Board SUMMARY: The Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator (S/GAC) announces the charter renewal of... information on the Board's activities and membership ( http://www.pepfar.gov/sab/index.htm ). Please refer to... organizations, and the private sector. The diversity of the Board ensures the requisite range of views...
Hoanh, C. T.
The problem - Objectives of the studyLand use planning is an essential activity in any country, because the demands for different land uses usually exceed the available resources. Land use planning implies weighting of trade-offs among conflicting goals, as different interests exist in society. Demands for water often also exceed the available resources.The objectives of this study are to develop and implement a method and corresponding software system for integrated land use planning at regi...
Full Text Available Background Family Planning (FP program in Pakistan has been struggling to achieve the desired indicators. Despite a well-timed initiation of the program in late 50s, fertility decline has been sparingly slow. As a result, rapid population growth is impeding economic development in the country. A high population growth rate, the current fertility rate, a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need remain challenging targets for population policies and FP programs. To accelerate the pace of FP programs and targets concerned, it is imperative to develop and adopt a holistic approach and strategy for plugging the gaps in various components of the health system: service delivery, information systems, drugs-supplies, technology and logistics, Human Resources (HRs, financing, and governance. Hence, World Health Organization (WHO health systems building blocks present a practical framework for overall health system strengthening. Methods This descriptive qualitative study, through 23 in-depth interviews, explored the factors related to the health system, and those responsible for a disappointing FP program in Pakistan. Provincial representatives from Population Welfare and Health departments, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations involved with FP programs were included in the study to document the perspective of all stakeholders. Content analysis was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Performance of FP programs is not satisfactory as shown by the indicators, and these programs have not been able to deliver the desired outcomes. Interviewees agreed that inadequate prioritization given to the FP program by successive governments has led to this situation. There are issues with all health system areas, including governance, strategies, funding, financial management, service delivery systems, HRs, technology and logistic systems, and Management Information System (MIS; these have encumbered the pace of
Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.
This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the...... determinants of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....
Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Adelmo Gian Martino Mazzocchi
Aids are only one of the instruments with which the disabled person can often reach a good level of autonomy,he can improve his conditions of life and prevent the aggravating of his situation.Aids serve also to facilitate care on the part of the family.The rights confirmed by Law 104 can also be achieved through the use of aids.The Italian state has planned a system of care with regards to aids so that some of them can be purchased with different tax concessions but essential aids,those necessary for the reaching of autonomy goals and prevention defined by an individual rehabilitative project,are supplied free of charge.In Italy essential aids are part therefore of a rehabilitation plan that is identified for each person with disabilities by a team made up of different professionals.
The problem - Objectives of the studyLand use planning is an essential activity in any country, because the demands for different land uses usually exceed the available resources. Land use planning implies weighting of trade-offs among conflicting goals, as different interest
Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng
Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116
Charles R. Schwenk
The Dialectical Inquiry System (DIS) and the Devil's Advocate (DA) have been recommended as strategic decision-making aids and as improvements on the traditional expert (E) approach in which strategic decisions are based on preliminary analyses and proposals by staff experts. Previous research on the effects of the DIS and DA has produced conflicting results. In the present study, subjects produced alternative strategies and recommendations for a company described in a case. They were given t...
Emma Michelle Taylor
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning. DISCUSSION: This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid.
Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted. PMID:26971270
The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)
De Souza, Roger-Mark
The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398
Maseapo P. Mthobeni
Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information.Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering
Muia, E; Ellertson, C; Lukhando, M; Flul, B; Clark, S; Olenja, J
To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided. PMID:10640169
Shah, Nirali M.; Wang, Wenjuan; David M Bishai
Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-governm...
van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Jansma, Johan; Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos
This case report describes the autotransplantation of maxillary right second premolar into the contralateral position in a 14-year-old female using computerized tomographic data and a customized guiding system produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology. Using innovative surgical guides and keys with navigation features, modification of the recipient socket and handling of the transplant were facilitated without harming the periodontal membrane. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examination showed periodontal and pulp healing earlier than 6 months after surgery. PMID:26667222
Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia
Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44
María de Lourdes Ortíz Boza
SUMMARYThe purpose of this paper it’s to analyze the stereotypes managed in the campaign 1988-2000 of family planning, produced by National Council of Population (CONAPO) and emitted by mexican television in all the modalities; open and payperview. This campaign it’s one of the last that the state, through the CONAPO, has been put in the massive communication media, specifically in television. The campaign was designed specially for this media and was transmitted since 1998 to 2004, in which ...
Habte, Dereje; Namasasu, Jane
Background Women living with HIV continues to encounter unintended pregnancies with a concomitant risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Preventing unintended pregnancy among HIV-infected women is one of the strategies in the prevention of new HIV infections among children. The aim of this analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV positive status in the practice of FP. Methods The analysis...
María de Lourdes Ortíz Boza
Full Text Available SUMMARYThe purpose of this paper it’s to analyze the stereotypes managed in the campaign 1988-2000 of family planning, produced by National Council of Population (CONAPO and emitted by mexican television in all the modalities; open and payperview. This campaign it’s one of the last that the state, through the CONAPO, has been put in the massive communication media, specifically in television. The campaign was designed specially for this media and was transmitted since 1998 to 2004, in which it was reprogrammed as part of the festivity for the 30 years of reproductive health campaigns of Mexican state. After this campaign, practically none of them has been emitted through the televise media. Another thing that makes it interesting to be the object of study is the fact that for first time the masculine stereotype is included as decisive part of family planning. This audiovisual material constitute a good source of information in its kind to analyze those messages produced by the State and are included as well stereotypes such as urban, and rural. The model taken was the social representations, from Sergei Moscovici, as well as some elements from the techniques of content analysis. All 22 messages of television that integrate the campaign 1998-2000 were analyzed. Of them, 11 directed to urban zones and 11 to rural zones. In both were quantified the times that man and women in which they take part, the way the take part: alone or in couple and a positive or negative value was assigned to the stereotype present in messages, taking as criteria of this assignment or evaluation, the measurement in which (trough the textual or visual speech it is fomented or not of equitable way the masculine and feminine participation in relation with the decision to plan the family. 10 charts were elaborated were the exercise is done by each of the thematic approached in the messages of the campaign and from the results obtained inferences were realized from two
Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.
Peters, Mike; Buhalis, Dimitrios
Small businesses dominate the tourism and hospitality industry worldwide and are of critical importance for the competitiveness of destinations. Small family hotel businesses are characterised by a number of specific business processes which generate particular training and educational needs. It is increasingly clear that small businesses are not…
MacDonald Shannon L
Full Text Available Abstract Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL, nasal type, is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment of ENKTL primarily relies on radiation; thus, proper delineation of target volumes is critical. Currently, the ideal modalities for delineation of gross tumor volume for ENKTL are unknown. We describe three consecutive cases of localized ENKTL that presented to the Nova Scotia Cancer Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. All patients had a planning CT and MRI as well as a planning FDG-PET/CT in the radiotherapy treatment position, wearing immobilization masks. All patients received radiation alone. In two patients, PET/CT changed not only the stage, but also the target volume requiring treatment. The third patient was unable to tolerate an MRI, but was able to undergo PET/CT, which improved the accuracy of the target volume. PET/CT aided the staging of and radiotherapy planning for our patients and appears to be a promising tool in the treatment of ENKTL.
Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type, is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment of ENKTL primarily relies on radiation; thus, proper delineation of target volumes is critical. Currently, the ideal modalities for delineation of gross tumor volume for ENKTL are unknown. We describe three consecutive cases of localized ENKTL that presented to the Nova Scotia Cancer Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. All patients had a planning CT and MRI as well as a planning FDG-PET/CT in the radiotherapy treatment position, wearing immobilization masks. All patients received radiation alone. In two patients, PET/CT changed not only the stage, but also the target volume requiring treatment. The third patient was unable to tolerate an MRI, but was able to undergo PET/CT, which improved the accuracy of the target volume. PET/CT aided the staging of and radiotherapy planning for our patients and appears to be a promising tool in the treatment of ENKTL
Espiner, Deborah; Guild, Diane
Many authors in the self-determination literature purport that students must be given every opportunity to be part of decision-making that impacts on their lives. Students with high support needs are often not afforded this opportunity. This article describes a student-centred educational planning strategy called the 3EPlan. The 3 E's of the…
刘先生家庭年度结余77万余元,为典型的421型高收入家庭.刘先生是做磷矿生意的,收入高风险也大,刘太太是农行柜员,收入较稳定,家有女儿读幼儿园,还有四老需要赡养.本理财规划方案在介绍刘先生家庭成员及资产情况基础上,编制家庭资产负债表和收入支出表,分析各项资产比率,指出刘先生家庭现阶段资产配置的不合理之处,旨在对该家庭进行现金规划、教育规划、住房规划、保险规划和投资规划.通过规划,该家庭的理财目标得以实现.%For Mr. Liu family is a typical 421 type of high income family. Its annual balance is more than 770000 yuan. Mr. Liu is doing phosphate rock business, and his income is high with high risk; his wife is an agriculture bank clerk, and her income is stable. His family members are a daughter who is in kindergarten, mother and father, mother in law and father in law. Based on introduction of Mr. Liu' s family and his asset, the paper works out the family balance sheet and income expenditure table, analyzes the assets ratio, and points out the unreasonable place in asset allocation of Mr. Liu's family, aiming to make cash planning, education planning, housing planning, insurance planning and investment planning for the family. Through the planning, the family's financial management target can be realized.
Full Text Available Long term care (LTC homes, also known as residential care homes, commonly care for residents until death, making palliative care and advance care planning (ACP important elements of care. However, limited research exists on ACP in LTC. In particular, research giving voice to family members and substitute decision makers is lacking. The objective of this research was to understand experiences, perspectives, and preferences to guide quality improvement of ACP in LTC. This qualitative descriptive study conducted 34 individual semistructured interviews in two LTC homes, located in Canada. The participants were 31 family members and three staff, consisting of a front line care worker, a registered nurse, and a nurse practitioner. All participants perceived ACP conversations as valuable to provide “resident-centred care”; however, none of the participants had a good understanding of ACP, limiting its effectiveness. Strategies generated through the research to improve ACP were as follows: educating families and staff on ACP and end-of-life care options; better preparing staff for ACP conversations; providing staff skills training and guidelines; and LTC staff initiating systematic, proactive conversations using careful timing. These strategies can guide quality improvement of palliative care and development of ACP tools and resources specific to the LTC home sector.
Jolliet, O; Munday, G L
A model which allows accurate prediction of energy consumption of a greenhouse is a useful tool for production planning and optimisation of greenhouse components. To date two types of model have been developed; some very simple models of low precision, others, precise dynamic models unsuitable for employment over long periods and too complex for use in practice. A theoretical study and measurements at the CERN trial greenhouse have allowed development of a new static model named "HORTICERN", easy to use and as precise as more complex dynamic models. This paper demonstrates the potential of this model for long-term production planning. The model gives precise predictions of energy consumption when given greenhouse conditions of use (inside temperatures, dehumidification by ventilation, …) and takes into account local climatic conditions (wind radiative losses to the sky and solar gains), type of greenhouse (cladding, thermal screen …). The HORTICERN method has been developed for PC use and requires less...
Harding, Richard; Molloy, Tim
Abstract Although HIV is now cast as a chronic condition with favourable clinical outcomes under new treatments, it is unclear how living with HIV affects expectations and planning for the future. This mixed methods study aimed to investigate UK gay men?s expectations of their own future when living with HIV, and to identify the heath and social interventions required to enhance roles, participation and personal fulfilment. A preliminary focus group identified relevant domains of e...
Ndirangu, Gathari; Gichangi, Anthony; Kanyuuru, Lynn; Otai, Jane; Mulindi, Rose; Lynam, Pamela; Koskei, Nancy; Tappis, Hannah; Archer, Linda
Women living in Nairobi's informal settlements face a higher risk of maternal death than those living elsewhere in the country, and have limited knowledge of actions they can take to improve their chances of survival during pregnancy and childbirth. As one strategy to reach this high risk group, Jhpiego has implemented young mothers' clubs (YMCs). These clubs comprise mothers aged 18-30 who come together on a weekly basis to share experiences and solutions to their challenges while receiving health education from health facility staff and community health workers (CHWs). The aim of this study was to assess whether the YMC strategy could be used to improve participants' knowledge of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), positive behavior around childbirth, and family planning. Participants in nine YMCs (n = 193) across four informal settlements were interviewed to assess their knowledge of safe motherhood topics before and after a series of eight health education sessions. Data were analyzed with the McNemar test to determine significance of change in knowledge pre- and post-intervention. The largest improvements were observed in knowledge about what to include in a birth plan, with correct responses increasing from 32 to 73% (p knowledge of danger signs of PPH (up 10% from 77%, p = 0.003). Although knowledge of actions to take in the event of bleeding after delivery did significantly improve, final knowledge scores remained low--knowledge to urinate increased from 14 to 28% (p knowledge of safe motherhood and family planning topics, suggesting that the materials and methods used were generally effective for improving knowledge among this high risk group. PMID:25585809
A cross sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA)
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla
We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial—MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0–28), average (29–55) and good ...
Jade Li, Chong
Transferring a business to the next generation can pose serious challenges, especially in the SMEs sector. In many cases, the owner of the SMEs is the pillar of the company and he/she is responsible for most of the functions in the business. Some are near irreplaceable, thus, making succession even more difficult. According to research, about two-thirds of all family businesses fail to make it from the first generation to the second, and even less make it to the third. Researchers believe tha...
Full Text Available Background: At present various active programmes on family planning are running over the few decades but considerate number of people yet not motivated to adopt the family planning in their practical life. The study was conducted to find out the unmet need of family planning among the married woman of reproductive age in a rural area. Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional type of descriptive study. Settings: The study was conducted at Rajurwadi village under Primary Health Unit. Subjects: All the married women of reproductive age, residing in a selected village of Primary Health Unit were selected as the study subject. Results: It was revealed from the present study that 27.7% of the respondents had unmet need for family planning. The reasons for unmet need were lack of knowledge, health concerns & Religious belief. Conclusion: Social correlates like age, religion & literacy status influenced the unmet needs of family planning. Good quality services and access to convenient methods are important to meet unmet need.
Objective To study son preferences and the contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practices of Indian Male Subjects & Methods The data was obtained through a semi-structured interview schedule caried out in 2 687 married men at Mumbai City, India in 1999.Results About 80% of men felt two children as their ideal family size, while 82%desired two children i.e. one son and one daughter. 8. 2% of men had strong prefer ence for two or more sons because of family lineage, old age support and to support each other.23. 1% of the couples had used contraceptives in the past, 48% of couples were not using any contraceptive method at the time of survey. Male participation in spacing contraceptive methods was 23% i.e. condom 21.9% and withdrawal 1.1%. Though awareness (99. 9% ) and knowledge (95. 2% ) of condom was high, only 42. 8% of subjects knew use the correct of the method. Only 2. 4% of them thought about accept ing vasectomy, while others reported various misconception.Conclusion This study suggests a pressing need for effective intervention strategies,both at the community level and the clinic level, backed with efficient motivation, coun seling and provision of quality services in urban areas.
Scott, Valerie K; Gottschalk, Lindsey B; Wright, Kelsey Q; Twose, Claire; Bohren, Meghan A; Schmitt, Megan E; Ortayli, Nuriye
This systematic review evaluates the strength of the evidence that community health workers' (CHW) provision of family planning (FP) services in low- and middle-income countries is effective. In a search of eight databases, articles were screened by study design and outcome measure and ranked by strength of evidence. Only randomized trials, longitudinal studies with a comparison group, and pre-test/post-test studies met inclusion criteria. A total of 56 studies were included. Of those studies with relevant data, approximately 93 percent indicated that CHW FP programs effectively increased the use of modern contraception, while 83 percent reported an improvement in knowledge and attitudes concerning contraceptives. Based on these findings, strong evidence exists for promoting CHW programs to improve access to FP services. We recommend a set of best practice guidelines that researchers and program managers can use to report on CHW FP programs to facilitate the translation of research to practice across a wide range of settings. PMID:26347089
Samuel, Melaku; Fetters, Tamara; Desta, Demeke
Where unmet need for the safest, most effective, and long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is very high, the health system and partners need to implement problem-solving, locally feasible, and comprehensive family planning delivery strategies. Because young and unmarried women are most at risk for unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion due to poor access to contraceptive services, postabortion family planning (PAFP) is a key component in such strategies. In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region, Ethiopia, Ipas implemented health system strengthening efforts from fiscal year (FY) 2010 (July 2009 to June 2010) to FY 2014 (July 2013 to June 2014) to improve the quality of PAFP services and expand method choice in 101 public facilities. The intervention significantly improved PAFP uptake at the project sites. Specifically, the proportion of abortion clients receiving LARCs progressively improved during the intervention period. The proportion of abortion clients who left the facilities with a contraceptive method increased from 58% in FY 2010 to 83% in FY 2014. The share of method mix for LARCs rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 55% in FY 2014, while the share for condoms, injectables, and oral contraceptives declined from 98% to 45%. Implant use rose from 2% in FY 2010 to 43% in FY 2014, while the use of intrauterine devices increased from 0.1% in FY 2010 to 12% in FY 2014. A larger proportion of PAFP users received LARCs at health centers, where midwives and nurses are the primary providers, than at hospitals (59% versus 37%, respectively). A broader method mix can satisfy clients with a variety of needs, a key factor for higher uptake of more effective methods and program success. Further evidence-based interventions need to be implemented to improve the quality of PAFP in a feasible and replicable strategy that addresses unmet need for modern contraceptive methods. PMID:27540126
Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh
Browne, J L; Chan, A Y C
Regular mammography facilitates early detection of breast cancer, and thus increases the chances of survival from this disease. Daughter-initiated (i.e. upward) communication about mammography within mother-daughter dyads may promote mammography to women of screening age. The current study examined this communication behaviour within the context of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and aimed to bridge the intention-behaviour gap by trialling an implementation intention (II) intervention that aimed to facilitate upward family communication about mammography. Young women aged 18-39 (N=116) were assigned to either a control or experimental condition, and the latter group formed IIs about initiating a conversation with an older female family member about mammography. Overall, those who formed IIs were more likely to engage in the target communication behaviour, however the intervention was most effective for those who reported low levels of intention at baseline. Perceived behavioural control emerged as the most important variable in predicting the target behaviour. The altruistic nature of this behaviour, and the fact that it is not wholly under volitional control, may have contributed to this finding. Future studies that systematically explore the relative roles of intention and perceived behavioural control in behaviours of this nature are warranted. PMID:21981385
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Nanda, Geeta; Ramírez, Luis F; Chen, Mario
In Guatemala, especially in rural areas, gender norms contribute to high fertility and closely spaced births by discouraging contraceptive use and constraining women from making decisions regarding the timing of their pregnancies and the size of their families. Community workshops for men, women and couples were conducted in 30 rural communities in Guatemala to test the hypothesis that the promotion of gender equity in the context of reproductive health will contribute to gender-equitable attitudes and strengthen the practice of family planning. Communities were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Pre/post surveys were conducted. Odds ratios estimated with mixed effect models to account for community-level randomization and repeated measures per participant were compared. The analyses showed statistically significant effects of the intervention on two of the three outcomes examined: gender attitudes and contraceptive knowledge. Findings regarding contraceptive use were suggestive but not significant. The results suggest that it is possible to influence both inequitable gender norms and reproductive health knowledge and, potentially, behaviours in a short span of time using appropriately designed communications interventions that engage communities in re-thinking the inequitable gender norms that act as barriers to health. PMID:25690416
Atilla Senih MAYDA
Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional and descriptive study is to learn the level of knowledge and source of knowledge about family planing, the rate of women using family planning methods and the causes of prefering the used methods of 15-49 years old women living in Duzce Permanent Residences. The population of the study ise 4394 women 15-49 years old. Cluster sampling is used and 280 women included to the study. A questionnaire containg 41 questions about family planning methods usage and the causes of prefer them was applied to women with face to face interview. The rate of 232 married women using effective planning method is 53.4%, traditional methods 24.6%and not using any method 22%. The rate of effective method usage of all 280 women included to the study is 45.7%, traditional 21.1% and not using any method 33.2%. The causes to prefer the methods are 72 women (25.7% ?reliable?, 33 women (11.8% ?side effects are less?, and 19 women (6.4% ?cheap?. All the women who began to use family planing methot by consulting with Health Center has used effective methods. Considering ?cheap? as a cause of prefer the method make us to think that the family planning methods could not be supported to the population unpaid. Using effective methods of all the women who began to use family planing methods by consulting with Health Center puts forward that Health Centers have an effective role in family planning activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(5.000: 265-279