WorldWideScience

Sample records for aids chronic infection

  1. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Gook Huh; Myoung-Don Oh; You-Sun Kim; Jong-Sung Lee; Tae-Yeob Jeong; Soo-Hyung Ryu; Jung-Hwan Lee; Jeong-Seop Moon; Yun-Kyung Kang; Myung-Shup Shim

    2008-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastro-intestinal manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Protozoa and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that can easily infect these patients.Among the NTM,Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequently observed pathogen in HIV-infected patients.However,NTMs other than MAC have not been reported as a gastrointestinal pathogen as yet.We present a case of chronic diarrhea in an AIDS patient in whom Mycobacterium ulcerans and cryptosporidium co-infection is evidenced from colonic tissue.

  2. What Triggers transient AIDS in the Acute Phase of HIV Infection and chronic AIDS at the End of the Incubation Period?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kramer

    2007-01-01

    Novel dynamical models are introduced demonstrating that the T helper cell (THC) density drops in the acute infection phase of HIV infection, sometimes causing transient AIDS, and at the end of the incubation period causing chronic AIDS have a common dynamical cause. The immune system's inability to produce enough uninfected THCs to replace the infected ones it is destroying causes a drop in the THC density at any stage of HIV infection. Increases in viral infectivity, probably caused by rand...

  3. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  4. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  5. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-08-26

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  6. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART, it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity.

  7. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the use of this language of chronicity to interpret the HIV/AIDS pandemic and calls into question some of the consequences of an uncritical acceptance of concepts of chronicity. PMID:21871074

  8. HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases and globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Colvin Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV/AIDS has always been one of the most thoroughly global of diseases. In the era of widely available anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is also commonly recognised as a chronic disease that can be successfully managed on a long-term basis. This article examines the chronic character of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and highlights some of the changes we might expect to see at the global level as HIV is increasingly normalised as "just another chronic disease". The article also addresses the ...

  9. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases

  10. HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者感染空肠弯曲菌的临床分析%Infections of Campylobacter Jejuni among Patients with HIV/AIDS-related Chronic Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华文浩; 王慧珠; 赵辉; 李敏; 张燕; 田敬华; 王玉光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Campylobacter jejuni infection status of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.Methods Micro - aerobic cultivation of stool specimens were carried out in 253 cases of HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea in Beijing, Henan, and Xinjiang.The colonies were identified according to morphology, Gram staining, and results frombiochemical reactions.Results Two strains of Campylobacter jejuni were identified from the 253 cases of HIV/AIDS - related chronic diarrhea ( infection rate: 0.8% ).Conclusion It is important that monitoring for Campylobacter jejuni be carried out in high risk patients for prevention and control of the infection of the bacteria.%目的 了解北京、河南、新疆三地HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者空肠弯曲菌的感染状况.方法 对北京、河南、新疆三地253例HIV/AIDS慢性腹泻患者的粪便标本进行微需氧培养,根据菌落的形态、菌体的革兰染色及生化反应进行鉴定.结果 从253例HIV/AIDS相关性慢性腹泻患者的粪便中共检出2株空肠弯曲菌,感染率为0.8%.结论 加强空肠弯曲菌的监测是预防和控制空肠弯曲菌病的重要手段.

  11. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  12. Chronic Infection and Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tara F; Kraft, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Chronic bacterial infection is implicated in both the development and severity of asthma. The atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae have been identified in the airways of asthmatics and correlated with clinical features such as adult onset, exacerbation risks, steroid sensitivity, and symptom control. Asthmatic patients with evidence of bacterial infection may benefit from antibiotic treatment directed towards these atypical organisms. Examination of the airway microbiome may identify microbial communities that confer risk for or protection from severe asthma. PMID:27401621

  13. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  14. [Treatment with doxycycline and nifuroxazide of Isospora belli infection in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyohas, M C; Capella, F; Poirot, J L; Lecomte, I; Binet, D; Eliaszewicz, M; Frottier, J

    1990-06-01

    Isospora belli infection is the most frequent coccidiosis after cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients. Chronic watery diarrhea is observed. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the recommended treatment. Four AIDS patients were intolerant to this drug and were treated with doxycycline and nifuroxazide. Three patients were cured. Two patients died of other infections. The two last patients relapsed and were treated again with long term doxycycline. No relapse occurred during the following twelve months. PMID:2385457

  15. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  16. Helicobacter Infection and Chronic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-chun Chi; Xin-juan Yu; Quan-jiang Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recentHelicobacter infection associated with chronic liver disease. The bacteriology, prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis were reviewed. Future work should be conducted on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease.

  17. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...

  18. Determinants of survival among HIV-infected chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Mendelson, Michael; O'Hare, Ann M; Hsu, Ling Chin; Schoenfeld, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    Over 100 HIV-infected patients have initiated chronic dialysis at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) since 1985. This study employed retrospective analysis to identify determinants of and trends in survival among HIV-infected patients who have initiated chronic dialysis at SFGH from January 1, 1985 to November 1, 2002 (n = 115). Cohort patient survival was compared with survival after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in all HIV-infected patients in San Francisco during the study period. Higher CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 per 50 cells/mm(3) increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.93) and serum albumin (HR, 0.53 per 1 g/dl increase; CI, 0.36 to 0.78) at initiation of dialysis were strongly associated with lower mortality. Survival for those initiating dialysis during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 16.1 mo versus 9.4 mo for those initiating dialysis before this time, but this difference was not statistically significant. In adjusted analysis, only a non-statistically significant trend toward improved survival during the HAART era was noted (HR, 0.59; CI, 0.34 to 1.04). By comparison, survival for all HIV-infected patients after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in San Francisco increased from 16 mo in 1994 to 81 mo in 1996. The dramatic improvement in survival that has occurred since the mid-1990s for patients with HIV appears to be greatly attenuated in the sub-group undergoing dialysis. Although this may partly reflect confounding by race, injection drug use and HCV co-infection, future attempts to improve survival among HIV-infected dialysis patients should focus on barriers to the effective use of HAART in this group.

  19. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  20. Effects of Smoking on Non-AIDS-Related Morbidity in HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Daniel K.; Kaner, Robert J.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has many adverse health consequences. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection smoke at very high rates, and many of the comorbidities associated with smoking in the general population are more prevalent in this population. It is likely that a combination of higher smoking rates along with an altered response to cigarette smoke throughout the body in persons with HIV infection leads to increased rates of the known conditions related to smoking. Several AIDS-defining conditions associated with smoking have been reviewed elsewhere. This review aims to summarize the data on non-AIDS-related health consequences of smoking in the HIV-infected population and explore evidence for the potential compounding effects on chronic systemic inflammation due to HIV infection and smoking. PMID:23572487

  1. Patient concerns regarding chronic hepatitis C infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuk, G Y; Gutkin, A; Wong, S G; Kaita, K D E

    2005-01-01

    Counselling of patients with chronic hepatitis C infections is often limited to discussions regarding how the virus is transmitted and what can be done to decrease the risk of transmission to others. The purpose of the present study was to document the principal concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C, and thereby enhance counselling strategies and content. Seventy newly diagnosed and 115 follow-up patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were initially asked in an open-ended manner (volunteered concerns) and then to prioritize from a prepared list of seven potential concerns (prioritized concerns), to identify those concerns that were of utmost importance to them. The most common volunteered concerns of newly diagnosed patients in decreasing order were: disease progression (27%), premature death (19%), infecting family members (13%), side-effects of treatment (11%) and miscellaneous others. In decreasing order, prioritized concerns included: infecting family members, development of liver cancer, infecting others, development of cirrhosis, social stigma of having liver disease, need for liver transplant and loss of employment. The principal volunteered and prioritized concerns of follow-up patients were similar to those of newly diagnosed patients. Volunteered and prioritized concerns were relatively consistent across the different genders, age groups, ethnic backgrounds, education level, marital status, employment, modes of viral acquisition and in the case of follow-up patients, duration of follow-up. These results indicate that health care providers who focus counselling efforts exclusively on viral transmission are unlikely to address other important concerns of newly diagnosed and follow-up patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:15655048

  2. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of lung infections in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franquet, Tomas [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Thoracic Radiology Section, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-03-15

    Non-AIDS immunocompromised patients are susceptible to infections by a wide range of organisms. In the past several decades, advances in the treatment of cancer, organ transplantation, and immunosuppressive therapy have resulted in large numbers of patients who develop abnormalities in their immune system. Moreover, mildly impaired host immunity as it occurs in chronic debilitating illness, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, alcoholism, advanced age, prolonged corticosteroid administration, and chronic obstructive lung disease have also been regarded as predisposing factors of pulmonary infections. Imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of patients with pulmonary infectious diseases. When pulmonary infection is suspected, knowledge of the varied radiographic manifestations will narrow the differential diagnosis, helping to direct additional diagnostic measures and serving as an ideal tool for follow-up examinations. Combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting is the best approach to pulmonary infection occurring in the immunocompromised patients. (orig.)

  3. Hematopoietic Stem and Immune Cells in Chronic HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person’s lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure.

  4. Hematopoietic Stem and Immune Cells in Chronic HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jielin; Crumpacker, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) belongs to multipotent adult somatic stem cells. A single HSC can reconstitute the entire blood system via self-renewal, differentiation into all lineages of blood cells, and replenishment of cells lost due to attrition or disease in a person's lifetime. Although all blood and immune cells derive from HSC, immune cells, specifically immune memory cells, have the properties of HSC on self-renewal and differentiation into lineage effector cells responding to the invading pathogens. Moreover, the interplay between immune memory cell and viral pathogen determines the course of a viral infection. Here, we state our point of view on the role of blood stem and progenitor cell in chronic HIV infection, with a focus on memory CD4 T-cell in the context of HIV/AIDS eradication and cure. PMID:26300920

  5. [Aspergillus infection and chronic septic granulomatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouy, R; Bremard, C; Fischer, A; Huu Trong, P; Vilmer, E; Griscelli, C

    1985-12-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood is a hereditary abnormality of phagocytic cells, frequently associated with Aspergillus infections. From 1969 to 1984, 14 of 37 children with chronic granulomatous disease have presented with pulmonary (13 cases) and/or osteo-articular (1 case) aspergillosis. The paucity of symptoms was a characteristic of these infections. Lung lesions extending to the thoracic chest wall carried the bad prognosis. Neither the Aspergillus skin test nor the Aspergillus serology could definitely confirm the diagnosis. Only broncho-alveolar lavage and biopsy with isolation of Aspergillus could confirm the diagnosis. Long-term therapy with amphotericin B alone or associated with other antifungal agents is necessary. For the past 3 years, ketoconazole prophylaxis has been used in 23 children and none of these children has developed aspergillosis.

  6. CMV co-infection and risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lichtner

    2012-11-01

    event/non-AIDS death (log-rank p=0.0006: 151 cancers, 128 CVD, 33 neurological, 1 renal. The association was still significant after controlling for a number of potential confounders: AHR 1.77 [95% CI 1.25–2.51] p=0.001; Table. In our study population, CMV/HIV co-infection was associated with the risk of non-AIDS events/deaths independently of other prognostic factors, supporting a potential role of CMV infection in vascular/ degenerative organ disorders commonly associated with chronic immune activation and aging.

  7. Persistent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Causes Ultimate Depletion of Follicular Th Cells in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Malam, Naomi; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-11-01

    CD4(+) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical for the generation of humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections, providing help for B cell development, survival, and affinity maturation of Abs. Although CD4(+) Tfh cells are reported to accumulate in HIV or SIV infection, we found that germinal center Tfh cells, defined in this study as CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH)CD4(+) T cells, did not consistently accumulate in chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques compared with those infected with less pathogenic simian HIV, vaccinated and SIVmac-challenged, or SIVmac-infected Mamu-A*01(+) macaques, all of which are associated with some control of virus replication and slower disease progression. Interestingly, CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymphoid tissues were eventually depleted in macaques with AIDS compared with the other cohorts. Chronic activation and proliferation of CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh were increased, but PD-L2 expression was downregulated on B cells, possibly resulting in germinal center Tfh cell apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest that changes in CXCR5(+)PD-1(HIGH) Tfh cells in lymph nodes correlate with immune control during infection, and their loss or dysregulation contribute to impairment of B cell responses and progression to AIDS.

  8. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  9. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  10. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    OpenAIRE

    Anousheh Safarcherati; Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili; Behrang Shadloo; Minoo Mohraz; Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that ther...

  11. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT.

  12. Methylotroph Infections and Chronic Granulomatous Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, E Liana; Petts, Jennifer R; Fasano, Mary Beth; Ford, Bradley; Nauseef, William M; Neves, João Farela; Simões, Maria João; Tierce, Millard L; de la Morena, M Teresa; Greenberg, David E; Zerbe, Christa S; Zelazny, Adrian M; Holland, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in production of phagocyte-derived reactive oxygen species, which leads to recurrent infections with a characteristic group of pathogens not previously known to include methylotrophs. Methylotrophs are versatile environmental bacteria that can use single-carbon organic compounds as their sole source of energy; they rarely cause disease in immunocompetent persons. We have identified 12 infections with methylotrophs (5 reported here, 7 previously reported) in patients with CGD. Methylotrophs identified were Granulibacter bethesdensis (9 cases), Acidomonas methanolica (2 cases), and Methylobacterium lusitanum (1 case). Two patients in Europe died; the other 10, from North and Central America, recovered after prolonged courses of antimicrobial drug therapy and, for some, surgery. Methylotrophs are emerging as disease-causing organisms in patients with CGD. For all patients, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was required for correct diagnosis. Geographic origin of the methylotroph strain may affect clinical management and prognosis.

  13. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  14. Host genetic factors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2010-04-01

    HIV-1 infection has rapidly spread worldwide and has become the leading cause of mortality in infectious diseases. The duration for development of AIDS (AIDS progression) is highly variable among HIV–1 infected individuals, ranging from 2–3 years to no signs of AIDS development in the entire lifetime. Several factors regulate the rate at which HIV-1 infection progresses to AIDS. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases as AIDS and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  15. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping;

    2011-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists.......Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists....

  16. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from medic

  17. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitanshu Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  18. Exfoliative cheilitis (EC) in AIDS: association with Candida infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Weigel, D; Schmidt-Westhausen, A; Pohle, H D

    1997-07-01

    Forty-seven of 165 patients with AIDS (28.5%) showed exfoliative cheilitis (EC), predominantly of the lower lip (n = 37). Histologically, hyphae were revealed in 23 of 47 cases (49%). In 14 of 23 specimens the histological and microbiological findings were in accordance. Smears of the vermilion border revealed Candida albicans in half of the cases (51%); however, combinations with C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were also seen. Twenty of 35 patients given fluconazole either prophylactically or therapeutically showed clinical signs of oral candidiasis. Frequent moistening of the lips may result in infection of the vermilion border with Candida species; consequent desiccation of the lips will lead to scale formation and exfoliation. Smears of the vermilion border of the lower lip of 20 controls with AIDS were positive in four cases. Twenty HIV-negative controls without EC showed negative microbiological results for Candida species. Exfoliative cheilitis may be associated with Candida infection in some cases and may be considered another variant of candidiasis in AIDS patients. PMID:9234190

  19. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elfstrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidia Elfstrand, Claes-Henrik FlorénDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status.Keywords: HIV, diarrhea, nutrition, bovine colostrum, CD4+ 

  20. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  1. Actinomyces and Nocardia Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi; Aida Doostkam

    2011-01-01

    Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of no...

  2. Chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    There are no standard guidelines to follow when apatient with chronic hepatitis B infection becomespregnant or desires pregnancy. Topics to considerinclude which patients to treat, when to start treatment,what treatment to use and when to stop treatment.Without any prophylaxis or antiviral therapy, a hepatitisB surface antigen and E antigen positive mother has upto a 90% likelihood of vertical transmission of hepatitisB virus (HBV) to child. Standard of care in the UnitedStates to prevent perinatal transmission consists ofadministration of hepatitis B immune globulin andHBV vaccination to the infant. The two strongest riskfactors of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBVinfection despite immunoprophylaxis are high maternalHBV viral load and high activity of viral replication.The goal is to prevent transmission of HBV at birthby decreasing viral load and/or decreasing activity ofthe virus. Although it is still somewhat controversial,most evidence shows that starting antivirals in thethird trimester is effective in decreasing MTCT withoutaffecting fetal development. There is a growing body ofliterature supporting the safety and efficacy of antiviraltherapies to reduce MTCT of hepatitis B. There areno formal recommendations regarding which agent tochoose. Tenofovir, lamivudine and telbivudine have allbeen proven efficacious in decreasing viral load at birthwithout known birth defects, but final decision of whichantiviral medication to use will have to be determinedby physician and patient. The antivirals may bediscontinued immediately if patient is breastfeeding, orwithin first four weeks if infant is being formula fed.

  3. The possession of technical aids among persons with a somatic chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Rijken, M.; Poppel, M. van; Bruin, A. de

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has highlighted disability as a determinant of the need for technical aids; surprisingly, disease as a potential determinant has been ignored. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the possession of technical aids is dependent on the type of chronic diseas

  4. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  5. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang;

    2012-01-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated...... the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis....

  6. Ribavirin monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Adding ribavirin to interferon improves treatment response for patients with chronic hepatitis C, but the effects of ribavirin monotherapy are unclear. We conducted a systematic review to assess the benefits and harms of ribavirin monotherapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C....

  7. Invasive fungal infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriet, S.S.V.; Verweij, P.E.; Holland, S.M.; Warris, A.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the CGD host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. In ad

  8. Chronic hepatitis E infection in lung transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos-Brilman, Annelies; Puchhammer-Stockl, Elisabeth; van der Weide, Hinke Y.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Jaksch, Peter; Bejvl, Isabella; Niesters, Hubert G.; Verschuuren, Erik A. M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 has been identified in patients with autochthonous HEV infections in developed countries and is currently being recognized as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. HEV infection may lead to a chronic hepatitis in immune-compromised patients. METHODS: We studie

  9. Management of chronic diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: cross-fertilisation between HIV/AIDS and diabetes care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmen, J. van; Schellevis, F.; Damme, W. van; Kegels, G.; Rasschaert, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing attention for chronic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and for bridges between the management of HIV/AIDS and other (noncommunicable) chronic diseases. This becomes more urgent with increasing numbers of people living with both HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. This paper d

  10. Analysis on the imaging features of AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-bo; ZHANG Yong-gao; YUE Song-wei; LI Hong-jun; NING Pei-gang; GUO Hua; XIAO Hui-juan

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary fungal infection is one type of the common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. The disease is hard to diagnose because of its complicated imaging features. The objective of this study was to investigate the imaging performance characteristics of pulmonary fungal infection in AIDS patients.Methods Fifty-one patients with AIDS complicated with pulmonary fungal infection and 56 patients of non-AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection were examined by CT scans and high-resolution CT scans. The contrast enhanced scans were performed in patients with the mass or suspected enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Results were compared between the two groups.Results The most common fungal infection in the two groups of patients was Candida albicans. The infection rates were 54.8% (28 cases) in the group (AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection) and 58.3% (32 cases) in another group (non-AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection). In the two groups, the difference in diffuse distribution and the difference in incidence of affected upper and lower lobes in the bilateral lung fields were statistically significant. The differences in patchy or large consolidation shadow, cavitas, enlarged lymph nodes in mediastinum and pleural effusion were also significant when comparing the two groups.Conclusions The lesion in most of AIDS patients with pulmonary fungal infection tends to exhibit diffuse distribution,patchy or large consolidation shadow covering a more extensive region. The differences between AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection and non-AIDS with pulmonary fungal infection are statistically significant in lesion location and complicated imaging features. The most common fungal infection in AIDS patients is Candida albicans.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without......This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk of...... infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains of...

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the risk of infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Throughout the years there have been a number of studies describing the risk of pulmonary infections in patients with COPD, whereas only few studies have focused on the risk...... of infection outside the lungs. With increasing severity of COPD the risk of respiratory tract infection also increases. The impairment of the innate immune system is most likely responsible for both the colonization of respiratory tract with bacteria and for an increased risk of infection with new strains...... of bacteria causing acute exacerbations. Also lung infections like pneumonia, lung abscess and empyema are more often seen in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects. With regard to extrapulmonary infections, it seems that COPD patients are not at higher risk of infection compared with subjects without...

  13. Immunophototherapy for the treatment of AIDS and AIDS-related infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1992-06-01

    Immunophototherapy (IPT) is an experimental method of medical treatment that seeks to provide for the selective destruction of diseased cells and microbes such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-T4 cells and the rapid elimination of their toxic by-products from the human body. Photosensitive monoclonal or polyclonal antibody fragments, which are specific to the diseased cell or microbe, will be used to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related infections. These antibody fragments are tagged with photosensitive compounds and metal colloids and then intravenously injected into the patient. The tagged antibodies quickly and selectively bind to the diseased cells or microbes in the blood stream and affected organs. These cells or microbes are then selectively destroyed by irradiation of these complexes with light of the proper wavelength. This light activates the photosensitive material which then creates singlet oxygen that destroys the microbe or cell. Toxic products of lysis are quickly discharged from the body by activation of the reticuloendothelial system. IPT has been demonstrated by Biotronics to be very effective in the in vitro selective destruction of specified cell types. In a proposed AIDS-treatment research program, IPT will be first demonstrated in vitro for a set of infected blood samples using commercially-available antibodies labeled with appropriate photosensitizers. Efficacy will be determined by a p24 antigen immunodiagnostic test that will indicate the % inhibition in comparison to controls and samples treated with the drug AZT. Subcontracted animal efficacy studies will use a SCID-hu mouse model and PCR/DNA-RNA for endpoint analysis. Toxicity studies of animal (rat) models will be based on post-treatment investigations of lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other organs.

  14. Survey of mycotic infection in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi A

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the fungous infections of AIDS stricken patients, a study which lasted 1.5 years was conducted, in which 21 patients were examined. The subjects were 20 males and a female. One of the male patients was from Uganda, another was an intravenous drug addict, and one had been abroad for sometimes and had received blood there. All other patients had also blood transfusion instances before 1984. To do the research, 414 laboratory specimens were gathered and examined regarding fungus involvement. The result showed 104 negative and 310 positive cases. Based on these findings and also clinical examination, all patients suffered from one or more fungous infections in the forms of oral candidiasis, perleche, candidal onychomycosis, perianal candidiasis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, tinea versicolor, pityrosporosis and rhodotrulosis. The latter caused skin lesion with scaling and is being reported for the first time. Candida parapsilosis and trichosporon pololans were also isolated specimens. However, concerning the diagnostic value of trichosporon pololans more investigation is needed.

  15. Evolução fatal da co-infecção doença de Chagas/Aids: dificuldades diagnósticas entre a reagudização da miocardite e a miocardiopatia chagásica crônica Fatal evolution of Chagas'disease/Aids co-infection: diagnostic difficulties between myocarditis reactivation and chronic chagasic myocardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Chagas é uma parasitose causada pelo protozoário Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitido por insetos triatomíneos. A doença ocorre desde o sul dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte até a Argentina, sendo que, aproximadamente, 14 milhões de pessoas devam estar infectados na América Latina, predominantemente na forma crônica da doença. A reagudização da doença de Chagas pode ocorrer em imunossuprimidos, como tem sido observado em pacientes com aids. Verificou-se descompensação cardíaca em um destes casos, com grave disfunção ventricular e arritmias sendo considerada a possibilidade de reagudização da doença de Chagas no miocárdio, uma vez que o xenodiagnóstico foi positivo. Face a gravidade foi tratado especificamente para o Trypanosoma cruzi com benznidazol, porém sem completar o tempo estipulado para este fim, vindo a falecer em conseqüência de complicações da cardiopatia. A necropsia apresentou os estigmas habituais da cardiopatia chagásica crônica como miocardite fibrosante e redução do número de neurônios no tubo digestório, não sendo encontradas formas amastigotas do Trypanosoma cruzi em nenhum dos tecidos examinados. Assim, não ficou demonstrada a reagudização da doença de Chagas, mas sim evolução natural da cardiopatia chagásica crônica.Chagas disease is a type of parasitosis caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is transmitted by triatomine insects. This disease is found between the southern United States to Argentina and approximately 14 million people in Latin America are believed to be infected, predominantly with the chronic form of the disease. Reactivation of Chagas disease can occur among immunosuppressed patients, as has been observed among AIDS patients. In one such case, we observed cardiac decompensation with severe ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias. This case was thought to be reactivation of Chagas disease in the myocardium, since the xenodiagnosis was

  16. Severe bacterial non-aids infections in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, O S; Reekie, J; Ristola, M;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine incidence rates (IR) and identify risk factors for severe bacterial non-AIDS infections (SBnAI) requiring hospital admission.......This study aimed to determine incidence rates (IR) and identify risk factors for severe bacterial non-AIDS infections (SBnAI) requiring hospital admission....

  17. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  18. Prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Talwar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections (RTIs is widely prevalent in the country. According to WHO, over 300 million new cases of sexually-transmitted infections (excluding HIV occur each year. In addition to these, HIV infection is spreading rapidly in the country with over 3.7 million sero-positive cases (from zero within 15 years.. The predominant mode of transmission of HIV is by heterosexual route. The multidrug regime for treatment is expensive (about $10,000 per year which is beyond the reach of most of the people. No viable vaccine preventing AIDS infection is in sight. Under these circumstances, safe sex is the best recourse, which demands consistent and proper use of condoms. This does not take place to the extent necessary for preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections. A polyherbal tablet for intravaginal use by women has been developed and a polyherbal cream, for use by both men and women, which has a wide spectrum antimicrobial action. Amongst others, these inhibit the growth of Neisseria gonorrhea (including strains resistant to penicillin. normal and multidrug-resistant isolates of urinary tract E. coli, Candida albicans. Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Applied intravaginally, these prevent the transmission of Herpes simplex 2 and Chlamydia Irachomatis in progestin-sensitised mice. Studies conducted at the Institut Pasteur. Paris and Conrad Norfolk, USA, have demonstrated high virucidal action of these formulations against HIV . Both formulations have undergone phase I clinical trials in five major centres in India and abroad, which have indicated the complete safety of these products without any local or systemic side effects. The Drug Controller of India and the Institutional Ethics Committees have approved phase II clinical trials. The first of these trials was conducted in 88 women with abnormal vaginal discharge due to genital pathogens at the Postgraduate

  19. Incidence, severity, and prevention of infections in chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouy, R; Fischer, A; Vilmer, E; Seger, R; Griscelli, C

    1989-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the frequency and nature of infections occurring in 48 patients with chronic granulomatous disease. The long-term use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ketoconazole as a preventive therapy for infections has also been evaluated. Lymphadenitis, lung infections, dermatitis, enteral infections, and hepatic abscesses were the most frequent infections. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Aspergillus were the main microorganisms encountered. Twelve patients died: five from lung aspergillosis, three from hepatic abscesses, two from pneumonopathy of unknown origin, one from salmonellosis, and one from another probable infection that could not be proved. The actuarial survival rate was 50% at 10 years of age, with a prolonged plateau thereafter. There was no difference in survival rates between patients with X-linked and those with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease. The 8-year actuarial survival rate was significantly higher for patients born in 1978 or afterward than for patients born before 1978 (92.9% vs 70.5%). A retrospective analysis of the occurrence of bacterial and fungal infections in patients who received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ketoconazole as infection prophylaxis indicated that the former was effective against bacterial infections but that ketoconazole provided no protection against Aspergillus infections.

  20. [Association between chronic urinary tract infection and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Wang, J B; Wang, S

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains unclear, and at present, this disease is considered to be caused by the combined effect of genetic factors, infection, autoimmunity, and environmental factors. Since infection is the major cause for PBC, scholars have been focusing on the association between chronic microbial infection. Studies have shown that Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium for urinary tract infection (UTI), and recurrent UTI has been confirmed to be a risk factor for the development and progression of autoimmune liver diseases and is closely associated with PBC. This article investigates the association between UTI and PBC and possible mechanisms. PMID:27465958

  1. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most research into bacterial pathogenesis has focused on acute infections, but these diseases have now been supplemented by a new category of chronic infections caused by bacteria growing in slime-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms. Biofilm infections, such as pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients, chronic wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence. In general, bacteria have two life forms during growth and proliferation. In one form, the bacteria exist as single, independent cells (planktonic) whereas in the other form, bacteria are organized into sessile aggregates. The latter form is commonly referred to as the biofilm growth phenotype. Acute infections are assumed to involve planktonic bacteria, which are generally treatable with antibiotics, although successful treatment depends on accurate and fast diagnosis. However, in cases where the bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often turns out to be untreatable and will develop into a chronic state. The important hallmarks of chronic biofilm-based infections are extreme resistance to antibiotics and many other conventional antimicrobial agents, and an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. In this thesis, I will assemble the current knowledge on biofilms with an emphasis on chronic infections, guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of these infections, before relating this to my previous research into the area of biofilms. I will present evidence to support a view that the biofilm lifestyle dominates chronic bacterial infections, where bacterial

  2. Subclinical microbial infection in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenjev, I; Rogl Butina, M; Potocnik, M

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence implicates bacterial infection as a common triggering stimulus for psoriasis. Recent studies suggest that continuing, subclinical streptococcal and staphylococcal infections might be responsible not only for relapse of acute guttate psoriasis but also for a new episode of chronic plaque psoriasis. In this study 195 patients suffering from a severe form of chronic plaque psoriasis hospitalized between 1996 and 1998 were examined. The presence of subclinical microbial infection of the upper respiratory tract was studied by the cultivation of pathogens from this area. Patients with other provoking factors, such as a positive history of taking any drugs that may exacerbate psoriasis, endocrine and metabolic factors, alcohol abuse, trauma, dental focus and clinically evident bacterial infection, were excluded. Subclinical streptococcal and/or staphylococcal infections were detected in 68% of tested patients and in only 11% of the control group. The results of this study indicate that subclinical bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract may be an important factor in provoking a new relapse of chronic plaque psoriasis. Searching for, and eliminating, microbial infections could be of importance in the treatment of psoriasis.

  3. PD-1 blockade in chronically HIV-1-infected humanized mice suppresses viral loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Seung

    Full Text Available An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012, with the number of infected persons rising every year. Increases in HIV prevalence have resulted not only from new infections, but also from increases in the survival of HIV-infected persons produced by effective anti-retroviral therapies. Augmentation of anti-viral immune responses may be able to further increase the survival of HIV-infected persons. One strategy to augment these responses is to reinvigorate exhausted anti-HIV immune cells present in chronically infected persons. The PD-1-PD-L1 pathway has been implicated in the exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using blocking anti-PD-1 antibodies has been shown to reduce simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV loads in monkeys. We now show that PD-1 blockade can improve control of HIV replication in vivo in an animal model. BLT (Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus humanized mice chronically infected with HIV-1 were treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody over a 10-day period. The PD-1 blockade resulted in a very significant 45-fold reduction in HIV viral loads in humanized mice with high CD8(+ T cell expression of PD-1, compared to controls at 4 weeks post-treatment. The anti-PD-1 antibody treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CD8(+ T cells. PD-1 blockade did not affect T cell expression of other inhibitory receptors co-expressed with PD-1, including CD244, CD160 and LAG-3, and did not appear to affect virus-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that inhibiting PD-1 signaling can reduce HIV viral loads in vivo in the humanized BLT mouse model, suggesting that blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients already infected with the AIDS virus.

  4. Biofilms in chronic infections - a matter of opportunity - monospecies biofilms in multispecies infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Fazli, Mustafa;

    2010-01-01

    It has become evident that aggregation or biofilm formation is an important survival mechanism for bacteria in almost any environment. In this review, we summarize recent visualizations of bacterial aggregates in several chronic infections (chronic otitis media, cystic fibrosis, infection due...... to permanent tissue fillers and chronic wounds) both as to distribution (such as where in the wound bed) and organization (monospecies or multispecies microcolonies). We correlate these biofilm observations to observations of commensal biofilms (dental and intestine) and biofilms in natural ecosystems (soil......). The observations of the chronic biofilm infections point toward a trend of low bacterial diversity and sovereign monospecies biofilm aggregates even though the infection in which they reside are multispecies. In contrast to this, commensal and natural biofilm aggregates contain multiple species that are believed...

  5. Chronic mucus hypersecretion in COPD and death from pulmonary infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1995-01-01

    The association of chronic mucus hypersecretion and mortality is a matter of debate. We wished to determine whether the relationship between chronic mucus hypersecretion and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related mortality could be explained by proneness to pulmonary infection. We...... followed 14,223 subjects of both sexes for 10-12 yrs. Cases where COPD was an underlying or contributory cause of death (n = 214) were included, and hospital records were obtained when possible (n = 101). From the presence of increased mucus, purulent mucus, fever, leucocytosis and infiltration on chest...... without chronic mucus hypersecretion. Controlling for covariates, in particular smoking habits, a Cox analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between ventilatory function and COPD-related mortality. Chronic mucus hypersecretion was found to be a significant predictor of COPD-related death with...

  6. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection definition: EuroCareCF Working Group report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T; Bohmova, C; Conway, S;

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa develops in most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); by adulthood 80% of patients are infected and chronic P. aeruginosa infection is the primary cause of increased morbidity and mortality in CF. Chronic infection is preceded by an intermittent stage...

  7. The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is broad and comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and neoplasms. It is estimated that approximately one-third of all patients with AIDS develop neurological complications. The organisms responsible for AIDS are human retroviruses: primarily the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). In this review we shall focus on the neurological complications of HIV and AIDS which are applicable to the more frequently occurring intracranial infective organisms. Attention will be paid specifically to those CNS manifestations occurring in the adult HIV and AIDS population as infection in the paediatric HIV and AIDS group, although bearing some similarities, demonstrates some important differences

  8. Case 1: chronic infected donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Following a coronary bypass surgery, a vein donor site became infected and failed to heal despite use of antibiotics and a variety of topical treatments. Octenilin Wound Gel not only helped to promote healing, but also increased the patient's ability to tolerate dressing changes. PMID:26949845

  9. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type Ⅳ secretion system.METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pyloritype Ⅰ strain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 Acag Y (defective type Ⅳ secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry.Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase,lipase, and glucose levels were determined.RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%.Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immunohistochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased.Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue,but not in the pancreas.CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type Ⅳ secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer.

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.N. Stoop (Jeroen Nicolaas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide 400 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 1 million people die annually from HBV-related disease. To clear HBV, an effective immune response, in which several cell types and cytokines play a role, is important. It is known that p

  11. Therapeutic vaccination against chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ip, Peng Peng; Nijman, Hans W.; Wilschut, Jan; Daemen, Toos

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 170 million people worldwide are chronic carriers of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). To date, there is no prophylactic vaccine available against HCV. The standard-of-care therapy for HCV infection involves a combination of pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. This therapy, which is commonly

  12. Chagas' disease and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidian, Anil K; Louis M Weiss; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overlap of HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi infection occurs not only in endemic ar...

  13. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04494.001 PMID:25599590

  14. The role of bacterial biofilms in chronic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    wounds, chronic otitis media and implant- and catheter-associated infections, affect millions of people in the developed world each year and many deaths occur as a consequence. In general, bacteria have two life forms during growth and proliferation. In one form, the bacteria exist as single, independent......Acute infections caused by pathogenic bacteria have been studied extensively for well over 100 years. These infections killed millions of people in previous centuries, but they have been combated effectively by the development of modern vaccines, antibiotics and infection control measures. Most...... cells (planktonic) whereas in the other form, bacteria are organized into sessile aggregates. The latter form is commonly referred to as the biofilm growth phenotype. Acute infections are assumed to involve planktonic bacteria, which are generally treatable with antibiotics, although successful...

  15. Infections and inequalities: anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gonzalez

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.

  16. Chronic Infections and Management Setting in Drug Addicts of MMT Program in Pinang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The authors sought to identify the prevalence of blood-borne chronic infections and determine the appropriate management therapy setting among the drug addicts of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program. The purpose to identify such factor is to know the quality of health of respondents active to MMT program and possibly predict the risk reduction of relapse during the treatment. Methodology: As it was known that government of Malaysia allowed MMT on large scale at 2005, so a year retrospective with six months prospective study (from Jan 2007 to May 2008 was conducted in three methadone clinics of Pinang state, Malaysia. All the registered patients were included in the study and data was collected through special design data collection form by reviewing the medical profiles. Results: Findings showed HIV/AIDS was found in 2.3%, HCV 76.3%, HBV 3.3%, while 37.7% respondents were identified impaired liver function. The risk combination was HCV with impaired liver function identified in 39.5% respondents. None of them receives any supportive management treatment for the current chronic infectious condition. Conclusion: This study highly recommends producing necessary resources for the management treatment of Drug addicts for such chronic infection, as further delay can possibly increase the risk to transmit the infection in the society.

  17. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in an AIDS Patient without Concurrent Pulmonary Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Allen T; Miedzinski, Lil J.; Eric Vallieres; Rayner, David C; Lien, Dale C

    1995-01-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are potentially at increased risk for developing secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis because of underlying immunosuppression and frequent opportunistic lung infections. This condition. however, has been diagnosed uncommonly in these patients and, with the exception of one previously reported case. only in the presence of concurrent pulmonary infection. The case of a 35-year-old male with AIDS who was found on open lung biopsy to hav...

  18. The Innovative of Anxiety Disorder Healing: Nutri Moringa Pudding for HIV/AIDS-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ingga Yonico Martatino; Rizki Habibie; Alimatus Sahrah; Adhitya Angga Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorder is a common psychologically symptom in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. These disorders include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among HIV/AIDS-infected patients receiving medical care, 20.3% have been found to have an anxiety disorder, with 12.3% meeting the criteria for panic disorder, 10.4% for PTSD, and 2.8% having generalized anxiety disorder. Patients with other psychiatric disorders, such...

  19. Occurrence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in a Community-Based Cohort of Indigent Adults Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskowski, C; Penko, JM; D. Guzman; Mattson, JE; Bangsberg, DR; Kushel, MB

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but little is known about chronic pain in socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-infected populations with high rates of substance abuse in the postantiretroviral era. This cross-sectional study describes the occurrence and characteristics of pain in a community-based cohort of 296 indigent PLWHA. Participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographics, substance use, depression, and pain. Cut-point analysis was used to generate cat...

  20. The Role of Bacterial Biofilms in Chronic Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Danh Cong

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm is the virulence factor that is responsible for chronic infection in diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and chronic wounds. In this thesis, we examine the role of AlgX, a required protein for alginate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa. We show that the absence of AlgX resulted in the loss of mucoidy and in silico studies demonstrated that AlgX binds alginate. Alanine mutations demonstrated that K396, T398, W400, and R406 are important for alginate binding. Alginate rescue assays confir...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  2. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    AMDV inoculation. Gross pathology revealed few and inconsistent findings mainly associated with the liver, spleen and kidneys. The majority of the AMDV inoculated wild type mink (n = 41) developed various histopathological changes consistent with AMDV infection in one or more organs: infiltrations...... knowledge based on a systematically description of clinical signs, pathology and histopathology might be a tool to reduce the risk of infection from subclinically infected mink to AMDV free herds. The aim of this study was to give a histopathological description of the progression of a chronic experimental...... of mononuclear cells in liver, kidney and brain, reduced density of lymphocytes and increased numbers of plasma cells in lymph nodes and spleen. Natural infection, as occurred in the sentinel sapphire mink (four of six mink), progressed similar to the experimentally inoculated mink. Experimental AMDV inoculation...

  3. THE CYTOKINE IP-10 IN CHRONIC HBV AND HCV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S. Nikolova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: IP-10 it has been studied as a predictor of treatment response in chronic HCV infected patients. The data for the HBV infection are not enough.Aim: To compare IP-10 levels in patients with chronic HBV /CHB/ and HCV infection /CHC/ and their relation to liver disease and treatment response. Material and methods: 20 patients - with CHC genotype 1 infection /on standard bi-therapy/ and 32 patients with CHB /21 pts - NUC; 11 pts - IFN/. Results: The IP-10 did not correlate with sex, age, ALT and liver fibrosis. The basal IP-10 were lower in patients with CHB (p=0,017. There was a difference in IP-10 baseline levels among the HCV patients with or without RVR (p=0,007. A negative correlation was found between basal IP-10 and RVR (r= -0,508; p=0,008. Conclusion: IP-10 could predict virological response in patients with CHC on standard bi-therapy, but not in HBV infected patients on standard therapy.

  4. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds.

  5. B cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A; Dahmes, Sallie J; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mason, Gary L; Telling, Glenn C; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) blood infectivity is associated with the cellular versus the cell-free/plasma fraction of blood and (ii) in particular if B-cell (MAb 2-104(+)), platelet (CD41/61(+)), or CD14(+) monocyte blood cell phenotypes harbor infectious prions. All four deer transfused with the blood mononuclear cell fraction from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive by 19 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer inoculated with cell-free plasma from the same source developed prion infection. All four of the deer injected with B cells and three of four deer receiving platelets from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive in as little as 6 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer receiving blood CD14(+) monocytes developed evidence of CWD infection (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) after 19 months of observation. Results of the Tg(CerPrP) mouse bioassays mirrored those of the native cervid host. These results indicate that CWD blood infectivity is cell associated and suggest a significant role for B cells and platelets in trafficking CWD infectivity in vivo and support earlier tissue-based studies associating putative follicular B cells with PrP(CWD). Localization of CWD infectivity with leukocyte subpopulations may aid in enhancing the sensitivity of blood-based diagnostic assays for CWD and other TSEs. PMID:20219916

  6. Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy in ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, M.; McNeill, G.; Crandall, C.; Case, T.; Witte, C.; Crandall, R.; Hall, J.; Williams, W.

    1988-12-01

    Whole body lymphangioscintigraphy was performed after intradermal injection of /sup 99m/technetium human serum albumin or antimony colloid in the distal hindlimbs and forelimbs of ferrets chronically infected with Brugia malayi. The findings were compared with control ferrets and those with surgical interruption of the iliac lymphatics. While only one infected ferret manifested chronic hindlimb lymphedema, all exhibited delayed transport of radioisotope from the hindpaw with obstruction in the groin, poor or absent visualization of central lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes, a picture similar to that following surgically induced lymphatic obstruction. In control ferrets, there was prompt visualization of peripheral lymphatic channels and regional lymph nodes with sharper and more extensive channel visualization after radiolabeled albumin and more intense sustained nodal visualization after radiolabeled antimony colloid. This noninvasive technique provides a readily repeatable investigative tool adaptable to small animals to study the evolution of lymphatic filariasis and other conditions associated with lymphatic obstruction.

  7. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  8. Association between Celiac Disease and Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Ashish; Reddy, Chandrasekhar; Duseja, Ajay; Chawla, Yogesh; Radha K. Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease affects the proximal small intestine and is caused by a local immune response to dietary gluten. Celiac disease usually presents with chronic diarrhea; however, presentations with elevated hepatic transaminase levels in blood or with iron-deficiency anemia have been described. Celiac disease has been reported to be associated with autoimmune liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can also initiate autoimmune disease process. Therefore, HCV infection and celiac disease may occu...

  9. Acremonium kiliense infection in a child with chronic granulomatous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Pastorino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by unusual microorganisms can be one of the clinical manifestations of primary immunodeficiency (PID. We report on a four-month-old child with pneumonia caused by the fungus Acremonium kiliense as the first clinical manifestation of chronic granulomatous disease. We emphasize the importance of an active search for unusual organisms in immunodeficient patients, and a precise diagnosis and early institution of specific treatment against such microorganisms for the reduction of the morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  10. Biofilms in chronic infections - a matter of opportunity - monospecies biofilms in multispecies infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed; Fazli, Mustafa;

    2010-01-01

    to permanent tissue fillers and chronic wounds) both as to distribution (such as where in the wound bed) and organization (monospecies or multispecies microcolonies). We correlate these biofilm observations to observations of commensal biofilms (dental and intestine) and biofilms in natural ecosystems (soil......). The observations of the chronic biofilm infections point toward a trend of low bacterial diversity and sovereign monospecies biofilm aggregates even though the infection in which they reside are multispecies. In contrast to this, commensal and natural biofilm aggregates contain multiple species that are believed...

  11. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  12. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  13. Frequency of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection among Iranian Patients with HIV/AIDS by PPD Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fattahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Persons infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are particularly susceptible to tuberculosis, either by latent infection reactivation or by a primary infection with rapid progression to active disease. This study was done to determine the frequency of tuberculosis infection among Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS. A total of 262 HIV/AIDS patients attending all three HIV/AIDS health care centers of Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. A detailed history and physical examination were obtained from all HIV patients suspected of having pulmonary M. tuberculosis. A positive PPD skin test was used as a diagnostic parameter for probability of TB infection. Out of 262 HIV/AIDS patients, a total of 63 (24% were shown to have the tuberculosis infection based on a positive PPD skin test. Of the patients with positive PPD skin test, 22 (35% had pulmonary Tuberculosis, 2 (3.2% had extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and 39 (53% had no evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (latent infection. Also 8 (12.7% had history of long term residence in a foreign country, 32 (50.8% were exposed to an index case, and 9 (14.3% had past history of pulmonary tuberculosis, while only 33.3% had clinical manifestations of TB (active disease. There was no resistant case of tuberculosis. Our study showed that near 24% of Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS were infected with M. tuberculosis. This finding denotes the need to improve the diagnostic and preventive measures, and also prompt treatment of this type of infection in the HIV infected individuals.

  14. Heterosexually Acquired HIV Infection in a Chinese Population in Malaysia-HIV/AIDS control policy recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王京

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction HIV infection and AIDS has emerged as a major public health problem all over the world. In the1980s,the infection was first found to be transmitted through homosexual activity and blood product transfusion. Now it is spreading among heterosexuals and injection drug users, and can be transmitted from mothers to infants.

  15. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Induction due to Infection: A Patient with Infective Endocarditis and Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Fareed B; Hawkins, T Lee-Ann

    2016-01-01

    While antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain vasculitides, ANCA induction in the setting of infection is much less common. In the case of infective endocarditis, patients may present with multisystem disturbances resembling an autoimmune process, cases that may be rendered even trickier to diagnose in the face of a positive ANCA. Though not always straightforward, distinguishing an infective from an inflammatory process is pivotal in order to guide appropriate therapy. We describe an encounter with a 43-year-old male with chronically untreated hepatitis C virus infection who featured ANCA positivity while hospitalized with acute bacterial endocarditis. His case serves as a reminder of two of the few infections known to uncommonly generate ANCA positivity. We also summarize previously reported cases of ANCA positivity in the context of endocarditis and hepatitis C infections. PMID:27366166

  16. Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in an AIDS Patient without Concurrent Pulmonary Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen T Liu

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS are potentially at increased risk for developing secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis because of underlying immunosuppression and frequent opportunistic lung infections. This condition. however, has been diagnosed uncommonly in these patients and, with the exception of one previously reported case. only in the presence of concurrent pulmonary infection. The case of a 35-year-old male with AIDS who was found on open lung biopsy to have pulmonary alveolar proteinosis without evidence of associated lung infection is presented.

  17. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacoub, Patrice; Comarmond, Cloe; Domont, Fanny; Savey, Léa; Desbois, Anne C; Saadoun, David

    2016-02-01

    During hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection, extrahepatic manifestations are frequent and polymorphous. This article reports on a large cohort of patients with HCV-related autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders, from mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis to frank lymphomas. The relationship between HCV infection and such immune-related diseases has been formally demonstrated by epidemiological, clinical, immunological and pathological data, and results of therapeutic trials. More recently, other nonliver-related HCV disorders have been reported, including cardiovascular (i.e. stroke, ischemic heart disease), renal, metabolic and central nervous system diseases. For these manifestations, most evidence comes from large epidemiological studies; there is a need for mechanistic studies and therapeutic trials for confirmation. Beyond the risk of developing liver complications, that is, cirrhosis and liver cancer, patients with HCV infection have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality related to nonliver diseases. HCV chronic infection should be analyzed as a systemic disease in which extrahepatic consequences increase the weight of its pathological burden. The need for effective viral eradication measures is underlined. PMID:26862398

  18. Effect of chronic FIV infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Caney, Sarah M A; Day, Michael J; Dean, Rachel S; Helps, Chris R; Knowles, Toby G; Lait, Philippa J P; Pinches, Mark D G; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2006-10-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection. Six cats chronically infected with FIV-Glasgow8 (Group X) and six FIV-free cats (Group Y) were infected with M. haemofelis on Day 0 by intravenous blood inoculation. From Day 0 until Day 86 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for M. haemofelis and FIV provirus quantitative real-time PCR and haematology. Three of the six cats in each of Groups X and Y were randomly selected to receive marbofloxacin treatment (2 mg/kg PO q24 h) from Day 16 to 43 pi, with the remaining cats being untreated controls with no antibiotic treatment. The M. haemofelis copy numbers and haematological data were compared between Groups X and Y, and between marbofloxacin-treated and control cats using a Mann-Whitney U-test. M. haemofelis infection was associated with development of macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. In some cats, marked variation in M. haemofelis copy number over time (>100,000-fold difference within 48 h in some cats) and/or cycling of copy number was seen. No correlation was found between FIV provirus copy number and M. haemofelis copy number or haematological variables. No significant effect of chronic FIV infection on M. haemofelis copy number kinetics or haematological changes due to M. haemofelis infection was found, other than MCHC (P=0.03). Marbofloxacin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in M. haemofelis copy number (P=0.002), although consistent clearance of infection was not demonstrated. This study reveals the presence of marked fluctuations in M. haemofelis copy number kinetics in vivo and a significant response to marbofloxacin antibiotic treatment.

  19. Mechanisms of motor recovery in chronic and subacute stroke patients following a robot-aided training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Puzzolante, L; Zollo, L; Dario, P; Posteraro, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodology for analyzing different recovery mechanisms in subacute and chronic patients through evaluation of biomechanical parameters. Twenty-five post-stroke subjects, eight subacute and seventeen chronic, participated in the study. A 2-DoF robotic system was used for upper limb training. Two clinical scales were used for assessment. Forces and velocities at the robot's end-effector during the execution of upper limb planar reaching movements were measured. Clinical outcome measures show a significant decrease in motor impairment after the treatment both in chronic and subacute patients (MSS-SE, probot-aided treatment in both groups. Mean values of forces exerted by subacute patients are lower than those observed in chronic patients, both at the beginning and at the end of robotic treatment, as in the latter the pathological pattern is already structured. Our results demonstrate that the monitoring of the forces exerted on the end-effector during robot-aided treatment can identify the specific motor recovery mechanisms at different stages. If the pathological pattern is not yet structured, rehabilitative interventions should be addressed toward the use of motor re-learning procedures; on the other hand, if the force analysis shows a strong pathological pattern, mechanisms of compensation should be encouraged.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with HIV/AIDS at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtom Kiros

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence of enteric protozoan infection was observed among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Routine stool and CD4+ T-cell examinations should be conducted to monitor the status of HIV/AIDS patients.

  1. Actinomyces and Nocardia infections in chronic granulomatous disease

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    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase complex characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Disseminated infection by combination of opportunistic agents is being increasingly reported in CGD patients. We presented in the retrospective review of medical records, the etiology, presentation, clinical characteristics the infections detected, predisposing condition and outcome of nocardiosis and actinomycosis involved in a group of pediatric patients diagnosed with CGD. Materials and Methods: The clinical presentation of CGD-related infections was reviewed retrospectively from the medical records of all 12 patients with CGD. We studied respectively 12 patients between 2001 and 2008, and we analyzed two pediatric patients with CGD who acquired Nocardia and Actinomyces infections, and their clinical and microbiological characteristics were described. The material for investigations was collected from scrapings, crusts, pus from subcutaneous abscesses or exudation from sinus tracts, surgical debridement, and biopsy specimens. The microbiological diagnosis was determined by biochemical tests, histology, microscopy, and culture of clinical samples. Results: The medical records of 12 diagnosed CGD patients with suspected nocardiosis or actinomycosis were reviewed. One patient was diagnosed with actinomycosis and one patient with nocardiosis. Patients consisted of seven males and five females with ranging ages of 3 to 18 years. Nocardiosis and actinomycosis isolated in the two patients were confirmed by histology and culture methods. Neutrophil oxidative burst were absent (NBT=0 in both patients. The most common manifestations of CGD due to fungal infections, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis were osteomyelitis (42.8%, pulmonary infections (28.6%, lymphadenopathy (14.3%, and skin involvement (14.3% during their illness. Conclusion: Nocardiosis

  2. Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosea Ken M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out to document herbal remedies used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Bukoba Rural district, Tanzania. The district is currently an epicenter of HIV/AIDS and although over 90% of the population in the district relies on traditional medicines to manage the disease, this knowledge is impressionistic and not well documented. The HIV/AIDS opportunistic conditions considered during the study were Tuberculosis (TB, Herpes zoster (Shingles, Herpes simplex (Genital herpes, Oral candidiasis and Cryptococcal meningitis. Other symptomatic but undefined conditions considered were skin rashes and chronic diarrhea. Methods An open-ended semi-structured questionnaire was used in collecting field information. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the ethnobotanical data collected. Factor of informant consensus (Fic was used to analyze the ethnobotanical importance of the plants. Results In the present study, 75 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 41 families were found to be used to treat one or more HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. The study revealed that TB and oral candidiasis were the most common manifestations of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections affecting most of the population in the area. It unveils the first detailed account of ethnomedical documentation of plants focusing the management of HIV/AIDS related infections in the district. Conclusion It is concluded that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed to drugs for the management of the HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections.

  3. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

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    Fahad Haroon

    Full Text Available Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+ imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host.

  5. PP65 antigenemia in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Capela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. PP65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. The present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the Botucatu region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the Department of Tropical Diseases of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, and divided into three groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. The control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. Fourteen AIDS patients with low CD4+ cell counts tested positive for PP65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.

  6. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Estimate AIDS after HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofosuhene O Apenteng

    Full Text Available The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS. We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.

  7. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Estimate AIDS after HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Ofosuhene O; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2015-01-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS. PMID:26147199

  8. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fungal infections in critically ill patients such as those who are immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy. Diagnostic techniques and effective antifungal therapy have improved the prognosis of these cases.

  9. Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianli; Montes, Sergio; Larson, Douglas F; Watson, Ronald R

    2002-07-12

    Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance catheter system for pressure-volume loop analysis. Cardiac pathology was determined with histological analysis. In the uninfected mice, the load independent contractile parameters, pre-load recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved, significantly decreased by 32% and 35% in MA treated mice when compared to the saline injected mice. In retrovirus-infected mice, although there were no significant difference in Ees, PRSW, and dP/dt(max) vs. Ved due to MA treatment, they were increased 45%, 15% and 42% respectively when compared to saline treated mice. No further lowered heart function during murine AIDS may be due to the counteraction of the retroviral DCM and the MA induced myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy (thickening of the ventricular walls). This is supported by increases in the End-diastolic volume (Ved, 38%) and End-systolic volume (Ves, 84%) in the retrovirus-infected saline injected mice, the decreases of 33% and 17% in the uninfected MA-treated mice, but no significant changes in the retrovirus-infected MA treated mice when compared to uninfected saline injected mice. These data suggest that MA induced myocardial cellular changes compensate for retrovirus induced DCM. PMID:12084392

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infection. Disruption of the microbiome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are complex, and microbiome technology has provided us with a new research tool for its better understanding. There is compartmentalization of the microbiota in the various parts of the lung. Studies of the lower airway lumen microbiota in COPD have yielded confusing results, and additional studies with scrupulous attention to prevent and account for upper airway contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples are required. Lung tissue microbiota has been examined in three studies, which also demonstrate varied results based on the site of sampling (bronchial mucosa, lung parenchyma), and this variation extends to sampling sites within a lobe of the lung. The Vicious Circle Hypothesis embodies how an altered lung microbiome could contribute to COPD progression. Relating microbiota composition to airway and systemic inflammation and clinical outcomes are important research questions. Although various obstacles need to be surmounted, ultimately lung microbiome studies will provide new insights into how infection contributes to COPD.

  11. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in normal and athymic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H K; Espersen, F; Pedersen, S S;

    1993-01-01

    We have compared a chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa embedded in alginate beads in normal and athymic rats with an acute infection with free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. The following parameters were observed and described: mortality, macroscopic and microscopic pathologic changes......, and antibody responses. The rats challenged with P. aeruginosa alginate beads experienced a generally more severe lung pathology and the antibody responses were more homogeneous with less dispersion as compared to the rats having free live P. aeruginosa bacteria. In general, manifestations were more severe...... in the athymic rats compared to the normal rats. It is, however, notable that the athymic rats developed similar microscopic lung manifestations as the normal rats when given a large number of P. aeruginosa in the beads, with dense accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and microcolonies comparable...

  12. Pathogenesis of occult chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio Aller de la Fuente; María L Gutiérrez; Javier Garcia-Samaniego; Conrado Fernández-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledó; Gregorio Castellano

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) presenting HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc positive serological patterns. Occult HBV status is associated in some cases with mutant viruses undetectable by HBsAg assays; but more frequently it is due to a strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression. OBI is an entity with world-wide diffusion. The failure to detect HBsAg, despite the persistence of the viral DNA, is due in most cases to the strong suppression of viral replication and gene expression that characterizes this "occult" HBV infection; although the mechanisms responsible for suppression of HBV are not well understood. The majority of OBI cases are secondary to overt HBV infection and represent a residual low viremia level suppressed by a strong immune response together with histological derangements which occurred during acute or chronic HBV infection. Much evidence suggests that it can favour the progression of liver fibrosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Occult hepatitis B infection and its possible impact on chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollahi Peiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a well-recognized clinical phenomenon, persistent detectable viral genome in liver or sera in the absence of other serological markers for active hepatitis B virus (HBV replication is called occult HBV infection. The main mechanism through which occult infection occurs is not completely understood and several possible explanations, such as integration into human genome and maintenance in peripheral mononuclear cells, exist. Occult HBV infection has been reported in different populations, especially among patients with Hepatitis C (HCV related liver disease. The probable impact of occult HBV in patients with chronic HCV infection has been previously investigated and the evidence suggests a possible correlation with lower response to anti-viral treatment, higher grades of liver histological changes, and also developing hepatocellular carcinoma. However, in the absence of conclusive results, further studies should be conducted to absolutely assess the impact of occult HBV contamination on the HCV related liver disease.

  14. Effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Caney, Sarah M A; Day, Michael J; Dean, Rachel S; Helps, Chris R; Knowles, Toby G; Lait, Philippa J P; Pinches, Mark D G; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection. Six cats chronically infected with FIV-Glasgow8 (group A) and six FIV-free cats (group B) were infected with 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' on day 0 by intravenous inoculation of blood. From day 0 to 105 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and FIV provirus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and haematological examination. Three of the six cats in each of the groups were randomly selected to receive marbofloxacin treatment (2mg/kg PO SID) from day 49 to day 76 pi, with the remaining cats being untreated controls. Maximum 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number was reached around day 30 pi. No overt cycling or marked variation in copy number was observed. No significant effect of FIV infection on 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number kinetics or anaemia indices was found. No correlation was found between FIV provirus copy number and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number or haematological variables. Although marbofloxacin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' copy number, the copy number plateaued during treatment, with no negative PCR results. Additionally, after termination of marbofloxacin treatment the copy numbers of the treated cats increased to reach levels similar to those of the untreated cats within 7-10 days. This study documents, for the first time, the infection kinetics and antibiotic responsiveness of 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' infection.

  15. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host. PMID:1663575

  16. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host.

  17. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute Burn and Chronic Surgical Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Keith H.; Jake Everett; Urvish Trivedi; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Marvin Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in ...

  18. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Éric A; Wainberg Mark A; Dubuisson Jean; Gatignol Anne; Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interacti...

  19. Computer aided screening and evaluation of herbal therapeutics against MRSA infections

    OpenAIRE

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Krishnan, Rao Shruti; Siddapa, Snehapriya Bangalore; Salian, Chithra; Bora, Prerana; Sebastian, Denoj

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as ‘superbug’. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen ...

  20. Computed tomography in diagnosis of lung pneumocystosis in hiv-infected and aids patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the issue concerning epidemiology of pneumocystosis, clinical and radiological features of changes in the lungs in treatment of opportunistic infections. Indications for the use of computed tomography in HIV-infected and AIDS patients, radiation CT semiotics of changes in lung pneumocystosis, the possibility of establishing of exacted diagnosis in pneumocysosis of the lungs when using CT, differential diagnosis issues have been considered in the paper

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ling Tao; Xue-mei Li; Xue-wang Li; Jie Ma; Guang-li Ge; Li-meng Chen; Hang Li; Bao-tong Zhou; Yang Sun; Wen-ling Ye; Qi Miao

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endo-carditis.Methods The clinical features of six such patients admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hos-pital during the year 1990 to 2009 were analyzed. All of them were diagnosed based on Chinese Children Diagnostic Criteria for Infective Endocarditis.Results The average age of the six patients was 52.3±19.3 years old. Four were males. Vascular ac-cesses at the onset of infective endocarditis were as follows: permanent catheters in three, temporary cathe-ters in two, and arteriovenous fistula in one. Three were found with mitral valve involvement, two with aor-tic valve involvement, and one with both. Five vegetations were found by transthoraeic echocardiography, and one by transesophageal echocardiography. Four had positive blood culture results. The catheters were all removed. Four of the patients were improved by antibiotics treatment, in which two were still on hemodialy-sis in the following 14-24 months and the other two were lost to follow-up. One patient received surgery, but died of heart failure after further hemodialysis for three months. One was well on maintenance hemodi-alysis for three months after surgery.Conclusions Infective endocarditis should be suspected when hemodialysis patients suffer from long-term fever, for which prompt blood culture and transthoracic echocardiography confirmation could be performed. Transesophageal echocardiography could be considered even when transthoracic echocardiogra-phy produces negative findings. With catheters removed, full course of appropriate sensitive antibiotics and surgery if indicated could improve the outcome of chronic hemodialysis patients complicated by infective endocarditis.

  2. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genrich Gillian L

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in chronic liver disease in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, A; Taliani, G; Bruni, R; Sharif, O S; Moallin, K A; Celestino, D; Quaranta, G; Sebastiani, A

    1993-04-01

    To assess the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver disease in Somalia, antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) in 110 patients with chronic liver diseases, in 309 healthy adults, in 179 institutionalized subjects with a high prevalence of intestinal parasites and Schistosoma haematobium, and in 287 children with diseases other than hepatitis. According to the RIBA test, anti-HCV was present in three healthy adults (0.97%), in four institutionalized individuals (2.2%), but in none of the children. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 4.8% in patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic liver diseases and 20.6% in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic liver diseases. Thus, HCV infection appears to play a minor role in HBsAg-positive liver disease in Somalia but may be an important factor in HBsAg-negative chronic liver disease. The low anti-HCV prevalence in individuals with no hepatic disorders is consistent with the fact that HCV does not spread by nonpercutaneous transfer. We found also a large proportion of both patients with hepatic disease and institutionalized individuals who tested positive by ELISA but not confirmed by RIBA. However, the likelihood of a true positive result increases proportionally with the ELISA value; thus, in most cases a low ELISA value probably represents a false-positive reaction, while a high ELISA value probably represents a true positive reaction. PMID:7683179

  4. Beyond SHM and CSR: AID and related cytidine deaminases in the host response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Brad R; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2007-01-01

    As the primary effector of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) serves an important function in the adaptive immune response. Recent advances have demonstrated that AID and a group of closely related cytidine deaminases, the APOBEC3 proteins, also act in the innate host response to viral infection. Antiviral activity was first attributed to APOBEC3G as a potent inhibitor of HIV. It is now apparent that the targets of the APOBEC3 proteins extend beyond HIV, with family members acting against a wide variety of viruses as well as host-encoded retrotransposable genetic elements. Although it appears to function through a different mechanism, AID also possesses antiviral properties. Independent of its antibody diversification functions, AID protects against transformation by Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MLV), an oncogenic retrovirus. Additionally, AID has been implicated in the host response to other pathogenic viruses. These emerging roles for the AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases in viral infection suggest an intriguing evolutionary connection of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  6. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  7. DISTINGUISHED CHARACTERISTICS OF INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN HIV/AIDS AMONG INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.

  8. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; Ribeiro, Camila Aparecida; Araújo, Ronalda Silva de; Matté, Maria Helena; Castanho, Roberto Esteves Pires; Tanaka, Ioshie Ibara; Viggiani, Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2016-01-01

    We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment. PMID:27007564

  9. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  10. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    REINA, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; RIBEIRO, Camila Aparecida; de ARAÚJO, Ronalda Silva; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; CASTANHO, Roberto Esteves Pires; TANAKA, Ioshie Ibara; VIGGIANI, Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas; MARTINS, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2016-01-01

    We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment. PMID:27007564

  11. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Chandra; Krishna, N; Subbalaxmi, M. V. S.; M. Nageshwar Rao; Raju, Y.S.N.; Y Jyotsna Rani

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral ther...

  12. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  13. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morineau Guy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale. Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence.

  14. Opportunities and Possibilities from Illness: Volunteer Experiences among People Infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available All illnesses can be interpreted. In the case of HIV/AIDS, experience and interpretation are intercepted by meanings that recluse, insulate and morally expose patients and their social networks. Volunteers stand out in these networks, because they are the only ones that continue to have contact with patients. In many cases, they are stigmatized. This article is about the experience of female volunteers with people infected with HIV/AIDS. The phenomenological experience allows studying their perceptions, verifications and modifications of the disease. The results show the following: first, HIV/AIDS is an opportunity to thank a past event; second, it is an opportunity to construct, through altruism, a space of opportunity for them and their patients; third, HIV/AIDS shows social shortages. Although this experience does not construct political identities or legal discourse, it confronts and inverts negative perceptions of the disease through actions of care whose essential component is love, altruism and brotherhood.

  15. Function of monocytes in chronic HCV infection: Role for IL-10 and interferon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Liu (Bi Sheng)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in about 80% of the infected individuals. The symptoms are initially mild in those persistently infected patients, and it may take decades before the serious consequences of chronic HCV infection become apparent. Up to 20% of infec

  16. Atypical presentation of a common opportunistic infection in advanced AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients can occasionally mimic central nervous system (CNS neoplasms radiologically and complicate the decisions regarding management. A 42-year-old male presented with a history of fever and vomitings of 5 days duration. On evaluation he was found to be reactive for human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection with a CD4+ count of 63 cells/mm3 and a viral load of 1,260,779 copies /mL. He was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir, emtricitabine, efavirenz, Pneumocystis jiroveci prophylaxis and was discharged. After 5 months he developed aggressive behaviour, irrelevant talking and memory loss. On examination, he was irritable with memory disturbances; no focal neurological signs were evident. Magnetic resonance imaging brain and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS showed a large heterogeneous enhancing ill-defined lesion in the left parietooccipital lobe with a lipid lactate peak suggestive of infective aetiology. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed glucose 33 mg/dL, protein 120 mg/dL, 40 cells/mm3 (all lymphocytes, adenosine deaminase 40U/L; Gram's stain was negative, Ziehl-Neelsen stain did not reveal acid-fast bacilli, toxoplasma, cryptococcal antigen tests were negative. Polymerase chain reaction for Epstein-Barr virus was also negative. In view of the clinical setting, CSF analysis supported by MRS findings he was started on antituberculosis treatment (ATT and corticosteroids. Patient showed remarkable improvement clinically and radiologically with significant reduction in the size of the lesion. MRS is a useful non-invasive technique that can help in differentiating tuberculoma from lymphoma.

  17. One episode of self-resolving Plasmodium yoelii infection transiently exacerbates chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannike eBlank

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and tuberculosis (Tb are two of the main causes of death from infectious diseases globally. The pathogenic agents, Plasmodium parasites and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, are co-endemic in many regions in the world however compared to other co-infections like HIV/Tb or helminth/Tb, malaria/Tb has been given less attention both in clinical and immunological studies. Due to the lack of sufficient human data, the impact of malaria on Tb and vice versa is difficult to estimate but co-infections are likely to occur very frequently. Due to its immunomodulatory properties malaria might be an underestimated risk factor for latent or active Tb patients particularly in high-endemic malaria settings were people experience reinfections very frequently. In the present study, we used the non-lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii to investigate how one episode of self-resolving malaria impact on a chronic Mtb infection. P. yoelii co-infection resulted in exacerbation of Tb disease as demonstrated by increased pathology and cellular infiltration of the lungs which coincided with elevated levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. T cell responses were not impaired in co-infected mice but enhanced and likely contributed to increased cytokine production. We found a slight but statistically significant increase in Mtb burden in co-infected animals and increased lung CFU was positively correlated with elevated levels of TNFbut not IL-10. Infection with P. yoelii induced the recruitment of a CD11c+ population into lungs and spleens of Mtb infected mice. CD11c+ cells isolated from P. yoelii infected spleens promoted survival and growth of Mtb in vitro. 170 days after P. yoelii infection changes in immunopathology and cellular immune responses were no longer apparent while Mtb numbers were still slightly higher in lungs, but not in spleens of co-infected mice. In conclusion, one episode of P. yoelii co-infection transiently exacerbated disease

  18. Dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Ward, H; Kattakuzhy, S; Wilson, E; Kottilil, S

    2016-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is the first pan-genotypic direct acting antiviral agent to be approved. This article provides an overview of the pharmacology of sofosbuvir and ribavirin and a comprehensive summary of the phase 2 and 3 studies supporting dual sofosbuvir and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection. With the production of generic formulations of sofosbuvir, we anticipate this regimen leading the first wave for widespread, IFN-free treatment and becoming first line for all genotypes (including genotype 1) for much of the world-in particular in developing and middle income countries. We discuss the continued challenges with this regimen including among patients with decompensated liver disease and post-liver transplant, and renal failure. We address concerns of emerging resistance. We also discuss the future prospects including the global uptake of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for the treatment of all genotypes.

  19. Wound Chronicity, Inpatient Care, and Chronic Kidney Disease Predispose to MRSA Infection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christopher; May, Kerry; Hale, Thomas; Allard, Bernard; Rowlings, Naomi; Freeman, Amy; Harrison, Jessica; McCann, Jane; Wraight, Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the microbiological profile of diabetes-related foot infections (DRFIs) and the impact of wound duration, inpatient treatment, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Postdebridement microbiological samples were collected from individuals presenting with DRFIs from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. RESULTS A total of 653 specimens were collected from 379 individuals with 36% identifying only one isolate. Of the total isolates, 77% were gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci 43%, streptococci 13%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from 23%; risk factors for MRSA included prolonged wound duration (odds ratio 2.31), inpatient management (2.19), and CKD (OR 1.49). Gram-negative infections were more prevalent with inpatient management (P = 0.002) and prolonged wound duration (P < 0.001). Pseudomonal isolates were more common in chronic wounds (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS DRFIs are predominantly due to gram-positive aerobes but are usually polymicrobial and increase in complexity with inpatient care and ulcer duration. In the presence of prolonged duration, inpatient management, or CKD, empiric MRSA antibiotic cover should be considered. PMID:19587371

  20. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  1. [Sexually transmitted diseases in patients infected with HIV/AIDS in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E H; Abath, F G

    2000-01-01

    The data was obtained retrospectively from clinical records concerning 399 HIV infected patients. The HIV infected individuals predominated in the age group ranging from 20 to 40 years (73.4%) and 75% were male. The was no difference in the ratio of male and female patients regarding asymptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. The cases of HIV without AIDS concentrated in the age group ranging from 20-29 years while AIDS predominated in the age group ranging from 30-39 years. Only 0.8% were hemophilic, 3.5% injected drugs and 4.8% had hemotransfusions in the last 5 years. Regarding sexual behavior, 33% were heterosexuals, 11% bisexuals, 23% homosexuals and 33% did not disclose their sexual behavior. The presence of syphilis was the most frequent combination found (8.8%), followed by herpes (5.8%) and genital candidiasis (4.3%). Our results suggest an association between genital candidiasis and AIDS, although this was not demonstrated for the other STDs studied.

  2. Screening and Early Treatment of Migrants for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Cost-Effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen, Irene K.; Toy, Mehlika; Hahne, Susan J. M.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Schalm, Solko W.; de Man, Robert A.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Early detection of chronic HBV infection through screening and treatment of eligible patients has the potential to prevent these sequelae. We assessed the cost-

  3. Chronic pulmonary infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, C S; Hansen, C R; Pressler, T;

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of chronic Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patient are still unclear. Method All patients treated in the Copenhagen CF centre (N=278) from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 were included. Each patient chronically infected with S...

  4. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cancer and Chronic Pancreatitis Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) Images: A Diagnostic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Maoling Zhu; Can Xu; Jianguo Yu; Yijun Wu; Chunguang Li; Minmin Zhang; Zhendong Jin; Zhaoshen Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differentiating pancreatic cancer (PC) from normal tissue by computer-aided diagnosis of EUS images were quite useful. The current study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to extract EUS image parameters for the differential diagnosis of PC and chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study recruited 262 patients with PC and 126 patients with CP. Typical EUS images were selected from the sample set...

  5. Demonstrations of AIDS-associated malignancies and infections at FDG PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV infection results in profound alterations of immunologic function that render the patient severely immunocompromised, and susceptible to malignancies and opportunistic infections. Three AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and invasive cervical cancer. In AIDS patients, KS is often aggressive and multifocal, with visceral involvement and widespread cutaneous and nodal spread; NHL is always high grade and often widely disseminated at the time of diagnosis with frequent involvement of extranodal sites; cervical cancer is invasive and has greater likelihood of progression and metastasis. Although there are very sparse systemic data available in the literature, limited studies has shown that fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a valuable imaging technique in the diagnosis, staging, restaging and monitoring therapeutic response in these malignancies. In addition, a unique application of FDG PET/CT is the differentiation of cerebral lesions between lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which cannot be reliably achieved with either CT or MRI. HIV-associated opportunistic infections may involve different pathogens and multiple tissues, organs or systems. Some preliminary observations have revealed a promising role of FDG PET-CT in the diagnosis and identification of these infections such as tuberculosis, fever of unknown origin, pneumocystis pneumonia and candidiasis. However, it should be stressed that FDG PET-CT alone has no role in identifying the pathology of abnormalities. FDG PET-CT, at best, can localize the sites of abnormalities and impact on patient's management in clinical decision making. (author)

  6. Restoration of Pattern Recognition Receptor Costimulation to Treat Chromoblastomycosis, a Chronic Fungal Infection of the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    da Glória Sousa, Maria; Reid, Delyth M.; Schweighoffer, Edina; Tybulewicz, Victor; Ruland, Jürgen; Langhorne, Jean; Yamasaki, Sho; Taylor, Philip R.; Almeida, Sandro R.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic skin infection caused by the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Exploring the reasons underlying the chronic nature of F. pedrosoi infection in a murine model of chromoblastomycosis, we find that chronicity develops due to a lack of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) costimulation. F. pedrosoi was recognized primarily by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), but not by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which resulted in the defective induction of proinflammatory cytokines...

  7. Immune therapy including dendritic cell based therapy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sk Md Fazle Akbar; Norio Horiike; Morikazu Onji

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. Of the approximately 2 billion people who have been infected worldwide, more than 400 million are chronic carriers of HBV. Considerable numbers of chronic HBV carriers suffer from progressive liver diseases. In addition, all HBV carriers are permanent source of this virus. There is no curative therapy for chronic HBV carriers. Antiviral drugs are recommended for about 10% patients, however, these drugs are costly, have limited efficacy, and possess considerable side effects.Recent studies have shown that immune responses of the host to the HBV are critically involved at every stage of chronic HBV infection: (1) These influence acquisition of chronic HBV carrier state, (2) They are important in the context of liver damages, (3) Recovery from chronic HBV-related liver diseases is dependent on nature and extent of HBV-specific immune responses.However, induction of adequate levels of HBV-specific immune responses in chronic HBV carriers is difficult.During the last one decade, hepatitis B vaccine has been administered to chronic HBV carriers as a therapeutic approach (vaccine therapy). The present regimen of vaccine therapy is safe and cheap, but not so effective.A dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccine has recently been developed for treating chronic HBV infection. In this review, we will discuss about the concept, scientific logics, strategies and techniques of development of HBV-specific immune therapies including vaccine therapy and dendritic cell-based vaccine therapy for treating chronic HBV infection.

  8. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  9. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  10. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  11. HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B.M.; Karim, Quarraisha A.

    2016-01-01

    Global trends in HIV infection demonstrate an overall increase in HIV prevalence and substantial declines in AIDS related deaths largely attributable to the survival benefits of antiretroviral treatment. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionate burden of HIV, accounting for more than 70% of the global burden of infection. Success in HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to impact on the global burden of HIV. Notwithstanding substantial progress in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 74% of the 1.5 million AIDS related deaths in 2013. Of the estimated 6000 new infections that occur globally each day, two out of three are in sub-Saharan Africa with young women continuing to bear a disproportionate burden. Adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years have up to eight fold higher rates of HIV infection compared to their male peers. There remains a gap in women initiated HIV prevention technologies especially for women who are unable to negotiate the current HIV prevention options of abstinence, behavior change, condoms and medical male circumcision or early treatment initiation in their relationships. The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we are able to prevent HIV infection in young women. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, key drivers of the continued high incidence, mortality rates and priorities for altering current epidemic trajectory in the region. Strategies for optimizing the use of existing and increasingly limited resources are included. PMID:27347270

  12. Hematological particularities and co-infections in injected drug users with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Menezes Brunetta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV patients infected through injected drug use have poorer prognosis than other groups. We evaluated the hematological alterations and rates of co-infections in injected drug use patients with AIDS. Injected drug use patients were younger, predominantly of male gender, and presented lower CD4, total lymphocyte, and platelet counts, but not neutrophil count, than control group. Injected drug use patients had a higher rate of hepatitis C and mycobacteria infection. Furthermore, all injected drug use patients with hemoglobin <10.0 g dL-1 and lymphocyte <1000 µL-1 had CD4 count lower than 100 µL-1. In conclusion, HIV-infected injected drug use patients constitute a special group of patients, and hemoglobin concentration and lymphocyte count can be used as surrogate markers for disease severity.

  13. Imaging and pathological findings of AIDS complicated by pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; CHENG Jing-liang

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) infection commonly occurs in grazing areas,especially in patients with AIDS or with T-lymphocyte immuno-deficiencies. Literature reviews revealed that cases radiologically and pathologically diagnosed of AIDS complicated by R. equi infection are rare. This study aimed to investigate the imaging features and pathological basis of AIDS complicated by pulmonary R. equi infection.Methods A total of 13 cases of AIDS complicated by pulmonary R. equi infection were retrospectively analyzed based on their imaging,bacterial culture and pathological data,including 10 cases by chest CT scanning and X-ray radiology and 3 cases by only X-ray radiology. All 13 cases were definitely diagnosed by bacterial culture,including one by CT-guided pulmonary puncture with following H&E staining and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for diagnostic biopsy and another one by bronchial biopsy with following H&E staining and PAS staining for pathological diagnosis. The imaging findings and the pathological findings of AIDS complicated by pulmonary R. equi infection were compared and evaluated.Results Totally 9 subjects (70%) had radiological demonstrations of central ball liked high density shadows in unilateral pulmonary hilus areas;10 (77%),cavities and liquefied levels;3 (23%),pleural effussion. The foci were found in pulmonary inner zone in 10 subjects (77%) and in pulmonary outer zone in one subject (7%). The pathological findings included intra-alveolar hemorrhage,lymphocyte infiltration and granulation tissue proliferation,which were in line with the pathological process of necrotic pneumonia. After 8-month follow-up of anti-R. equi therapy of these 13 cases,9 cases had obviously decreased or shrunk pulmonary cavities,one died,one missed follow-up,one completely absorbed foci and one did not receive reexaminations.Conclusions The radiological demonstrations of AIDS complicated by pulmonary R. equiinfection are central ball liked high density areas

  14. Yield of diagnostic tests for opportunistic infections in AIDS: a survey of 33 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Olesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    To examine the therapeutic consequences of diagnostic tests for AIDS-related infections, case records from 33 deceased AIDS patients were reviewed; 23 were autopsied. Determination of serum antibody titres was not important. In particular, there was no relation between titres and isolation....../7 disseminated infections with atypical mycobacteria were only revealed at autopsy, despite numerous cultures in vivo. Liver biopsies were not helpful. Diagnostic procedures for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by lung biopsy caused pneumothorax in 3/15 patients; bronchoalveolar lavage or treatment....../prophylaxis without diagnosis could be considered. In 8 autopsies, microscopy was suggestive of cerebral toxoplasmosis, but only 1 patient had presented important clinical symptoms. We suggest a schedule with regular microbiologic and parasitic examinations and few antibody tests, but with more antigen tests....

  15. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  16. Hepatitis E virus genotype three infection of human liver chimeric mice as a model for chronic HEV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.B. van de Garde (Martijn); S.D. Pas (Suzan); G. van der Net (Guido); R.A. de Man (Robert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); A. Boonstra (Andre); T. Vanwolleghem (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenotype (gt) 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are emerging in Western countries. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of chronic HEV infection and progressive liver damage, but no adequate model system currently mimics this disease course. Here we explore the possibilities of in vi

  17. Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Madan, Kaushal; Kapoor, Dharmesh

    2015-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a substantial global health problem with highest prevalence observed in the sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia. India lies in the intermediate endemicity zone with prevalence ranging from 0.1% to 11.7%. The predominant route of transmission is horizontal and the most commonly occurring genotypes are A and D. The high mortality and morbidity associated with CHB constitutes significant health and economic burden in developing countries like India. Antiviral agents decrease HBV DNA load and prevent disease progression. Several regional and country expert associations have developed treatment guidelines for appropriate management of CHB; however, various factors like prevalence, disease awareness, immunization status, cost implications, availability of resources, type of transmission and emerging significance of HBV genotypes have influenced the management of CHB in a country. This article focuses on expert's recommendations on CHB management including initiation, monitoring and termination of treatment with emphasis on borderline cases. The article also throws light on the challenges to optimum management and provides preferred therapeutic approaches in Indian perspective. PMID:27608783

  18. Endothelial Dysfunction Correlates with Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Barone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection can exert proatherogenic activities due to its direct action on vessel walls and/or via the chronic inflammatory process involving the liver. Aims. To clarify the role of HCV in atherosclerosis development in monoinfected HCV patients at different degrees of liver fibrosis and with no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Methods. Forty-five patients were included. Clinical, serological, and anthropometric parameters, liver fibrosis (transient liver elastometry (fibroscan and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT, and brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD were assessed. Patients were divided into 3 tertiles according to fibroscan values. Results. Patients in the third tertile (fibroscan value >11.5 KPa showed FMD values were significantly lower than second and first tertiles (4.7±1.7% versus 7.1±2.8%, p=0.03. FMD values were inversely related to liver elastomeric values. c-IMT values were normal. The risk for endothelial dysfunction development in the third tertile (p=0.02 was 6.9 higher than the first tertile. A fibroscan value >11.5 KPa had a positive predictive power equal to 79% for endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions. HCV advanced liver fibrosis promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction independently of common cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute burn and chronic surgical wound infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith H Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.

  20. The woodchuck as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review describes the woodchuck and the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) as an animal model for pathogenesis and therapy of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and disease in humans. The establishment of woodchuck breeding colonies, and use of laboratory-reared woodchucks infected with defined WHV inocula, have enhanced our understanding of the virology and immunology of HBV infection and disease pathogenesis, including major sequelae like chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of persistent WHV infection and of viral load on the natural history of infection and disease progression has been firmly established along the way. More recently, the model has shed new light on the role of host immune responses in these natural processes,and on how the immune system of the chronic carrier can be manipulated therapeutically to reduce or delay serious disease sequelae through induction of the recovery phenotype. The woodchuck is an outbred species and is not well defined immunologically due to a limitation of available host markers. However, the recent development of several key host response assays for woodchucks provides experimental opportunities for further mechanistic studies of outcome predictors in neonatal- and adult-acquired infections. Understanding the virological and immunological mechanisms responsible for resolution of self-limited infection, and for the onset and maintenance of chronic infection, will greatly facilitate the development of successful strategies for the therapeutic eradication of established chronic HBV infection. Likewise, the results of drug efficacy and toxicity studies in the chronic carrier woodchucks are predictive for responses of patients chronically infected with HBV. Therefore, chronic WHV carrier woodchucks provide a well-characterized mammalian model for preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of drug candidates, experimental therapeutic vaccines, and immunomodulators for the treatment and

  1. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Shashi; Tilahun Yaphet; Taha Odette; Alao Hawau; Kodys Karen; Catalano Donna; Szabo Gyongyi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b) as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122). Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined mi...

  2. Nutritional status in chronically hospitalized stroke patients complicated with pulmonary infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Chen; Lufang Chen; Yiqing Tao; Maomao Han; Chunlan Cui; Shichao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Complicated pulmonary infection following stroke has traditionally been considered an aspirated infection by many physicians, and little attention has been paid to concomitant protein-energy malnutrition. In the present study, we hypothesized that protein-energy malnutrition may be present in hospitalized chronic stroke patients complicated with pulmonary infection. The results revealed that body protein and fat stores were significantly depleted in stroke patients with pulmonary infection. Protein-energy malnutrition was present in 12 of 27 patients with pulmonary infection. In comparison, only eight of 42 stroke patients without pulmonary infection exhibited protein-energy malnutrition. A significantly higher prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition was found in the pulmonary infection group, suggesting that protein-energy malnutrition is more likely to be present in hospitalized chronic stroke patients with pulmonary infection.

  3. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  4. Establishment of AIDS Animal Model with SIVmac239 Infected Chinese Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, two Chinese rhesus monkeys were inoculated intravenously with 5000 TCID50 of SIVmac239. The changes in the numbers of CD4+T lymphocyte in peripheral blood,plasma viral loads, proviral DNA and humoral antibodies against virus were periodically monitored during 121 days. At the early stage of infection, proviral DNA had been detected in PBMCs, and infectious SIVmac239 virus had been isolated from PBMCs. At the same period, the numbers of CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly decreased, and maintained at low level during the 121-day period of infection. Plasma viral loads reached the peak at week 2 post-inoculation and kept at a steady state subsequently. Moreover, antibodies against viral proteins were detected from plasma. All the results showed that the two Chinese rhesus monkeys had been infected with SIVmac239 successfully. This animal model can be applied for further AIDS researches.

  5. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in a patient with leukemia and elevated transaminases: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauss Annika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute hepatitis E virus infection may cause mild, self-limiting hepatitis, either as epidemic outbreaks or sporadic cases, the latter of which have been reported in industrialized countries. Chronic infections are uncommon and have been reported in immunosuppressed patients, patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and patients with hematological malignancies. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the gastroenterology clinic with a history of increasing transaminases, persistent exhaustion, and occasional right-side abdominal pain over the course of a 6-month period. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia had been diagnosed several years earlier, and the patient was treated with rituximab, pentostatin, and cyclophosphamide. A diagnostic workup ruled out autoimmune and metabolic liver disease, hepatitis A-C, and herpes virus infection. A physical examination revealed enlarged axillary lymph nodes. The results of an abdominal ultrasound examination were otherwise unremarkable. Hepatitis E virus infection was diagnosed by detection of hepatitis E virus-specific antibodies. Blood samples were positive for hepatitis E virus ribonucleic acid with high viral loads for at least 8 months, demonstrating a rare chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed hepatitis E virus genotype 3c with homologies to other European isolates from humans and swine, indicating an autochthonous infection. Conclusions Usually, hepatitis E virus infection appears as an acute infection; rare chronic infections have been reported for transplant patients, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and patients with hematological malignancies. The chronic nature of hepatitis E infection in our patient was most likely induced by the immunosuppressive B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment. The differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained hepatitis should include hepatitis E

  6. Clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of AIDS complicated with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Pu-xuan; ZHU Wen-ke; ZHAN Neng-yong; LIU Yan; CHEN Xin-chun; YE Ru-xin; CAI Li-sheng; ZHU Bo-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and imaging manifestations of AIDS complicated with disseminated Penicillium marneffei (PM) infection. Methods A total of 12 patients with AIDS complicated with disseminated PM infection were collected and the symptoms, signs, laboratory examination results and image manifestations of these patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results (1) The diagnosis of PM infection in all the 12 cases were confirmed by peripheral blood culture.All the 12 cases (100%) had irregular fever (38-41 ℃) and enlarged lymph nodes, 8 cases (66%) had skin rashes; 8 cases (66%) had hepatomegaly; 9 cases (75%) had splenomegaly while 8 cases (66%) had anemia. (2) Imaging manifestation: Five cases manifested bilateral pulmonary disseminated miliary nodular shadows or lattice signs; 1 case showed enlarged hilar lymph node and 2 zases showed patchy shadow with pleuritis. One case presented sub-pleural curve line shadow at the posterior part of the right lower lung,and adhesion between the intestinal wall and intestinal mesentery in mass form in the abdomen by CT examination. Conclusion Patients suffering from AIDS (CD4T lymphocytes <50/μ L) with impaired immunity might be susceptible to complication of disseminated PM infection, which presents mainly damage of multiple organs and symptoms such as fever; enlargement of liver,spleen and lymph nodes, as well as specific skin maculopapular rashes. Imaging manifestations in the lungs were revealed as miliary nodular shadows and lattice-like shadows. Intensified abdominal CT might reveal presence of several enlarged postperitoneal lymph nodes and intestinal adhesion in shape of "cakes".

  7. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  8. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  9. Radiologic features of pyogenic pulmonary infection in AIDS patients and HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    400 HIV-infected patients were examined by chest radiographs and CT examinations. The radiological diagnosis of pyogenic bacterial pneumonia was confirmed by clinical examinations, laboratory tests and in cases by autopsy. Lobar consolidation often, bilateral, with abscesses and atelectasis, pleural effusions, diffuse interstitial infiltrates were noted mostly in the bacterial pneumonia group. In spite of immunodeficiency in these patients lobar consolidation and abscesses regressed after therapy. The relapse of pyogenic pulmonary infection, often in the same localization, which also regressed during treatment were observed. (author)

  10. Hepatitis C virus quasispecies and pseudotype analysis from acute infection to chronicity in HIV-1 co-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, R Bridget; Tarr, Alexander W; Hue, Stephane; Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Gilson, Richard; Ball, Jonathan K; Nastouli, Eleni; Garson, Jeremy A; Pillay, Deenan

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infected patients who acquire HCV infection have higher rates of chronicity and liver disease progression than patients with HCV mono-infection. Understanding early events in this pathogenic process is important. We applied single genome sequencing of the E1 to NS3 regions and viral pseudotype neutralization assays to explore the consequences of viral quasispecies evolution from pre-seroconversion to chronicity in four co-infected individuals (mean follow up 566 days). We observed that one to three founder viruses were transmitted. Relatively low viral sequence diversity, possibly related to an impaired immune response, due to HIV infection was observed in three patients. However, the fourth patient, after an early purifying selection displayed increasing E2 sequence evolution, possibly related to being on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Viral pseudotypes generated from HCV variants showed relative resistance to neutralization by autologous plasma but not to plasma collected from later time points, confirming ongoing virus escape from antibody neutralization.

  11. The role of helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria (ICU) and to see if eradication of the bacterium affects the course of the urticaria. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria and 43 healthy subjects (matched for age and sex) underwent serological testing for H. pylori infection. All patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria were examined for Helicobacter pylori infection with the /sup 13/C-urea test as well as the serological testing. Gastric biopsy was obtained from 36 patients. Patients with proven Helicobacter pylori infection were given treatment for 2 weeks. Six weeks afterwards they were tested again for Helicobacter pylori infection, and their urticaria was clinically assessed. Results: There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection between : idiopathic chronic urticaria patients and healthy subjects. Helicobacter pylori was detected in 76% of patients and 69.8% of controls. Out of the 76 patients treated, only 24 showed complete remission of their urticaria after successfully eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection, the others only having some improvement in their symptoms. Conclusion: Patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria have similar high rates of H. pylori infection as healthy subjects. Bacterium eradication is associated with improvement of urticaria symptoms, suggesting a possible role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of this skin disorder. (author)

  12. ACSM4 polymorphisms are associated with rapid AIDS progression in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Fulgencio, María; Jiménez, José L; Jiménez-Sousa, María A; Bellón, José M; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Soriano, Vicente; Gijón-Vidaurreta, Paloma; Bernal-Morell, Enrique; Viciana, Pompeyo; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles; Resino, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    : Our aim was to explore the association among ACSM4 and PECI polymorphisms and AIDS progression in 454 HIV-infected patients never treated with antiretroviral drugs (146 long-term nonprogressors, 228 moderate progressors, and 80 rapid progressors). For ACSM4 polymorphisms, rs7137120 AA/AG and rs7961991 CC/CT genotypes had higher odds of having a rapid AIDS progression [odds ratio (OR) = 3.21; 95% of confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.26 to 8.16; P = 0.014 and OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.38 to 9.36; P = 0.009, respectively]. Additionally, the ACSM4 haplotype integrated for both rs7961991 A and rs7137120 C alleles had higher odds of having a rapid AIDS progression (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.28 to 6.25; P = 0.010). For PECI polymorphisms, no significant associations were found. In conclusion, ACSM4 polymorphisms might play a significant role in AIDS progression. PMID:23982661

  13. Intrinsic and environmental mutagenesis drive diversification and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chronic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Oliver, Antonio; Blázquez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen causing a wide variety of hospital-acquired acute infections in immunocompromised patients as well as chronic respiratory infections in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or other chronic respiratory diseases. Several traits contribute to its ability to colonize and persist in the lungs of chronically infected patients, including development of high resistance to antimicrobials and hypermutability, biofilm growth, and alginate hyperproduction, or a customized pathogenicity, which may include the loss of classical virulence factors and metabolic changes. Here we argue that a combination of both intrinsic and environmental mutagenesis leads to a high number of mutant variants in the population. The conducive environment then triggers a positive feedback loop leading to adaptation and persistence of P. aeruginosa, rendering these chronic infections almost impossible to eradicate. PMID:22080096

  14. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ma; Wen-Wei Yan

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a significantly increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to controls or HBV-infected patients.Moreover, the incidence rate of post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) also appears to be higher among patients with HCV infection. PTDM is often associated with direct viral infection, autoimmune disorders, and immunosuppressive regimen. Activation of tumor necrosis factor-α may be the link between HCV infection and diabetes. In this article, we reviewed the epidemiologic association between HCV infection and PTDM, highlighting the most recent pathophysiologic insights into the mechanisms underlying this association.

  15. Metabolic Manifestations and Complications Associated With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Robert J; Gish, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations that contribute to morbidity and mortality. It is especially important to be aware of metabolic manifestations and serious complications that affect other organs and cancer risks. Chronic HCV infection itself contributes to de novo development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, both of which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Through these metabolic pathways (as well as through other hypothesized mechanisms that involve lipid metabolism, systemic inflammatory signals, and endothelial dysfunction), chronic HCV infection also contributes to significant systemic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. While chronic HCV infection contributes to incident development of metabolic complications, the presence of concurrent metabolic diseases also contributes to disease progression, such as higher risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and progression to advanced fibrosis, among patients with chronic HCV infection. The implications of these observations are particularly important given the rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. Furthermore, concurrent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, either as a result of underlying metabolic syndrome or as a direct result of HCV-induced fatty liver disease, further complicates the management of chronic HCV-infected patients. Greater awareness is needed toward the systemic manifestations of chronic HCV infection, with focused attention on the associated metabolic manifestations and complications. Successful treatment and cure of chronic HCV infection with the currently available, highly effective antiviral therapies will significantly improve long-term outcomes among these patients. It is also important to recognize and address the associated metabolic manifestations and complications to reduce cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:27499712

  16. Transformações da "aids aguda" para a "aids crônica": percepção corporal e intervenções cirúrgicas entre pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids From "acute AIDS" to "chronic AIDS": body perception and surgical interventions in people living with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após dez anos de uso da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência, um novo problema surge: a síndrome lipodistrófica do HIV, uma distribuição irregular de gordura no corpo, decorrente do uso das medicações anti-retrovirais. Se no início da epidemia, a aids era caracterizada, sobretudo, pela magreza, hoje - tempos de "aids crônica"- estamos, uma vez mais, diante do estigma sobre o corpo, só que, paradoxalmente, com sinal trocado - o acúmulo "desordenado" de gordura no corpo. Este artigo apresenta e compara as mudanças corporais percebidas por pessoas que vivem com HIV e aids, ocorridas nos últimos anos da epidemia, com a utilização dos anti-retrovirais. Foram analisadas 32 entrevistas qualitativas com pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids, realizadas nos anos de 1999 e 2005. Ao nos depararmos com as novas questões emergentes e analisarmos sua interação com a crescente disponibilidade e utilização de tecnologias, fica a forte sensação de ressurgimento, sob nova forma, dos mesmos paradoxos previamente existentes nos tempos da aids aguda: o impacto dos sinais e um certo tipo de ressurgimento da desesperança quanto ao futuro de vida dessas pessoas.The Brazilian government has been providing free and universal access to the HAART therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS for ten years. Since then, many epidemiological characteristics have changed, and AIDS passed scientifically and medically to be classified as a chronic condition. This qualitative study aims to comprehend the challenges posed by self-perception of body changes experienced by people living with AIDS during recent years, as a result of prolonged use of antiretroviral medication.With this purpose, in 1999 and 2005, 32 semi-structured interviews with HIV positive individuals were held in the State of Sao Paulo to capture the challenges occurred during this period, in particular with regard to the lipodystrophy syndrome. The analysis of the data indicates that even with

  17. The emerging epidemic of HIV infection and AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldor, J M; Sittitrai, W; John, T J; Kitamura, T

    1994-01-01

    The countries of Asia in 1988 did not seem to be at great risk of sharing in the virtually global HIV/AIDS epidemic. HIV transmission was not occurring on a large scale in those countries and no dominant pattern of transmission had been established. That situation has, however, dramatically changed such that Asia and the Pacific are now fully part and parcel of the global pandemic. Indeed, Australia and New Zealand were among the first developed countries to record high rates of AIDS incidence during the early 1980s, while Thailand had documented alarming increases in HIV seroprevalence by 1988. In New Zealand and Australia, sex between men was quickly established as the dominant route of transmission, with IV drug use remaining a rare mode. IV drug use appears to have been the major transmission route in southern China, northern Malaysia, and northern Myanmar, while heterosexual transmission dominates in the majority of Asian and Pacific countries. Tuberculosis is the major opportunistic infection in the countries of Asia and a fungal pathogen of increasing importance in the region, Penicillium marneffei, had not been associated with HIV infection until the virus reached Asia. Some governments have been slow to respond, yet others including Australia and Thailand have implemented comprehensive national strategies. Many community level prevention activities are ongoing. Despite these activities and some important successes, HIV infection and its related social, economic, and political consequences continue to threaten Asia and the Pacific. PMID:7857551

  18. Chronic Hepatitis E Infection Resulting in Graft Failure in a Liver Transplant Tourist

    OpenAIRE

    Kiat-Hon Lim; Jason Pik-Eu Chang; Chee-Kiat Tan; Lynette Lin-Ean Oon; Boon-Huan Tan; Hoe-Nam Leong; Hui-Hui Tan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E, usually an acute hepatitis in the immunocompetent, has a chronic form described in immunocompromised hosts. We report the clinical course and outcome of an adult liver transplant recipient whose posttransplant period was complicated by chronic hepatitis E, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and cellular rejection of the graft.

  19. Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yun, Xia; Luo, Hui; Liu, Jian Ping;

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus species for patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been assessed in clinical trials, but no consensus regarding their usefulness exists. When compared with placebo or no intervention, we were unable to identify convincing evidence that phyllanthus species...... are beneficial in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Some randomised clinical trials have compared phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs....

  20. Mortality in patients with chronic and cleared hepatitis C viral infection: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Krarup, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    It is unknown whether mortality differs between patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and those who cleared the virus after infection. We examined the impact of chronic HCV replication on mortality among Danish patients testing positive for HCV antibodies....

  1. γδ T cells are involved in acute HIV infection and associated with AIDS progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is vital to HIV control. γδ T cells play critical roles in viral infections, but their activation in acute HIV infected patients and follow up to 18 months has not been described. METHODS: Changes in γδ T cells, including subsets, function and activation, in treated and untreated acutely HIV-infected patients (n = 79 were compared by cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry with healthy controls (n = 21 at month 0, 6, 12 and 18. RESULTS: In acutely HIV-infected patients, Vδ1 cell proportion was elevated (P = 0.027 with Vδ2 population reduced (P = 0.002. Effector and central memory γδ T cell factions were decreased (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively, while proportion of terminal γδ T cells increased (P = 0.002. γδ T cell cytotoxicity was compromised over time. Fraction of IL-17-producing cells increased (P = 0.008, and IFN-γ-producing cells were unaffected (P = 0.115. Elevation of a microbial translocation marker, sCD14, was associated with γδ T cell activation (P = 0.001, which increased in a time-dependent manner, correlating with CD4/CD8 T cell activation set-points and CD4 counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not affect these changes. CONCLUSIONS: γδ T cell subpopulation and functions change significantly in acute HIV infection and over time. Early γδ T cell activation was associated with CD4/CD8 T cell activation set-points, which predict AIDS progression. Therefore, γδ T cell activation represents a potential surrogate marker of AIDS progression.

  2. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda;

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen b...

  3. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients: implications for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang; Høiby, Niels

    2012-07-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Mucoidy, hypermutability and acquirement of mutational antibiotic resistance are important adaptive phenotypes that are selected during chronic P. aeruginosa infection. This review dicsusses the role played by these phenotypes for the tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics and show that mucoidy and hypermutability change the architecture of in vitro formed biofilms and lead to increase tolerance to antibiotics. Production of high levels of beta-lactamase impairs penetration of beta-lactam antibiotics due to inactivation of the antibiotic. In conclusion, these data underline the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  4. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials

  5. Risk of Infections in Patients with Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update on the risk of several important community-acquired infections seen in patients with diabetes: respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and bacteremia. Respiratory tract infections: Recent epidemiological evidence shows a modest (1.25 to 1.75-fold) risk...... tuberculosis. Limited data is available for diabetes and influenza, yet both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with diabetes. Urinary tract infections: The risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis is 1.5 to 2 times increased in diabetes patients, while their risk of...... bacteremia. Conclusions: Increased infection surveillance and unmeasured confounding factors among diabetic patients may contribute to the observed increased infection risk, yet outcomes following infection are similar or worse in diabetes patients. In conclusion, there is epidemiological evidence that...

  6. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  7. Radiologic findings of an AIDS patient with gastrointestinal mixed infection of cytomegalovirus and Candida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Isamu; Nakajima, Tetsuji.

    1988-08-01

    A radiologic examination was performed on a 50-year-old homosexual man with AIDS in his gastrointestinal tract. Main abnormalities were ulcerative lesions due to mixed infection of cytomegarovirus and Candida. Esophageal involvement was demonstrated as multiple granulations and ulcers ; gastric involvement, as two ulcers ; and intestinal involvement, as only rapid transit of barium. With the lapse of time, esophageal lesions almost disappeared ; while gastric ulcers remained the same and intestinal involvement was exacerbated. The ulcerations of terminal ileum and colon due to severe bleeding and perforation caused the death.

  8. Radiologic findings of an AIDS patient with gastrointestinal mixed infection of cytomegalovirus and Candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiologic examination was performed on a 50-year-old homosexual man with AIDS in his gastrointestinal tract. Main abnormalities were ulcerative lesions due to mixed infection of cytomegarovirus and Candida. Esophageal involvement was demonstrated as multiple granulations and ulcers ; gastric involvement, as two ulcers ; and intestinal involvement, as only rapid transit of barium. With the lapse of time, esophageal lesions almost disappeared ; while gastric ulcers remained the same and intestinal involvement was exacerbated. The ulcerations of terminal ileum and colon due to severe bleeding and perforation caused the death. (author)

  9. Making the animal model for AIDS research more precise: the impact of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes on pathogenesis and disease progression in SIV-infected monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, U

    2001-09-01

    Experimentally infected rhesus monkeys serve as an indispensable animal model to assess the pathogenesis, to validate therapy approaches and to develop vaccination strategies against viral diseases such as AIDS threatening the human population. Upon infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a retrovirus closely related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macaques develop clinical manifestations similar to those of HIV-infected humans. As in humans, the disease course is variable. Polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are required for the initiation and regulation of a specific immune response and represent a major host factor accounting for the differential outcome of infection. During the last few years, our understanding of the structure and function of the rhesus macaque MHC has increased substantially. Functional studies have led to the identification of specific SIV and HIV peptide epitopes presented by rhesus macaque MHC molecules. The subsequent development of MHC class I tetramers has allowed further insight into the cellular immune response following SIV-infection. Detailed studies demonstrated that viral escape mutants are generated during the acute and chronic phase of infection and explain why control of viral replication ultimately fails. Furthermore, particular MHC haplotypes which influence disease progression have been discovered. Thus, MHC-typing can have a prognostic potential. The further elucidation of the rhesus macaque MHC and the search for other relevant genes will remain an important task for future research and will stimulate all immunologically-related investigations in macaques. PMID:11899095

  10. Antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddon J

    2011-04-01

    , AIDS, opportunistic infections, treatment, antimicrobials

  11. Is chronic hepatitis C virus infection a risk factor for breast cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique; Larrey; Marie-Cécile; Bozonnat; Ihab; Kain; Georges-Philippe; Pageaux; Eric; Assenat

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the prevalence of breast tumors in adult females with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection.METHODS:Prospective,single-center study,based on female outpatients consulting in a liver unit,for 1 year.The study group included females with present and/or past history of chronic infection by HCV.Patients with spontaneous recovery were excluded.Chronic hepatitis had been proved by liver biopsy in the majority of cases and/or biological markers of inflammation and fibrosis.The control group incl...

  12. Does bovine besnoitiosis affect the sexual function of chronically infected bulls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Jacquiet, P; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Picard-Hagen, N

    2016-09-15

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a reemerging disease in Europe. The clinically Besnoitia besnoiti infection in bulls is characterized by fever, nasal discharge, and orchitis in the acute phase and by scleroderma in the chronic phase. However, in many bulls, B besnoiti infection remains at a subclinical stage. Bull infertility is an economically relevant consequence of besnoitiosis infection. It is not clear, however, if semen quality returns to normal levels when infected animals have clinically recovered. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic besnoitiosis and bull sexual function in a region of eastern France, where the disease is reemerging, by comparing semen quality and genital lesions in 11 uninfected, 17 subclinically infected, and 12 clinically infected bulls. The presence of anti-B besnoiti antibodies was detected by Western blot test. Semen was collected by electroejaculation. Bulls clinically infected with B besnoiti showed significantly more genital tract alterations than uninfected or subclinically infected bulls. No relationship was evidenced between besnoitiosis infectious status and semen quality, whereas a significant relationship was noted between genital lesions and semen score. This means that in the absence of moderate to severe genital lesions, chronic bovine besnoitiosis is unlikely to alter semen quality. However, as the presence of infected animals could lead to spread of the disease, culling or separation of clinically infected bulls from the remaining healthy animals is strongly recommended. PMID:27264738

  13. Pattern recognition receptor responses in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Paludan, Søren Riis;

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the expression and function of Toll like receptors (TLRs), but data on TLR function in HBV infection are mainly from adult patients. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is distinctly different in children...

  14. Shared immune and repair markers during experimental toxoplasma chronic brain infection and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Tomasik (Jakub); T.L. Schultz (Tracey L.); W. Kluge (Wolfgang); R.H. Yolken (Robert H.); S. Bahn (Sabine); V.B. Carruthers (Vern B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic neurologic infection with Toxoplasma gondii is relatively common in humans and is one of the strongest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the exact neuropathological mechanisms linking T gondii infection and schizophrenia remain unclear. Here we utilize a mouse m

  15. 77 FR 30293 - Recommendations for the Identification of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... chronic infection, which places infected persons at risk for liver cirrhosis, liver cancer or... liver disease that ranges in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong... health services to prevent additional harm to the liver (e.g., hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B...

  16. Recurrent Burkholderia Infection in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease: 11-Year Experience at a Large Referral Center

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David E.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; Stock, Frida; Murray, Patrick R.; Holland, Steven M.; LiPuma, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of Burkholderia infection in persons with chronic granulomatous disease is poorly understood. We used species-specific polymerase chain reaction–based assays and genotyping analyses to identify 32 strains representing 9 Burkholderia species among 50 isolates recovered from 18 patients with chronic granulomatous disease. We found that recurrent pulmonary infection with distinct Burkholderia strains is common in chronic granulomatous disease.

  17. Current progress in the development of therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B is still a major public health issue despite the successful prophylactic vaccination attempts. Chronicity of hepatitis B virus(HBV is mainly due to its ability to debilitate host's immune system. Therefore, major measures have been taken to stop this process and help patients with chronic hepatitis B infection recover from their illness. While satisfactory results have been achieved using preventive HBV vaccines, a reliable and effective therapeutic treatment is still in need of extensive studies. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B include direct antiviral agents and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, which are not always effective and are also costly. In addition, due to the fact that chronic HBV is responsible for debilitation of the immune system, studies have focused on developing therapeutic vaccines to help host's immune system recover and limit the infection. Several approaches including but not restricted to recombinant peptide-based, DNA-based, viral vector-based, and cell-based approaches are currently in use to develop therapeutic vaccines against the chronic form of HBV infection. In the current review, the authors will first discuss the role of the immune system in chronic hepatitis B infection and will then focus on latest advancements in therapeutic vaccination of HBV especially the clinical trials that have been carried out so far.

  18. Current progress in the development of therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Faezeh; Rostami, Sina; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Meshkat, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is still a major public health issue despite the successful prophylactic vaccination attempts. Chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mainly due to its ability to debilitate host's immune system. Therefore, major measures have been taken to stop this process and help patients with chronic hepatitis B infection recover from their illness. While satisfactory results have been achieved using preventive HBV vaccines, a reliable and effective therapeutic treatment is still in need of extensive studies. Current treatments for chronic hepatitis B include direct antiviral agents and nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, which are not always effective and are also costly. In addition, due to the fact that chronic HBV is responsible for debilitation of the immune system, studies have focused on developing therapeutic vaccines to help host's immune system recover and limit the infection. Several approaches including but not restricted to recombinant peptide-based, DNA-based, viral vector-based, and cell-based approaches are currently in use to develop therapeutic vaccines against the chronic form of HBV infection. In the current review, the authors will first discuss the role of the immune system in chronic hepatitis B infection and will then focus on latest advancements in therapeutic vaccination of HBV especially the clinical trials that have been carried out so far. PMID:27635192

  19. Novel mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a chronic infection in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by establishing an alginate-containing biofilm. The infection has been studied in several animal models; however, most of the models required artificial embedding of the bacteria. We present here a new...... pulmonary mouse model without artificial embedding. The model is based on a stable mucoid CF sputum isolate (NH57388A) with hyperproduction of alginate due to a deletion in mucA and functional N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum-sensing systems. Chronic lung infection could be established in both CF...

  20. MRI of infections and neoplasms of the spine and spinal cord in 55 patients with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M. [Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology, University Hospital Vienna (Austria); Post, M.J.D. [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Jinkins, J.R. [Neuroimaging Research, Department of Radiology, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Our purpose was to describe the range of MRI findings in infectious and neoplastic involvement of the spine and spinal cord in symptomatic patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). MRI studies in 55 patients with AIDS and neurological signs and symptoms thought to be related to the spine or spinal cord were reviewed. We categorized the findings according to the spinal compartment involved. There were 29 patients with extradural, 11 with intradural-extramedullary and 9 with intramedullary disease. In 6 patients more than one compartment was involved simultaneously, and patients presented with multiple lesions in the same compartment. The most common causes of extradural disease were bone lesions (28); an epidural mass was seen in 14 and spondylodiscitis in 4 patients. Cytomegalovirus polyradiculitis was the most common cause of intradural-extramedullary disease (in 10 cases); herpes radiculitis was seen in two, and tuberculous infection in another two. In three cases leptomeningeal contrast enhancement was due to lymphoma. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) myelitis was seen in two patients, presumed vacuolar myelopathy in two, toxoplasma myelitis in four, intramedullary lymphoma in one, and herpes myelitis in one. Familiarity with the various potential pathological entities that can affect the spine and spinal cord in the AIDS population and their imaging characteristics is crucial for initiation of further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  1. Chronic microsporidian infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae in HIV disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, C. J.; Clarke, A. M.; Fraser, P; Metcalfe, T; Bonsor, G; Curry, A.

    1992-01-01

    A case of chronic infection of the nasal mucosae, sinuses and conjunctivae with a microsporidian parasite in association with HIV infection and immune deficiency is reported. This microsporidian resembles both Encephalitozoon cuniculi and the newly described Encephalitozoon hellem by electron microscopy. This occurred in an adult male resident in the UK with no history of foreign travel. Although there are previous descriptions of conjunctival infections from the USA, this is the first descri...

  2. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  3. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Rt. 140, 101 The City Drive ZC 5005, CA 92868-3298, Orange (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part I: Infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The musculoskeletal system can be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although not as common as complications involving other organ systems, such as the pulmonary and the central nervous systems, HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders are sometimes the initial presentation of the viral illness. Knowledge of the existence and the characteristic appearance of the conditions affecting bone, joint, and muscle in HIV-infected patients is valuable to radiologists for diagnosis and to clinicians for detection and appropriate treatment. We reviewed recent literature to provide a comprehensive assessment of the HIV-associated musculoskeletal disorders, and present radiologic examples from our own collection. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part we review the infectious musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV illness and AIDS, including cellulitis, abscesses, pyomyositis, septic bursitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacillary angiomatosis. We also present a comprehensive spectrum of mycobacterial infections, consisting of tuberculous spondylitis and spondylodiskitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and tenosynovitis, as well as infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Part II of this review will concentrate on non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatic disorders and neoplasms. (orig.)

  5. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Erdoğan; Gül, Şule; Mert, Ali; Boyacı, Hilal; Çam, Ertan; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved. PMID:27418930

  6. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Çetinkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp. are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved.

  7. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Erdoğan; Çörtük, Mustafa; Gül, Şule; Mert, Ali; Boyacı, Hilal; Çam, Ertan; Dincer, H Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved. PMID:27418930

  8. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wumba R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8 % were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2 % were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7 %. 47 out of 175 (26.9 % were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4 % were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP. Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7 %, 5.1 %, 1.7 % and 0.6 % for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6 %, 4.6 %, 3.4 % and 1.1 % respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1 %, Ascaris lumbricoïdes in seven cases (4.0 %, Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7 %, hookworm in two cases (1.1 % and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6 %. No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  9. Loss of IL-17-producing CD8 T cells during late chronic stage of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Pragati; Kwa, Suefen; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-15

    Progressive disease caused by pathogenic SIV/HIV infections is marked by systemic hyperimmune activation, immune dysregulation, and profound depletion of CD4(+) T cells in lymphoid and gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. IL-17 is important for protective immunity against extracellular bacterial infections at mucosa and for maintenance of mucosal barrier. Although IL-17-secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been reported, very little is known about the latter subset for any infectious disease. In this study, we characterized the anatomical distribution, phenotype, and functional quality of Tc17 and Th17 cells in healthy (SIV-) and SIV+ rhesus macaques. In healthy macaques, Tc17 and Th17 cells were present in all lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues studied with predominance in small intestine. About 50% of these cells coexpressed TNF-α and IL-2. Notably, ∼50% of Tc17 cells also expressed the co-inhibitory molecule CTLA-4, and only a minority (<20%) expressed granzyme B suggesting that these cells possess more of a regulatory than cytotoxic phenotype. After SIV infection, unlike Th17 cells, Tc17 cells were not depleted during the acute phase of infection. However, the frequency of Tc17 cells in SIV-infected macaques with AIDS was lower compared with that in healthy macaques demonstrating the loss of these cells during end-stage disease. Antiretroviral therapy partially restored the frequency of Tc17 and Th17 cells in the colorectal mucosa. Depletion of Tc17 cells was not observed in colorectal mucosa of chronically infected SIV+ sooty mangabeys. In conclusion, our results suggest a role for Tc17 cells in regulating disease progression during pathogenic SIV infection. PMID:21148794

  10. Chronic Lyme Disease and Co-infections: Differential Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Walter

    2012-01-01

    In Lyme disease concurrent infections frequently occur. The clinical and pathological impact of co-infections was first recognized in the 1990th, i.e. approximately ten years after the discovery of Lyme disease. Their pathological synergism can exacerbate Lyme disease or induce similar disease manifestations. Co-infecting agents can be transmitted together with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick bite resulting in multiple infections but a fraction of co-infections occur independently of tick bite. Clinically relevant co-infections are caused by Bartonella species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In contrast to the USA, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and babesiosis are not of major importance in Europe. Infections caused by these pathogens in patients not infected by Borrelia burgdorferi can result in clinical symptoms similar to those occurring in Lyme disease. This applies particularly to infections caused by Bartonella henselae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis primarily causes polyarthritis. Chlamydophila pneumoniae not only causes arthritis but also affects the nervous system and the heart, which renders the differential diagnosis difficult. The diagnosis is even more complex when co-infections occur in association with Lyme disease. Treatment recommendations are based on individual expert opinions. In antibiotic therapy, the use of third generation cephalosporins should only be considered in cases of Lyme disease. The same applies to carbapenems, which however are used occasionally in infections caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. For the remaining infections predominantly tetracyclines and macrolides are used. Quinolones are for alternative treatment, particularly gemifloxacin. For Bartonella henselae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae the combination with rifampicin is recommended. Erythromycin is the drug of choice for

  11. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  12. RANTES gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and expression in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zhong-ping; ZHAO Xiu-ying; HUANG De-zhuang; HE Li-xiang; CHEN Yu; ZHAO Chun-hui; ZHENG Bo-jian

    2005-01-01

    Background Regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) plays a critical role in T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The process is involved in both acute and chronic phases of inflammation. The present study was to ascertain the possible correlations between chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the RANTES gene polymorphisms and their expression. Methods The study included 130 HBV negative healthy donors and 152 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to detect RANTES gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RANTES levels in the platelet depleted plasma were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results RANTES alleles -403G, -28C and In1.1T were the predominant alleles in the subjects studied. No significant correlation was found between CHB infection and the RANTES alleles, while a significant correlation was found between CHB infection and increased RANTES expression in platelet depleted plasma (P<0.05). Conclusions SNPs in RANTES gene do not affect chronic HBV infection or the outcome of interferon-α treatment in patients positive for HBV "e" antigen (HBeAg+). However, patients with CHB infection express the higher levels of plasma RANTES, which is thus associated with CHB infection.

  13. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient with AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, T W; Doran, R. M.; Rowlands, P L; Curry, A.; Lacey, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A male patient is described with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed chronic keratoconjunctivitis and chronic sinusitis due to infection with the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Diagnosis was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of conjunctival epithelial cells and nasal polypectomy specimens. Treatment with propamidine isethionate 0.1% (Brolene) eye drops six times daily led to a prompt resolution of the keratoconjunctivitis.

  14. Improved outcome of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is associated with induction of a Th1-dominated cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Jensen, P O; Kobayashi, O;

    2002-01-01

    patients, the lungs of susceptible BALB/c mice were re-infected with P. aeruginosa 14 days after the initial infection. Singly-infected BALB/c mice, as well as non-infected mice, were used as controls. Decreased mortality and milder lung inflammation in re-infected BALB/c mice, as well as a tendency......Repeated challenge with antigen is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary diseases. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience recurrent pulmonary colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa before establishment of chronic lung infection. To mimic recurrent lung infections in CF...... production, in chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in CF....

  15. Methamphetamine mediates immune dysregulation in a murine model of chronic viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma eSriram

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a highly addictive psychostimulant that not only affects the brain and cognitive functions but also greatly impacts the host immune system, rendering the body susceptible to infections and exacerbating the severity of disease. Although there is gathering evidence about METH abuse and increased incidence of HIV and other viral infections, not much is known about the effects on the immune system in a chronic viral infection setting. We have used the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV chronic mouse model of viral infection in a chronic METH environment and demonstrate that METH significantly increases CD3 marker on splenocytes and programmed death -1 (PD-1 expression on T cells, a cell surface signaling molecule known to inhibit T cell function and cause exhaustion in a lymphoid organ. Many of these METH effects were more pronounced during early stage of infection, which are gradually attenuated during later stages of infection. An essential cytokine for T-lymphocyte homeostasis, Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in serum was prominently reduced in METH-exposed infected mice. In addition, the serum pro-inflammatory (TNF, IL12 p70, IL1β, IL-6 and KC-GRO and Th2 (IL-2, IL-10 and IL-4 cytokine profiles were also altered in the presence of METH. Interestingly CXCR3, an inflammatory chemokine receptor, showed significant increase in the METH treated LCMV infected mice. Similarly, compared to only infected mice, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in METH exposed LCMV infected mice were up regulated. Collectively, our data suggest that METH alters systemic, peripheral immune responses and modulates key markers on T cells involved in pathogenesis of chronic viral infection.

  16. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in an area with intermediate prevalence of HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Javad Kaviani; Behzad Behbahani; Mohammad Jafar Mosallaii; Fatemeh Sari-Aslani; Seyed Alireza Taghavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the possible role of occult HBV infection in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.METHODS: After exclusion of autoimmune, metabolic and viral etiologies, 104 consecutive adult patients with histologic and biochemical features of chronic hepatitis and negative HBsAg were enrolled in the study.Qualitative PCR with a sensitivity of 150 × 103 copies/L,using two primers for Pre-S and core regions was applied to measure presence of HBV DNA in serum of the patients.RESULTS: All 104 patients completed the study.Qualitative HBV DNA was positive in two patients (1.9%).CONCLUSION: Occult HBV infection has negligible role in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic chronic hepatitis in Iranian patients.

  17. Comparative Study of Chronic Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Re-Infection In

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    M Asmar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite and has, as intermediate hosts, many warm-blooded animals, including mammals and birds. Congenital toxoplasmosis is one of the most important infectious diseases seen in fetuses and infants born from mothers infected with Tox.gondii during pregnancy. Congenital infection, which may occur if a mother is infected for the first time during pregnancy, is often serious, resulting in abortion or severe neurological and ophthalmological disorders. Information on human cases of neonatal toxoplasmosis makes it unquestionable that Toxoplasma crosses the placenta and invades the fetus in utero in each of the two cases. . Methods: Tox. gondii infection in newborn rat litters was detected by a bioassay and parasitological method. Rat litters were billed and where possible, separated from their mothers in order to prevent feeding. Their tissues were separately homogenized in normal saline or PBS and inoculated intraperitoneally in 3 mice. The tissues used for bioassays were brain, hearts, lungs, livers, and spleen of pups, which were killed on the day of birth. In addition, control infected rat were sacrificed and their different tissues were evaluated for parasite burden at each time point of reinfection and chronic infection. Results: Data in the occurrence of congenital transmission from chronically infected mother rats given similarly graded inoculums of the RH strains (1(106 to 5(106 presented that none of the 36 pups was infected with Tox.gondii. The occurrence of congenital transmission in rats reinfected with Toxoplasma shows that none of the 14 pups was infected with Tox.gondii. Rats were reinfected intra- peritoneally with 1(106 parasite at 1,2 and 4 months after primary infection, respectively. Conclusion: Thus, this study demonstrated that Rats chronically infected with Tox.gondii, have immunity capable of protecting their embryos from congenital infection, even if they are reinfected during

  18. The art of persistence-the secrets to Burkholderia chronic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Eric R G; Torres, Alfredo G

    2016-08-01

    The Gram-negative proteobacteria genus Burkholderia encompasses multiple bacterial species that are pathogenic to humans and other vertebrates. Two pathogenic species of interest within this genus are Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bpm) and the B. cepacia complex (Bcc); the former is the causative agent of melioidosis in humans and other mammals, and the latter is associated with pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. One understudied and shared characteristic of these two pathogenic groups is their ability to persist and establish chronic infection within the host. In this review, we will explore the depth of knowledge about chronic infections caused by persistent Bpm and Bcc. We examine the host risk factors and immune responses associated with more severe chronic infections. We also discuss host adaptation and phenotypes associated with persistent Burkholderia species. Lastly, we survey how other intracellular bacteria associated with chronic infections are combatted and explore possible future applications to target Burkholderia Our goal is to highlight understudied areas that should be addressed for a more thorough understanding of chronic Burkholderia infections and how to combat them. PMID:27440810

  19. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  20. Characterising novel anti-biofilm targets for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the cystic fibrosis lung

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    The global rise in antibiotic resistance is a significant problem facing healthcare professionals. In particular within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, bacteria can establish chronic infection and resistance to a wide array of antibiotic therapies. One of the principle pathogens associated with chronic infection in the CF lung is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa can establish chronic infection in the CF lung partly through the use of the biofilm mode of growth. This biofilm mode of growth...

  1. The Emerging Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Hepatitis and Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is known to be responsible for both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. Mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjögren syndrome, and chronic polyarthritis are the most documented rheumatologic extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. The most frequent and clinically important extrahepatic endocrine manifestations of chronic HCV infection are thyroid disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a meta-analysis of the literature, a significant association between HCV infection and thyroid autoimmunity and/or hypothyroidism as well as a high prevalence of thyroid cancer have been reported. The pattern of thyroid disorders observed in HCV infected patients is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies with increased risk of hypothyroidism. Several clinical epidemiologic studies have reported that HCV infection is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes manifested by subjects with chronic HCV infection is not of the classical type 2 diabetes; in fact, HCV-related diabetic patients are leaner than the classical diabetic patients, and have a significantly lower LDL-cholesterol, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia (mixed cryoglobulinemia and chronic HCV infection with type 2 diabetes have more frequently non-organ-specific-autoantibodies than non-diabetic patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and those with chronic HCV infection. Based on the above-mentioned findings, it has been hypothesized that diabetes in HCV infection may have an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In patients with chronic HCV infection, we found an increased risk of carotid artery plaque and carotid intima-media thickening. These findings suggested a possible role for chronic hepatitis C in the pathogenesis of carotid artery remodelling. Recently, high prevalence rates of anti-HCV antibodies were shown in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or

  2. Interferonγ in patients with HIV/AIDS and suspicion or latent tuberculosis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guadalupe García-Elorriaga; Mayté Martínez-Velazquez; Veronica Gaona-Flores; Guillermo del Rey-Pineda; César Gonzalez-Bonilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the usefulness ofIGRA test(QuantiFERON?-Cell mediated immune) compared with the tuberculin skin test.Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out in Mexico,25 infected patients withHIV-AIDS and the suspicion or with latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) who were >18 years of age and without treatment for tuberculosis(TB), were enrolled in the study.Results:Median cluster of differentiation(CD4) count was364 cells/μL and median HIV viral load was50 copies/mL.Overall,20 patients(80%) had at least one positive diagnostic test forLTBI: four(16%) had a positive tuberculin skin test and19(76%), a positiveQuantiFERON?-tuberculosis.Conclusions:No agreement is found between the two diagnostic tests:k = -0.004,95% confidence interval(-0.2219,0.2210).Additional longitudinal studies amongHIV-infected populations with high prevalence ofTB are needed to further assess the usefulness of IGRAs in this patient population.

  3. Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, H; Fernandes, O; Viola, J P; Silva, S P; Passos, R H; Lima, D B

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986), treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE), between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79.8%) patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2%) who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.). The most occurring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia (15.2%), E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1%) and Isospora belli (10.1%). Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56.3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitic infections does not seem to depend on the acquisition of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependency is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity. PMID:2487448

  4. Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Chronic Urticaria: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some studies have shown the possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in chronic urticaria, but the relationship remains controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively assess the association between H. pylori infection and chronic urticaria. Methods. Observational studies comparing the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria and control subjects were identified through a systematic search in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to July 2014. H. pylori infection was confirmed by serological or nonserological tests. For subgroup analyses, studies were separated by region, publication year, and H. pylori detection method to screen the potential factors resulting in heterogeneity. Results. 16 studies involving 965 CU cases and 1235 controls were included. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in urticarial patients than in controls (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12–2.45; P=0.01. This result persisted in subanalysis of nine high-quality studies (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03–1.80; P=0.03. Subgroup analysis showed that detection method of H. pylori is also a potential influential factor for the overall results. Conclusions. Our present meta-analysis suggests that H. pylori infection is significantly, though weakly, associated with an increased risk of chronic urticaria.

  5. [Consensus document of Gesida and Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) regarding combined antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This consensus document has been prepared by a panel consisting of members of the AIDS Study Group (Gesida) and the Spanish Secretariat for the National Plan on AIDS (SPNS) after reviewing the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals, or presented in medical scientific meetings. Gesida has prepared an objective and structured method to prioritise combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) in naïve patients. Recommendations strength (A, B, C) and the evidence which supports them (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria. The current antiretroviral treatment (ART) of choice for chronic HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, in pregnancy, in serodiscordant couples with high transmission risk, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, and HIV nephropathy. Guidelines on ART treatment in patients with concurrent diagnosis of HIV infection and an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: 1) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; 2) when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, therapy will be recommended and only delayed if patient is reluctant to take it, the CD4 are stabilised, and the plasma viral load is low; 3) therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >10(5) copies/mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years. ART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors nucleoside analogues and a third drug (non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected and given priority to using

  6. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used to manage HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia

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    Chinsembu Kazhila C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Katima Mulilo has the highest burden of HIV/AIDS in Namibia. Due to several constraints of the antiretroviral therapy programme, HIV-infected persons still use ethnomedicines to manage AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Despite the reliance on plants to manage HIV/AIDS in Katima Mulilo, there have been no empirical studies to document the specific plant species used by traditional healers to treat AIDS-related opportunistic infections. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to record the various plant families, species, and plant parts used to manage different HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections in Katima Mulilo, Caprivi region, Namibia. The results showed that a total of 71 plant species from 28 families, mostly the Combretaceae (14%, Anacardiaceae (8%, Mimosaceae (8%, and Ebanaceae (7%, were used to treat conditions such as herpes zoster, diarrhoea, coughing, malaria, meningitis, and tuberculosis. The most plant parts used were leaves (33%, bark (32%, and roots (28% while the least used plant parts were fruits/seeds (4%. Further research is needed to isolate the plants' active chemical compounds and understand their modes of action.

  7. Impact of gender on the risk of AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality in Danish HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender differences in the risk of AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and mortality have been reported in the HIV-1-infected (HIV-positive) population, with conflicting findings. We aimed to assess the impact of gender on the risk of ADI and death in HIV-positive patients infected...... no differences between the 3 risk groups, although we saw a trend towards a higher risk of death in older MSW. MSM had a lower risk of death compared to the background population than women and MSW. Conclusions: In the Danish HIV population, gender has no major impact on progression to AIDS or mortality...

  8. Bile signalling promotes chronic respiratory infections and antibiotic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reen, F Jerry; Flynn, Stephanie; Woods, David F; Dunphy, Niall; Chróinín, Muireann Ní; Mullane, David; Stick, Stephen; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy, many respiratory pathogens persist in the lung, underpinning the chronic inflammation and eventual lung decline that are characteristic of respiratory disease. Recently, bile acid aspiration has emerged as a major comorbidity associated with a range of lung diseases, shaping the lung microbiome and promoting colonisation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. In order to uncover the molecular mechanism through which bile modulates the respiratory microbiome, a combination of global transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of the P. aeruginosa response to bile was undertaken. Bile responsive pathways responsible for virulence, adaptive metabolism, and redox control were identified, with macrolide and polymyxin antibiotic tolerance increased significantly in the presence of bile. Bile acids, and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in particular, elicited chronic biofilm behaviour in P. aeruginosa, while induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lung epithelial cells by CDCA was Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) dependent. Microbiome analysis of paediatric CF sputum samples demonstrated increased colonisation by P. aeruginosa and other Proteobacterial pathogens in bile aspirating compared to non-aspirating patients. Together, these data suggest that bile acid signalling is a leading trigger for the development of chronic phenotypes underlying the pathophysiology of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27432520

  9. Chronic renal failure among HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Gatell, Jose;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to antiretrovirals in chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) are estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) or Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. METHODS: Baseline was arbitrarily defined as the first...

  10. Therapy chronic trichomoniasis at patients with associated urogenital chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Poznyak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Present material of problem question therapy chronic trichomoniasis. Study clinical and bacteriological effectiveness basic etiotropic preparation and their combination, used in treatment patients trichomoniasis. Found that the combined application antiprotozoal drugs have a more pronounced effect on kills T. vaginalis and shortens the rehabilitation of the patient.

  11. Salmonella Typhimurium undergoes distinct genetic adaption during chronic infections of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg, Emilie; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a severe systemic human disease and endemic in regions of the world with poor drinking water quality and sewage treatment facilities. A significant number of patients become asymptomatic life-long carriers of S....... In the current study genetic adaptation during experimental chronic S. Typhimurium infections of mice, an established model of chronic typhoid fever, was probed as an approach for studying the molecular mechanisms of host-adaptation during long-term host-association. Results Individually sequence-tagged wild......, the kdgR-SNP was confirmed to confer selective advantage during chronic infections and constitute a true patho-adaptive mutation. Together, the results provide evidence for rapid genetic adaptation to the host of S. Typhimurium and validate experimental evolution in the context of host infection...

  12. Changes in Autophagic Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Feldmann, Gérard; Mansouri, Abdellah; Grodet, Alain; Barge, Sandrine; Martinot-Peignoux, Michèle; Duces, Aurélie; Bièche, Ivan; Lebrec, Didier; Bedossa, Pierre; Paradis, Valérie; Marcellin, Patrick; Valla, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a regulated process that can be involved in the elimination of intracellular microorganisms and in antigen presentation. Some in vitro studies have shown an altered autophagic response in hepatitis C virus infected hepatocytes. The present study aimed at evaluating the autophagic process in the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Fifty-six CHC patients and 47 control patients (8 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic liver disease, 18 with chronic heptatitis B vi...

  13. Virus-Like Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Vaccine Vectors for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy D Reynolds; Buonocore, Linda; Rose, Nina F.; Rose, John K.; Robek, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    More than 500,000 people die each year from the liver diseases that result from chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Therapeutic vaccines, which aim to elicit an immune response capable of controlling the virus, offer a potential new treatment strategy for chronic hepatitis B. Recently, an evolved, high-titer vaccine platform consisting of Semliki Forest virus RNA replicons that express the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) has been described. This platform generates virus...

  14. Histology of chronic gastritis with and without duodenitis in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Phull, P S; Price, A. B.; Stephens, J; Rathbone, B J; Jacyna, M R

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the histological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori positive chronic gastritis in patients with and without associated duodenitis. METHODS: Gastric mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia. Severity of gastritis and density of H pylori infection were graded according to the Sydney system. RESULTS: Of the 69 patients studied, 15 had normal histology, 22 had chronic gastritis only (77.3% H pylori positive), 21 had duodenitis (90...

  15. Gastric metaplasia and Campylobacter pylori infection of duodenum in patients with chronic renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Shousha, S; Keen, C; Parkins, R A

    1989-01-01

    Duodenal biopsy specimens from 80 patients with chronic renal failure, who were undergoing haemodialysis, were examined by light microscopy for evidence of inflammation, gastric metaplasia, and Campylobacter pylori infection. Chronic duodenitis was present in 47 (59%) of patients, of whom only seven (9%) showed evidence of active inflammation. Gastric metaplasia was present in 50 (62.5%) of patients, yet Campylobacter pylori was identified in only two patients (2.5%). It is suggested that the...

  16. Aging aggravates ischemic stroke-induced brain damage in mice with chronic peripheral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Denes, Adam; Valonen, Piia; Wojciechowski, Sara; Magga, Johanna; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Humphreys, Neil; Grencis, Richard; Rothwell, Nancy; Koistinaho, Jari

    2013-10-01

    Ischemic stroke is confounded by conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and infection, all of which alter peripheral inflammatory processes with concomitant impact on stroke outcome. The majority of the stroke patients are elderly, but the impact of interactions between aging and inflammation on stroke remains unknown. We thus investigated the influence of age on the outcome of stroke in animals predisposed to systemic chronic infection. Th1-polarized chronic systemic infection was induced in 18-22 month and 4-month-old C57BL/6j mice by administration of Trichuris muris (gut parasite). One month after infection, mice underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and infarct size, brain gliosis, and brain and plasma cytokine profiles were analyzed. Chronic infection increased the infarct size in aged but not in young mice at 24 h. Aged, ischemic mice showed altered plasma and brain cytokine responses, while the lesion size correlated with plasma prestroke levels of RANTES. Moreover, the old, infected mice exhibited significantly increased neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of both plasma interleukin-17α and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Neither age nor infection status alone or in combination altered the ischemia-induced brain microgliosis. Our results show that chronic peripheral infection in aged animals renders the brain more vulnerable to ischemic insults, possibly by increasing the invasion of neutrophils and altering the inflammation status in the blood and brain. Understanding the interactions between age and infections is crucial for developing a better therapeutic regimen for ischemic stroke and when modeling it as a disease of the elderly.

  17. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  19. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999 Temporal trends in AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (Trends in annual incidence of reported AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OI/100 adults > 12 years old among AIDS cases were estimated at the national level in Brazil from 1980 through May 1999. The analysis included chi-square and linear regression modeling. The opportunistic infections included: candidiasis (CD, tuberculosis (TB, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, neurotoxoplasmosis (NT, Kaposi sarcoma (KS, cryptococcal meningitis (CM, and protozoa infections (PI. The overall cumulative incidence rates/100 reported AIDS cases were: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, KS = 5, CM = 4, and PI = 4. Annual trends indicated a statistically significant decline in all OIs. However, in the Northeast and Central-West regions there were increases in TB (b = 0.39 and NT (b = 0.20, respectively. TB showed a higher incidence among individuals with less schooling (< 8 years, while PCP and KS had higher incidence rates among those with 8 or more years of schooling, despite similar downward trends. Access to antiretroviral therapy and OI prophylaxis may partially explain these results. However, data reliability

  20. Differential spirochetal infectivities to vector ticks of mice chronically infected by the agent of Lyme disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, C M; L. P. LIU; Spielman, A.

    1995-01-01

    We determined whether the infectivity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) to vector ticks varies with the duration of infection in laboratory mice. Thus, noninfected nymphal deer ticks were permitted to feed on two strains of early (2 months after infection) and late (8 months after infection) spirochete-infected mice. The attached ticks were removed from their hosts at specified time intervals and were thereafter examined for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence microsc...

  1. Bone SPECT/CT detection of a sequestrum in chronic-infected nonunion of the tibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Sequestra are dead pieces of bone most often seen in long bones affected with prior or current infection. In addition to antibiotic therapy, chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration requires surgical debridement for cure. The author presents a case of tibial fracture associated with chr......Abstract: Sequestra are dead pieces of bone most often seen in long bones affected with prior or current infection. In addition to antibiotic therapy, chronic osteomyelitis with sequestration requires surgical debridement for cure. The author presents a case of tibial fracture associated...

  2. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection.

  3. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27142134

  4. Differential diagnosis of infections in a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghiringhelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 65-years-old patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, receiving oxygen therapy and resistant to antibiotic therapy. He was admitted with high fever, productive cough, marked leukocytosis, and chest X-ray findings of infiltration and fluid levels within lung cysts. A differential diagnosis was essential to start an adequate treatment and avoid the rapid worsening of patients respiratory status. In patients with chronic pulmonary diseases under immunotherapy, micotic infections should be considered. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from bronchial washing fluid and we diagnosed chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA. Oral itraconazole was started and his symptoms and laboratory data markedly improved.

  5. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  6. Salmonella Typhimurium undergoes distinct genetic adaption during chronic infections of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg, Emilie; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    , the kdgR-SNP was confirmed to confer selective advantage during chronic infections and constitute a true patho-adaptive mutation. Together, the results provide evidence for rapid genetic adaptation to the host of S. Typhimurium and validate experimental evolution in the context of host infection......Background Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a severe systemic human disease and endemic in regions of the world with poor drinking water quality and sewage treatment facilities. A significant number of patients become asymptomatic life-long carriers of S...... type strains of S. Typhimurium 4/74 were used to establish chronic infections of 129X1/SvJ mice. Over the course of infections, S. Typhimurium bacteria were isolated from feces and from livers and spleens upon termination of the experiment. In all samples dominant clones were identified and select...

  7. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink.PCR was used...... to detect viral DNA in full blood, organs, faeces and oro-nasal swabs weekly for the first 8 weeks and then biweekly for another 16 weeks after AMDV challenge inoculation of wild type mink. The mink (n=29) was infected and seroconverted 2–3 weeks after AMDV inoculation and AMDV antibodies persisted during...... the maximum experimental period of 24 weeks. Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1–8 weeks in 21 mink. This highlights the risk of transmitting AMDV between infected...

  8. Induction of depression-related behaviors by reactivation of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Ihara, Fumiaki; Fereig, Ragab M; Nishimura, Maki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection is relevant to many psychiatric disorders, the fundamental mechanisms of its neurobiological correlation with depression are poorly understood. Here, we show that reactivation of chronic infection by an immunosuppressive regimen caused induction of depressive-like behaviors without obvious sickness symptoms. However, the depression-related behaviors in T. gondii-infected mice, specifically, reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in the forced-swim test were observed at the reactivation stage, but not in the chronic infection. Interestingly, reactivation of T. gondii was associated with production of interferon-gamma and activation of brain indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, which converts tryptophan to kynurenine and makes it unavailable for serotonin synthesis. Furthermore, serotonin turnover to its major metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, was also enhanced at the reactivation stage. Thus, enhanced tryptophan catabolic shunt and serotonin turnover may be implicated in development of depressive-like behaviors in mice with reactivated T. gondii. PMID:26554725

  9. Neural dysfunction following respiratory viral infection as a cause of chronic cough hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections are a common cause of acute coughing, an irritating symptom for the patient and an important mechanism of transmission for the virus. Although poorly described, the inflammatory consequences of infection likely induce coughing by chemical (inflammatory mediator) or mechanical (mucous) activation of the cough-evoking sensory nerves that innervate the airway wall. For some individuals, acute cough can evolve into a chronic condition, in which cough and aberrant airway sensations long outlast the initial viral infection. This suggests that some viruses have the capacity to induce persistent plasticity in the neural pathways mediating cough. In this brief review we present the clinical evidence of acute and chronic neural dysfunction following viral respiratory tract infections and explore possible mechanisms by which the nervous system may undergo activation, sensitization and plasticity. PMID:26141017

  10. Chronic lyme disease: psychogenic fantasy or somatic infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, Phyllis

    2003-02-01

    Sigal and Hassett published an article about Lyme disease in the EHP Supplements (Sigal and Hassett 2002), suggesting that chronic Lyme disease is "psychogenic." I do not think that Sigal and Hassett, non-psychiatrists, are qualified to speak about psychiatric matters. I, however, actually have had the disease, which they characterize as "medically unexplained," for over 25 years and have 15 years of experience as a patient advocate and educator. I beg to differ.

  11. Immunogenetic Aspects Of Pathogenesis Of Chronic Hcv-Infection (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis B and C is a relevant issue because of high prevalence and degree of chronicity, late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Today, protein products of numerous genes are involved in the pathogenesis of viral pathology of the liver. In this review, the authors analyzed 42 literature sources on genetic basis of susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Study of the role of immunogenetic factors is of great practical importance to develop methods for predicting outcomes of viral hepatitis.

  12. Aureobasidium pullulans infection in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Rodrigues de Oliveira; Helio Moraes-Souza; Andre Luiz Maltos; Keila Cristina dos Santos; Rodrigo Juliano Molina; Cristina Hueb Barata

    2013-01-01

    Saprophytic fungi are being increasingly recognized as etiologic agents of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. We report a case of subcutaneous infiltration by Aureobasidium pullulans, likely due to traumatic inoculation, in a neutropenic patient during chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate but was subsequently switched to itraconazole, which improved the lesion. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual fung...

  13. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Edward B Breitschwerdt

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...

  14. Metabolic programming in chronically stimulated T cells: Lessons from cancer and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonville, Marie; D'Aria, Stefania; Braun, Michel Y

    2016-07-01

    T-cell metabolism is central to the shaping of a successful immune response. However, there are pathological situations where T cells are rendered dysfunctional and incapable of eliminating infected or transformed cells. Here, we review the current knowledge on T-cell metabolism and how persistent antigenic stimulation, in the form of cancer and chronic viral infection, modifies both metabolic and functional pathways in T cells. PMID:27271222

  15. Proportional assist ventilation as an aid to exercise training in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, P.; Johnson, L.; Nikoletou, D; Hamnegard, C; Sherwood, R.; Polkey, M.; Moxham, J.

    2002-01-01

    Background: The effects of providing ventilatory assistance to patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during a high intensity outpatient cycle exercise programme were examined.

  16. Adiponectin serum level in chronic hepatitis C infection andtherapeutic profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina Peta; Carlo Torti; Natasa Milic; Alfredo Focà; Ludovico Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is commonly seen in the patients withchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV is closelyassociated with lipid metabolism, and viral steatosis ismore common in genotype 3 infection owing to a directcytopathic effect of HCV core protein. In non-genotype3 infection, hepatic steatosis is considered largely tobe the result of the alterations in host metabolism;metabolic steatosis is primarily linked with HCV genotype1. Adipose tissue secretes different hormonesinvolved in glucose and lipid metabolisms. It has beendemonstrated that adipocytokines are involved in thepathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as thedecreased plasma adiponectin levels, a soluble matrixprotein expressed by adipoctyes and hepatocyte, areassociated with liver steatosis. Various studies haveshown that steatosis is strongly correlated negativelywith adiponectin in the patients with HCV infection.The role of adiponectin in hepatitis C virus inducedsteatosis is still not completely understood, but therelationship between adiponectin low levels and liversteatosis is probably due to the ability of adiponectinto protect hepatocytes from triglyceride accumulationby increasing β-oxidation of free fatty acid and thusdecreasing de novo free fatty acid production.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  18. Increased microRNA-155 expression in the serum and peripheral monocytes in chronic HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Shashi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, a single stranded RNA virus, affects millions of people worldwide and leads to chronic infection characterized by chronic inflammation in the liver and in peripheral immune cells. Chronic liver inflammation leads to progressive liver damage. MicroRNAs (miRNA regulate inflammation (miR-155, -146a and -125b as well as hepatocyte function (miR-122. Methods Here we hypothesized that microRNAs are dysregulated in chronic HCV infection. We examined miRNAs in the circulation and in peripheral monocytes of patients with chronic HCV infection to evaluate if specific miRNA expression correlated with HCV infection. Results We found that monocytes from chronic HCV infected treatment-naïve (cHCV but not treatment responder patients showed increased expression of miR-155, a positive regulator of TNFα, and had increased TNFα production compared to monocytes of normal controls. After LPS stimulation, miR-155 levels were higher in monocytes from cHCV patients compared to controls. MiR-125b, which has negative regulatory effects on inflammation, was decreased in cHCV monocytes compared to controls. Stimulation of normal monocytes with TLR4 and TLR8 ligands or HCV core, NS3 and NS5 recombinant proteins induced a robust increase in both miR-155 expression and TNFα production identifying potential mechanisms for in vivo induction of miR-155. Furthermore, we found increased serum miR-155 levels in HCV patients compared to controls. Serum miR-125b and miR-146a levels were also increased in HCV patients. Serum levels of miR-122 were elevated in cHCV patients and correlated with increased ALT and AST levels and serum miR-155 levels. Conclusion In conclusion, our novel data demonstrate that miR-155, a positive regulator of inflammation, is upregulated both in monocytes and in the serum of patients with chronic HCV infection. Our study suggests that HCV core, NS3, and NS5 proteins or TLR4 and TLR8 ligands can mediate

  19. Infective endocarditis in chronic hemodialysis patients: Experience from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Montasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, regular hemodialysis (HD was recognized as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE, particularly at vascular access sites. The present report describes our experience at the Etat Major General Agadir, Morocco, of taking care of IE in patients on regular dialysis. A retrospective analysis was made of five cases of IE in patients receiving re-gular HD having arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. They were sent from four private centers and admitted in our formation between January 2004 and March 2009. Infective endocarditis was detected after 34.5 months following initiation of dialysis. The causative organisms included Sta-phylococcus and Enterococcus in two cases each and negative blood culture in one case. A recent history of infection (<3 months of the vascular access was found in three cases. Peripheric embolic phenomena were noted in two cases. A pre-existing heart disease was common and contributed to heart failure. Mortality was frequent due to valvular perforations and congestive heart failure, making the medical treatment alone unsatisfactory. Two patients survived and three of our patients received a prosthetic valve replacement, with a median survival after surgery of 10.3 months/person. The clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis in regularly dialyzed patients remains difficult, with the presence of vascular calcification as a common risk factor. The vascular catheter infections are the cardinal gateway of pathogenic organisms, which are mainly Staphlococcus. The prognosis is bad and the mortality is significant, whereas medical and surgical treatments are often established in these patients who have many factors of comorbidity.

  20. Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  1. Exceptional Heterogeneity in Viral Evolutionary Dynamics Characterises Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemey, Philippe; Farci, Patrizia; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of HCV infection has seen significant progress, particularly since the approval of new direct-acting antiviral drugs. However these clinical achievements have been made despite an incomplete understanding of HCV replication and within-host evolution, especially compared with HIV-1. Here, we undertake a comprehensive analysis of HCV within-host evolution during chronic infection by investigating over 4000 viral sequences sampled longitudinally from 15 HCV-infected patients. We compare our HCV results to those from a well-studied HIV-1 cohort, revealing key differences in the evolutionary behaviour of these two chronic-infecting pathogens. Notably, we find an exceptional level of heterogeneity in the molecular evolution of HCV, both within and among infected individuals. Furthermore, these patterns are associated with the long-term maintenance of viral lineages within patients, which fluctuate in relative frequency in peripheral blood. Together, our findings demonstrate that HCV replication behavior is complex and likely comprises multiple viral subpopulations with distinct evolutionary dynamics. The presence of a structured viral population can explain apparent paradoxes in chronic HCV infection, such as rapid fluctuations in viral diversity and the reappearance of viral strains years after their initial detection. PMID:27631086

  2. B Cells and Platelets Harbor Prion Infectivity in the Blood of Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Candace K Mathiason; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A.; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J., II; Mason, Gary L.; Telling, Glenn C.; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) b...

  3. Rare inborn errors associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Liang; Huang, Weijun;

    2012-01-01

    who were healthy and hepatitis B surface antibody-positive, but had never received hepatitis B vaccination. We selected six rare variant alleles and followed up their association with disease status by Sanger sequencing in a case-control study comprising 1,728 CHB patients and 1,636 healthy controls......Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major global health issue. The role of rare genetic variants in CHB has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify rare allelic variants predisposing to CHB. We performed exome sequencing in 50 CHB patients who had no identifiable risk factors for CHB and 40 controls...

  4. Factors Associated With Chronic Hepatitis in Patients With Hepatitis E Virus Infection Who Have Received Solid Organ Transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamar, Nassim; Garrouste, Cyril; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Garrigue, Valerie; Pischke, Sven; Chauvet, Cecile; Dumortier, Jerome; Cannesson, Amelie; Cassuto-Viguier, Elisabeth; Thervet, Eric; Conti, Filomena; Lebray, Pascal; Dalton, Harry R.; Santella, Robert; Kanaan, Nada; Essig, Marie; Mousson, Christiane; Radenne, Sylvie; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Izopet, Jacques; Rostaing, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17 c

  5. Characterization of hepatitis C virus isolates from chronically infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, Bernhard

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe function of the liver is to keep the human body in physiological equilibrium. This equilibrium is regulated by several metabolic pathways such as the production of plasma proteins and detoxification. Inflammation of the liver is known as hepatitis and as entity it has been recognized since the days of Hippocrates. The most important etiology of hepatitis is viral infection of the liver.

  6. Sofosbuvir: A novel treatment option for chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmeet Kaur Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C currently infects more than 170 million people around the world, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care for HCV infection, including one of the two protease inhibitors, telaprevir or boceprevir, for 12-32 weeks, along with pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin for up to 48 weeks, is unsatisfactory in many cases, either because of lack of efficacy or because of treatment-related adverse effects. There is an urgent need of new drugs with improved efficacy as well as a safety profile. Sofosbuvir, a recently approved nucleotide analog, is a highly potent inhibitor of the NS5B polymerase in the Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and has shown high efficacy in combination with several other drugs, with and without PEG-INF, against HCV. It offers many advantages due to its high potency, low side effects, oral administration, and high barrier to resistance. The efficacy and safety were demonstrated in many large and well-designed phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials like NEUTRINO, PROTON, ELECTRON, ATOMIC, COSMOS, FUSION, FISSION, NUCLEAR, POSITRON, and the like. It is generally well-tolerated. Adverse events that occurred include: Headache, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, pruritis, upper respiratory tract infections, rash, back pain, grade 1 anemia, and grade 4 lymphopenia; however, the exact safety profile can only be judged when this drug is actually used on a large scale.

  7. Sex influence on chronic intestinal inflammation in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Robert S; Myles, Mathew H; Livingston, Beth A; Criley, Jennifer M; Franklin, Craig L

    2004-06-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus is a bacterial pathogen of mice that has been reported to cause chronic intestinal inflammation in A/JCr, germfree Swiss Webster, and immunodeficient mice. To the authors' knowledge, the influence of sex on development of chronic intestinal inflammation in H. hepaticus-infected mice has not been investigated. The purposes of the study reported here were to determine whether severity of intestinal inflammation differs between male and female A/JCr mice chronically infected with H. hepaticus and to characterize the mucosal immune response in these mice. The cecum of male and female A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus for 1 month and 3 months was objectively evaluated histologically for intestinal disease. Also, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was done to measure interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10), and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) mRNA values in the cecal tissue of these mice. Significant differences in cecal lesion scores were not present at 1 month after infection. However, infected female mice had significantly up-regulated expression of cecal IL-10, MIP-1alpha, IP-10, and MIG mRNA compared with that in uninfected females, and expression of IL-10 and MIP-1alpha was significantly greater than that detected in infected male mice (P JCr mice, females develop more severe intestinal inflammation than do males, and the chronic mucosal inflammation is polarized toward a Th1 response that is not down-regulated by increased activity of IL-10. We propose that H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice will serve as a good animal model with which to study the influence of sex on bacterial-induced mucosal inflammation.

  8. Severe Depletion of Mucosal CD4+ T Cells in AIDS-Free Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Sooty Mangabeys1

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Shari N.; Klatt, Nichole R.; Bosinger, Steven E; Brenchley, Jason M.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Engram, Jessica C.; Dunham, Richard M.; Paiardini, Mirko; Klucking, Sara; Danesh, Ali; Strobert, Elizabeth A.; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona V.; Kelvin, David; Douek, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus macaques experience a rapid and dramatic loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells that is considered to be a key determinant of AIDS pathogenesis. In this study, we show that nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SMs), a natural host species for SIV, is also associated with an early, severe, and persistent depletion of memory CD4+ T cells from the intestinal and respiratory mucosa. Importantly, the kinetics of the loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells in SMs i...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasl and rhll quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared...

  10. Molecular epidemiology of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Nina; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Ciofu, Oana;

    2012-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of the chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) was investigated by cross-sectional analysis of bacterial isolates from 51 CF centers and by longitudinal analysis of serial isolates which had been collected at the CF...

  11. Controlled trial of inhaled budesonide in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchopulmonary Psuedomonas aeruginosa infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S S; Nielsen, K G;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of anti-inflammatory treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and complicating chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) lung infection was studied in a placebo-controlled, parallel, double-blind single center trial. Active treatment...

  12. Therapeutic silencing of microRNA-122 in primates with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanford, Robert E; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, Elisabeth S; Petri, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    The liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA accumulation in cultured liver cells, but its potential as a target for antiviral intervention has not been assessed. We found that treatment of chronically infected chimpanzees with a locked nucleic acid (LNA...

  13. Giant cell arteritis associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giardina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory vasculopathy that preferentially affects medium-sized and large arteries. A viral cause has been suspected but not confirmed in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. We report the case of a 81-year-old female who suffered from chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection and developed giant cell temporal arteritis.

  14. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: Focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Maan (Raoel); A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcom

  15. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy. PMID:16716846

  16. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  17. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odin Joensen

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic work-up and monitoring of pulmonary infections may be perceived as invasive, is time consuming and expensive. In this explorative study, we investigated whether or not a non-invasive exhaled breath analysis using an electronic nose would discriminate between cystic fibrosis (CF and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled breath samples. Principal component reduction and discriminant analysis were used to construct internally cross-validated receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves. Breath profiles of CF and PCD patients differed significantly from healthy controls p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively. Profiles of CF patients having a chronic P. aeruginosa infection differed significantly from to non-chronically infected CF patients p = 0.044. We confirmed the previously established discriminative power of exhaled breath analysis in separation between healthy subjects and patients with CF or PCD. Furthermore, this method significantly discriminates CF patients suffering from a chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa (PA infection from CF patients without a chronic pulmonary infection. Further studies are needed for verification and to investigate the role of electronic nose technology in the very early diagnostic workup of pulmonary infections before the establishment of a chronic infection.

  18. Challenges with current inhaled treatments for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greally, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) is the predominant pathogen infecting the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initial colonization is usually transient and associated with non-mucoid strains, which can be eradicated if identified early. This strategy can prevent, or at least delay, chronic Pa infection, which eventually develops in the majority of patients by their late teens or early adulthood. This article discusses the management and latest treatment developments of Pa lung infection in patients with CF, with a focus on nebulized antibiotic therapy.

  19. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  20. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Expression in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Farid, Laila Rashid, Samya Swelam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a prototype proinflammatory cytokine, has been implicated as an important pathogenic mediator in a variety of liver conditions. Some genetic polymorphisms in the human TNF-alpha promoter region, such as the G-A transitions -308 and – 238, have been shown to influence TNF-alpha expression in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.Aim of the work: The present study was to investigate the influence that the – 308 and – 238 TNF- alpha promoter polymorphisms have on the response to interferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.Patients and methods: One hundred forty patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection, their age ranges between (20-56 years, selected from the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute were included in this study, during interferon and ribavirin therapy and thirty five healthy individuals were included to serve as controls, the patients and controls were divided into two groups the first group forty patients and fifteen controls for the detection of TNF-alpha -308, -238 genotypes polymorphisms, the second group were one hundred patients and twenty healthy controls for the detection of serum levels of TNF-α. All the patients and controls were subjected to the following history, clinical examination, abdominal ultrasonography and collection of blood samples for routine laboratory investigation, CBCs and serological assay, genotyping of 308, 238 TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism and serum levels of TNF-α.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between chronic HCV patients and healthy controls as regarding TNF-alpha -238 different alleles.The frequencies of TNF-alpha gene polymorphism with A/G and G/G mutation at – 308 were significantly higher in chronic HCV patients than those in the controls. The serum level of TNF-alpha was markedly higher in the chronic HCV patients than in the healthy controls. There were

  1. Clinical and morphological characteristics of chronic uretheroprostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Kondratyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical symptoms, features of morphological structure of prostate in patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections. 60 male patients were examined. Anamnesis and interview data, results of laboratory and instrumental tests were analyzed. In 73.3% of cases cultural test and PCR allowed to identify M. hominis, U. urealiticum, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis in patients with chronic uretheroprostatitis. Out of 16 patients (26,6% of all examined with chronic recurrent uretheroprostatitis for whom neither chlamidial nor mycoplasmal infection was diagnosed by laboratory tests, for 14 patients (87,5% it was confirmed that patogenic urogenital infectious agents were localized intracellularly. Pathomorphological investigation of prostate bioptates allowed to estimate the type and degree of specific changes in the prostate tissue in cases of recurrent uretheroprostatitis resistant to the therapy and with frequent relapses.

  2. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  3. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  4. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  5. Shared Immune and Repair Markers During Experimental Toxoplasma Chronic Brain Infection and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Schultz, Tracey L; Kluge, Wolfgang; Yolken, Robert H; Bahn, Sabine; Carruthers, Vern B

    2016-03-01

    Chronic neurologic infection with Toxoplasma gondii is relatively common in humans and is one of the strongest known risk factors for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the exact neuropathological mechanisms linking T gondii infection and schizophrenia remain unclear. Here we utilize a mouse model of chronic T gondii infection to identify protein biomarkers that are altered in serum and brain samples at 2 time points during chronic infection. Furthermore, we compare the identified biomarkers to those differing between "postmortem" brain samples from 35 schizophrenia patients and 33 healthy controls. Our findings suggest that T gondii infection causes substantial and widespread immune activation indicative of neural damage and reactive tissue repair in the animal model that partly overlaps with changes observed in the brains of schizophrenia patients. The overlapping changes include increases in C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interferon gamma (IFNγ), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Potential roles of these factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis are discussed. Identifying a defined set of markers shared within the pathophysiological landscape of these diseases could be a key step towards understanding their specific contributions to pathogenesis. PMID:26392628

  6. Therapy with bone marrow cells reduces liver alterations in mice chronically infected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheilla Andrade Oliveira; Bruno Solano Freitas Souza; Cada Adriana Guimar(a)es-Ferreira; Elton Sá Barreto; Siane Campos Souza; Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Freitas; Ricardo Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Milena Botelho Pereira Soares

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MCs) in the regeneration of hepatic lesions induced by Schistosoma mansoni (S.mansoni) chronic infection.METHODS: Female mice chronically infected with S.mansoni were treated with BM-MCs obtained from male green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by intravenous or intralobular injections. Control mice received injections of saline in similar conditions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for GFP DNA, immunofluorescence and morphometric studies were performed.RESULTS: Transplanted GFP+ cells migrated to granuloma areas and reduced the percentage of liver fibrosis. The presence of donor-derived cells was confirmed by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for detection of cells bearing Y chromosome and by PCR analysis for detection of GFP DNA. The levels of TGF-β, a cytokine associated with fibrosis deposition, in liver fragments of mice submitted to therapy were reduced. The number of oval cells in liver sections of S.rnansoni-infected mice increased 3-4 fold after transplantation. A partial recovery in albumin expression, which is decreased upon infection with S.mansoni, was found in livers of infected mice after cellular therapy.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, transplanted BMCs migrate to and reduce the damage of chronic fibrotic liver lesions caused by S.mansoni.

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes are expressed at different levels within tissues of chronically infected mammalian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer C; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-05-01

    The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease and is transmitted to humans and other vertebrate hosts through the bites of ixodid ticks. B. burgdorferi Erp (OspE-F related lipoprotein) family members are encoded on members of the 32 kb circular plasmid-like prophage family (cp32s). Many Erp proteins serve as receptors for the complement inhibitory factor H molecules of numerous vertebrate hosts, providing one mechanism by which the bacteria potentially evade the innate immune system. Indirect immunofluorescence analyses (IFA) have demonstrated that Erp expression is temporally regulated throughout the mammal-tick infectious cycle, indicating that Erp proteins perform an important role (or even roles) during mammalian infection. However, it was not previously known whether Erp proteins are continually produced by B. burgdorferi throughout the course of mammalian infection. To address this issue, quantitative RT-PCR (q-RT-PCR) was utilized to assess erp transcription levels by bacteria within numerous different tissues of both mice and non-human primates (NHPs) chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. Q-RT-PCR results obtained using both animal models indicated that while the majority of erp genes were detectably transcribed during chronic infection, differences in expression levels were noted. These data strongly suggest that Erp proteins contribute to B. burgdorferi persistence within chronically infected host tissues, perhaps by protecting the bacteria from complement-mediated killing. PMID:16530008

  8. Chronic and Invasive Fungal Infections in a Family with CARD9 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Medeiros, Ana Karina; Lodewick, Evelyn; Bogaert, Delfien J A; Haerynck, Filomeen; Van Daele, Sabine; Lambrecht, Bart; Bosma, Sara; Vanderdonckt, Laure; Lortholary, Olivier; Migaud, Mélanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne; Lanternier, Fanny; Lambert, Jo; Brochez, Lieve; Dullaers, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. Patients with autosomal recessive CARD9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with Candida spp., dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton spp.) and phaeohyphomycetes (Exophiala spp., Phialophora verrucosa). We study a consanguineous family of Turkish origin in which three members present with distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections, ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) in one patient, treatment-resistant cutaneous dermatophytosis and deep dermatophytosis in a second patient, to CMC with Candida encephalitis and endocrinopathy in a third patient. Two patients consented to genetic testing and were found to have a previously reported homozygous R70W CARD9 mutation. Circulating IL-17 and IL-22 producing T cells were decreased as was IL-6 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion upon stimulation with Candida albicans. Patients with recurrent fungal infections in the absence of known immunodeficiencies should be analyzed for CARD9 gene mutations as the cause of fungal infection predisposition. PMID:26961233

  9. Chronic hepatitis virus infection in patients with multiple myeloma: clinical characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Jen Teng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic agents and steroids are used to treat lymphoid malignancies, but these compounds may exacerbate chronic viral hepatitis. For patients with multiple myeloma, the impact of preexisting hepatitis virus infection is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics and outcomes of myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infection. METHODS: From 2003 to 2008, 155 myeloma patients were examined to determine their chronic hepatitis virus infection statuses using serologic tests for the hepatitis B (HBV and C viruses (HCV. Clinical parameters and outcome variables were retrieved via a medical chart review. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of chronic HBV and HCV infections were 11.0% (n = 17 and 9.0% (n = 14, respectively. The characteristics of patients who were hepatitis virus carriers and those who were not were similar. However, carrier patients had a higher prevalence of conventional cytogenetic abnormalities (64.3% vs. 25.0%. The cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 elevation of the level of alanine transaminase, 30.0% vs. 12.0%, and hyperbilirubinemia, 20.0% vs. 1.6%, were higher in carriers as well. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, carrier patients had worse overall survival (median: 16.0 vs. 42.4 months. The prognostic value of carrier status was not statistically significant in the multivariate analysis, but an age of more than 65 years old, the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities, a beta-2-microglobulin level of more than 3.5 mg/L, and a serum creatinine level of more than 2 mg/ dL were independent factors associated with poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Myeloma patients with chronic hepatitis virus infections might be a distinct subgroup, and close monitoring of hepatic adverse events should be mandatory.

  10. Anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies in chronic HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitozzi, Susana; Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Marceau, Gabriel; Beland, Kathie; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as the production of autoantibodies. Anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1, immunomarkers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, have been previously associated with a HCV infection. Anti-Soluble-Liver-Antigen autoantibodies (SLA) are specifically associated with type 1 and type 2 autoimmune hepatitis and more closely related to patients who relapse after steroid therapy. The recent molecular cloning of the soluble liver antigen provides the opportunity to develop more specific tests for the detection of antibodies against it. The aim of this work is to characterize anti-soluble-liver autoantibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. A recombinant cDNA from activated Jurkat cells coding for the full length tRNP(Ser)Sec/SLA antigen was obtained. ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation tests were developed and used to search for linear and conformational epitopes recognized by anti-SLA antibodies in sera from patients chronically infected by HCV. Anti-soluble liver antigen antibodies were found in sera from 10.4% of HCV-infected patients. The prevalence was significantly increased to 27% when anti-LKM1 was also present. Most anti-SLA reactivity was directed against conformational epitopes on the antigen. The means titers by ELISA were lower than those obtained in type 2 AIH. The result of autoantibody isotyping showed a subclass restriction to IgG1 and also IgG4. This study shows the presence of anti-SLA antibodies in approximately 10% of HCV infected patients. The prevalence of SLA autoantibodies in HCV infected patients increases when LKM1 autoantibodies are also present. The relationship between the prevalence of this characteristic autoimmune hepatitis autoantibody and the implication of an autoimmune phenomenon in the liver injury of patients chronically infected by HCV needs further investigation.

  11. Characterization of gene expression profiles to chronic infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen; Grønbæk, Betina Chemnitz; Brogaard, Louise;

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) causes paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis of ruminants. The aim of the study was to use high-throughput reverse transcriptase (RT) qPCR to describe intestinal gene expression patterns in response to different levels of Map infection with a large...... expected, leads to increased expression of local IFN-γ. Expression of IL-10 also increased as a result of Map infection, and this increase was more correlated to the amount of Map than IFN-γ, indicating a shift towards a regulatory environment as infection progress. Th17-mediated immune responses were...... suppressed at this stage. Gene expression of all other genes could not be interpreted in relation to infection status. High throughput RT qPCR can be used for exploring gene expression patterns in response to Map infection but larger study groups are needed to fully understand which are key mechanisms and...

  12. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:26055296

  13. Parasitic Infection of the Gallbladder: Cystoisospora belli Infection as a Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain and Acalculous Cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Matthew G; Lee, Johnathan Y

    2016-06-01

    Herein we describe two cases of Cystoisospora belli infection of the gallbladder in patients with chronic abdominal pain and review the published literature to date. C. belli is an intracellular protozoan parasite that typically infects the small bowel of immunocompromised hosts. Little is known of the significance of C. belli infection of the gallbladder at this point as only four cases have been reported as yet, only one of which occurred in an immunocompetent patient. It is often treatable with antibiotics, and the patient's immune status, including HIV testing, should be investigated. Neither of the patients at our institution was found to be immunocompromised, and HIV-1/2 antibody testing was non-reactive in both. PMID:27526491

  14. Computer aided screening and evaluation of herbal therapeutics against MRSA infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Krishnan, Rao Shruti; Siddapa, Snehapriya Bangalore; Salian, Chithra; Bora, Prerana; Sebastian, Denoj

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a pathogenic bacterium that causes life threatening outbreaks such as community-onset and nosocomial infections has emerged as 'superbug'. The organism developed resistance to all classes of antibiotics including the best known Vancomycin (VRSA). Hence, there is a need to develop new therapeutic agents. This study mainly evaluates the potential use of botanicals against MRSA infections. Computer aided design is an initial platform to screen novel inhibitors and the data finds applications in drug development. The drug-likeness and efficiency of various herbal compounds were screened by ADMET and docking studies. The virulent factor of most of the MRSA associated infections are Penicillin Binding Protein 2A (PBP2A) and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Hence, native structures of these proteins (PDB: 1VQQ and 1T5R) were used as the drug targets. The docking studies revealed that the active component of Aloe vera, β-sitosterol (3S, 8S, 9S, 10R, 13R, 14S, 17R) -17- [(2R, 5R)-5-ethyl-6-methylheptan-2-yl] -10, 13-dimethyl 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17- dodecahydro-1H-cyclopenta [a] phenanthren-3-ol) showed best binding energies of -7.40 kcal/mol and -6.34 kcal/mol for PBP2A and PVL toxin, respectively. Similarly, Meliantriol (1S-1-[ (2R, 3R, 5R)-5-hydroxy-3-[(3S, 5R, 9R, 10R, 13S, 14S, 17S)-3-hydroxy 4, 4, 10, 13, 14-pentamethyl-2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] phenanthren-17-yl] oxolan-2-yl] -2- methylpropane-1, 2 diol), active compound in Azadirachta indica (Neem) showed the binding energies of -6.02 kcal/mol for PBP2A and -8.94 for PVL toxin. Similar studies were conducted with selected herbal compound based on pharmacokinetic properties. All in silico data tested in vitro concluded that herbal extracts of Aloe-vera, Neem, Guava (Psidium guajava), Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and tea (Camellia sinensis) can be used as therapeutics against MRSA infections. PMID:22125390

  15. Conjugalidade e AIDS: um estudo sobre infecção entre casais Conjugality and AIDS: a study on the risk of infection among couples who cohabit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Castro Oltramari

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho surgiu a partir de uma pesquisa de conclusão de curso, realizada com o objetivo de identificar a percepção de risco sobre a infecção de HIV/AIDS entre homens e mulheres universitários que vivem em relacionamento de conjugalidade. A pesquisa foi um estudo de caso, que se estruturou através de dez entrevistas, de cunho qualitativo, com cinco homens e cinco mulheres, os quais mantinham, na época da entrevista, relacionamentos de conjugalidade com estabilidade e coabitação. A idade dos entrevistados variou entre 25 e 57 anos. Os resultados demonstraram que homens e mulheres que vivem em regime de conjugalidade possuem dificuldade no tocante à percepção de risco com relação ao HIV, sendo que o tempo de relacionamento é um componente importante presente nas respostas dadas pelos entrevistado(as. Os entrevistados e entrevistadas se consideram com menor possibilidade de contrair o vírus do que outras pessoas, pois confiam nos parceiros.This article is the result of a research with the objective of identifying risk perception/awareness of HIV/AIDS infection among university students living in a conjugal relationship. The research was a case study structured among ten qualitative interviews, whose participants were composed of five men and five women who had, at the time of the interview, steady conjugal relationships and were cohabiting. The age of the participants ranged from 25 to 57. The results showed that men and women who maintain a conjugal relationship have difficulties concerning risk perception of HIV/AIDS infection, and that the length of the relationship is an important factor present in their answers. The interviewees consider themselves of having a lower possibility of being infected than other people, since they trust their partners.

  16. High antigen levels induce an exhausted phenotype in a chronic infection without impairing T cell expansion and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Daniel T; Alfei, Francesca; Roelli, Patrick; Barras, David; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Darbre, Stephanie; Delorenzi, Mauro; Pinschewer, Daniel D; Zehn, Dietmar

    2016-08-22

    Chronic infections induce T cells showing impaired cytokine secretion and up-regulated expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1. What determines the acquisition of this chronic phenotype and how it impacts T cell function remain vaguely understood. Using newly generated recombinant antigen variant-expressing chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) strains, we uncovered that T cell differentiation and acquisition of a chronic or exhausted phenotype depend critically on the frequency of T cell receptor (TCR) engagement and less significantly on the strength of TCR stimulation. In fact, we noted that low-level antigen exposure promotes the formation of T cells with an acute phenotype in chronic infections. Unexpectedly, we found that T cell populations with an acute or chronic phenotype are maintained equally well in chronic infections and undergo comparable primary and secondary expansion. Thus, our observations contrast with the view that T cells with a typical chronic infection phenotype are severely functionally impaired and rapidly transition into a terminal stage of differentiation. Instead, our data unravel that T cells primarily undergo a form of phenotypic and functional differentiation in the early phase of a chronic LCMV infection without inheriting a net survival or expansion deficit, and we demonstrate that the acquired chronic phenotype transitions into the memory T cell compartment.

  17. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  18. Evidence for Protection against Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chimpanzees by Immunization with Replicating Recombinant Vaccinia Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Jin-Won; Hu, Yu-Wen; Tricoche, Nancy; Pfahler, Wolfram; Shata, Mohamed Tarek; Dreux, Marlene; Cosset, François-Loic; Folgori, Antonella; Lee, Dong-Hun; Brotman, Betsy; Prince, Alfred M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of homologous HCV, the two control animals that had received only the parental VV developed chronic HCV infection. All four immunized animals resolved...

  19. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed.

  20. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed. PMID:24814659

  1. Opportunistic infections in relation to antiretroviral status among AIDS patients from south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srirangaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need to generate data from India on relative frequencies of specific opportunistic infections (OIs in different regions and their relation to the choice of commonly used generic highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART regimens. Objectives: To document the prevailing prevalence pattern of OIs both before and after HAART, to look for reduction in OIs following HAART, to assess the risk of developing new OIs within 6 months of HAART initiation and to see if there is any difference in the risk of developing a new OI within 6 months of HAART initiation, for those on Efavirenz (EFV-based regimens and Nevirapine (NVP-based regimens. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study conducted in South India involving 108 ART-naive AIDS patients, different pathogens were isolated and identified using standard laboratory techniques. Data analysis was done using SPSS software (version 16.0. Risk of developing an OI after HAART initiation was assessed using the likelihood ratio test from Cox regression models. Results: Tuberculosis (53.4%, oral Candidiasis (27.2% and Herpes Zoster (14.7% were the common infections seen. There was a drastic reduction of 96.59% in OI events after 6 months of HAART. The risk of developing an OI within 6 months of HAART initiation was 5.56%. Time to development of an OI in the first 6 months of HAART was shorter for the NVP-based regimens than with EFV-based regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant (HR=0.891, 95% CI: 0.179-4.429; P=0.888. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most important OI before initiation of HAART. Both EFV and NVP-based regimens are equally efficacious in controlling OIs.

  2. Sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temesgen, Z; Talwani, R; Rizza, S A

    2014-06-01

    Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analogue selective inhibitor of the RNA-directed RNA polymerase (NS5B) enzyme of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. It has shown potent antiviral activity across all HCV genotypes and in a variety of patient populations, including treatment-naive patients; treatment-experienced patients who had failed previous standard therapy; patients with decompensated liver disease, including cirrhosis; and HIV co-infected patients. It is administered as a single, once-daily 400-mg tablet, has no food restrictions, has low potential for drug interactions, and requires no dose adjustment in mild to moderate kidney or liver impairment. When sofosbuvir is combined with pegylated interferon and/or ribavirin, its clinical and laboratory safety profile is similar to that which is expected from pegylated interferon or ribavirin alone. Rates of treatment discontinuation and dose reduction with sofosbuvir-containing regimens were lower than those commonly observed with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

  3. Dendritic cells: The warriors upfront-turned defunct in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meenakshi; Sachdeva; Yogesh; K; Chawla; Sunil; K; Arora

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection causes tremendousmorbidity and mortality with over 170 million people infected worldwide. HCV gives rise to a sustained, chronic disease in the majority of infected individuals owing to a failure of the host immune system to clear the virus. In general, an adequate immune response is elicited by an efficient antigen presentation by dendritic cells(DCs), the cells that connect innate and adaptive immune system to generate a specific immune response against a pathogen. However, HCV seems to dysregulate the activity of DCs, making them less proficient antigen presenting cells for the optimal stimulation of virusspecific T cells, hence interfering with an optimal antiviral immune response. There are discordant reports on the functional status of DCs in chronic HCV infection(CHC), from no phenotypic or functional defects to abnormal functions of DCs. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms behind the impairment of DC function are even so not completely elucidated during CHC. Understanding the mechanisms of immune dysfunction would help in devising strategies for better management of the disease at the immunological level and help to predict the prognosis of the disease in the patients receiving antiviral therapy. In this review, we have discussed the outcomes of the interaction of DCs with HCV and the mechanisms of DC impairment during HCV infection with its adverse effects on the immune response in the infected host.

  4. Chronic Schistosome Infection Leads to Modulation of Granuloma Formation and Systemic Immune Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K. Lundy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome worms have been infecting humans for millennia, but it is only in the last half century that we have begun to understand the complexities of this inter-relationship. As our sophistication about the inner workings of every aspect of the immune system has increased, it has also become obvious that schistosome infections have broad ranging effects on nearly all of the innate and adaptive immune response mechanisms. Selective pressures on both the worms and their hosts, has no doubt led to co-evolution of protective mechanisms, particularly those that favor granuloma formation around schistosome eggs and immune suppression during chronic infection. The immune modulatory effects that chronic schistosome infection and egg deposition elicit have been intensely studied, not only because of their major implications to public health issues, but also due to the emerging evidence that schistosome infection may protect humans from severe allergies and autoimmunity. Mouse models of schistosome infection have been extremely valuable for studying immune modulation and regulation, and in the discovery of novel aspects of immunity. A progression of immune reactions occurs during granuloma formation ranging from innate inflammation, to activation of each branch of adaptive immune response, and culminating in systemic immune suppression and granuloma fibrosis. Although molecular factors from schistosome eggs have been identified as mediators of immune modulation and suppressive functions of T and B cells, much work is still needed to define the mechanisms of the immune alteration and determine whether therapies for asthma or autoimmunity could be developed from these pathways.

  5. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  6. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Canadian Patients with Chronic Type C Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GY Minuk

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports from the United States indicate that as many as 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV have no identifiable risk factor for HCV infection. To determine whether the same is true of Canadian patients with chronic HCV the records of 89 anti-HCV positive patients referred to the authors' tertiary care centre for evaluation of liver disease were reviewed. Each patient had been specifically asked about the following risk factors: previous blood transfusions; intravenous drug abuse; homosexual activity; sexual promiscuity (multiple sexual partners or a history of sexually transmitted diseases; tattoos made with nonsterile techniques; and ear piercing using nonsterile techniques. The results of the study revealed that 76 of 89 patients (85% had at least one risk factor for HCV exposure, 38 (43% had only one risk factor, 19 (21% had two, 12 (14% had three and the remaining three patients (3% had four. The most common risk factor was a history of intravenous drug abuse (30 of 89 patients, 34% followed by sexual promiscuity (28, 32%, previous blood transfusions (21, 24%, tattoos (17, 19%, homosexual contacts (seven, 8% and ear piercing (five, 6%. Contrary to a recent report identifying sexual contact as an independent risk factor for HCV infection, only four cases (5% were found where sexual promiscuity was identified as the only risk factor. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a possible source of HCV infection can be identified in a large majority of Canadians referred to an urban centre with chronic HCV infection.

  7. [The role of chronic dental bacterial infections in the aetiopathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypułkowska, Jadwiga; Lyszczarz, Robert; Błazowska, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Chronic dental infections, even of low intensity, may cause the development of atherosclerotic changes in arteries, that lead to coronary heart disease. There are many risk factors for atherosclerosis, but the most important are endothelium function disturbances, platelets activation and oxidative changes of plasmatic lipoproteins. Among factors that can induce the epithelium lesions bacterial factor may play an important role. In consequence of the bacterial cell breakdown place the release of endotoxins takes, that lead directly to the damage of endothelial cells. Apart from this direct effect endotoxins activate the fagocytes releasing superoxide reactive radicals, that cause lesions of endothelium. Probably the most widespread chronic bacterial infections in human are the diseases of periodontium and teeth and their inflammatory complications. Oral cavity is colonized by 300-400 bacterial species. In the case of dental bacterial infections bacteriemia occurs after such procedures as tooth extraction, endodontic treatment, therapeutic and hygienic interventions on periodontal tissues. The results of many investigations show the relationship between the oral status (dental and periodontal diseases as chronic oral infections) and disorders of cardiovascular system. PMID:17474623

  8. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis: A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228 weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.

  9. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Zoltan; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Eller, Michael A; Thelian, Doris; Matyas, Gary R; Kunz, Anjali N; Alving, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC) either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture) from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a) platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b) platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV-1; (c) DC

  10. Platelets and erythrocyte-bound platelets bind infectious HIV-1 in plasma of chronically infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Beck

    Full Text Available Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent viremia in most patients, but it remains unclear how free virus may survive the potential hostile effects of plasma. We investigated whether sites might exist on the surfaces of circulating blood cells for protection of infectious HIV-1 particles. Red blood cells (RBC either from blood of uninfected normal individuals, or from blood obtained without EDTA from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, invariably contained a small number of RBC having attached platelets as determined by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and immunofluorescence microscopy. After mixing normal RBC with platelet-rich plasma, discrete populations of RBC, platelets, and complexes of platelets attached to RBC were purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Upon incubation of purified cells or platelets with HIV-1 followed by washing and co-incubation with CD4-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, platelets, and platelet-RBC complexes, but not platelet-free RBC, caused infection of PBMC. Infection was prevented by pre-treating the platelet-RBC complexes with EDTA. Plasma and RBC (comprising a RBC/platelet-RBC mixture from chronically infected patients with low viral loads were also co-incubated with PBMC ex vivo to determine the presence of infectious HIV-1. All freshly isolated plasmas from the HIV-1-infected donors, obtained in the absence of anticoagulant, were noninfectious. Interestingly, the RBC from most of the patients caused cell-cell infection of PBMC that was prevented by stripping the RBC with EDTA. A monoclonal antibody to DC-SIGN partially inhibited cell-cell HIV-1 infection of PBMC by normal RBC pre-incubated with platelets and HIV-1. We conclude: (a platelet-free EDTA-free plasma from chronically infected HIV-1 patients, although containing viral RNA, is an environment that lacks detectable infectious HIV-1; (b platelets and platelet-RBC complexes, but not purified RBC, bind infectious HIV

  11. Early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in chronic cholestatic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Zhi Wu; Dan Chen; Lian-San Zhao; Xiao-Hui Yu; Mei Wei; Yan Zhao; Qing Fang; Qian Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the early diagnostic methods of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic cholestatic hepatitis B.METHODS: One hundred and one adult in-patients with chronic hepatitis B were studied and divided into 3 groups:direct bilirubin (DBil)/total bilirubin (TBil)≥0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group A, n=38); DBil/TBil <0.5, without bacterial and fungal infection (group B, n=23);DBil/TBil≥0.5, with bacterial or fungal infection (group C,n=40). The serum biochemical index and pulse rate were analyzed.RESULTS: Level of TBil, DBil, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and DBil/ALP in group A increased compared with that in group B. The level of ALP in group C decreased compared with that in group A, whereas the level of TBil, DBil and DBil/ALP increased (ALP: 156±43, 199±68, respectively,P<0.05; TBil: 370±227, 220±206, respectively, P<0.01;DBil: 214±143, 146±136, respectively, P<0.01; DBil/ALP:1.65±1.05, 0.78±0.70, respectively, P<0.001). The level of DBil and infection affected DBil/ALP. Independent of the effect of DBil, infection caused DBil/ALP to rise (P<0.05).The pulse rate in group A decreased compared with that in group B (63.7±6.4, 77.7±11.4, respectively, P<0.001),and the pulse rate in group C increased compared with that in group A (81.2±12.2, 63.7±6.4, respectively, P<0.001).The equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate +1.064 DBil/ALP -16.361), with total accuracy of 85.5%, was obtained from stepwise logistic regression. Pulse rate (≥80/min) and DBil/ALP (≥1.0) were used to screen infection. The sensitivity was 62.5% and 64.7% respectively, and the specificity was 100% and 82.8% respectively.CONCLUSION: Bacterial and fungal infection deteriorate jaundice and increase pulse rate, decrease serum ALP and increase DBil/ALP. Pulse rate, DBil/ALP and the equation (infection=0.218 pusle rate+1.064 DBil/ALP-16.361) are helpful to early diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection in patients with chronic

  12. Role of chronic E. coli infection in the process of bladder cancer- an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mosalamy Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is a common malignancy in Egypt. A history of urinary tract infection can be considered as a risk factor for bladder cancer. Escherichia coli (E. coli infection is responsible for 70% of urinary tract infection. This study aimed to evaluate the role of chronic E. coli infection during bladder carcinogenesis. In order to achieve this aim, we investigated the histopathological changes in bladder tissue and measured the level of nuclear factor kappa p65 (NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in four groups each consisting of 25 male albino rats except of control group consisting of 20 rats. The first group was normal control group, the second group was infected with E. coli, the third group was administered nitrosamine precursor, and the forth group was infected with E. coli and administered nitrosamine precursor. Results The histopathological examination revealed that E. coli infected group was able alone to produce some histopathological changes in bladder tissue and that nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group showed highest incidences of urinary bladder lesions than the nitrosamine precursor group. NF-κBp65, Bcl-2 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in nitrosamine precursor plus E. coli group than the other groups. Conclusion These findings suggested that urinary bladder infection by E. coli may play a major additive and synergistic role during bladder carcinogenesis.

  13. Evaluating the needs of AIDS prevention in high-prevalent areas of HIV infection in Henan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi-min; Wang Xian-mi; Li Ying; Xu Shu-qin; Zhang Lei; Guo Xin; Guan Qing-xia; Liang Chu-xia; Feng Yu-huan; Zhang Shu-ping; Zhang Hai-ling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitude, behavior, and needs related to AIDS prevention and condom use in order to provide scientific basis for integrating AIDS prevention into regular family planning services (FPS).Method: From October to November 2003, we adopted the method of descriptive epidemiological study. We investigated 800 women in two townships (Wulong and Huangpu) by using cluster sampling.Results: All 800 respondents, 48. 8% of them knew that China was in a phase of rapid increase of AIDS epidemic, 62. 6% could correctly describe "three ways of AIDS transmission:sexual, blood and vertical (mother to infant)", 55.9 % believed that HIV could not definitely infect them, more than 50% thought that oral contraceptive pill could protect them from HIV infection; 41.5% did not know how to use condom correctly, 13.6% misconceived that condom could cause male sexual dysfunction, 14.9% considered that one condom could be used many times (repeated use),10.0% of the couples had ever used condom before, 3. 13% of the couples used condoms consistently and correctly. Among the women with a history of selling blood,63.9% of them sold blood more than two times, and only 2 women had ever taken HIV test.93.6% of all respondents were willing to participate in free counseling of HIV infection. 65.3 %appreciated the counseling offered by family planning service (FPS) providers. 59. 1% considered that FPS center would be the best place to provide HIV counseling in county. 94.3% were willing to participate in a free HIV testing. 52.0% considered that it would be more appropriate for FPS center to conduct the first screening HIV testing. 77. 6% hoped to know about the correct method of using condom and 46.5 % hoped to master relevant skills of condom use through participating in workshop. 87.6 % hoped to take part in health education activities related to AIDS prevention. 51.1% considered that FPS providers would be the best candidates to carry out the health

  14. Mechanistic insights on immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514

  15. Effect of zidovudine and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis on progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N M; Zeger, S L; Park, L P; Phair, J P; Detels, R; Vermund, S H; Ho, M; Saah, A J

    1991-08-01

    Although used widely, the effectiveness of zidovudine therapy and primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been assessed in a large cohort. We have done an observational study between October, 1986, and October, 1990, of a cohort of 2145 HIV-1-seropositive men and 371 who seroconverted during the study. A Markov chain transitional analysis was used to examine the effect of zidovudine and PCP prophylaxis on the probability of progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS (after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months) after follow-up visits categorised into one of six disease states. The six starting states were based on CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the presence of HIV-related symptoms. Use of pre-AIDS zidovudine and PCP prophylaxis was associated with significant reductions in rates of progression to AIDS at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months for participants starting with less than 350 CD4+ lymphocytes/microliter. For those starting with 350 or more CD4+ lymphocytes/microliter, non-significant protective trends were seen during 12, 18, and 24 month intervals. In multivariate log-linear models virtually all the treatment effect was due to zidovudine. However, after adjusting for the effects of zidovudine, PCP prophylaxis reduced significantly the probability of progression to a first episode of PCP during 6, 12, 18, and 24 month intervals. This study suggests that early primary PCP prophylaxis is effective in preventing first episodes of PCP, and that the efficacy of zidovudine demonstrated in clinical trials can be translated to the population level. PMID:1677108

  16. Benign and malignant hematological manifestations of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiksha Kedia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, that affects 3% of world′s population, is associated with several hematological manifestations mainly benign cytopenias, coagulopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. Immune or non-immune-mediated thrombocytopenia is a major challenge in chronic HCV infected patients especially in the setting of an advanced liver disease, with average prevalence of nearly 24%. Although several treatment modalities such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy and immunosuppresants have been tried with some success, their efficacy is not impressive and can result in an increase in viral load or other thrombotic complications. Even though a recent phase 2 study has shown promising role of a platelet growth factor, eltrombopag, in boosting platelets counts prior to antiviral treatment, its use in pre-operative setting had unexpected complications. Unlike thrombocytopenia, anemia and neutropenia are more frequently seen in treated patients and are often the result of antiviral therapy. HCV infection also pre-disposes to lymphoproliferative diseases, mainly non-Hodking′s lymphomas, likely as a result of chronic antigenic stimulation and mutation of several genes involved in carcinogenesis. Understanding of the role of HCV infection in these conditions has therapeutic implications. Whereas antiviral therapy has shown therapeutic role in HCV-associated indolent lymphomas, monitoring of hepatic function and viral load is important in the management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in HCV-infected patients. Although our knowledge about the HCV infection and hematological manifestations has substantially grown in last few decades, further studies are important to advance our therapeutic approach.

  17. Effect of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on bone disease in postmenopausal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nanda, Kavinderjit S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data are available on the contribution of chronic HCV infection to the development of bone disease in postmenopausal women. We studied whether women who acquired HCV infection through administration of HCV genotype 1b-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin from a single source had decreased bone mineral density (BMD) or altered levels of bone turnover markers (BTMs), compared with women who spontaneously resolved infection or age-matched healthy controls. METHODS: From a cohort of postmenopausal Irish women, we compared BMD, determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and a panel of BTMs in 20 women chronically infected with HCV (PCR(+)), 21 women who had spontaneously resolved infection (PCR(-)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Levels of BTMs and BMD were similar in PCR(+) and PCR(-) women and healthy age-matched controls. However, there was an increased frequency of fractures in PCR(+) (n = 6) compared with PCR(-) women (n = 0, P = .007). PCR(+) women with fractures were postmenopausal for a longer time (median, 15.5, range, 5-20 years vs 4.5, range, 1-20 years in PCR(+) women without fractures; P = .033), had lower BMD at the hip (0.79, range, 0.77-0.9 g\\/cm(2) vs 0.96, range, 0.81-1.10 g\\/cm(2); P = .007), and had a lower body mass index (23.7, range 21.2-28.5 kg\\/m(2) vs 25.6, range 22.1-36.6 kg\\/m(2); P = .035). There was no difference in liver disease severity or BTMs in PCR(+) women with or without fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic HCV infection did not lead to discernable metabolic bone disease in postmenopausal women, but it might be a risk factor for bone fractures, so preventive measures should be introduced. To view this article\\'s video abstract, go to the AGA\\'s YouTube Channel.

  18. Antibody V(h repertoire differences between resolving and chronically evolving hepatitis C virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Racanelli

    Full Text Available Despite the production of neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV, many patients fail to clear the virus and instead develop chronic infection and long-term complications. To understand how HCV infection perturbs the antibody repertoire and to identify molecular features of antibody genes associated with either viral clearance or chronic infection, we sequenced the V(DJ region of naïve and memory B cells of 6 persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection (SR, 9 patients with a newly diagnosed chronically evolving infection (CE, and 7 healthy donors. In both naïve and memory B cells, the frequency of use of particular antibody gene subfamilies and segments varied among the three clinical groups, especially between SR and CE. Compared to CE, SR antibody genes used fewer VH, D and JH gene segments in naïve B cells and fewer VH segments in memory B cells. SR and CE groups significantly differed in the frequency of use of 7 gene segments in naïve B cell clones and 3 gene segments in memory clones. The nucleotide mutation rates were similar among groups, but the pattern of replacement and silent mutations in memory B cell clones indicated greater antigen selection in SR than CE. Greater clonal evolution of SR than CE memory B cells was revealed by analysis of phylogenetic trees and CDR3 lengths. Pauciclonality of the peripheral memory B cell population is a distinguishing feature of persons who spontaneously resolved an HCV infection. This finding, previously considered characteristic only of patients with HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, suggests that the B cell clones potentially involved in clearance of the virus may also be those susceptible to abnormal expansion.

  19. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations and association with cryoglobulinemia in Bulgarian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in Bulgarian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and identify the clinical and biological manifestations associated with cryoglobulinemia.METHODS: The medical records of 136 chronically infected HCV patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations. Association between cryoglobulin-positivity and other manifestations were identified using χ2 and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations were assessed by logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: Seventy six percent (104/136) of the patients had at least one extrahepatic manifestation.Clinical manifestations included fatigue (59.6%),kidney impairment (25.0%), type 2 diabetes (22.8%),paresthesia (19.9%), arthralgia (18.4%), palpable purpura (17.6%), lymphadenopathy (16.2%), pulmonary fibrosis (15.4%), thyroid dysfunction (14.7%), Raynaud's phenomenon (11.8%), B-cell lymphoma (8.8%),sicca syndrome (6.6%), and lichen planus (5.9%).The biological manifestations included cryoglobulin production (37.5%), thrombocytopenia (31.6%), and autoantibodies: anti-nuclear (18.4%), anti-smooth muscle (16.9%), anti-neutrophil cytoplasm (13.2%) and anti-cardiolipin (8.8%). All extrahepatic manifestations showed an association with cryoglobulin-positivity, with the exception of thyroid dysfunction, sicca syndrome,and lichen planus. Risks factors for the presence of extrahepatic manifestations (univariate analysis) were:age ≥ 60 years, female gender, virus transmission by blood transfusions, longstanding infection (≥ 20 years), and extensive liver fibrosis. The most significant risks factors (multivariate analysis) were longstanding infection and extensive liver fibrosis.CONCLUSION: We observed a high prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in patients with chronic HCV infection. Most of these manifestations were associated with impaired lymphoproliferation and cryoglobulin production

  20. Manipulation of Regulatory Cells’ Responses to Treatments for Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolpour, Soheil; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Sali, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of effective treatments in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a controversial topic. Although the currently approved drugs for HBV control the disease’s progression and also limit associated outcomes, these drugs may not fully eradicate HBV infection. In addition to better managing patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, the induction of seroclearance by these drugs has been a commonly discussed topic in recent years. Objectives In this study, we focused on treating CHB infection via the manipulation of T cells’ responses to identify possible approaches to cure CHB. Materials and Methods All studies relevant to the role of cellular and humoral responses in HBV infection (especially regulatory cells) were investigated via a systematic search of different databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Considering extracted data and also our unpublished data regarding the association between regulatory cytokines and CHB, we introduced a novel approach for the induction of seroclearance. Results Considering the increased levels of regulatory cytokines and also regulatory T cells (Tregs) during CHB, it seems that these cells are deeply involved in CHB infection. The inhibition of regulatory T cells may reverse the dysfunction of effector T cells in patients with CHB infection. In order to inhibit Tregs’ responses, different types of approaches could be employed to restore the impaired function of effector T cells. The blockade of IL-10, IL-35, CTLA-4, PD-1, and TIM-3 were discussed throughout this study. Regardless of the efficacy of these methods, CHB patients may experience serious liver injuries due to the cytotoxic action of CD8+ T cells. Antiviral therapy and a decrease in HBV DNA to undetectable levels could also significantly reduce the risk of the hepatitis B flare. Conclusions The inhibition of Tregs is a novel therapeutic approach to cure chronically HBV infected patients. However, further studies are

  1. Extracellular matrix assessment of infected chronic venous leg ulcers: role of metalloproteinases and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Raffaele; Grande, Raffaele; Buffone, Gianluca; Molinari, Vincenzo; Perri, Paolo; Perri, Aldina; Amato, Bruno; Colosimo, Manuela; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Chronic venous ulcer (CVU) represents a dreaded complication of chronic venous disease (CVD). The onset of infection may further delay the already precarious healing process in such lesions. Some evidences have shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved and play a central role in both CVUs and infectious diseases. Two groups of patients were enrolled to evaluate the expression of MMPs in infected ulcers and the levels of inflammatory cytokines as well as their prevalence. Group I comprised 63 patients (36 females and 27 males with a median age of 68·7 years) with infected CVUs, and group II (control group) comprised 66 patients (38 females and 28 males with a median age of 61·2 years) with non-infected venous ulcers. MMP evaluation and dosage of inflammatory cytokines in plasma and wound fluid was performed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test; protein extraction and immunoblot analysis were performed on biopsied wounds. The first three most common agents involved in CVUs were Staphylococcus aureus (38·09%), Corynebacterium striatum (19·05%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12·7%). In this study, we documented overall higher levels of MMP-1 and MMP-8 in patients with infected ulcers compared to those with uninfected ulcers that showed higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. We also documented higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with infected ulcers with respect to those with uninfected ulcers, documenting a possible association between infection, MMP activation, cytokine secretions and symptoms. The present results could represent the basis for further studies on drug use that mimic the action of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in order to make infected CVU more manageable.

  2. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P.; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24–48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  3. Murine Model Imitating Chronic Wound Infections for Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fila, Grzegorz; Kasimova, Kamola; Arenas, Yaxal; Nakonieczna, Joanna; Grinholc, Mariusz; Bielawski, Krzysztof P; Lilge, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the age of antibiotics could come to an end, due to their widespread, and inappropriate use. Particularly for chronic wounds alternatives are being thought. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) is a potential candidate, and while approved for some indications, such as periodontitis, chronic sinusitis and other niche indications, its use in chronic wounds is not established. To further facilitate the development of APDT in chronic wounds we present an easy to use animal model exhibiting the key hallmarks of chronic wounds, based on full-thickness skin wounds paired with an optically transparent cover. The moisture-retaining wound exhibited rapid expansion of pathogen colonies up to 8 days while not jeopardizing the host survival. Use of two bioluminescent pathogens; methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa permits real time monitoring of the pathogens. The murine model was employed to evaluate the performance of four different photosensitizers as mediators in Photodynamic Therapy. While all four photosensitizers, Rose Bengal, porphyrin TMPyP, New Methylene Blue, and TLD1411 demonstrated good to excellent antimicrobial efficacy in planktonic solutions at 1 to 50 μM concentrations, whereas in in vivo the growth delay was limited with 24-48 h delay in pathogen expansion for MRSA, and we noticed longer growth suppression of P. aeruginosa with TLD1411 mediated Photodynamic Therapy. The murine model will enable developing new strategies for enhancement of APDT for chronic wound infections. PMID:27555843

  4. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clumeck, N; Pozniak, A; Raffi, F;

    2008-01-01

    A working group of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) have developed these guidelines for European clinicians to help them in the treatment of adults with HIV infection. This third version of the guidelines includes, as new topics, the assessment of patients at initial and subsequent clinic...... visits as well as post-exposure prophylaxis. A revision of the 2005 guidelines based on current data includes changes in the sections on primary HIV infection, when to initiate therapy, which drug combinations are preferred as initial combination regimens for antiretroviral-naïve patients, how to manage...... country to another, especially in Central and Eastern parts of Europe. These guidelines are intended to help clinicians achieve the best care for their patients. In some countries, particularly where the quality of and access to care are not optimal, these guidelines should help AIDS societies...

  5. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  6. Boceprevir in chronic hepatitis C infection: a perspective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Boceprevir (Victrelis), from the oral α-ketoamide class of slow-binding reversible hepatitis C virus (HCV)-NS3 protease inhibitors, creates a new class of drugs: direct acting antivirals (DDAs). Boceprevir is highly selective against HCV serine protease. Its use is restricted to genotype 1 HCV infection and it must not be used as monotherapy. Boceprevir is given orally, rapidly absorbed, reaching plasma peak concentration within 1-2 h and is metabolized by aldo-ketoreductase and partly by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4/5. Administration with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A4/5 could decrease or increase its plasma concentration. The optimal dosage is 800 mg three times daily; capsules should be taken with food. Boceprevir was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and is indicated in combination with peginterferon plus ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 1 HCV who have not received previous treatment or whose condition has failed to respond to previous therapy. In the Serine Protease Inhibitor Therapy 2 (SPRINT-2) trial (treatment-naïve patients) and RESPOND-2 trial (patients whose condition relapsed or did not respond to previous treatment), the boceprevir-containing regimen was always more effective than standard of care (SOC). Adverse events were similar in the treatment groups, but in the boceprevir treated group, anemia was more frequent, requiring erythropoietin in nearly 40% of cases. Discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was identical in all treated groups. As for cost effectiveness, two studies showed that boceprevir plus SOC is cost effective with regard to the lifetime incidence of liver complications, quality of life years, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The management of this therapy is more complex than before for physicians and patients. The educational role of the physician is crucial for successful therapy and counseling should be carefully given

  7. Noninvasive models for assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Da-Wu; Dong, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rui; Jiang, Jia-Ji; Zhu, Yue-Yong

    2016-08-01

    There are approximately 240 million patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Up to 40% of HBV-infected patients can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic end-stage liver disease during their lifetime. This, in turn, is responsible for around 650000 deaths annually worldwide. Repeated hepatitis flares may increase the progression of liver fibrosis, making the accurate diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis critical in order to make antiviral therapeutic decisions for HBV-infected patients. Liver biopsy remains the "gold standard" for diagnosing liver fibrosis. However, this technique has recently been challenged by the development of several novel noninvasive tests to evaluate liver fibrosis, including serum markers, combined models and imaging techniques. In addition, the cost and accessibility of imaging techniques have been suggested as additional limitations for invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in developing countries. Therefore, a noninvasive assessment model has been suggested to evaluate liver fibrosis, specifically in HBV-infected patients, owing to its high applicability, inter-laboratory reproducibility, wide availability for repeated assays and reasonable cost. The current review aims to present the status of knowledge in this new and exciting field, and to highlight the key points in HBV-infected patients for clinicians. PMID:27547009

  8. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection after living donor liver transplantation via blood transfusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Itoh, Shinji; Harimoto, Norifumi; Harada, Noboru; Ikegami, Toru; Inagaki, Yuki; Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Although it occurs worldwide, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in developed countries is generally foodborne. HEV infection is subclinical in most individuals. Although fulminant liver failure may occur, progression to chronic hepatitis is rare. This study describes a 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis caused by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria. His liver function was classified as Child-Pugh grade C. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed, and he was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day (POD) 22. However, his alanine aminotransferase concentration began to increase on POD 60 and HEV infection was detected on POD 81. Retrospective assessments of stored blood samples showed that this patient became positive for HEV RNA on POD 3. The liver donor was negative for anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. However, the platelet concentrate transfused into the liver recipient the day after LDLT was positive for HEV RNA. The patient remained positive for HEV infection for 10 months. Treatment with 800 mg/day ribavirin for 20 weeks reduced HEV RNA to an undetectable level. In conclusion, this report describes a patient infected with HEV through a blood transfusion after LDLT, who progressed to chronic hepatitis probably due to his immunosuppressed state and was treated well with ribavirin therapy. PMID:27059470

  9. ETHNIC AND POPULATION-SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN CHRONIC HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ageeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Immunophenotype profile of lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ from peripheral blood in gastric ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer has been studied in Khakassian aboriginals and migrants. Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was also evaluated. Some alterations of immunological indexes were revealed in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori, as compared to healthy donors and migrants. The changes were characterized by a more intense apoptotic death of lymphocytes in the patients, when compared with numbers of apoptotic cells in control group. Probable role of apoptotic events in regulation of local and system immunity in Helicobacter pylori infection is discussed.

  10. Successful interferon desensitization in a patient with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Alireza Taghavi; Ahad Eshraghian

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C, even when absolutely necessary, is almost impossible when interferon cannot be administered for any reason. We report a 65-year-old patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and fibrosis, who was unable to receive interferon because of systemic hypersensitivity. The patient was desensitized successfully through gradual incremental exposure to interferon, and HCV infection was eradicated after a complete course of treatment,with no further allergic reactions. This case report that describes successful eradication of hepatitis C in a patient with advanced liver disease after desensitization to interferon revealed that desensitization may not necessarily damage the therapeutic efficacy of the drug.

  11. Neutrophilic dermatosis of the dorsal hands associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Joao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophilic dermatosis of the dorsal hands, a localized form of Sweet′s syndrome, was recently described, and can be associated with several diseases including infections. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection has been proposed as a possible triggering factor. The authors present a case in which the clinical and laboratory workup diagnosis only revealed positive serology for hepatitis C virus. Although a cause-effect relation could not be proved, it might be advisable to include serology for this virus in the initial evaluation of patients with neutrophilic dermatosis.

  12. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, D. H.; Hawkins, R. P.; Boberg, E. W.; Bricker, E.; Pingree, S.; Chan, C L

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barr...

  13. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing in adult HIV-1 infection: 2008 recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, M S; Günthard, H F; Schapiro, J. M.; Brun-Vézinet, F.; Clotet, B; Hammer, S M; Johnson, V A; Kuritzkes, D.R.; Mellors, J W; Pillay, D; Yeni, P G; Jacobsen, D M; Richman, D. D.

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to antiretroviral drugs remains an important limitation to successful human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy. Resistance testing can improve treatment outcomes for infected individuals. The availability of new drugs from various classes, standardization of resistance assays, and the development of viral tropism tests necessitate new guidelines for resistance testing. The International AIDS Society-USA convened a panel of physicians and scientists with expertise in drug...

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolutionary Adaptation and Diversification in Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Lung Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Craig; O'Brien, Siobhan; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo a characteristic evolutionary adaptation during chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, including reduced production of virulence factors, transition to a biofilm-associated lifestyle, and evolution of high-level antibiotic resistance. Populations of P. aeruginosa in chronic CF lung infections typically exhibit high phenotypic diversity, including for clinically important traits such as antibiotic resistance and toxin production, and this diversity is dynamic over time, making accurate diagnosis and treatment challenging. Population genomics studies reveal extensive genetic diversity within patients, including for transmissible strains the coexistence of highly divergent lineages acquired by patient-to-patient transmission. The inherent spatial structure and spatial heterogeneity of selection in the CF lung appears to play a key role in driving P. aeruginosa diversification. PMID:26946977

  15. Effects of adding ribavirin to interferon to treat chronic hepatitis C infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Evidence shows that a combination therapy of ribavirin plus interferon clears hepatitis C virus from the blood in about 40% of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, but the effects on clinical outcomes are unclear. We evaluated the beneficial and harmful effects of ribavirin plus interferon...... vs interferon alone for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Randomized trials were included irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status. Trials were identified through the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE...... events. Previous antiviral therapy (treatment-naive patients, relapsers, or nonresponders), patient characteristics, treatment regimen, methodological quality, and duration of follow-up were extracted. We included 72 trials with a total of 9991 enrolled patients. Treatment with ribavirin plus interferon...

  16. Chronic meningitis with intracranial hypertension and bilateral neuroretinitis following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampatsas, Konstantinos; Patel, Himanshu; Basheer, Sheikh N; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-12-23

    A previously well 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of headache, nausea, vomiting and left-sided weakness. He subsequently developed meningism, right abducens nerve palsy, persistent papilloedema and reduced visual acuity in association with a bilateral macular star, consistent with neuroretinitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination indicated chronic meningitis and serological testing confirmed recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, although PCR in CSF was negative. He was treated for aseptic meningitis with ceftriaxone, aciclovir, azithromycin and acetazolamide for intracranial hypertension, with gradual improvement in clinical condition and visual acuity over several weeks. This is the first report of M. pneumoniae chronic meningitis further complicated with bilateral neuroretinitis and intracranial hypertension. Evidence of central nervous system inflammation in the absence of direct infection suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology. Although the use of macrolides with antibiotic and immunomodulatory activity might be beneficial, it was not possible to ascertain whether it influenced clinical recovery in this case.

  17. The challenge of chronic lung disease in HIV-infected children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich C Weber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, little attention has been given to chronic lung disease (CLD in HIV-infected children. As the HIV epidemic matures in sub-Saharan Africa, adolescents who acquired HIV by vertical transmission are presenting to health services with chronic diseases. The most common is CLD, which is often debilitating. This review summarizes the limited data available on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical picture, special investigations and management of CLD in HIV-infected adolescents. A number of associated conditions: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, tuberculosis and bronchiectasis are well described. Other pathologies such as HIV-associated bronchiolitis obliterans resulting in non-reversible airway obstruction, has only recently been described. In this field, there are many areas of uncertainty needing urgent research. These areas include the definition of CLD, pathophysiological mechanisms and common pathologies responsible. Very limited data are available to formulate an effective plan of investigation and management.

  18. The use and impact of a computer-based support system for people living with AIDS and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, D H; Hawkins, R P; Boberg, E W; Bricker, E; Pingree, S; Chan, C L

    1994-01-01

    CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing AIDS/HIV Infection and other health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS is designed to improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has been evaluated in a random-assignment study with over 200 men and women living with AIDS and HIV infection. When CHESS was placed in subjects' homes for 3-6 months, use of CHESS was extremely heavy, with the average subject using CHESS 138 times for 39 hours. Compared with a control group which did not receive CHESS, subjects who used CHESS reported significantly higher quality of life in several dimensions, including social support and cognitive functioning. Users also reported significant reductions in some types of health care costs, especially inpatient services (hospitalizations). All segments of the study population used and benefited from CHESS, including women, minorities and those subjects with lower levels of education. Thus, CHESS appears to be an effective means of delivering education and support to the diverse populations which are affected by AIDS and HIV infection. PMID:7949999

  19. Blockade of Immunosuppressive Cytokines Restores NK Cell Antiviral Function in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitra Peppa; Lorenzo Micco; Alia Javaid; Kennedy, Patrick T.F.; Anna Schurich; Claire Dunn; Celeste Pallant; Gidon Ellis; Pooja Khanna; Geoffrey Dusheiko; Gilson, Richard J.; Mala K Maini

    2010-01-01

    NK cells are enriched in the liver, constituting around a third of intrahepatic lymphocytes. We have previously demonstrated that they upregulate the death ligand TRAIL in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB), allowing them to kill hepatocytes bearing TRAIL receptors. In this study we investigated whether, in addition to their pathogenic role, NK cells have antiviral potential in CHB. We characterised NK cell subsets and effector function in 64 patients with CHB compared to...

  20. A case of unilateral optic disc swelling with chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Naoko; Nakazawa, Toru; Shimura, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Ocular complications of chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection have rarely been reported and are usually associated with systemic symptoms. We described a 17-year-old boy with unilateral optic disc swelling without any systemic symptoms at the initial onset. Antibody titers to EBV were markedly elevated. Treatment with immunosuppressants and corticosteroids dramatically relieved all his symptoms, including unilateral optic swelling and visual field abnormalities.

  1. HIV/AIDS selective infectivity-report of two peculiar cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azikiwe CCA; Ifezulike CC; Amazu LU; Enye JC; Nwosu PJC; Osuala FN

    2010-01-01

    We report two peculiar cases that were observed in two communities of Anambra State, South East Nigeria. The first case was a woman of 44 with a history of blood transfusion from a donor of questionable HIV status. A pint of blood was transfused in a private Hospital on the 15th January, 2000. She has had no form of antiviral therapy until 22nd April, 2008 when she came to the hospital for routine medical check up. Her HIV result came out confirmed positive while that of her husband came out negative. She has had active sexual life with her husband in the previous eight years as they have had some difficulties in getting their desired extra two children having earlier gotten a boy and a girl. The second case involves a family of six. A couple with four children of ages about 6 months, 2 years, 3 years and 5 years. The youngest, a female presented with fever and multiple lymphadenopathy. She tested HIV positive and so was her mother and her second sibling. But her father and two other siblings remained negative at post three and six months intervals from their very first test date with us. These reported cases appear to go contrary to earlier formed opinion on HIV transmission. We support the opinion on a naturally, occurring substance, APOBEC3G which possibly confers permanent immunity against the HIV virus. We recommend clinical trials of the characterized APOBEC3G as a vaccine for non HIV infected persons of all ages and to people living with HIV/AIDS as a therapeutic drug.

  2. [Novel treatments for hepatitis C virus infection in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has been accumulated showing a negative impact of chronic hepatitis C virus infection on survival in patients with chronic kidney disease. Moreover, it appears that anti-HCV positive status has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease in the adult general population. These reports have emphasized the need for safe and effective therapies for hepatitis C virus infection in the chronic kidney disease population. Treatment of HCV has made considerable progress with the approval of interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral drug-based combination therapies among patients with intact kidneys; but a paucity of information exists regarding chronic kidney disease patients. The first published report on the antiviral treatment of hepatitis C among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 4-5) and HCV genotype 1 concerns the combination of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor); excellent safety and efficacy (sustained viral response, 94.3% 115/122) have been reached. In another study, the 3-D regimen (ombitasvir/ paritaprevir/ ritonavir/ dasabuvir with or without ribavirin) has been administered to CKD (stage 4-5) patients with genotype 1 (n=20); the rate of sustained viral response was excellent (90%, 18/20) and no patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Preliminary data on the combined treatment of sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor) and simeprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor) has given a viral response of 89% (34/38), but the size of the study group (n=38 patients with end-stage renal disease) was small. Thus, the evidence in the medical literature concerning use of DAAs in CKD population is encouraging even if it has a preliminary nature. Also, several points need to be addressed regarding the use of DAAs in CKD population including their impact on survival, costs, and drug-drug interactions. PMID:27545640

  3. Female hepatology: Favorable role of estrogen in chronic liver disease with hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mainly as a result of chronic necroinflammatory liver disease. A characteristic feature of chronic hepatitis B infection, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is hepatic steatosis. Hepatic steatosis leads to an increase in lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes, which, in turn, activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). HSCs are the primary target cells for inflammatory and oxidative stimuli, and these cells produce extracellular matrix components.Chronic hepatitis B appears to progress more rapidly in males than in females, and NAFLD, cirrhosis and HCC are predominately diseases that tend to occur in men and postmenopausal women. Premenopausal women have lower hepatic iron stores and a decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Hepatic steatosis has been observed in aromatase-deficient mice, and has been shown to decrease in animals after estradiol treatment. Estradiol is a potent endogenous antioxidant which suppresses hepatic fibrosis in animal models, and attenuates induction of redox sensitive transcription factors, hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation by inhibiting a generation of reactive oxygen species in primary cultures. Variant estrogen receptors are expressed to a greater extent in male patients with chronic liver disease than in females. These lines of evidence suggest that the greater progression of hepatic fibrosis and HCC in men and postmenopausal women may be due, at least in part, to lower production of estradiol and a reduced response to the action of estradiol. A better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the sex-associated differences in hepatic fibrogenesis and carciogenesis may open up new avenues for the prevention and treatment of chronic liver disease.

  4. [Hygienic aspects with regard to nursing of home care patients with AIDS, chronic diseases and mental handicaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, H G; Flassak, H; Throm, W

    1995-04-01

    A human handicap is defined as a broad, hard and long lasting restriction of the mental development and the social integration. Groups of handicapped persons can be divided into mentally, psychologically, physically, sensory (blind, deaf) handicapped as well as into multiple disabled and chronically sick persons and those in need of care (old). New groups with demands for aid are among others people suffering from AIDS, psychologically sick (old) and people getting old as well as mentally, physically und multiple handicapped persons, people suffering from cancer, severely ill and dying people. For all handicapped people should be demanded the possibility of living almost normal lives. For all persons directly concerned as well as their families such a normal life should include: the right of self-determination and autonomy, the demand for complex styles of living and nearby care/support, the providing of respective infrastructures such as barrier free living and access to public institutions, access to public transport and homes fitting for handicapped persons, the demand for out-patient treatment by a complex range of various possibilities of support and finally, the providing of alternative forms of living in contrast to the traditional way of life of handicapped people like families or homes. Three important living areas can be derived from these ideas, namely: living conditions, education/professional and working field, social life/social environment. These important living areas require preventive measures, mainly advice and information centres, places to go early recognition and early promotion of handicapped people and those in risk of a handicap (especially children) as well as medical, professional and social rehabilitation or integration. Concerning the spectrum of support, aid and care in the homely area up to now already exists a variety of offers by out-patient services (information services, social units, mobile support services

  5. A case of chronic berylliosis using aspiration liver biopsy as a diagnostic aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic berylliosis may occur in subjects who regularly handle or have handled the metal beryllium (workers in light bulb factories). Clinical symptoms (fatigue, loss of weight, coughing, increasing breathlessness upon exertion, pyrexia, cyanosis, clubbed fingers and certain radiological abnormalities) are non-specific. Pathological-anatomical examination reveals granulomatosis of the organs. A description is given of a case in which the diagnosis was made on the basis of the history, chest X-rays and liver biopsy findings. (author)

  6. Statin-induced chronic cholesterol depletion inhibits Leishmania donovani infection: Relevance of optimum host membrane cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Aditya; Roy, Saptarshi; Jafurulla, Md; Mandal, Chitra; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that invade and survive within host macrophages leading to leishmaniasis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly among economically weaker sections in tropical and subtropical regions. Visceral leishmaniasis is a potent disease caused by Leishmania donovani. The detailed mechanism of internalization of Leishmania is poorly understood. A basic step in the entry of Leishmania involves interaction of the parasite with the host plasma membrane. In this work, we have explored the effect of chronic metabolic cholesterol depletion using lovastatin on the entry and survival of Leishmania donovani in host macrophages. We show here that chronic cholesterol depletion of host macrophages results in reduction in the attachment of Leishmania promastigotes, along with a concomitant reduction in the intracellular amastigote load. These results assume further relevance since chronic cholesterol depletion is believed to mimic physiological cholesterol modulation. Interestingly, the reduction in the ability of Leishmania to enter host macrophages could be reversed upon metabolic replenishment of cholesterol. Importantly, enrichment of host membrane cholesterol resulted in reduction in the entry and survival of Leishmania in host macrophages. As a control, the binding of Escherichia coli to host macrophages remained invariant under these conditions, thereby implying specificity of cholesterol requirement for effective leishmanial infection. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first comprehensive demonstration that an optimum content of host membrane cholesterol is necessary for leishmanial infection. Our results assume relevance in the context of developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting cholesterol-mediated leishmanial infection. PMID:27319380

  7. Clostridium difficile Infection: A Rarity in Patients Receiving Chronic Antibiotic Treatment for Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhik; Lichtiger, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged antibiotic use is limited by several adverse effects, one of which is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of CDI in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 100 patients with CD for which ≥6 months of outpatient antibiotic therapy was prescribed. Data were collected regarding demographics, CD phenotype, treatment history, and CDI. The incidence of CDI in our patient population was calculated and compared with historical controls. Results 100 patients were studied—60% of men, mean age 23.9 years at CD diagnosis. Eighty-two percent had disease involving the ileum, and 33% had disease involving the colon. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 39.6 months (range, 6–217 months). The most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics were fluoroquinolones (84%), penicillins (57%), and cephalosporins (32%). Forty-nine percent of patients were treated with concomitant thiopurines, 45% with budesonide, and 41% with biologics. The overall incidence of CDI was 2%. This incidence of CDI was lower than previously reported for non-CD patients receiving chronic antibiotics for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device infections (12.5%) and orthopedic prosthesis infections (22.2%). Conclusions The incidence of CDI is rare in patients receiving chronic antibiotic treatment for CD, and it seems significantly lower than for non-CD populations reported in the literature. PMID:26650148

  8. Dissecting the dendritic cell controversy in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Adam J; Ann D'Angelo, June

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to boost endogenous T-cell immunity rely on the stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). The functionality of DCs in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a long-standing debate. Therefore, we have attempted to summarize multiple studies investigating DC function in chronic HBV patients to determine whether common observations can be drawn. We found that the frequency and function of ex vivo-tested myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs were largely intact in patients with HBV infection and similar to those of healthy donor DCs. The main exception was reduced IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DC from chronic HBV patients. This reduced IFN-α production correlated with liver inflammation in multiple studies but not with viral load, suggesting that viral antigens have little effect on DC function. The majority of the confusion about DC function arises from studies reporting the reduced function of healthy donor DCs exposed to various sources of HBV in vitro. These direct effects of viral antigens are in contrast to data from HBV-infected patients. The variations in the assays used and areas that require further investigation are also covered. PMID:25363524

  9. Progression of chronic hepatitis and preneoplasia in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arlin B; Boutin, Samuel R; Whary, Mark T; Sundina, Nataliya; Ge, Zhongming; Cormier, Kathleen; Fox, James G

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus infection induces sustained inflammation and carcinoma of the liver in A/JCr mice, and serves as a model of human cancers associated with viral hepatitis and H. pylorichronic gastritis. Here we describe the pathogenesis of premalignant disease in A/JCr mice infected with H. hepaticus. We inoculated dams intragestationally and/or pups postnatally, and evaluated offspring at 3, 6, or 12 months. Mice infected at or before 3 weeks of age, but not at 12 weeks, developed disease. Male mice were most affected, but expressed a bimodal pattern of susceptibility. Males exhibited lobular necrogranulomatous and interface (chronic active) hepatitis, while females usually developed intraportal (chronic persistent) hepatitis. Portal inflammation was slowly progressive, with tertiary lymphoid nodule development by 12 months. Hepatic bacterial load and preneoplastic lesions, including clear and tigroid cell foci of cellular alteration, were correlated with lobular hepatitis severity. No extrahepatic surrogate disease marker reliably predicted individual hepatitis grade. In conclusion, gender and bacterial exposure timing are key determinants of H. hepaticus disease outcomes. Intrahepatic inflammation is driven by local signals characterized by a vigorous but nonsterilizing immune response. Continued study of chronic hepatitis progression may reveal therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. PFGE and antibiotic susceptibility phenotype analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain chronically infecting Cystic Fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Pulcrano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of chronic lung infection and following pulmonary worsening of cystic fibrosis patients. To verify whether bacterial modifications regarding motility, mucoidy, and serum susceptibility proceeded from an adaptation to chronic infection or a replacement with a new strain, sequential P. aeruginosa isolates of known phenotype collected from 5 cystic fibrosis patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electophoresis (PFGE. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of all isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method. PFGE typing demonstrated that strains dissimilar in colony morphotype and of different antibiotic susceptibility patterns could be of the same genotype. Some patients were colonized with a rather constant P. aeruginosa flora, with strains of different phenotypes but of one genotype. Instead, some patients may be colonized by more than one genotype. Secretion of mucoid exopolysaccharide and acquisition of a new antibiotic susceptibility phenotype in these strain appear to evolve during chronic colonization in cystic fibrosis patients from specific adaptation to infection rather than from acquisition of new bacterial strains.

  11. Evaluation of viral load in saliva from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Santos, Renata L; de Deus, Dayse M V; de Almeida Lopes, Edmundo P; Duarte Coêlho, Maria R C; de Castro, Jurema F L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the HCV-RNA in saliva and plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis C infections, as well as check the level of viral load in sex groups (age, ethnicity and virus subtypes). Whole saliva and blood from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections attended at the department of gastroenterology from University Hospital. The HCV-RNA load was performed by qRT-PCR using Sybr Green I master mix. HCV-RNA was detected in 80% (56/70) of patients in saliva and 92.85% (65/70) in plasma. The median of the viral load in the plasma was of 4.87 log10, and in saliva, it was 3.32log10, (p = 0.0005). Female patients and black patients exhibited a negative correlation between the HCV-RNA load in saliva vs. the HCV-RNA load in plasma (r = -0.3172, CI95% -0.6240 to -0.03736, p = 0.0491) and (r = -0.3141; IC95% -0.6069 to -0.05926; p = 0.0209), respectively. HCV-RNA was detected and quantified in saliva samples, and according to the quantification levels, saliva may be a possible transmission source of HCV, particularly in women and people of black ethnicity who develop chronic HCV infections.

  12. Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Gondorf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminths immunomodulate their hosts and induce a regulatory, anti-inflammatory milieu that prevents allergies and autoimmune diseases. Helminth immunomodulation may benefit sepsis outcome by preventing exacerbated inflammation and severe pathology, but the influence on bacterial clearance remains unclear. To address this, mice were chronically infected with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis (L.s. and the outcome of acute systemic inflammation caused by i.p. Escherichia coli injection was determined. L.s. infection significantly improved E. coli-induced hypothermia, bacterial clearance and sepsis survival and correlated with reduced concentrations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and a less pronounced pro-inflammatory macrophage gene expression profile. Improved sepsis outcome in L.s.-infected animals was mediated by macrophages, but independent of the alternatively activated macrophage subset. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that are present in most human pathogenic filariae, as well as L.s., signal via TLR2 and modulate macrophage function. Here, gene expression profiles of peritoneal macrophages from L.s.-infected mice revealed a downregulation of genes involved in TLR signaling, and pulsing of macrophages in vitro with L.s. extract reduced LPS-triggered activation. Subsequent transfer improved sepsis outcome in naïve mice in a Wolbachia- and TLR2-dependent manner. In vivo, phagocytosis was increased in macrophages from L.s.-infected wild type, but not TLR2-deficient animals. In association, L.s. infection neither improved bacterial clearance in TLR2-deficient animals nor ameliorated E. coli-induced hypothermia and sepsis survival. These results indicate that chronic L.s. infection has a dual beneficial effect on bacterial sepsis, reducing pro-inflammatory immune responses and improving bacterial control. Thus, helminths and their antigens may not only improve the outcome of autoimmune and allergic diseases

  13. Chronic Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration Reduces IgE(+)B Cells but Unlikely Enhances Pathogenic SIVmac251 Infection in Male Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Liu, Li; Cong, Zhe; Wu, Xiaoxian; Wang, Hui; Qin, Chuan; Molina, Patricia; Chen, Zhiwei

    2016-09-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) is the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. Δ(9)-THC has been used in the active ingredient of Marinol as an appetite stimulant for AIDS patients. Its impact on progression of HIV-1 infection, however, remains debatable. Previous studies indicated that Δ(9)-THC administration enhanced HIV-1 infection in huPBL-SCID mice but seemingly decreased early mortality in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected male Indian-derived rhesus macaques. Here, we determine the chronic effect of Δ(9)-THC administration using 0.32 mg/kg or placebo (PBO), i.m., twice daily for 428 days on SIVmac251 infected male Chinese-derived rhesus macaques. Sixteen animals were divided into four study groups: Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+), Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(-), PBO/SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(-) (n = 4/group). One-month after daily Δ(9)-THC or PBO administrations, macaques in groups one and three were challenged intravenously with pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS, which was isolated from the brain of a Chinese macaque with end-staged neuroAIDS. No significant differences in peak and steady state plasma viral loads were seen between Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) and PBO/SIV(+) macaques. Regardless of Δ(9)-THC, all infected macaques displayed significant drop of CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, loss of CD4(+) T cells and higher persistent levels of Ki67(+)CD8(+) T cells compared with uninfected animals. Moreover, long-term Δ(9)-THC treatment reduced significantly the frequency of circulating IgE(+)B cells. Only one Δ(9)-THC(+)SIV(+) macaque died of simian AIDS with paralyzed limbs compared with two deaths in the PBO/SIV(+) group during the study period. These findings indicate that chronic Δ(9)-THC administration resulted in reduction of IgE(+)B cells, yet it unlikely enhanced pathogenic SIVmac251/CNS infection in male Rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. PMID:27109234

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS-infected individuals in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Domingos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients infected with HIV/AIDS and the association of demographic and social variables. METHODS Descriptive cross-sectional study that included the analysis of sociodemographic data and laboratory findings of 200 patients infected with HIV/AIDS treated in a laboratory unit in Maputo, Mozambique, in 2010. Individual data for all participants were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma samples were tested for IgG testing of anti- T. gondii using hemagglutination for the analysis of antibodies. RESULTS The seroprevalence of IgG anti- T. gondii was 46.0% (95%CI 39.2;52.9, 39.3% (95%CI 29.5;50.0 in men and 50.9% (95%CI 41.9;59.8 in women, with no difference between sex (OR 1.30; 95%CI 0.95;1.77; p = 0.12. Ages ranged from 10 to 60 years, with a higher prevalence of infection in older age groups, but with no significant difference between them. Regularly consuming cattle meat (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.04;2.89, p = 0.05, breeding cats/dogs (OR 6.18; 95%CI 3.60;10.62, p < 0.000 and having regular contact with soil (OR 3.38; 95%CI 2.19;5.21; p < 0.000 were significantly associated with risk of latent infection. CONCLUSIONS Toxoplasmosis is an infection with high prevalence in Mozambique. Cultural and behavioral aspects increase the risk. Toxoplasmosis can be responsible in our environment by the great burden of morbidity and mortality associated with meningoencephalic injuries in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  16. Breaking the Blood-Brain Barrier With Mannitol to Aid Stem Cell Therapeutics in the Chronic Stroke Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Naoki; Lee, Jea Young; Acosta, Sandra; Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeabilizers, such as mannitol, can facilitate peripherally delivered stem cells to exert therapeutic benefits on the stroke brain. Although this BBB permeation-aided stem cell therapy has been demonstrated in the acute stage of stroke, such BBB permeation in the chronic stage of the disease remains to be examined. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats initially received sham surgery or experimental stroke via the 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model. At 1 month after the MCAo surgery, stroke animals were randomly assigned to receive human umbilical cord stem cells only (2 million viable cells), mannitol only (1.1 mol/L mannitol at 4°C), combined human umbilical cord stem cells (200,000 viable cells) and mannitol (1.1 mol/L mannitol at 4°C), and vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) only. Stroke animals that received human umbilical cord blood cells alone or combined human umbilical cord stem cells and mannitol exhibited significantly improved motor performance and significantly better brain cell survival in the peri-infarct area compared to stroke animals that received vehicle or mannitol alone, with mannitol treatment reducing the stem cell dose necessary to afford functional outcomes. Enhanced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone accompanied the combined treatment of human umbilical cord stem cells and mannitol. We showed that BBB permeation facilitates the therapeutic effects of a low dose of peripherally transplanted stem cells to effectively cause functional improvement and increase neurogenesis in chronic stroke.

  17. Exhaled breath analysis using electronic nose in cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia patients with chronic pulmonary infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Odin; Paff, Tamara; Haarman, Eric G;

    2014-01-01

    of CF patients having a chronic P. aeruginosa infection differed significantly from to non-chronically infected CF patients p = 0.044. We confirmed the previously established discriminative power of exhaled breath analysis in separation between healthy subjects and patients with CF or PCD. Furthermore...... (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) with or without various well characterized chronic pulmonary infections. We recruited 64 patients with CF and 21 with PCD based on known chronic infection status. 21 healthy volunteers served as controls. An electronic nose was employed to analyze exhaled...... breath samples. Principal component reduction and discriminant analysis were used to construct internally cross-validated receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Breath profiles of CF and PCD patients differed significantly from healthy controls p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively. Profiles...

  18. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in gamma interferon-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Wodarz, D;

    2000-01-01

    ). While wild-type mice rapidly cleared the infection, IFN-gamma -/- mice became chronically infected. Virus persistence in the latter mice did not reflect failure to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors, as an unimpaired primary CTL response was observed. Furthermore, while ex vivo CTL activity...

  19. Facial osteomyelitis as complication of chronic sinusitis in hemophiliac-AIDS patients - scintigraphic evaluation with technetium-99m-MDP and Gallium-67; Osteomielitis da face como complicacao de sinusite cronica em hemofilicos aideticos - avaliacao cintilografica com {sup 99m} Tc-MDP e {sup 67} Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marise da Penha Costa [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Otorrinolaringologia e Oftalmologia; Wolosker, Sara [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1997-01-01

    In the paper six cases of facial osteomyelitis as a complication of chronic sinusitis in hemophiliac-AIDS patients are reported. Osteomyelitis was suggested by an increasing of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive {sup 99m} Tc MDP scintigraphy. The patients were submitted to clinical treatment. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and 67-gallium citrate scans were used in the follow-up of the therapy. Three patients had negative gallium after three weeks of organism-specific antibiotic therapy; in two patients the gallium scintigraphy remained positive. One patient did not undergo the radionuclide scan for this clinical conditions. These results suggest that MDP scans showed higher sensitivity and specificity in detection of bone disease in chronic sinusitis. Gallium scans appeared to be valuable tool in the follow-up of the infection. There are no reports in the literature of osteomyelitis as a complication of chronic sinusitis in AIDS patient. (author) 43 refs., 4 figs.

  20. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong; Hwang, Hwan Sik; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis. Between June 2001 and December 2003, a total of 33 patients visited the Department of Urology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital and were examined for T. vaginalis infection by PCR and culture in TYM medium. For the PCR, we used primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Voided bladder urine (VB1 and VB3) was sampled from 33 men with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (urethral charge, residual urine sensation, and frequency). Culture failed to detect any T. vaginalis infection whereas PCR identified 7 cases of trichomoniasis (21.2%). Five of the 7 cases had been diagnosed with prostatitis and 2 with urethritis. PCR for the 5 prostatitis cases yielded a positive 330 bp band from bothVB1 and VB3, whereas positive results were only obtained from VB1 for the 2 urethritis patients. We showed that the PCR method could detect T. vaginalis when there was only 1 T. vaginalis cell per PCR mixture. Our results strongly support the usefulness of PCR on urine samples for detecting T. vaginalis in chronic prostatitis and urethritis patients.

  1. Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle and mice: ultrastructural pathology in acute and chronic besnoitiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Gollnick, N S; Scharr, J C; Schares, G; Herrmann, D C; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Hermanns, W

    2015-03-01

    Current knowledge on bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the emerging apicomplexan pathogen Besnoitia besnoiti, is still fragmentary. So far, studies dealing with ultrastructural pathology focused mainly on the easily accessible chronic stage, whereas ultrastructural investigations of tachyzoites were confined to in vitro studies. In the study presented here, the ultrastructural pathology of naturally B. besnoiti-infected cattle in the acute and chronic disease stages and experimentally B. besnoiti-infected mice was monitored. Further, the ultrastructure of tachyzoites and bradyzoites was investigated. Skin samples of two adult Limousin cows and one adult Limousin bull naturally infected with B. besnoiti and liver and skin samples of gamma-interferon knockout mice infected with B. besnoiti were examined in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and safranin and in ultrathin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Samples of vessel walls of the bull and nasal mucosa of one cow were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Few tachyzoites-like endozoites were detected for the first time in bovine skin, and large numbers of tachyzoites were detected in murine skin and liver. Within tissue cysts in bovine skin, numerous bradyzoites were observed displaying signs of degeneration. Tachyzoites had apicomplexan endozoite ultrastructure. B. besnoiti tachyzoites and bradyzoites differed in shape and the number of amylopectin granules. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of two different cyst wall layers, and the present results on cyst wall ultrastructure were in accordance with those previously obtained by histological sections.

  2. No detection of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of chronically infected bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Gil, A; Grisez, C; Prevot, F; Florentin, S; Decaudin, A; Picard-Hagen, N; Berthelot, X; Ronsin, P; Alzieu, J P; Marois, M; Corboz, N; Peglion, M; Vilardell, C; Liénard, E; Bouhsira, E; Castillo, J A; Franc, M; Jacquiet, P

    2014-06-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is a chronic and debilitating disease observed in many European countries that may cause important economic losses in cattle. The recent widespread of the parasite in Europe had led the European Food Safety Authority to declare bovine besnoitiosis as a re-emerging disease in Europe. Many aspects of the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis such as the main routes of transmission are still unclear and need to be further studied. Among the different hypotheses, a sexual transmission has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Besnoitia besnoiti DNA in the semen of naturally infected bulls by using a highly sensitive method (real-time qPCR). Both pre-sperm and sperm fractions of 40 bulls, including seronegative (n = 11), seropositive subclinically (n = 17), and seropositive clinically (n = 12) infected animals, were collected by electroejaculation and analyzed by real-time qPCR. No B. besnoiti DNA was detected in 27 pre-sperm and 28 sperm fractions of the 40 examined bulls, suggesting that the transmission of B. besnoiti infection by the semen of chronically infected bulls is very unlikely. PMID:24802865

  3. Chronic plasma cell endometritis in hysterectomy specimens of HIV-infected women: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr-Layton, J A; Stamm, C A; Peterson, L S; McGregor, J A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and troublesome problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We sought to evaluate endometrial pathology among HIV-infected women requiring hysterectomy to explore if endometritis may be common among these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of uterine pathology specimens obtained from HIV-infected and control patients requiring hysterectomy in two urban hospitals between 1988 and 1997 matched for age, surgical indication, and history of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) use. Cases were evaluated for the presence of plasma cells and assigned a grade between 0 and 3. RESULTS: Indications included cervical dysplasia (4), carcinoma in situ (2), abnormal uterine bleeding (3), and adnexal mass (3). Some degree of abnormal uterine bleeding occurred in all cases. Plasma cell endometritis was twice as common in HIV-infected women compared to HIV-negative specimens (11/11 versus 11/22) (P < 0.05). Plasma cell endometritis was also of a higher grade in specimens from HIV-infected women than in controls (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Chronic endometritis was common and of a higher grade among HIV-infected women requiring hysterectomy in our series. Diagnosis and treatment of endometritis should be considered in HIV-infected women with uterine bleeding and/or tenderness. We speculate that antiretroviral and/or antimicrobial treatment for endometritis may effectively treat endometritis and eliminate the need for surgery in some HIV-infected women. We suggest that consideration and treatment of endometritis in HIV-1 infected women being evaluated for possible hysterectomy has the potential to reduce costs and morbidity for patients and providers who may be exposed during surgical procedures. PMID:9812252

  4. Influence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Maria Luisa Gutierrez; José Luis Lledó; Maria Luisa Casas

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus-DNA in the sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients with or without serological markers of previous exposure (antibodies to HBsAg and/or to HB-core antigen) defines the entity called occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is frequent in highly endemic areas. While this co-infection increases the risk of liver disease progression, development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the rate of therapeutic failure to interferon-based treatments than either virus alone, a potentially negative effect of OBI on clinical outcomes and of therapeutic response to current antiviral regimes of patients with chronic hepatitis C remains inconclusive.

  5. Is laparoscopy an advantage in the diagnosis of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Felix Braun; Peter Schott; Giuliano Ramadori

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential of laparoscopy in the diagnosis of cirrhosis and outcome of interferon treatment in HCV-infected patients.METHODS: In this retrospective study, diagnostic laparoscopy with laparoscopic liver biopsy was performed in 72 consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection. The presence or absence of cirrhosis was analyzed macroscopically by laparoscopy and microscopically by liver biopsy specimens. Clinical and laboratory data and outcome of interferon-alfa treatment were compared between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients.RESULTS: Laparoscopically, cirrhosis was seen in 29.2%(21/72) and non-cirrhosis in 70.8% (51/72) of patients.Cirrhotic patients were significantly older with a significant longer duration of HCV infection than noncirrhotic patients.Laboratory parameters (AST, y-GT, y-globulin fraction) were measured significantly higher as well as significantly lower (prothrombin index, platelet count) in cirrhotic patients than in non-cirrhotic patients. Histologically, cirrhosis was confirmed in 11.1% (8/72) and non cirrhosis in 88.9% (64/72). Patients with macroscopically confirmed cirrhosis (n=21) showed histologically cirrhosis in 38.1% (8/21) and histologically noncirrhosis in 61.9% (13/21). In contrast, patients with macroscopically non-cirrhosis (n=51) showed histologically non cirrhosis in all cases (51/51). Thirty-nine of 72 patients were treated with interferon-alfa, resulting in 35.9% (14/39)patients with sustained response and 64.1% (25/39) with non response. Non-responders showed significantly more macroscopically cirrhosis than sustained responders. In contrast, there were no significant histological differences between non-responders and sustained responders.CONCLUSION: Diagnostic laparoscopy is more accurate than liver biopsy in recognizing cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. Liver biopsy is the best way to assess inflammatory grade and fibrotic stage. The invasive marker for staging, prognosis and

  6. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  7. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  8. CD4 cell count and the risk of AIDS or death in HIV-Infected adults on combination antiretroviral therapy with a suppressed viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.......Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load....

  9. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban R Fernández

    Full Text Available Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  10. Altered distribution of peripheral blood memory B cells in humans chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteban R; Olivera, Gabriela C; Quebrada Palacio, Luz P; González, Mariela N; Hernandez-Vasquez, Yolanda; Sirena, Natalia María; Morán, María L; Ledesma Patiño, Oscar S; Postan, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Numerous abnormalities of the peripheral blood T cell compartment have been reported in human chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and related to prolonged antigenic stimulation by persisting parasites. Herein, we measured circulating lymphocytes of various phenotypes based on the differential expression of CD19, CD4, CD27, CD10, IgD, IgM, IgG and CD138 in a total of 48 T. cruzi-infected individuals and 24 healthy controls. Infected individuals had decreased frequencies of CD19+CD27+ cells, which positively correlated with the frequencies of CD4+CD27+ cells. The contraction of CD19+CD27+ cells was comprised of IgG+IgD-, IgM+IgD- and isotype switched IgM-IgD- memory B cells, CD19+CD10+CD27+ B cell precursors and terminally differentiated CD19+CD27+CD138+ plasma cells. Conversely, infected individuals had increased proportions of CD19+IgG+CD27-IgD- memory and CD19+IgM+CD27-IgD+ transitional/naïve B cells. These observations prompted us to assess soluble CD27, a molecule generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound CD27 and used to monitor systemic immune activation. Elevated levels of serum soluble CD27 were observed in infected individuals with Chagas cardiomyopathy, indicating its potentiality as an immunological marker for disease progression in endemic areas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that chronic T. cruzi infection alters the distribution of various peripheral blood B cell subsets, probably related to the CD4+ T cell deregulation process provoked by the parasite in humans.

  11. Chronic infection during placental malaria is associated with up-regulation of cycloxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niang Makhtar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is associated with poor foetal development, but the pathophysiological processes involved are poorly understood. Cyclooxygenase (COX and lipoxygenase (LOX which convert fatty acids to prostaglandins and leukotrienes, play important roles in pregnancy and foetal development. COX-2, currently targeted by specific drugs, plays a dual role as it associates with both pre-eclampsia pathology and recovery during infection. The role of COX during PM was questioned by quantifying at delivery COX-1, COX-2, 15-LOX, and IL-10 expression in two groups of malaria infected and uninfected placenta. Methods Placental biopsies were collected at delivery for mRNA isolation and quantification, using real time PCR. Results COX-2 and IL-10 mRNAs increased mainly during chronic infections (nine- and five-times, respectively, whereas COX-1 transcripts remained constant. COX-2 over-expression was associated with a higher birth weight of the baby, but with a lower rate of haemoglobin of the mother. It was associated with a macrophage infiltration of the placenta and with a low haemozoin infiltration. In the opposite way, placental infection was associated with lower expression of 15-LOX mRNA. A high degree of haemozoin deposition correlates with low birth weight and decreased expression of COX-2. Conclusion These data provide evidence that COX-2 and IL-10 are highly induced during chronic infection of the placenta, but were not associated with preterm delivery or low birth weight. The data support the involvement of COX-2 in the recovery phase of the placental infection.

  12. Cyclosporine as Monotherapy for Psoriasis in the Setting of Chronic HCV Infection: A Forgotten Therapeutical Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Giovanna Brunasso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of psoriasis in the setting of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is diffcult, because standard therapies like methotrexate are associated with increased hepatic toxicity. Due to the HCV suppressive effect. Cyclosporine may represent a valid systemic alternative for psoriatic-HCV patients.Objectives: In this study, we report the successful usage of intermittent cycles of cyclosporine in the setting of chronic HCV infection and we try to call the attention once again in a very effective and forgotten therapeutic option for severe chronic plaque psoriasis.Observation: We describe a 48 years - old patient who has a 20 year history of severe chronic plaque psoriasis and HCV infection (aminotransferase levels are three times normal; HCV genotype 2a-2c and HCV-RNA titer of 2.050.000 UI-ml. Five courses (range of duration of three to six months of oral cyclosporine (5 mg/kg/day were followed during a 38 month period. The viral load and the transaminases’ levels diminished during the 38 months of intermittent cyclosporine therapy to the lowest level measured at 36th month. The good psoriatic response was associated to a slight improvement of the liver condition, even though the HCV-RNA was reduced by less than 1 log10 without normalization of aminotransferase’ levels.Conclusions: The reduced liver toxicity, the potential anti-HCV properties and the well-known systemic anti-inflammatory effect, make cyclosporine a good alternative for recalcitrant psoriatic patients with HCV-liver disease.

  13. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  14. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  15. Antibodies against beta-lactamase can improve ceftazidime treatment of lung infection with beta-lactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rat model of chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Bagge, Niels; Høiby, Niels

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that antibodies against the chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) might act as beta-lactamase inhibitors in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa, we compared in a rat model of chronic lung infection the...... efficacy of treatment with ceftazidime in beta-lactamase-immunized (group I) and non-immunized (group II) rats. Chronic lung infection was established with alginate-embedded P. aeruginosa producing high amounts of beta-lactamase in 133 Lewis rats. Prior to infection, group I (66 rats) was immunized three...... times at 2-week intervals with purified beta-lactamase in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and group II (67 rats) received IFA. Ceftazidime treatment was initiated after challenge and continued for 10 days, after which the rats were sacrificed and the lung bacteriology and pathology were analysed. Rat...

  16. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  17. Nitrous oxide production in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kolpen

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major severe complication in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, where P. aeruginosa persists and grows in biofilms in the endobronchial mucus under hypoxic conditions. Numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs surround the biofilms and create local anoxia by consuming the majority of O2 for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa acquires energy for growth in anaerobic endobronchial mucus by denitrification, which can be demonstrated by production of nitrous oxide (N2O, an intermediate in the denitrification pathway. We measured N2O and O2 with electrochemical microsensors in 8 freshly expectorated sputum samples from 7 CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa infection. The concentrations of NO3(- and NO2(- in sputum were estimated by the Griess reagent. We found a maximum median concentration of 41.8 µM N2O (range 1.4-157.9 µM N2O. The concentration of N2O in the sputum was higher below the oxygenated layers. In 4 samples the N2O concentration increased during the initial 6 h of measurements before decreasing for approximately 6 h. Concomitantly, the concentration of NO3(- decreased in sputum during 24 hours of incubation. We demonstrate for the first time production of N2O in clinical material from infected human airways indicating pathogenic metabolism based on denitrification. Therefore, P. aeruginosa may acquire energy for growth by denitrification in anoxic endobronchial mucus in CF patients. Such ability for anaerobic growth may be a hitherto ignored key aspect of chronic P. aeruginosa infections that can inform new strategies for treatment and prevention.

  18. Study of Association between Interleukin 20 Polymorphism (Rs1518108 and Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Arbabi-Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic hepatitis C is a major concern for global health as it causes liver problems, cirrhosis and liver cancer. Immune factors have a determinant role in susceptibility to chronic infection or clearance of infection in body. As a defensive agent, cytokines are important factors of immune system, since they can activate immune response or inhibit virus replication directly. The aim of this study is the evaluation of interleukin 20 polymorphism (rs1518108 in hepatitis C patients.Materials and Methods: This survey was a case–control study. By using PCR-RFLP method, 105 patients and 135 controls were studied randomly. We used SPSS-16 software for statistical analysis.Results: A significant association was found between polymorphism (rs1518108 of interleukin 20 and hepatitis C patients (p=0.035 (OR=2.283. The incidence of hepatitics C in males was observed five times more than that one females (p=0.01 (OR=5.18. In addition, no significant association between polymorphism of genotypes and liver harms (chronic and cirrhosis was found in this study (p=0.362.Conclusion: Our findings show that variants of interleukin 20 polymorphism (rs1518108 in the population of the study are important factors for being affected by hepatitis C. The incidence of heterozygote allele CT was more than of homozygote genotype TT.

  19. Prevalence of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vedat Goral; Hamza Ozkul; Selahattin Tekes; Dede Sit; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence and clinical effects of occult HBV infection in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV.METHODS: Fifty chronic hemodialysis patients with negative HbsAg, and positive anti-HCV were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups:HCV-RNA positive and HCV-RNA negative, based on the results of HCV-RNA PCR. HBV-DNA was studied using the PCR method in both groups.RESULTS: None of the 22 HCV-RNA positive patients and 28 HCV-RNA negative patients revealed HBV-DNA in serum by PCR method. The average age was 47.2 ± 17.0 in the HCV-RNA positive group and 39.6 ± 15.6 in the HCV-RNA negative group.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of occult HBV infection is not high in haemodialysis patients with chronic HCV in our region. This result of our study has to be evaluated in consideration of the interaction between HBsAg positivity (8%-10%) and frequency of HBV mutants in our region.

  20. Pediatric AIDS/HIV Infection: An Emerging Challenge to Pediatric Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Roberta A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The increasing number of cases of pediatric Acquired Immonodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) presents unique issues for psychologists in the areas of prevention, clinical treatment, public education, research, neuropsychological effects, psychoneuroimmunology, and ethical concerns. (Author/DB)

  1. The role of depression chronicity and recurrence on neurocognitive dysfunctions in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Dermody, Nadene; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J; Teesson, Maree

    2016-02-01

    Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months. Participants were screened for current (within 12 months of study entry) alcohol and/or substance use disorder. History of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder prior to the 12 months entry screen and MDD treatments were recorded. Participants were grouped into two psychiatric nomenclatures: (1) lifetime: no MD episode (MDE), single MDE life-event treated and fully remitted, chronic MDD treated and stable, chronic MDD treated and unstable, and baseline untreated MDE; (2) recent: last 2 years MDE (yes or no). We found that lifetime and recent psychiatric history were more strongly associated with decreased in independence in daily living and cognitive complaints than with baseline neuropsychological performance. However, lack of full remission, instability on treatment in chronic MDD, and severity of symptoms in current MDE were factors in whether MDD impacted baseline neuropsychological performance. Depressive symptoms improved at follow-up in those with baseline moderate-severe symptoms, and MDD was not associated with neurocognitive change at 18 months. A history of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder was significantly more frequent in those with treated and unstable chronic MDD but it was not associated with neuropsychological performance. MDD recurrence, chronicity profiles, and associated comorbidities are keys factors to understand any potential impact on neurocognitive abilities in HIV infection. More comprehensive consideration of these complex effects could serve at constructively

  2. Improved outcome of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is associated with induction of a Th1-dominated cytokine response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Jensen, P O; Kobayashi, O;

    2002-01-01

    Repeated challenge with antigen is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of pulmonary diseases. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience recurrent pulmonary colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa before establishment of chronic lung infection. To mimic recurrent lung infections in CF p...

  3. Effects of quorum-sensing on immunoglobulin G responses in a rat model of chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    WU, H.; Song, Z.J.; Givskov, Michael Christian;

    2004-01-01

    Levels of serum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were observed for 106 days in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Significantly weaker responses of serum IgG and IgG1 and a lower ratio of IgGI/IgG2a were found in the rats infected with the quorum-signal-deficient mutant, PAO1 (rhl...

  4. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Fleck, Laura E.; LaFleur, Michael D.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Coleman, K.; Leonard, Steve N.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-11-21

    The current antibiotic crisis stems from two distinct phenomena-drug resistance, and drug tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as drug efflux or modification prevent antibiotics from binding to their targets 1, allowing pathogens to grow. Antibiotic tolerance is the property of persister cells, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria 2. Antibiotics kill by corrupting targets, but these are inactive in dormant persisters, leading to tolerance. Persisters were first identified by Joseph Bigger in 1944, when he discovered a surviving sub-population of Staphylococcus following treatment with penicillin3. Persisters are largely responsible for recalcitrance of chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, and various infections associated with biofilms - endocarditis, osteomyelitis, infections of catheters and indwelling devices, and deep-seated infections of soft tissues 4. There are a number of redundant pathways involved in persister formation5,6 precluding development of drugs inhibiting their formation. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic (ADEP 4) has been shown to activate the ClpP protease resulting in death of growing cells 7. Here we show that ADEP4 activated ClpP becomes a fairly non-specific protease and kills persister cells by degradation of over 400 intracellular targets. clpP mutants are resistant to ADEP4 7, but we find that they display increased susceptibility to killing by a range of conventional antibiotics. Combining ADEP4 with rifampicin leads to eradication of persisters, stationary and biofilm populations of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in a deep-seated murine infection. Target corruption/activation provides an approach to killing persisters and eradicating chronic infections.

  5. Debilitating Chronic Diarrhea Caused by Generalized Gastrointestinal Cytomegalovirus Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Telakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, especially patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and transplant recipients. In contrast, CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract is rare in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of severe, protracted, and debilitating diarrhea caused by generalized CMV infection of the gastrointestinal tract in an elderly woman with no apparent immunosuppression. An extensive diagnostic investigation demonstrated CMV-associated disease affecting both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts (esophagus, small intestine, and colon. Such extensive simultaneous involvement of the alimentary tract in an immunocompetent patient is rare and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The diagnosis was based on a combination of endoscopic, histopathological, serological, and polymerase chain reaction analysis findings and our patient was successfully treated with intravenous ganciclovir. Our case demonstrates that gastrointestinal CMV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe chronic diarrhea in immunocompetent patients and that antiviral treatment may be justified in this setting.

  6. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori does not provoke major systemic inflammation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Fröhlich, M;

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), in particular infection with virulent strains producing the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, may increase the risk of coronary heart disease by generation of a persistent low-grade inflammatory stimulus. We...... assessed the relation between serological markers of H. pylori infection and various markers of systemic inflammation in a population-based sample of 1834 men and women aged 18-88. A total of 39.3% of the sample had a positive IgG response, and among these a slight majority was CagA positive. Infection...... with H. pylori was unrelated to C-reactive protein and the leukocyte count, regardless of CagA status. There was an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and serum albumin. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of an albumin level in the bottom versus the top third were 2.2 (1.5-3.1) and 2.0 (1...

  7. Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 2000: a State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The precise role of bacterial infection in the course and pathogenesis of COPD has been a source of controversy for decades. Chronic bacterial colonization of the lower airways contributes to airway inflammation; more research is needed to test the hypothesis that this bacterial colonization accelerates the progressive decline in lung function seen in COPD (the vicious circle hypothesis). The course of COPD is characterized by intermittent exacerbations of the disease. Studies of samples obtained by bronchoscopy with the protected specimen brush, analysis of the human immune response with appropriate immunoassays, and antibiotic trials reveal that approximately half of exacerbations are caused by bacteria. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most common causes of exacerbations, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes a small proportion. The role of Haemophilus parainfluenzae and gram-negative bacilli remains to be established. Recent progress in studies of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of infection in the human respiratory tract and in vaccine development guided by such studies promises to lead to novel ways to treat and prevent bacterial infections in COPD. PMID:11292642

  8. Chronic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 attenuates antibody responses against vaccinia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Matthew P; Bancos, Simona; Chapman, Timothy J; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Treanor, John J; Rose, Robert C; Topham, David J; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-02-01

    Generation of optimal humoral immunity to vaccination is essential to protect against devastating infectious agents such as the variola virus that causes smallpox. Vaccinia virus (VV), employed as a vaccine against smallpox, provides an important model of infection. Herein, we evaluated the importance cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in immunity to VV using Cox-2 deficient mice and Cox-2 selective inhibitory drugs. The effects of Cox-2 inhibition on antibody responses to live viruses such as vaccinia have not been previously described. Here, we used VV infection in Cox-2 deficient mice and in mice chronically treated with Cox-2 selective inhibitors and show that the frequency of VV-specific B cells was reduced, as well as the production of neutralizing IgG. VV titers were approximately 70 times higher in mice treated with a Cox-2 selective inhibitor. Interestingly, Cox-2 inhibition also reduced the frequency of IFN-gamma producing CD4(+) T helper cells, important for class switching. The significance of these results is that the chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other drugs that inhibit Cox-2 activity or expression, blunt the ability of B cells to produce anti-viral antibodies, thereby making vaccines less effective and possibly increasing susceptibility to viral infection. These new findings support an essential role for Cox-2 in regulating humoral immunity.

  9. Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Kowalska, Justyna D;

    2010-01-01

    Among patients with HIV, the risk of death associated with different AIDS events has been quantified, but the risk of death associated with non-AIDS events has not been examined. We compared the risk of all-cause mortality following AIDS versus serious non-AIDS (SNA) events in the Strategies...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Bacterial Biogeography and Gland Occupation during the Development of a Chronic Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavros, Yana; Shepherd, Benjamin; Salama, Nina R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gland colonization may be one crucial route for bacteria to maintain chronic gastrointestinal infection. We developed a quantitative gland isolation method to allow robust bacterial population analysis and applied it to the gastric pathobiont Helicobacter pylori. After infections in the murine model system, H. pylori populations multiply both inside and outside glands in a manner that requires the bacteria to be motile and chemotactic. H. pylori is able to achieve gland densities averaging 25 to 40 bacteria/gland after 2 to 4 weeks of infection. After 2 to 4 weeks of infection, a primary infection leads to colonization resistance for a secondary infection. Nonetheless, about ~50% of the glands remained unoccupied, suggesting there are as-yet unappreciated parameters that prevent gastric gland colonization. During chronic infections, H. pylori populations collapsed to nearly exclusive gland localization, to an average of <8 bacteria/gland, and only 10% of glands occupied. We analyzed an H. pylori chemotaxis mutant (Che−) to gain mechanistic insight into gland colonization. Che− strains had a severe inability to spread to new glands and did not protect from a secondary infection but nonetheless achieved a chronic gland colonization state numerically similar to that of the wild type. Overall, our analysis shows that bacteria undergo substantial population dynamics on the route to chronic colonization, that bacterial gland populations are maintained at a low level during chronic infection, and that established gland populations inhibit subsequent colonization. Understanding the parameters that promote chronic colonization will allow the future successful design of beneficial microbial therapeutics that are able to maintain long-term mammalian colonization. PMID:27729513

  11. A comparison between previous and present histologic assessments of chronic hepatitis C viral infections in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To compare the previously employed classification of liver histology (minimal, chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis) with a new classification recently described by Sheuer et al (activity grade and fibrosis stage) in percutaneous liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infections.METHODS Liver biopsies from 79 untreated patients were reviewed. Anti-HCV testing had been performed by ELISA and confirmed by a recombinant immunoblot assay. With respect to the new classification, all the specimens were evaluated using the Knodell score for activity.RESULTS A good correlation was revealed between the previous and more recent histologic classifications in patients with abnormal liver enzyme tests. However, in 13/ 15 (87%) of patients with normal aminotransferase values, changes were consistent with chronic persistent hepatitis whereas normal activity and no fibrosis were demonstrated by the Sheuer classification.CONCLUSION The old classification is more often misleading but correlates well with the new classification and thereby permits comparisons between historically clinical studies.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infection in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection%慢性HIV感染者的肠道寄生虫感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温少芳; 王玉光; 成军

    2011-01-01

    慢性HIV感染者易合并多种感染,其中合并肠道寄生虫感染可造成体内HIV复制增加、慢性腹泻、消瘦及营养不良而加快病情发展.此文就慢性HIV感染者合并的肠道寄生虫感染进行了综述.%Patients with chronic HIV infection may be complicated by varied infection.Intestinal parasitic infection may raise the replication of HIV,chronic diarrhea,emaciation and malnutrition,which could enhance the development of the disease.In this article,intestinal parasitic infection in patients infected with HIV are reviewed.

  13. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  14. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

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    Ranjeet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature on the relationship of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection and diabetes mellitus type 2 as its unique extrahepatic manifestation. This association was for the first time made by Allison et al. in 1994 . [1] Since then a number of observational studies have been published on the prevalence of diabetes in HCV infection and also the link between association of cirrhosis with diabetes mellitus. AIMS : To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in patients diagnosed to have chronic hepatitis C virus infection. To compare it with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in general population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A case control study. Participants were the subjects attending the OPD / indoor of Sri Guru Ramdas Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar. PATIENTS AND METHODS : 50 patients older than 18 years, with chronic HCV infection confirmed by ELISA, were investigated for their blood counts, LFTs, prothrombin time , serum proteins, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and abdominal ultrasonography after applying the exclusion criteria. Detailed clinical examination was done to assess for signs of encephalopathy and ascites. An equal number of age and sex matched , HCV seronegative patients with normal liver function tests were taken as controls. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was then determined among the two groups. A relationship between HCV and Diabetes mellitus type 2 was then established. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data was expressed as mean + SD. For categorical variables a chi square test was applied and p value was calculated. For the comparison of continuous data, the student t – test was used. Probability levels less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS : 50% ( 25 out of 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C infection were diabetic while 30% (15 out of 50 of the controls were diabetic. The difference was statistically significant ( p=0.041 . Further , of the

  15. Autoantibody production in chronic idiopathic urticaria is not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Atta A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a dermatological syndrome, characterized by raised erythematous skin lesions, that affects 20% of the general population and has been associated with autoimmunity. However, some reports have also suggested a close relationship between CIU and Helicobacter pylori infection, which is endemic in developing countries and associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of autoantibodies in sera from 23 CIU subjects infected with H. pylori and from 23 CIU subjects without this infection. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies was determined by indirect hemagglutination assay and the presence of autoantibodies to IgE and C1INH was determined by ELISA. Antibodies to thyroid antigens were detected at low titers from 100 to 400 in three of 23 (13% CIU-infected subjects and in four of 23 (17% CIU-noninfected subjects. The titers of anti-IgE autoantibodies were similar in these CIU groups, presenting absorbances of 1.16 ± 0.09 and 1.07 ± 0.16, respectively, while a titer of 1.14 ± 0.15 was detected in the healthy control group. The concentration of anti-C1INH autoantibodies was the same in the CIU-infected and -noninfected subjects (7.28 ± 1.31 and 7.91 ± 2.45 ng/ml, respectively, and was 7.20 ± 2.25 ng/ml in the healthy control group. However, the serum levels of complexed anti-C1INH antibodies were increased in CIU-infected subjects compared to CIU-noninfected subjects and healthy controls with an absorbance of 1.51 ± 0.21 vs 1.36 ± 0.16 and 1.26 ± 0.23, respectively (P < 0.05, indicating an impaired clearance of immune complexes in CIU-infected patients. In conclusion, no correlation was observed between H. pylori infection and autoantibody production in CIU patients consistent with reports of clinical studies.

  16. Reversibility of cardiac fibrosis in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, under specific chemotherapy

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    Sonia G. Andrade

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to verify the effect of specific chemotherapy (Benznidazole or MK-346 on the inflammatory and fibrotic cardiac alterations in mice chronically infected with the strains 21 SF (Type II and Colombian (Type III of Trypanosoma cruzi. To obtain chronically infected mice, two groups of 100 Swiss mice each, were infected with either the 21 SF or the Colombian strain (2x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 and 5x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 blood forms respectively. The rate of morality in the acute phase was of 80% for both groups. Twenty surviving mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 20 with the Colombian strain were then divided in treated and untreated groups. Excluding those that died during the course of treatment, 14 mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 15 with the Colombian strain were evaluated in the present study. Chemotherapy was performed with Benznidazole (N-benzil-2-nitro-1-imidazolacetamide in the dose of 100mg/k.b.w/day, for 60 days, or with the MK-436(3(1-methyl-5 nitroimidazol-2-yl in two daily doses of 250 mg/k.b.w, for 20 days. Parasitological cure tests were performed (xenodiagnosis, haemoculture, subinovulation of the blood into newborn mice, and serological indirect immunofluorescence test. The treated and untreated mice as well as intact controls were killed at different periods after treatment and the heart were submitted to histopathological study with hematoxilineosin and picrosirius staining; ultrastructural study; collagen immunotyping, fibronectin and laminin identification by immunofluorescence tests. Results: the untreated controls either infected with 21 SF or Colombian strain, showed inflammatory and fibrotic alterations that were mild to moderate with the 21 SF strain and intense with the Colombian strain. Redpicrosirius staining showed bundles of collagen in the interstitial space and around cardiac fibers. Increased deposits of mitritial components and

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kyrgyzstan: seroprevalence, risk factor analysis, and estimate of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis.

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    Gulnara Minbaeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8-7.8 (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9-6.5, and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5-21.7 (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1-19.3, respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked

  18. Metrically measuring liver biopsy:A chronic hepatitis B and C computer-aided morphologic description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola Dioguardi; Fabio Grizzi; Barbara Fiamengo; Carlo Russo

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To describe a quantitative analysis method for liver biopsy sections with a machine that we have named "Dioguardi Histological Metriser" which automatically measures the residual hepatocyte mass (including hepatocytes vacuolization),inflammation,fibrosis and the loss of liver tissue tectonics.METHODS:We analysed digitised images of liver biopsy sections taken from 398 patients.The analysis with Dioguardi Histological Metriser was validated by comparison with semi-quantitative scoring system.RESULTS:The method provides:(1) the metrical extension in two-dimensions (the plane) of the residual hepatocellular set,including the area of vacuoles pertinent to abnormal lipid accumulation;(2) the geometric measure of the inflammation basin,which distinguishes intra-basin space and extra-basin dispersed parenchymal leukocytes;(3) the magnitude of collagen islets,(which were considered truncated fractals and classified into three degrees of magnitude);and (4)the tectonic index that quantifies alterations (disorders)in the organization of liver tissue.Dioguardi Histological Metriser machine allows to work at a speed of 0.1 mm2/s,scanning a whole section in 6-8 min.CONCLUSION:The results are the first standardized metrical evaluation of the geometric properties of the parenchyma,inflammation,fibrosis,and alterations in liver tissue tectonics of the biopsy sections.The present study confirms that biopsies are still valuable,not only for diagnosing chronic hepatitis,but also for quantifying changes in the organization and order of liver tissue structure.

  19. MONITORING OF CASES WITH A CHRONIC PERSISTENT INFECTION WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI

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    Miglena Stamboliyska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients with persistent forms of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection are refractory to eradication treatment. They receive unsuccessful therapies, experience frequent recurrences and re-infections. One of the main reasons for the development of persistent forms is an inadequate and insufficient treatment. The persistent forms of HP infection create conditions for the maintenance of activity and for the progression of the induced chronic gastritis. In this aspect these cases will be at a higher risk for the development of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is: to monitor and analyze the cases with persistent HP infection and to establish an approach for their management. Clinical material and methods: The study includes 12 patients (8 female and 4 male at a middle age of 63,7, with a persistent HP infection, who have been observed for a period of five years. Two methods for the detection of HP infection are used – one invasive and one non-invasive. Upper endoscopy with morphological examination was performed. Results: In 9/12 patients HP was unsuccessfully treated for three times, in 2 patients – four times, and in 1 patient – five times. In all patients the initial treatment consisted of a standard triple therapy (STT. In 5 of them STT was conducted twice, with the same regimen for a period of seven days. Two patients received three courses of STT. In four patients an antibiotic resistance was established by means of a cultured assessment. In three cases an HP resistance to Clarithromycine and Metronidazole was demonstrated. Significant gastro-duodenal pathology with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplastic polyposis was found in all patients. The persistent clinical symptoms had 9 patients. Conclusion: We believe that a devised and proposed step strategy which covers early detection of infection, reliable diagnosis, adequate and successful treatment, and dispensary monitoring, contributes to the

  20. Extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus infection:297 cases from a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhaojing; Zhou Baotong; Shi Xiaochun; Zhang Yao; Zhang Lifan; Chen Limeng; Liu Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect multiple organ systems and cause a variety of extrahepatic manifestations (EMs).We sought to assess the constituent ratio of EMs in Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection and identify the clinical and biological factors associated with EM.Methods The medical records of 297 patients with chronic HCV infection were analyzed and demographic and epidemiological information was collected.The diagnosis of chronic HCV infection was based on positive anti-HCV combined with a positive HCV-RNA or at least two times of elevated aminotransferases attributable to HCV infection.Patients with HBV and/or HIV coinfection,autoimmune hepatitis,and history of alcohol abuse were excluded.Results Sixty-two percent (184/297) of the patients had at least one EM,including fatigue (29.4%),type 2 diabetes mellitus (28.2%),renal involvement (12.5%),lymphadenopathy (9.6%),fever (9.4%),thyroid dysfunction (8.1%),and arthralgia (7.4%).Neuropathy,sicca syndrome,B-cell lymphoma,Raynaud's phenomenon,and lichen planus were rare.The mean age of patients with EM was older compared with those without EM.Conclusions EMs were common in Chinese patients with chronic HCV infection,particularly fatigue,type 2 diabetes,renal impairment,lymphadenophy,fever,and thyroid dysfunction.Older age was associated with EMs.

  1. Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Liam J. Fanning; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Ray, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time p...

  2. Nonreplicating, Cyst-Defective Type II Toxoplasma gondii Vaccine Strains Stimulate Protective Immunity against Acute and Chronic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccine strains, such as type I nonreplicating uracil auxotroph mutants, are highly effective in eliciting lifelong immunity to virulent acute infection by Toxoplasma gondii. However, it is currently unknown whether vaccine-elicited immunity can provide protection against acute infection and also prevent chronic infection. To address this problem, we developed nonreverting, nonreplicating, live attenuated uracil auxotroph vaccine strains in the type II Δku80 genetic background...

  3. Risk Factors in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Case-control Study

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In order to evaluate some possible risk factors for the spread of hepatitis B infection, a case-control study was undertaken.Methods: The study population consisted of subjects who came to Karaj Hepatitis Center. All subjects who met the inclusion criteria were considered as having chronic hepatitis and comprised our case group. Risk factors were evaluated using a questionnaire. Backward conditional logistic regression analysis was used.Results: The case group consisted of 500 chronic subjects, and 434 subjects with negative tests for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV comprised the control group. Age, male sex, marital status (being married, history of contact with hepatitis, extramarital sexual activity, IV-drug use, major surgery, experimental dentist visit and some jobs (police, barber, and driver were found to be independent risk factors of being chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (odds ratio: 0.9,2.3, 2.1, 8.9, 6.5, 5.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.3, respectively.Conclusions: It seems to be of great importance to pay more attention to certain jobs, life styles and cultural matters in Iran that predispose people to a number of risk factors so as to implement measures to control HBV spread. Despite existence of a long list of risk factors, different epidemiological studies with alternative methodologies accompanied by meta-analysis of risk factors in each separate area seems to be helpful in providing information about transmission routes and surveillance of hepatitis B infection

  4. Cationic antimicrobial peptides promote microbial mutagenesis and pathoadaptation in chronic infections.

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    Dominique H Limoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of adaptive mutations is essential for microbial persistence during chronic infections. This is particularly evident during chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Thus far, mutagenesis has been attributed to the generation of reactive species by polymorphonucleocytes (PMN and antibiotic treatment. However, our current studies of mutagenesis leading to P. aeruginosa mucoid conversion have revealed a potential new mutagen. Our findings confirmed the current view that reactive oxygen species can promote mucoidy in vitro, but revealed PMNs are proficient at inducing mucoid conversion in the absence of an oxidative burst. This led to the discovery that cationic antimicrobial peptides can be mutagenic and promote mucoidy. Of specific interest was the human cathelicidin LL-37, canonically known to disrupt bacterial membranes leading to cell death. An alternative role was revealed at sub-inhibitory concentrations, where LL-37 was found to induce mutations within the mucA gene encoding a negative regulator of mucoidy and to promote rifampin resistance in both P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The mechanism of mutagenesis was found to be dependent upon sub-inhibitory concentrations of LL-37 entering the bacterial cytosol and binding to DNA. LL-37/DNA interactions then promote translesion DNA synthesis by the polymerase DinB, whose error-prone replication potentiates the mutations. A model of LL-37 bound to DNA was generated, which reveals amino termini α-helices of dimerized LL-37 bind the major groove of DNA, with numerous DNA contacts made by LL-37 basic residues. This demonstrates a mutagenic role for antimicrobials previously thought to be insusceptible to resistance by mutation, highlighting a need to further investigate their role in evolution and pathoadaptation in chronic infections.

  5. Enterococcus faecalis subverts and invades the host urothelium in patients with chronic urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Horsley

    Full Text Available Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI are a major growing concern worldwide. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli has been shown to invade the urothelium during acute UTI in mice and humans, forming intracellular reservoirs that can evade antibiotics and the immune response, allowing recurrence at a later date. Other bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella enterica have also been shown to be invasive in acute UTI. However, the role of intracellular infection in chronic UTI causing more subtle lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, a particular problem in the elderly population, is poorly understood. Moreover, the species of bacteria involved remains largely unknown. A previous study of a large cohort of non-acute LUTS patients found that Enterococcus faecalis was frequently found in urine specimens. E. faecalis accounts for a significant proportion of chronic bladder infections worldwide, although the invasive lifestyle of this uropathogen has yet to be reported. Here, we wanted to explore this question in more detail. We harvested urothelial cells shed in response to inflammation and, using advanced imaging techniques, inspected them for signs of bacterial pathology and invasion. We found strong evidence of intracellular E. faecalis harboured within urothelial cells shed from the bladder of LUTS patients. Furthermore, using a culture model system, these patient-isolated strains of E. faecalis were able to invade a transitional carcinoma cell line. In contrast, we found no evidence of cellular invasion by E. coli in the patient cells or the culture model system. Our data show that E. faecalis is highly competent to invade in this context; therefore, these results have implications for both the diagnosis and treatment of chronic LUTS.

  6. Infección crónica por el VHC Chronic Hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iñarrairaegui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC, un porcentaje importante de pacientes no aclara el virus y desarrollan una hepatitis crónica C. Los síntomas, cuando existen, suelen ser inespecíficos. Aproximadamente un tercio de los pacientes presentan además manifestaciones extrahepáticas de la infección, debidas fundamentalmente al linfotropismo del virus C. De éstas destacan, por su clara asociación con el VHC, la crioglobulinemia mixta y la producción de autoanticuerpos (autoAc. Otras enfermedades como el linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH o la tiroiditis autoinmune no tienen una asociación claramente establecida. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C tienen niveles ligeros o moderadamente elevados y fluctuantes de transaminasas, hasta un tercio de los infectados pueden presentar niveles persistentemente normales de transaminasas. El diagnóstico de la infección crónica por el VHC se basa en pruebas serológicas, que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos frente al VHC, y en pruebas virológicas que detectan RNA del VHC, que confirman la existencia de infección activa. Por último, un aspecto importante en la infección crónica por el VHC, tras el diagnóstico, es establecer el estadio de fibrosis y el grado de inflamación, ya que ambas características son muy importantes para predecir la evolución natural y la necesidad de tratamiento. Hoy en día esta información sólo puede obtenerse mediante biopsia hepática, que está indicada en pacientes con infección crónica por el VHC y transaminasas elevadas. Su indicación en pacientes con transaminasas normales permanece todavía controvertida.Following acute hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, a significant percentage of patients do not clear the virus and develop a chronic hepatitis C. The symptoms, when they exist, are usually unspecific. Besides, approximately one third of the patients present extrahepatic manifestations of the infection, basically

  7. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J N; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials. PMID:7790424

  8. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials.

  9. The Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevin Kırdar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents a major public health problem worldwide. HCV can cause chronic hepatitis infection which may ultimately result in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Seven major genotypes and more than 100 subtypes of HCV are shown by sequence analysis. Genotype 1 is associated with more severity of liver disease than genotypes 2 and 3 and sustained response totreatment is known to be less. In this study, we aimed to determine the HCV genotype distribution in chronic hepatitis C patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with chronic HCV infection who attended the Microbiology Laboratory at Adnan Menderes University Hospital between August 2007 and December 2010 found to be positive for anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were included in the study. Anti-HCV testing was performed using microparticle Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay test kit (Murex Anti-HCV version 4, UK with autoanalyser (Grifols Triturus, Spain. The quantification of serum HCV-RNA was carried out by a realtime polymerase chain reaction method with two different systems (Cobas TaqMan HCV, Roche Diagnostics, Germany and RotorGene 6000,Corbett Research, USA. HCV genotype analysis was performed by using a kit (HCV-TS; AB Analitica, Italy based on the reverse hybridization of 5’-untranslated region and amplified products with genotype-specific probes. Results: The mean age of the 50 chronic hepatitis C patients [27 (54% female, and 23 (46% male] was 57.1±14.3 years. Genotype 1b was found in 36 (72% subjects, genotype 1a in nine (18%, genotype 2b in one (2%, genotype 3 in one (2%, and genotype 1a/1b was found in three (6% patients. No statistically significant difference was detected in HCV-RNA quantities and anti-HCV index between HCV genotypes (p>0.05. Conclusion: Compatible with the previous data obtained in Turkey, genotype 1b was found to be the most common HCV genotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C followed in our hospital.

  10. Association between Interleukin-12 Receptor B1 Gene Polymorphism (rs401502 C/G and Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major health problem worldwide and may lead to serious clinical complications, including chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The host’s genetic background in immune system genes is a crucial etiologic factor in progression of HBV infection to chronic disease or clearance of the virus from the body. Interleukin 12 and its receptor (IL12 Receptor play an important role in the clearance of viral infections, especially HBV. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between interleukin 12 receptor B1 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (rs401502 C/G and chronic HBV infection. Methods: In this case control study, genomic DNA of 105 chronically HBV infected patients and 105 healthy controls was extracted. Genotype of (rs401502 C/G single nucleotide polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of (rs401502 C/G SNP for GG, GC, CC genotypes and G, C alleles was %53.3, %41, %5.7 and %73.3, %26.7 in the chronic patients and %51.4, %41, %7.6 %71.9 , and %28.1 in the control group, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was not any significant difference between the case and control groups (p=0.851. Conclusion: In this study, no association was found between (rs401502 C/G single nucleotide polymorphism within IL12RB1 gene and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. It seems that this SNP does not play a crucial role in susceptibility to HBV chronic infection

  11. Distribution specificity of polarized populations of T helper cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Rong-long; FENG Xiao-rong; LU Qiao-sheng; LUO Kang-xian; FU Ning

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of the polarized populations of T helper cells isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: PBMCs from patients with chronic HBV infection were separated routinely, stimulated by PMA, ionomycin and monensin, and the production of IL-4, IFN-γ and TGF-β by CD4+ T cells was observed by flow cytometry(FACS). Results: The percentages of the T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-4 or TGF-β ranged from 2.3% to 18.6%, 1.1% to 8.7% and 0.7% to 7.1% respectively among CD4+ cells from non-infected individuals. The majority of CD4+ T cells in PBMCs from individuals with chronic HBV infection were Th0 cells. The proportion of Th1 cells in patients with active chronic hepatitis B was higher than that in patients at inactive stage of the disease (P<0.05), indicating a significant elevation of Thl cells with the hepatic inflammation activity. The percentage of Th2 cells in individuals with HBV infection was higher than that in controls (P<0.05),but showed no difference between different patients (P>0.05). The percentage of Th3 cells was higher in asymptomatic HBV carriers than that in patients with chronic hepatitis B and in healthy controls (P<0.05). Conclusions: Th1-type cytokines are related with hepatic inflammation activity of chronic hepatitis B, and Th2 cells may be associated with the persistence of HBV infection. Th3 cells cooperating with Th2 cells are likely to function as negative immunoregulator, and may be responsible for the immune tolerance state of chronic HBV infection.

  12. Interaction between Chronic Inflammation and Oral HPV Infection in the Etiology of Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Tezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of oral tongue, base of the tongue, and tonsil cancers have been increasing steadily in many parts of the world in spite of declining rates of tobacco use over the last four decades. A better understanding of the etiology, interactions between risk factors, and new approaches to prevention and treatment are necessary to change this course. This paper will present evidence supporting a potential role of chronic inflammation in the etiologies of oral human papillomavirus infection and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and it will discuss the implications for prevention and treatment.

  13. Lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum as a sequela of chronic skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Soh; Kinoshita, Masato; Miyazaki, Yuko; Kawai, Kenichiro; Kakibuchi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    A Japanese male patient presented with an enormously disfigured penis and scrotum. The penis was swollen and distorted rightward, and the skin was hard and lumpy. The patient had had a subdermal abscess for 6 years. The current condition was considered secondary lymphoedema of the penis and scrotum resulting from chronic skin infection. Wide excision of the affected area with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. The degloved penile shaft and scrotum were covered with skin grafts, and a satisfactory result was obtained. PMID:27432903

  14. Spread of colistin resistant non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa among chronically infected Danish cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Ciofu, Oana;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colistin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa have rarely been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: We performed a 17-year prospective study on colistin susceptibility and compared our findings with clinical variables. RESULTS: The first outbreak started in 1995 and lasted 5...... the first outbreak. Most resistant isolates belonged to two major clones that had similar genotypes in the two outbreaks. The P. aeruginosa isolates were all non-mucoid and they appeared in a group of chronically infected patients that had been admitted to the same ward for antibiotic treatment and...

  15. [Advancement of maggot including living body to treat chronic infected wounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shouyu; Diao, Yunpeng; Zhang, Houli; Huang, Shanshan; Lv, Decheng

    2009-12-01

    Human has used maggot to treat diseases for thousands of years. In recent years, with abuse of antibiotic and the rising incidence of antibiotic resistance, maggot therapy, as a surgical alternative, is mainly applied to treat chronic infected wounds on account of its low cost, efficacy and safety. Its mechanisms are disinfection, bio-debridement and enhancement of tissue regeneration. Maggot therapy which serves as a kind of biological therapy is promising. However, living maggot therapy could result in inevitable complications, so that we should apply traditional Chinese medicine theory to investigate and develop new delivery method of maggot. The review summarizes the past and present of maggot therapy.

  16. Insulin resistance is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Hung; Hung; Jing-Houng; Wang; Tsung-Hui; Hu; Chien-Hung; Chen; Kuo-Chin; Chang; Yi-Hao; Yen; YuanHung; Kuo; Ming-Chao; Tsai; Chuan-Mo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the role of insulin resistance(IR) and serum adiponectin level in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) associated with chronic hepatitis C.METHODS:Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected from 165 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HCC.Homeostasis model assessment of IR(HOMA-IR) and serum adiponectin level were investigated in 188 patients with different stages of hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection.RESULTS:Among HCC patients,type 2 diabetics(DM) was more prevalent in HCV subjec...

  17. Use of polyclonal IgG in HIV infection and AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine should have a pivitol role to play in the investigation of patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Unfortunately the use of scintigraphic techniques to localize infection have not become widely used in Europe. Neither 67Ga citrate or labelled leukocytes are ideal. In a search for new agents which can be used to identify the presence of infection both 99mTc and 111In labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-C have been investigated. It was found that 99mTC labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-G was not able to localize infection in either the chest or the abdomen. In contrast 111In labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin-G had both high sensitivity and specificity for imaging infection in HIV infected patients. If these preliminary results are confirmed immunoglobulin-G could find an important clinical application in this specialized patient group

  18. Interactive effects of cocaine on HIV infection: implication in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and neuroAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Santosh; Chitti, Sai V P; Nair, Madhavan P N; Saxena, Shailendra K

    2015-01-01

    Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulating drug, which increases the level of neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the brain, by blocking the dopamine transporters (DAT) which is critical for DA homeostasis and neurocognitive function. Tat protein of HIV acts as an allosteric modulator of DAT, where as cocaine acts as reuptake inhibitor. When macrophages in the CNS are exposed to DA, their number increases. These macrophages release inflammatory mediators and neurotoxins, causing chronic neuroinflammation. Cocaine abuse during HIV infection enhances the production of platelet monocyte complexes (PMCs), which may cross transendothelial barrier, and result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HAND is characterized by neuroinflammation, including astrogliosis, multinucleated giant cells, and neuronal apoptosis that is linked to progressive virus infection and immune deterioration. Cocaine and viral proteins are capable of eliciting signaling transduction pathways in neurons, involving in mitochondrial membrane potential loss, oxidative stress, activation of JNK, p38, and ERK/MAPK pathways, and results in downstream activation of NF-κB that leads to HAND. Tat-induced inflammation provokes permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the platelet dependent manner, which can potentially be the reason for progression to HAND during HIV infection. A better understanding on the role of cocaine in HIV infection can give a clue in developing novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection

  19. Interactive Effects of Cocaine on HIV Infection: Implication in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder and NeuroAIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh eDahal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulating drug, which increases the level of neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, by blocking the dopamine transporters (DAT which is critical for dopamine homeostasis and neurocognitive function. Tat protein of HIV acts as an allosteric modulator of DAT, where as cocaine acts as reuptake inhibitor. When macrophages in the CNS are exposed to dopamine, their number increases. These macrophages release inflammatory mediators and neurotoxins, causing chronic neuroinflammation. Cocaine abuse during HIV infection enhances the production of platelet monocyte complexes (PMCs, which may cross transendothelial barrier, and result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND. HAND is characterized by neuroinflammation, including astrogliosis, multinucleated giant cells, and neuronal apoptosis that is linked to progressive virus infection and immune deterioration. Cocaine and viral proteins are capable of eliciting signaling transduction pathways in neurons, involving in mitochondrial membrane potential loss, oxidative stress, activation of JNK, p38, and ERK/MAPK pathways, and results in downstream activation of NF-κB that leads to HAND. Tat-induced inflammation provokes permeability of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB in the platelet dependent manner, which can potentially be the reason for progression to HAND during HIV infection. A better understanding on the role of cocaine in HIV infection can give a clue in developing novel therapeutic strategies

  20. AIDS in Haitian immigrants and in a Caucasian woman closely associated with Haitians.

    OpenAIRE

    Laverdière, M.; Tremblay, J; Lavallée, R.; Bonny, Y.; Lacombe, M.; Boileau, J.; LaChapelle, J.; Lamoureux, C.

    1983-01-01

    In Montreal the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was seen in eight Haitian immigrants and one Caucasian woman who had lived with Haitian immigrants for 3 years before the onset of her illness. AIDS was characterized by opportunistic infections alone in seven patients, by opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and by chronic generalized lymphadenopathy in one patient. Five of the patients had presented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections 1 to 12 months bef...

  1. Analysis of the In Vivo Turnover of CD4+ T-Cell Subsets in Chronically SIV-Infected Sooty Mangabeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alexandra M; Carnathan, Diane G; Yu, Joana; Sheehan, Katherine M; Kim, Peter; Reynaldi, Arnold; Vanderford, Thomas H; Klatt, Nichole R; Brenchley, Jason M; Davenport, Miles P; Silvestri, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant turnover of memory CD4+ T-cells is central to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) progression. Understanding the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in natural hosts may provide insight into mechanisms of immune regulation that may serve as models for therapeutic intervention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected persons. Sooty mangabeys (SMs) have naturally evolved with SIV to avoid AIDS progression while maintaining healthy peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts and thus represent a model by which therapeutic interventions for AIDS progression might be elucidated. To assess the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during SIV infection in non-progressive hosts, we treated 6 SIV-uninfected and 9 SIV-infected SMs with 2'-bromo-5'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 14 days and longitudinally assessed CD4+ T-cell subset turnover by polychromatic flow cytometry. We observed that, in SIV-infected SMs, turnover of CD4+ T-cell naïve and central, transitional, and effector memory subsets is comparable to that in uninfected animals. Comparable turnover of CD4+ T-cell subsets irrespective of SIV-infection status likely contributes to the lack of aberrant immune activation and disease progression observed after infection in non-progressive hosts. PMID:27227993

  2. Analysis of the In Vivo Turnover of CD4+ T-Cell Subsets in Chronically SIV-Infected Sooty Mangabeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Ortiz

    Full Text Available Aberrant turnover of memory CD4+ T-cells is central to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS progression. Understanding the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in natural hosts may provide insight into mechanisms of immune regulation that may serve as models for therapeutic intervention in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected persons. Sooty mangabeys (SMs have naturally evolved with SIV to avoid AIDS progression while maintaining healthy peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts and thus represent a model by which therapeutic interventions for AIDS progression might be elucidated. To assess the relationship between the turnover of CD4+ subsets and immunological homeostasis during SIV infection in non-progressive hosts, we treated 6 SIV-uninfected and 9 SIV-infected SMs with 2'-bromo-5'-deoxyuridine (BrdU for 14 days and longitudinally assessed CD4+ T-cell subset turnover by polychromatic flow cytometry. We observed that, in SIV-infected SMs, turnover of CD4+ T-cell naïve and central, transitional, and effector memory subsets is comparable to that in uninfected animals. Comparable turnover of CD4+ T-cell subsets irrespective of SIV-infection status likely contributes to the lack of aberrant immune activation and disease progression observed after infection in non-progressive hosts.

  3. Current treatment indications and strategies in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George V Papatheodoridis; Spilios Manolakopoulos; Athanasios J Archimandritis

    2008-01-01

    The optimal approach to the management of several marginal cases with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection is controversial. Serum HBV DNA and aminotransferase levels, and the degree of necroinflammation and fibrosis determine the therapeutic decisions. All patients with elevated aminotransferase (>twice the upper limit of normal) and serum HBV DNA above 20000 IU/mL should be treated. Liver biopsy is important for therapeutic decisions in cases with mild aminotransferase elevations and serum HBV DNA below 20000 IU/mL. Chronic HBV patients who do not receive treatment should be followed for life. There are seven agents licensed for chronic hepatitis B: standard and pegylated interferon-alpha, lamivudine, adefovir,entecavir, telbivudine and tenofovir. One-year courses with pegylated interferon-alpha induce sustained offtherapy remission in 30%-32% of patients with HBeAgpositive chronic hepatitis B and in a smaller proportion of patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.Oral antivirals achieve initial on-therapy responses in the majority of patients, but are intended as long-term therapies. Viral suppression has favourable effects on patients' outcome and modifies the natural course of the disease. Viral resistance, however, is the major drawback of long-term oral antiviral therapy. Lamivudine monotherapy is associated with the highest and entecavir monotherapy with the lowest resistance rate so far. There has been no resistance to tenofovir, but after only 18 mo of treatment to date. The optimal first-line anti-HBV therapy with the best long-term cost/benefit ratio remains unclear. If oral antiviral agents are used,compliance should always be ascertained and HBV DNA levels should be regularly tested.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii infection among chronic hepatitis C patients:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala A El-Nahas; Nora L El-Tantawy; Raghda E Farag; Argaya MA Alsalem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the detection rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii)IgG and IgM in chronicHCV patients attending theDepartment ofTropicalMedicineMansoura University hospital inEgypt.Methods:This study included120 adult chronicHCV patients,81 decompensate cirrhosis(late-stage) and39 chronicHCV non cirrhotic patients(early-stage) and 40 healthy blood donors as controls.Serum samples were examined for anti-ToxoplasmaIgM and anti-ToxoplasmaIgG antibodies byELISA.Real-timeRT-polymerase chain reaction assay was done for quantitation of hepatitisC virus.Results:Anti-T. gondiiIgG antibodies were detected in75(92.6%) of81 late-stage cirrhotic patients,30(76.9%) of the39 chronicHCV non cirrhotic patients(early-stage) and in6(15%) of40 controls with statistically significant difference(P<0.001). Anti-T. gondiiIgM antibodies were found in11(13.6%) in late stage patients,5(12.8%) in early stage and in3(7.5%) of controls with no statistical significant difference(P=0.610).There was no correlation between stage of fibrosis andIgM orIgG antibodies positivity in our studied groups (P=0.526).HighIgG levels significantly correlated with high viral load(P=0.026).Conclusions:Our findings suggest that the serious opportunisticT. gondii infection represent a potential significant risk for chronicHCV patients.So, toxoplasmosis should be considered in their investigations and follow-up.

  5. Perforation of the bowel due to cytomegalovirus infection in a man with AIDS: surgery is not always necessary!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganathan, Katie Tharshana; Morgan, Andrew Roger; Yoganathan, Kathir G

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common viral opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients and is a rare cause of bowel perforation. It invariably requires surgical intervention and is often fatal. We report a 50-year-old Caucasian man with AIDS, presented 3 weeks after developing abdominal pain and distension. He was treated for CMV retinitis in the past. His adherence to antiretroviral therapy was poor. Examination revealed a recurrence of active CMV retinitis. His abdomen was tender and distended. The plain X-ray of the abdomen revealed a double wall sign (Rigler's sign), indicating pneumoperitoneum due to the bowel perforation. The upper endoscopy was normal. His CD4 count was 30 cells/mm(3) He was treated with cidofovir infusion. He made a full recovery, without requiring any form of surgery. However, he died of adult respiratory distress syndrome 14 months later, due to iatrogenic acute pancreatitis. PMID:27440845

  6. Pathway analysis in blood cells of pigs infected with classical swine fever virus: comparison of pigs that develop a chronic form of infection or recover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulst, Marcel; Loeffen, Willie; Weesendorp, Eefke

    2013-02-01

    Infection of pigs with CSFV can lead to either acute disease, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The mechanisms by which CSFV manipulates the pig's first line of defence to establish a chronic infection are poorly understood. Therefore, pigs were infected with moderately virulent CSFV, and whole blood was collected on a regular basis during a period of 18 days. Using whole-genome microarrays, time-dependent changes in gene expression were recorded in blood cells of chronically diseased pigs and pigs that recovered. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated genes indicated that different immunological pathways were regulated in chronically diseased pigs compared to recovered pigs. In recovered pigs, antiviral defence mechanisms were rapidly activated, whereas in chronically diseased pigs, several genes with the potential to inhibit NF-κB- and IRF3/7-mediated transcription of type I interferons were up-regulated. Compared to recovered pigs, chronically diseased pigs failed to activate NK or cytotoxic T-cell pathways, and they showed decreased gene activity in antigen-presenting monocytes/macrophages. Remarkably, in chronically diseased pigs, genes related to the human autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were up-regulated during the whole period of 18 days. CSFV pathology in kidney and skin resembles that of SLE. Furthermore, enzymes involved in the degradation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and of tryptophan to kynurenines were expressed at different levels in chronically diseased and recovered pigs. Both of these chemical processes may affect the functions of T helper/regulatory cells that are crucial for tempering the inflammatory response after a viral infection.

  7. Chronic interstitial pneumonitis in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi: a histopathological and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen mongrel dogs of unknown age and naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, were obtained from the City Hall of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Four dogs were used as control. Lung samples were obtained and immediately fixed in formalin. The histopathological picture of all lung tissue sections was a chronic and diffuse interstitial pneumonitis. The thickened inter-alveolar septa were characterized by the cellular exudate (mostly macrophages, lymphocytes and plasmocytes associated with collagen deposition. Morphometric analysis showed greater septal thickness in the infected animals than in controls. In fact, the morphometric study of collagen stained with ammoniac silver confirmed a larger deposition of collagen in the infected animals. The parasitologic method was carried out during the study of the lesions on the slides. However, we did not observe any correlation between the histopathologic and morphometric data and the clinical status of the animals. We conclude that the pulmonary lesions observed in all naturally infected dogs were correlated with the disease and that the morphometric method used was satisfactory for the analysis of septal thickness and of increased collagen deposition, confirming the presence of fibrosis.

  8. Tracheal diverticulum: an unusual cause of chronic cough and recurrent respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhar, Rajendra Prasad; Bunkar, Motilal; Jain, Shubhra; Ghabale, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    Tracheal diverticulum (TD) defined as a typical benign out-pouching of the tracheal wall due to structural weakness, congenital or acquired in origin, resulting in paratracheal air cysts. It is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice with only limited reports in the literature. Most cases found incidentally in the postmortem examination and located on the right side. Uncomplicated TDs are usually asymptomatic and when symptoms have occurred, they usually present with non-specific symptoms like pharyngeal discomfort, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent respiratory infection due to either the compression of adjacent organs or secondary bacterial infection. Imaging techniques like thoraco-cervical multi-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) and fiber-optic bronchoscopy are important diagnostic tools for this entity. Asymptomatic TDs usually require no treatment and managed conservatively while surgical excision is indicated in cases of compression of adjacent organs and recurrent infections. Here we report a case of tracheal diverticulum on the left side, which was diagnosed as part of a work-up for chronic cough and recurrent chest infection in a 40 year old female who was already on bronchodilator without any relief. Diagnosis of TD was based on findings of computed tomography, revealing small bud like projection on left para tracheal region and further confirmed by fiber-optic bronchoscopy while the barium contrast study showed no esophageal communication. She was managed conservatively and referred for surgical excision. PMID:27266290

  9. Reversible Reprogramming of Circulating Memory T Follicular Helper Cell Function during Chronic HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Rafael; van Grevenynghe, Julien; Wills, Saintedym; Kardava, Lela; Santich, Brian H; Buckner, Clarisa M; Muir, Roshell; Tardif, Virginie; Nichols, Carmen; Procopio, Francesco; He, Zhong; Metcalf, Talibah; Ghneim, Khader; Locci, Michela; Ancuta, Petronella; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Trautmann, Lydie; Li, Yuxing; McDermott, Adrian B; Koup, Rick A; Petrovas, Constantinos; Migueles, Steven A; Connors, Mark; Tomaras, Georgia D; Moir, Susan; Crotty, Shane; Haddad, Elias K

    2015-12-15

    Despite the overwhelming benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in curtailing viral load in HIV-infected individuals, ART does not fully restore cellular and humoral immunity. HIV-infected individuals under ART show reduced responses to vaccination and infections and are unable to mount an effective antiviral immune response upon ART cessation. Many factors contribute to these defects, including persistent inflammation, especially in lymphoid tissues, where T follicular helper (Tfh) cells instruct and help B cells launch an effective humoral immune response. In this study we investigated the phenotype and function of circulating memory Tfh cells as a surrogate of Tfh cells in lymph nodes and found significant impairment of this cell population in chronically HIV-infected individuals, leading to reduced B cell responses. We further show that these aberrant memory Tfh cells exhibit an IL-2-responsive gene signature and are more polarized toward a Th1 phenotype. Treatment of functional memory Tfh cells with IL-2 was able to recapitulate the detrimental reprogramming. Importantly, this defect was reversible, as interfering with the IL-2 signaling pathway helped reverse the abnormal differentiation and improved Ab responses. Thus, reversible reprogramming of memory Tfh cells in HIV-infected individuals could be used to enhance Ab responses. Altered microenvironmental conditions in lymphoid tissues leading to altered Tfh cell differentiation could provide one explanation for the poor responsiveness of HIV-infected individuals to new Ags. This explanation has important implications for the development of therapeutic interventions to enhance HIV- and vaccine-mediated Ab responses in patients under ART.

  10. Polyclonal infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of sequential clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Slutsky, A M; Arbeit, R D; Barber, T W; Rich, J.; von Reyn, C F; Pieciak, W; Barlow, M A; Maslow, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In previous studies, we analyzed multiple individual colonies of MAC isolated from specimens obtained at the same time and observed that 14 to 20% of patients are simultaneously infected with more than one strain. In this study, we examined sequential isolates from 12 patients with AIDS who had two or more MAC isolates available from clinica...

  11. A retrospective study of the role of delta agent infection in children with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, G; Hadchouel, M; Sessa, F; Vinci, M; Craxì, A; Marzani, M D; De Giacomo, C; Alagille, D

    1985-01-01

    The prevalence of intrahepatic delta antigen and/or anti-delta antibody was retrospectively investigated in 102 children with chronic HBsAg-positive hepatitis who were seen consecutively in three medical institutions between 1974 and 1982. Delta infection markers were found in 13 patients (12.7%) who exhibited high serum titers of anti-delta antibody; intrahepatic delta antigen was detected in ten. Eleven of the 13 children had severe progressive liver disease associated in all but one with absence of hepatitis B virus replication as evaluated by analysis of serum hepatitis B virus DNA. The factors which seem to increase the risk of delta infection in children who are hepatitis B virus carriers are geographic origin, a history of exposure to blood derivatives and age. A further 37 of 102 children had chronic active hepatitis (20 patients) or cirrhosis (17 patients) without evidence of delta infection. These results indicate that delta infection occurs in children with chronic hepatitis. This possibility should be considered in investigation of children with HBsAg-positive chronic liver disease. Although the delta agent is an important cause of progressive liver disease in children who are chronic HBsAg carriers, severe liver injury and especially cirrhosis can occur without evidence of delta infection. PMID:3967866

  12. Epidemic of AIDS related virus (HTLV-III/LAV) infection among intravenous drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J R; Bucknall, A B; Welsby, P D; Roberts, J J; Inglis, J M; Peutherer, J F; Brettle, R P

    1986-02-22

    Stored blood samples from 164 intravenous drug abusers who attended a Scottish general practice were tested for HTLV-III/LAV (human T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus) infection. Of those tested, 83 (51%) were seropositive, which is well above the prevalence reported elsewhere in Britain and Europe and approaches that observed in New York City. The timing of taking samples of negative sera and continued drug use suggest that as many as 85% of this population might now be infected. The infection became epidemic in late 1983 and early 1984, thereafter becoming endemic. The practice of sharing needles and syringes correlated with seropositivity, which, combined with the almost exclusive intravenous use of heroin and other behavioural patterns, may explain the high prevalence of HTLV-III/LAV infection in the area. Rapid and aggressive intervention is needed to control the spread of infection. PMID:3081158

  13. Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Logan, Roger; Sterne, Jonathan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Phillips, Andrew; Olson, Ashley; Van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Jose, Sophie; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Vourli, Georgia; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Dabis, Francois; Vandenhede, Mari-Anne; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; Hernán, Miguel A.; Hernan, Miguel; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Sabin, C.; Dunn, D.; Porter, K.; Glabay, A.; Orkin, C.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Fisher, M.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Gazzard, B.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Delpech, V.; Anderson, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Easterbrook, P.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Gilson, R.; Man, S.-L.; Williams, I.; Gompels, M.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Ainsworth, J.; Johnson, M.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Bansi, L.; Hill, T.; Phillips, A.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Leen, C.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D.O.; Gras, L.A.J.; Kesselring, A.M.; Van Sighem, A.I.; Zaheri, S.; Van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Branger, J.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Van Der Meer, J.T.M.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; Godfried, M.H.; Reiss, P.; Van Der Poll, T.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Lange, J.M.A.; Geerlings, S.E.; Van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J.C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M.L.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W.L.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; Van Den Berk, G.E.L.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K.D.; Mulder, J.W.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Lauw, F.N.; Van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; Van Agtmael, M.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E.J.G.; Richter, C.; Van Der Berg, J.P.; Gisolf, E.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Van Nieuwkoop, C.; Van Elzakker, E.P.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G.J.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprenger, H.G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Van Assen, S.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Soetekouw, R.; Ten Kate, R.W.; Van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Van Houte, D.P.F.; Kroon, F.P.; Van Dissel, J.T.; Arend, S.M.; De Boer, M.G.J.; Jolink, H.; Ter Vollaard, H.J.M.; Bauer, M.P.; Weijer, S.; El Moussaoui, R.; Lowe, S.; Schreij, G.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Van Der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Van Crevel, R.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; De Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Nouwen, J.L.; Nispen Tot Pannerden, M.H.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Van Gorp, E.C.M.; Hassing, R.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hartwig, N.G.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Den Hollander, J.G.; Pogany, K.; Juttmann, J.R.; Van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Arends, J.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; Barth, R.E.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Bont, L.J.; Van Den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Barin, F.; Burty, C.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Khuong, M.A.; Mahamat, A.; Pilorgé, F.; Tattevin, P.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Abgrall, S.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Mary-Krause, M.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J.M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Katlama, C.; Simon, A.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P.M.; Meynard, J.L.; Meyohas, M.C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Pialoux, G.; Clauvel, J.P.; Decazes, J.M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J.M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Bentata, M.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J.L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; De Truchis, P.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Viard, J.P.; Boué, F.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, Ph.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Lang, J.M.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J.P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M.F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J.P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Reynes, J.; Daures, J.P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J.L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M.F.; Pontonnier, G.; Viget, N.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pradier, C.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Delmont, J.P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J.A.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J.M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P.A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J.P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Billaud, E.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J.M.; Touraine, J.L.; Cotte, L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Cabié, A.; Gaud, C.; Contant, M.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Haerry, D.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez De Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J.M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Jaen, À.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J.L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J.F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M.C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J.M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Masó, M.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, Ma.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Bejarano, G.; Molina, J.; Guadarrama, M.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernandez, Juanse; Ospina, Jesus E.; Muñoz, M.A.; Caro-Murillo, A.M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J.L.; Rodríguez, P.; Aleman, M.R.; Alonso, M.M.; Lopez, A.M.; Hernandez, M.I.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M.E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; De Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, Rl.; Iribarren, J.A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M.J.; Camino, X.; Rodrí-guez-Arrondo, F.; Von Wichmann, M.A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M.A.; Gutierrez, F.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J.M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Berenguer, J.; Lopez, J.C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sanchez, M.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J.L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; De Los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J.A.; Blanco, J.R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M.J.; Irigoyen, C.; Moreno, S.; Antela, A.; Casado, J.L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M.J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; García, F.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L.F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A.C.; Fiellin, D.A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K.A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J.L.; Hernán, M.A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J.M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Babiker, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Gilson, R.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Pillay, D.; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Louisa Gnatiuc, S.L.; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S.P.R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, J.A.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Roberts, M.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, N.D.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; De Souza, C.B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; McLean, K.; Franca, A.; Hawkins, D.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P.J.; Mazhude, C.; Gilson, R.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; McHale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Johnson, M.; Rice, P.; Fidler, S.; Mullaney, S.A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Tayal, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M.R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A.M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, V.S.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Wilkins, E.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Roberts, M.; Williams, O.; Luzzi, G.; FitzGerald, M.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Molina, J.M.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Raffi, F.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M.T.; Bergmann, J.F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Diemer, M.; Parrinello, M.; Girard, P.M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Livrozet, J.M.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A.P.; Allègre, T.; Reynes, J.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle De Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Cabié, A.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Pialoux, G.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Thomas, R.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Gourdon, F.; Rouveix, E.; Morelon, S.; Dupont, C.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J.D.; Lascaux, A.S.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumâitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M.C.; Drenou, B.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Katlama, C.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Bentata, M.; Touam, F.; Hoen, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Massip, P.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J.M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Boué, F.; Bornarel, D.; Verdon, R.; Bazin, C.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Weiss, L.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Herson, S.; Amirat, N.; Simon, A.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Picard, O.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; May, T.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; De Truchis, P.; Berthé, H.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A.M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Dellamonica, P.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; De Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert De Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J.L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A.S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J.J.; Quinsat, D.T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Caron, F.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Lepeu, G.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Galanaud, P.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G.A.; Levy, A.; Delfraissy, J.F.; Goujard, C.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M.S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Weiss, L.; Buisson, M.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Batisse, D.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Leport, C.; Colasante, U.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Duval, X.; Nouaouia, W.; Boucherit, S.; Vilde, J.L.; Girard, P.M.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Meyohas, M.C.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J.L.; Salmon, D.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Launay, O.; Pietrie, M.P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Bourdillon, F.; Lascaux, A.S.; Lelievre, J.D.; Dumont, C.; Dupont, B.; Obenga, G.; Viard, J.P.; Maignan, A.; Vittecoq, D.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Bricaire, F.; Katlama, C.; Schneider, L.; Herson, S.; Simon, A.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Ravaux, I.; Dhiver, C.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Gastaut, J.A.; Drogoul, M.P.; Fabre, G.; Dellamonica, P.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J.P.; Karsenti, J.M.; Venti, H.; Fuzibet, J.G.; Rosenthal, E.; Ceppi, C.; Quaranta, M.; Krivitsky, J.A.; Bentata, M.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Del Amo, J.; Alvarez, D.; Monge, S.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Clotet, B.; Tor, J.; Bolao, F.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; Del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Fernandez, E.; Alastrue, I.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; Garcia De Olalla, P.; Cayla, J.; Masdeu, E.; Knobel, H.; Mirò, J.M.; Sambeat, M.A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; De Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; Paraskevis, D.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Katsarou, O.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Lazanas, M.; Chini, M.; Tsogas, N.; Panos, G.; Paparizos, V.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the incidence of AIDS-defining events which have been reported in the literature to be associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. These events include tuberculosis, mycobacteri

  14. Alterações cognitivas na infecção pelo HIV e Aids Cognitive alterations associated with HIV-1 infection and Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira Christo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as complicações neurológicas primária da Aids temos déficits cognitivos como a demência associada ao HIV e formas mais leves, como o transtorno cognitivo/motor menor, sendo que ambas podem alterar as atividades da vida diária e reduzir a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Infecção pelo HIV-1 é a mais comum, previsível e tratável causa de déficits cognitivos em indivíduos com menos de 50 anos. A despeito do avanço no conhecimento das características clínicas, patogênese, aspectos neurobiológicos e ao amplo uso de terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa (HAART, complicações neurológicas e déficits cognitivos ainda persistem levando a graves consequências pessoais e socioeconômicas tornando-se um grande desafio terapêutico. Na era pré- HAART, a demência era uma complicação comum da infecção, entretanto na era HAART a incidência da demência diminuiu, mas a prevalência tem aumentado principalmente das formas mais leves devido ao aumento do número de pessoas infectadas e ao aumento da expectativa de vida. Alterações cognitivas associadas ao HIV são tipicamente subcorticais e podem estar associadas a comprometimentos comportamentais e motores. Estas síndromes são de diagnóstico clínico, sendo que testes neuropsicológicos, neuroimagem e líquido cerebrorraquidiano corroboram no diagnóstico. Esta revisão faz uma atualização do estado atual da epidemiologia, características clínicas e diagnóstico das complicações cognitivas no curso da infecção pelo HIV.Primary neurological complications of AIDS include cognitive deficits such as HIV-associated dementia and milder forms such as cognitive/motor disorders, which cause changes in daily activities and reduce the quality of life of patients. Infection with HIV-1 is the most common, predictable and treatable cause of cognitive deficits in individuals with less than 50 years of age. . Despite advances in the understanding of clinical characteristics

  15. Changes in autophagic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Feldmann, Gérard; Mansouri, Abdellah; Grodet, Alain; Barge, Sandrine; Martinot-Peignoux, Michèle; Duces, Aurélie; Bièche, Ivan; Lebrec, Didier; Bedossa, Pierre; Paradis, Valérie; Marcellin, Patrick; Valla, Dominique; Asselah, Tarik; Moreau, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is a regulated process that can be involved in the elimination of intracellular microorganisms and in antigen presentation. Some in vitro studies have shown an altered autophagic response in hepatitis C virus infected hepatocytes. The present study aimed at evaluating the autophagic process in the liver of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Fifty-six CHC patients and 47 control patients (8 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic liver disease, 18 with chronic heptatitis B virus infection, and 21 with no or mild liver abnormalities at histological examination) were included. Autophagy was assessed by means of electron microscopy and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 immunoblotting. Using light chain 3 immunoblotting, the form present on autophagic vesicle (light chain 3-II) was significantly higher in CHC patients than in controls (P < 0.05). Using quantitative electron microscopy analysis, the median number of autophagic vesicles observed in hepatocytes from CHC patients was sixfold higher than in overall controls (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between CHC patients and controls in the number of mature lysosomes with electron-dense contents arguing in favor of a lack of fusion between autophagosome and lysosome. Neither genotype nor viral load influenced the autophagy level. In conclusion, autophagy is altered in hepatocytes from CHC patients, likely due to a blockade of the last step of the autophagic process. PMID:21641393

  16. Studies on protein turnover and energy expenditure in chronically undernourished adults during stress of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic undernutrition in man leads to adaptive responses which could reduce the requirements for dietary energy and protein. It is also possible that these adaptive responses, which are economical in nature, could lead to a decreased capacity for combating stress. Undernourished people are more susceptible to infections, and during these stresses, show different patterns of protein and energy metabolism from well-nourished subjects. Animal models have clearly shown a diminished response to tissue injury, in terms of the anabolic acute phase response. It is proposed to study the effect of prior nutritional status on the degree to which an infective stress stimulates the acute phase protein synthesis by the liver. In addition, the supply of amino acids to the liver in conditions of stress could come from the breakdown of body tissue proteins, particularly muscle. It is intended to study muscle protein turnover by the use of 13C-leucine in undernourished subjects under conditions of stress. Since whole body protein turnover can be measured by two methods, using 15N-glycine and 13C-leucine, a comparison of these two methods will initially be made in chronically undernourished subjects. It is also intended to study daily energy expenditure in the subject by an isotopic method, i.e. the appearance of 13CO2 in the breath after the administration of 13C-bicarbonate. (author). 8 refs

  17. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures.

  18. Chronic hepatitis C infection in a patient with bone marrow hypoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with multifarious extra-hepatic manifestations; the most described and discussed being mixed cryoglob- ulinemia which is strongly related to B-cell lympho- proliferative disorders (LPDs). We present a case of chronic HCV infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia, with minimal liver involvement. The case is a 53-year- old patient who was diagnosed as having bone marrow hypoplasia at the age of three. She received several blood transfusions to normalize her haemoglobin. At the age of 31, she was diagnosed with rheumatoid ar- thritis on account of her diffuse joint pain and inflam- mation, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF) and Raynaud's phenomenon. Twenty years later, monoclonal gam- mopathy of IgG Lambda (one year later, changed to IgM Kappa) was detected during a routine examina- tion. A bone marrow biopsy showed hypoplasia, Kappa positive B-lymphocytes and low-grade malignant lym- phoma cells. PCR of the bone marrow aspirate was not contributory. No treatment was initiated owing to her poor bone marrow function and she is under regular follow-up.

  19. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures. PMID:17679848

  20. Massive Trichuris trichiura infection as a cause of chronic bloody diarrhea in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Santos, Daniel R; Jambeiro, Jamile; Mascarenhas, Ramiro R; Silva, Luciana R

    2006-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea is extensive and requires the investigation of several diseases, such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. A few patients infected by Trichuris trichiura may present a chronic dysentery-like syndrome in the context of a massive infestation of the colon leading to anemia and growth retardation, but the rarity of that finding demands a high level of suspicion. Herein we report the case of an 8-year-old boy from the rural zone who had suffered diarrhea without blood or mucus for 4 years and was taken to our Service because his mother had noticed the presence of blood on the feces on the 3 previous months. The diagnosis of a massive Trichuris trichiura infestation as the cause of the process was only reached by colonoscopy. We stress that Trichuris trichiura infection can mimic other forms of inflammatory bowel disease and lead to physical growth retardation and that prolonged regimens of albendazole may be required to the effective treatment of massive infestations.

  1. Infections and inequalities:anemia in AIDS, the disadvantages of poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Gonzalez; Celeste Seley; Julieta Martorano; Isabella Garcia-Moreno; Alcides Troncoso

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study anemia in AIDS patients and its relation with socioeconomic, employment status and educational levels. Methods:A total number of 442 patients who visited the Infectious Diseases University Hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina were included in the study. Patients were dividied into two groups, i.e. one with anemia and the other without anemia. Anemia epidemiology and its relationship with educational level, housing, job situation, monthly income, total daily caloric intake and weekly intake of meat were evaluated. Results: Anemia was found in 228 patients (54%). Comparing patients with or without anemia, a statistically significant difference was found (P<0.000 1) in those whose highest educational level reached was primary school, who lived in a precarious home, who had no stable job or were unable to work, whose income was less than 30 dollars per month, whose meat consumption was less than twice a week or received less than 8 000 calories per day. Conclusions:The high prevalence of anemia found in poor patients with AIDS suggests that poverty increases the risk to suffer from this hematological complication. The relationship between economic development policies and AIDS is complex. Our results seem to point to the fact that AIDS epidemic may affect economic development and in turn be affected by it. If we consider that AIDS affects the economically active adult population, despite recent medical progress it usually brings about fatal consequences, especially within the poorest sectors of society where the disease reduces the average life expectancy, increases health care demand and tends to exacerbate poverty and iniquity.

  2. AIDS病人眼部带状疱疹病毒感染病例分析%Herpes zoster virus infection case analyses the AIDS eye part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅威

    2008-01-01

    Objective Discuss the ponderance,prognosis,treatment and prophylaxis that the AIDS patient eye part herpes zoster virus opportunistic infection.Method Herpes zoster opportunistic infection case carries out retrospect nature analysis on the AIDS eye part friendship hospital ophthalmology outpatient service makes a definite diagnosis.Result The AIDS eye part herpes zoster virus opportunistic infection inflammation is grave,the pole curing difficulty,the prognosis is bad.Conclusion The herpes zoster opportunistic infection the AIDS disease eye part duplicating each other in taking precautions against and early phase discovers,cures AIDS,ocular infection by to treat long ago being nice%目的 探讨AIDS病人眼部带状疱疹病毒机会性感染的严重性、预后、治疗以及预防.方法 医院眼科门诊确诊的AIDS眼部带状疱疹机会性感染病例行回顾性分析.结果 AIDS眼部带状疱疹病毒机会性感染炎症严重,治疗困难,预后极差.结论 AIDS病眼部带状疱疹性机会性感染重在预防和早期发现,治疗AIDS眼部感染以早治疗为佳.

  3. Coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    Full Text Available Most chronically-infected hepatitis C virus (HCV patients have increased levels of iron in the liver. Iron overload reduces sustained responses to antiviral therapy, leading to more rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it is still unclear how HIV-1 infection affects iron status in patients chronically infected with HCV. The present study recruited 227 patients from a village in central China. These patients were either monoinfected with HCV (n = 129 or coinfected with HCV/HIV-1 (n = 98. Healthy controls (n = 84 were also recruited from the same village. Indicators of iron status, such as serum levels of iron, ferritin, and transferrin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation (Tfs, and hepcidin, were analyzed and compared across the three groups. The results showed that serum levels of iron (p = 0.001 and ferritin (p = 0.009 and the Tfs (p = 0.002 were significantly higher in HCV-monoinfected patients than in the healthy controls; however, there were no differences in iron levels and Tfs between HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients and healthy controls. Additionally, although serum hepcidin levels in HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-1-coinfected patients were lower (p<0.001 than those in health controls, the levels in coinfected patients were higher (p = 0.025 than those in HCV-monoinfected patients. Serum iron and ferritin levels in HCV-monoinfected patients were positively correlated with serum ALT/AST. Serum transferrin levels were negatively correlated with ALT/AST levels. The levels of iron in the serum of coinfected patients with a CD4+T-cell count <500/µl were lower than those in patients with a CD4+T-cell count ≥500/µl, whereas serum hepcidin levels showed the opposite trend. Taken together, these results suggest that coinfection with HIV-1 alleviates iron accumulation caused by chronic HCV infection. Our study indicated that determining the

  4. CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype improves the assessment of AIDS Risk in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether vexing clinical decision-making dilemmas can be partly addressed by recent advances in genomics is unclear. For example, when to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART during HIV-1 infection remains a clinical dilemma. This decision relies heavily on assessing AIDS risk based on the CD4+ T cell count and plasma viral load. However, the trajectories of these two laboratory markers are influenced, in part, by polymorphisms in CCR5, the major HIV coreceptor, and the gene copy number of CCL3L1, a potent CCR5 ligand and HIV-suppressive chemokine. Therefore, we determined whether accounting for both genetic and laboratory markers provided an improved means of assessing AIDS risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective, single-site, ethnically-mixed cohort of 1,132 HIV-positive subjects, we determined the AIDS risk conveyed by the laboratory and genetic markers separately and in combination. Subjects were assigned to a low, moderate or high genetic risk group (GRG based on variations in CCL3L1 and CCR5. The predictive value of the CCL3L1-CCR5 GRGs, as estimated by likelihood ratios, was equivalent to that of the laboratory markers. GRG status also predicted AIDS development when the laboratory markers conveyed a contrary risk. Additionally, in two separate and large groups of HIV+ subjects from a natural history cohort, the results from additive risk-scoring systems and classification and regression tree (CART analysis revealed that the laboratory and CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic markers together provided more prognostic information than either marker alone. Furthermore, GRGs independently predicted the time interval from seroconversion to CD4+ cell count thresholds used to guide HAART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the laboratory and genetic markers captures a broader spectrum of AIDS risk than either marker alone. By tracking a unique aspect of AIDS risk distinct from that captured by the laboratory parameters

  5. Factors Associated with Hepatitis C Infection among Chronic HCV Egyptian Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram W Abd El-Wahab

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial for developing appropriate prevention strategies. There are few community-based studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis C infection in Egypt, which could not provide enough information. Clear identification of past and current risk factors for infection is of utmost importance so that intervention programs can be appropriately focused. This study aims to provide up-to-date information about changes in the incidence of individual risk factors for HCV infection transmission in Egypt.A total of 396 chronic HCV patients on follow-up treatment at liver center in El-Qabbary General Hospital in Alexandria were evaluated retrospectively regarding the potential iatrogenic, community acquired and behavioral HCV risk factors. Risk factors for HCV transmission were found in all study populations.At least three identifiable risk factors were reported by each participant. Some behavioral and community-acquired exposures that entail several risky behaviors particularly, unsafe sexual practices were exclusively established among males. We report a significant decline in prevalence of HCV transmission through blood transfusion, parenteral treatment, hospitalization, surgery, non medicalized circumcision, Hijiama done by informal practitioner, tattooing, folk body piercing and threading, sharing hygiene and sharp items, and the use of communal barber or manicure sets among younger age cluster.The pattern of risk differed among older patients compared to younger age group suggesting improved medical care and infection control measures and raised public health awareness regarding the different modes of viral transmission.

  6. Tenofovir therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection: 48-week results from Izmir Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Köse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of therapy in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB is to impede liver injury by suppressing viral replication.The study was aimed to determine the efficacy of tenofovir (TDF in CHB infection for 48 weeks.Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 45 CHB patients treated by tenofovir. The patientswere divided into two groups based on their hepatitis B e antigen status (HBeAg. Those who were eligible to therapyreceived TDF 300 mg once daily for 48 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBVDNA, and viral serological markers were checked at three-month intervals. Liver biopsy scores were determined in allpatients.Results: The mean age ± standard deviation (SD was 35.8 ± 17.0 years, 26 (57.8 % were male, and seven patients(15.5% were treatment-experienced by a nucleos(tide analogue before TDF. HBeAg was positive in 17 (37.8% patients.At week 48 among HBeAg positive (HBeAg + patients’ biochemical and virological response rates at month-3, -6 and-12 were 64.7%, and 100%, 70.6%, and 94.1%, and 88.2%, and 64.7%, respectively. The serological response in HBeAg+ patients was 29.4%. For HBeAg negative (HBeAg - patients; biochemical, and virological response rates were 64.3%,and 96.4% at month 3; 82.1%, and 96.4% at month 6; and 100%, and 85.7% at month 12, respectively. At week 48 bothgroups had significant virological response (p<0.001.Conclusion: Treatment in CHB with TDF leads to HBV DNA suppression without evident resistance for 48-week, and iswell tolerated. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(3: 87-92Key words: Hepatitis B, chronic, tenofovir disoproxil

  7. Health-related quality of life of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Elegance TP

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Southern Chinese with chronic hepatitis B (CHB infection. Aim To evaluate the HRQOL of Chinese patients at different stages of CHB infection and to find out factors associated with HRQOL. Methods 520 Chinese adult CHB patients of whom 156 were uncomplicated, 102 had impaired liver function, 139 had cirrhosis and 123 had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were interviewed with a structured questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2, and the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ. The differences in SF-6D health preference values and SF-36v2 scores between each CHB group and Hong Kong population norms were assessed by t-test. ANOVA was used to compare the mean SF-6D health preference, SF-36v2 scores, and CLDQ scores among CHB groups. Multiple linear regressions were performed to identify determinants of HRQOL. Results CHB patients had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than the population norm. The SF-6D values of CHB patients with uncomplicated disease, impaired liver function, HCC and cirrhosis were 0.755, 0.745, 0.720 and 0.701, respectively, all significantly lower than the population norm of 0.787. Advanced stage of CHB illness, anti-viral treatment, bilirubin level, psychological co-morbidity, younger age and female were associated with poorer HRQOL. Conclusion CHB infection had a negative impact on HRQOL. There was a progressive decrease in health preference values with CHB disease progression. The results can be used for the estimation of quality adjusted life years (QALYs for CHB patients in cost effectiveness or cost utility studies. Trial Registration http://www.hkclinicaltrials.com; HKCTR-151.

  8. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  9. Broad Anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Responses Are Associated with Improved Clinical Disease Parameters in Chronic HCV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Rachael E.; Cowton, Vanessa M.; Robinson, Mark W.; Cole, Sarah J.; Barclay, Stephen T.; Mills, Peter R.; Thomson, Emma C.; McLauchlan, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses targeting E1E2 envelope glycoproteins are generated in many individuals. It is unclear if these antibodies play a protective or a pathogenic role during chronic infection. In this study, we investigated whether bNAb responses in individuals with chronic infection were associated with differences in clinical presentation. Patient-derived purified serum IgG was used to assess the breadth of HCV E1E2 binding and the neutralization activity of HCV pseudoparticles. The binding and neutralization activity results for two panels bearing viral envelope proteins representing either an intergenotype or an intragenotype 1 group were compared. We found that the HCV load was negatively associated with strong cross-genotypic E1E2 binding (P = 0.03). Overall, we observed only a modest correlation between total E1E2 binding and neutralization ability. The breadth of intergenotype neutralization did not correlate with any clinical parameters; however, analysis of individuals with genotype 1 (gt1) HCV infection (n = 20), using an intragenotype pseudoparticle panel, found a strong association between neutralization breadth and reduced liver fibrosis (P = 0.006). A broad bNAb response in our cohort with chronic infection was associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HLA-DQB1 gene (P = 0.038), as previously reported in a cohort with acute disease. Furthermore, the bNAbs in these individuals targeted more than one region of E2-neutralizing epitopes, as assessed through cross-competition of patient bNAbs with well-characterized E2 antibodies. We conclude that the bNAb responses in patients with chronic gt1 infection are associated with lower rates of fibrosis and host genetics may play a role in the ability to raise such responses. IMPORTANCE Globally, there are 130 million to 150 million people with chronic HCV infection. Typically, the disease is progressive and is a

  10. Bead-size directed distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in distinct inflammatory response in a mouse model of chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, L J; Trøstrup, H; Damlund, Dina Silke Malling;

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by biofilms, tolerant to antibiotics and host responses. Instead, immune responses contribute to the tissue damage. However, this may depend on localization of infection in the upper conductive...

  11. Genomic variability of host factors in AIDS: role of antimicrobial peptides resistance to lentiviral infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Milanese, Michele

    1980-01-01

    L’AIDS è una delle maggiori pandemie in corso sulla Terra. Sfortunatamente l’elevato tasso di mutazioni del virus impedisce agli immunologi di trovare un vaccino efficiente contro il suo agente eziologico: il virus HIV-1. I peptidi antimicrobici sono una classe di importanti molecole coinvolte nella risposta immunitaria innata caratterizzati sia da attività sia antibatterica che antimicrobica e che, visto il loro ruolo come barriera primaria contro i patogeni, probabilmente ricoprouno un r...

  12. Study of T-lymphocyte subsets, nitric oxide, hexosamine and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhang; Shu Lin Jiang; Xi Xian Yao

    2000-01-01

    Chronic gastritis ( CG ) and peptic ulcer ( PU ) are frequently-occurring diseases. It is now well recognized that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a major factor that leads to CG and PU[1-8] In order to study the relationship among T lymphocyte subsets, NO, Hexosamine and Hp infection in patients with chronic gastric diseases, the levelsof blood T lymphocyte subsets, plasma NO and hexosamine in gastric mucosa were measured respectively in 30 patients with CG and 32 patients of PU + CG.

  13. Randomized pilot trial of a synbiotic dietary supplement in chronic HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunter Marco

    2012-06-01

    Synbiotic treatment for 4 weeks can successfully augment the levels of probiotic species in the gut during chronic HIV-1 infection. Associated changes in microbial translocation appear to be absent, and markers of systemic immune activation appear largely unchanged. These findings may help inform future studies aimed at testing pre- and probiotic approaches to improve gut function and mucosal immunity in chronic HIV-1 infection. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00688311

  14. Analysis of causes of death among HIV-infected patients of Kiev Regional AIDS Center during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Stepchenkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine is a leader in Europe in the prevalence of HIV infection. There are up to 270 thousand people, who are living with HIV. Since 1987, in Ukraine, 33,149 HIV-infected people died. During the first six months of 2013, of all the dead, who were suffering from HIV and in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART at the time of death, 41% received treatment and only 5.7% received ART for more than one year. Specialists of Kiev Regional AIDS Center analyzed mortality among the patients of the centre, in order to determine the most frequent cause of death, set the group most at risk and to develop effective measures to reduce mortality among HIV-infected patients. In Kiev AIDS Center, 10,000 people are under medical observation and 4004 of them are taking ART. During 2013, 305 persons died: 217 were women and 88 were men which included 3 children under 14 years. Most of the dead – 272 (89% were aged 25–49. Among the total number of the dead, 125 people (41% were receiving ART, 53 of them (17% were receiving ART for at least one year and 39 of them (13% were receiving ART for less than one month. Hundred and fifty-eight people (52% required ART and 22 (7% did not need therapy. Hundred and ninety-two patients (63% were in four clinical stage of HIV infection. Hundred and ten of them had HIV+TB co-infection. Twenty patients died due to TB and 12 patients died due to hepatitis b virus/hepatitis c virus (HBV/HCV. Among these patients, 87 people (39% were taking ART and 136 persons (61% were in need of ART, but did not get it. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with cancer. Sixteen patients, who were co-infected HIV+TB had a CD4 cell count of more than 300. Based on this analysis, we can conclude that the main causes of high mortality among HIV-infected patients in 2013 were late diagnosis of HIV, besides a large number (52% of patients, who were in need of ART did not take it. A large number (40% among those who died were patients co-infected with HIV

  15. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillie, Martin; Zhou, Ying; El Bissati, Kamal; Dubey, Jitender; Lorenzi, Hernan; Capper, Michael; Lukens, Amanda K; Hickman, Mark; Muench, Stephen; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Weber, Christopher R; Wheeler, Kelsey; Gordon, James; Sanders, Justin; Moulton, Hong; Wang, Kai; Kim, Taek-Kyun; He, Yuqing; Santos, Tatiana; Woods, Stuart; Lee, Patty; Donkin, David; Kim, Eric; Fraczek, Laura; Lykins, Joseph; Esaa, Farida; Alibana-Clouser, Fatima; Dovgin, Sarah; Weiss, Louis; Brasseur, Gael; Wirth, Dyann; Kent, Michael; Hood, Leroy; Meunieur, Brigitte; Roberts, Craig W; Hasnain, S Samar; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Fishwick, Colin; McLeod, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the most common parasitic infection of human brain and eye, persists across lifetimes, can progressively damage sight, and is currently incurable. New, curative medicines are needed urgently. Herein, we develop novel models to facilitate drug development: EGS strain T. gondii forms cysts in vitro that induce oocysts in cats, the gold standard criterion for cysts. These cysts highly express cytochrome b. Using these models, we envisioned, and then created, novel 4-(1H)-quinolone scaffolds that target the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site, of which, a substituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-4-one inhibits active infection (IC50, 30 nM) and cysts (IC50, 4 μM) in vitro, and in vivo (25 mg/kg), and drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum (IC50, <30 nM), with clinically relevant synergy. Mutant yeast and co-crystallographic studies demonstrate binding to the bc1 complex Qi site. Our results have direct impact on improving outcomes for those with toxoplasmosis, malaria, and ~2 billion persons chronically infected with encysted bradyzoites. PMID:27412848

  16. Prevalence and treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Lauren A; Ioannou, George N

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common blood-borne pathogen in the United States. HCV disproportionately affects Veterans Affairs (VA) health-care users: 174,302 HCV-infected veterans were in VA care in 2013, making the VA the world's largest HCV care provider. This systematic review identified 546 articles related to HCV in the VA. After assessment by 2 independent reviewers, 28 articles describing prevalence and treatment of HCV in VA users ultimately met inclusion criteria. Most VA patients currently living with HCV infection were born between 1945 and 1965 and were infected with HCV between 1970 and 1990. To prevent HCV-related complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death, medical personnel must identify and treat HCV. However, antiviral therapy has historically been limited by medication side effects, contraindications, and patient acceptance. Although treatment initiation rates are higher in the VA than in the general United States, only 23% of VA HCV patients have received treatment and, of those, only a minority were cured. Recent development of more effective and tolerable antiviral agents represents a major pharmacological breakthrough. Eradication of HCV is theoretically possible for the majority of HCV patients for the first time, although new barriers, such as high drug costs, may limit future uptake. PMID:25600415

  17. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillie, Martin; Zhou, Ying; El Bissati, Kamal; Dubey, Jitender; Lorenzi, Hernan; Capper, Michael; Lukens, Amanda K; Hickman, Mark; Muench, Stephen; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Weber, Christopher R.; Wheeler, Kelsey; Gordon, James; Sanders, Justin; Moulton, Hong; Wang, Kai; Kim, Taek-Kyun; He, Yuqing; Santos, Tatiana; Woods, Stuart; Lee, Patty; Donkin, David; Kim, Eric; Fraczek, Laura; Lykins, Joseph; Esaa, Farida; Alibana-Clouser, Fatima; Dovgin, Sarah; Weiss, Louis; Brasseur, Gael; Wirth, Dyann; Kent, Michael; Hood, Leroy; Meunieur, Brigitte; Roberts, Craig W.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Fishwick, Colin; McLeod, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the most common parasitic infection of human brain and eye, persists across lifetimes, can progressively damage sight, and is currently incurable. New, curative medicines are needed urgently. Herein, we develop novel models to facilitate drug development: EGS strain T. gondii forms cysts in vitro that induce oocysts in cats, the gold standard criterion for cysts. These cysts highly express cytochrome b. Using these models, we envisioned, and then created, novel 4-(1H)-quinolone scaffolds that target the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site, of which, a substituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-4-one inhibits active infection (IC50, 30 nM) and cysts (IC50, 4 μM) in vitro, and in vivo (25 mg/kg), and drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum (IC50, <30 nM), with clinically relevant synergy. Mutant yeast and co-crystallographic studies demonstrate binding to the bc1 complex Qi site. Our results have direct impact on improving outcomes for those with toxoplasmosis, malaria, and ~2 billion persons chronically infected with encysted bradyzoites. PMID:27412848

  18. Serum sphingolipids reflect the severity of chronic HBV infection and predict the mortality of HBV-acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qu

    Full Text Available Patients with HBV-acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF have high mortality and frequently require liver transplantation; few reliable prognostic markers are available. As a class of functional lipids, sphingolipids are extensively involved in the process of HBV infection. However, their role in chronic HBV infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the serum sphingolipid profile in a population of patients with chronic HBV infection, paying special attention to exploring novel prognostic markers in HBV-ACLF. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to examine the levels of 41 sphingolipids in 156 serum samples prospectively collected from two independent cohorts. The training and validation cohorts comprised 20 and 28 healthy controls (CTRL, 29 and 23 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, and 30 and 26 patients with HBV-ACLF, respectively. Biometric analysis was used to evaluate the association between sphingolipid levels and disease stages. Multivariate analysis revealed difference of sphingolipid profiles between CHB and HBV-ACLF was more drastic than that between CTRL and CHB, which indicated that serum sphingolipid levels were more likely to associate with the progression HBV-ACLF rather than CHB. Furthermore, a 3-month mortality evaluation of HBV-ACLF patients showed that dhCer(d18 : 0/24 : 0 was significantly higher in survivors than in non-survivors (including deceased patients and those undergoing liver transplantation, p < 0.05, and showed a prognostic performance similar to that of the MELD score. The serum sphingolipid composition varies between CTRL and chronic HBV infection patients. In addition, dhCer(d18 : 0/24 : 0 may be a useful prognostic indicator for the early prediction of HBV-ACLF.

  19. Influence of supplementary immunization activities for adults dynamics of chronic disease HBV-infection and its outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Baramzina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effect of additional vaccination of adult HBV- infection years 2007–2010 on the incidence of chronic hepatitis B and its outcomes on the example of the Kirov region.Materials and Methods: the evaluation of epidemiological features process in patients with chronic HBV infection in adults, depending on the vaccination carried out on the basis of official data Rospotrebnadzora in Russia and Kirov region on incidence of infectious disease for the period 1999–2012. Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B was based on clinical and biochemical, instrumental, virological data. Structure outcomes of chronic hepatitis B was studied in 295 patients aged 18–75 years who were hospitalized in the department of viral hepatitis Kirov infectious diseases hospital in 2006–2010.Results: In the Kirov region tended to decrease the incidence of chronic hepatitis B in adults. Additional adult vaccination against hepatitis B has not led to the expected significant decrease of the number of patients with chronic forms. One reason for this is the low (20,3–64% of the adult population immunization coverage. Chronic HBV- monoinfected was observed in 17.1% , cirrhosis in the outcome of chronic hepatitis B in 5,4% of cases, in hospital mortality from complications of HBV- cirrhosis was 0,7%. Association virus C and D have increased the total cohort, compared to a mono- infection by 3,8% and 0,5% lethality.Conclusion: Additional adult vaccination against hepatitis B in the area has led to a slight decrease in the overall incidence of chronic hepatitis B, but has not reduced the incidence of adverse events – cirrhosis and liver- mediated lethality.

  20. Analysis of HIV-1- and CMV-specific memory CD4 T-cell responses during primary and chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Alexandre; Rizzardi, G Paolo; Ellefsen, Kim; Ciuffreda, Donatella; Champagne, Patrick; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Kaufmann, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Sahli, Roland; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Kaiser, Laurent; Lazzarin, Adriano; Perrin, Luc; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2002-08-15

    CD4 T-cell-specific memory antiviral responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were investigated in 16 patients with documented primary HIV-1 infection (4 of the 16 subjects also had primary CMV infection) and compared with those observed in patients with chronic HIV-1 and CMV coinfection. Virus-specific memory CD4 T cells were characterized on the basis of the expression of the chemokine receptor CCR7. HIV-1- and CMV-specific interferon-gamma-secreting CD4 T cells were detected in patients with primary and chronic HIV-1 and CMV coinfection and were mostly contained in the cell population lacking expression of CCR7. The magnitude of the primary CMV-specific CD4 T-cell response was significantly greater than that of chronic CMV infection, whereas there were no differences between primary and chronic HIV-1-specific CD4 T-cell responses. A substantial proportion of CD4(+)CCR7(-) T cells were infected with HIV-1. These results advance the characterization of antiviral memory CD4 T-cell response and the delineation of the potential mechanisms that likely prevent the generation of a robust CD4 T-cell immune response during primary infection.

  1. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in chronically aparasitemic mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Awuoche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness and nagana are two important diseases cuased by African trypanosomes in humans and animals respectively, in tropical african countries. A number of trypanosome species are implicated in these diseases, but it is the Trypanosoma brucei group that is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown that the saliva of the vector, black fly saliva contribute to orient the pathogen to the site of the vector bite. Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role of trypanosome-vector saliva in ensuring parasite acquisition and its application in the tsetse – trypanosome interaction at the host skin interphase.

  2. Can a chronic dental infection be considered a cause of cardiovascular disease? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Dessì, Cristina; Piras, Alessandra; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have a complex etiology determined by risk factors, which are in turn associated to a strong genetic component and to environmental factors. In the biological background for the development of CVD, low-grade chronic inflammation plays a role as a pathogenetic determinant of atherosclerosis. Dental infections have been associated with CVD. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the supporting tissues of the tooth that can lead to teeth loss. In recent years, a number of reports have demonstrated the possible relationship between periodontal disease and CVD. Apical periodontitis, on the other hand, is the late consequence of an endodontic infection, which is caused by the persistence of coronal caries and involves the root canal system of the tooth. Most of the time, it is a chronic infection. Some studies have found a correlation between a "composite status" of oral health (eg. caries, tooth loss, periodontal disease) and CVD, but only a few of them have addressed the association between apical periodontitis and CVD. This "state of the art" paper represents the first stage of an incoming study on the relationship between chronic endodontic infection and CVD. PMID:20851474

  3. The role of chronic pain and current substance use in predicting negative social support among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Isenberg, Sarina; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and substance use can strain the supportive relationships of persons with serious chronic illness, which may increase the likelihood of receiving negative, rather than positive, social support from informal caregivers and social network members. To our knowledge, this is the first study to longitudinally examine the effects of chronic pain and substance use on negative social support. The sample (N = 383) comprised disadvantaged, primarily African-American, persons living with HIV/AIDS with a history of injection drug use, 32.4% of whom reported frequent or constant pain in the prior 6 months. Using factor analysis and structural equation modeling, current substance use and greater levels of chronic pain positively predicted negative social support 12 months later, after controlling for baseline negative support, viral load, age and sex. We also found a significant interaction effect such that among those not using substances, there was a significant positive association between pain and negative support, but no such association among those currently using substances. The findings emphasize the importance of treatment of chronic pain and substance use in the supportive functioning of social networks of a disadvantaged population with serious chronic conditions and persistent health disparities.

  4. The role of chronic pain and current substance use in predicting negative social support among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Isenberg, Sarina; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and substance use can strain the supportive relationships of persons with serious chronic illness, which may increase the likelihood of receiving negative, rather than positive, social support from informal caregivers and social network members. To our knowledge, this is the first study to longitudinally examine the effects of chronic pain and substance use on negative social support. The sample (N = 383) comprised disadvantaged, primarily African-American, persons living with HIV/AIDS with a history of injection drug use, 32.4% of whom reported frequent or constant pain in the prior 6 months. Using factor analysis and structural equation modeling, current substance use and greater levels of chronic pain positively predicted negative social support 12 months later, after controlling for baseline negative support, viral load, age and sex. We also found a significant interaction effect such that among those not using substances, there was a significant positive association between pain and negative support, but no such association among those currently using substances. The findings emphasize the importance of treatment of chronic pain and substance use in the supportive functioning of social networks of a disadvantaged population with serious chronic conditions and persistent health disparities. PMID:27050708

  5. Memory inflation during chronic viral infection is maintained by continuous production of short-lived, functional T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher M; Cho, Kathy S; Bonnett, Elizabeth L; van Dommelen, Serani; Shellam, Geoffrey R; Hill, Ann B

    2008-10-17

    During persistent murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, the T cell response is maintained at extremely high intensity for the life of the host. These cells closely resemble human CMV-specific cells, which compose a major component of the peripheral T cell compartment in most people. Despite a phenotype that suggests extensive antigen-driven differentiation, MCMV-specific T cells remain functional and respond vigorously to viral challenge. We hypothesized that a low rate of antigen-driven proliferation would account for the maintenance of this population. Instead, we found that most of these cells divided only sporadically in chronically infected hosts and had a short half-life in circulation. The overall population was supported, at least in part, by memory T cells primed early in infection, as well as by recruitment of naive T cells at late times. Thus, these data show that memory inflation is maintained by a continuous replacement of short-lived, functional cells during chronic MCMV infection.

  6. Burden of HIV/AIDS infection before and during the civil war in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B H; Giovagnoli, M R; Mahad, H; Tarsitani, G G

    2010-08-01

    Somalia has suffered a massive internal population displacement and exodus that began in 1988 and is still ongoing during the prolonged and intermittent civil war. This review looks at the burden of HIV infection in Somali and the impact of civil war on its epidemiology. Serosurveys have indicated that HIV was not present in Somalia before the civil war and to date Somalia has had an HIV prevalence markedly below that of its neighbours. However, due to the ongoing war HIV sentinel surveillance cannot reach most of the affected areas in Somalia and the current HIV infection problem may be greater than the figures indicate.

  7. [National consensus document by GESIDA/National Aids Plan on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (January 2011 update)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The update of these adult antiretroviral treatment (cART) recommendations has been carried out by consensus of a panel consisting of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (Gesida, AIDS Study Group) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS, Spanish AIDS Plan) who have reviewed the antiretroviral efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented in medical scientific meetings. Three levels of evidence were defined according to the data source: randomized studies (level A), cohort or case-control studies (level B), and expert opinion (level C). The decision to recommend, consider or not to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) was established by consensus in each situation. The current treatment of choice for HIV infection is the combination of three drugs. Combined ART is recommended in patients with symptomatic HIV infection, and guidelines on this treatment in patients with an opportunistic type C infection are included. In asymptomatic patients, initiation of ART is recommended on the basis of CD4 lymphocyte counts, plasma viral load and patient co-morbidities, as follows: a) therapy should be started in patients with CD4 counts cells/μL; b) Therapy should be recommended when CD4 counts are between 350 and 500 cells/μL, except when CD4 are stabilized, there is low plasma viral load, or the patient not willing; c) Therapy could be deferred when CD4 counts are above 500 cells/ μL, but should be considered in cases of cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C, hepatitis B fulfilling treatment criteria, high cardiovascular risk, HIV nephropathy, viral load > 100,000 copies/ mL, proportion of CD4 cells 55 years, and in cases of discordant serological sexual couples in order to reduce transmission. cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nucleoside analogues (AN) and a non-analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NN) or 2 AN and a ritonavir boosted protease

  8. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Y.H. Yap

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV leads to adverse clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTRs because of increased hepatic complications. The use of oral nucleos(tide analogs (NAs has brought the management of HBV infection in RTRs to a new paradigm. Lamivudine (LAM can effectively suppress HBV DNA levels, normalize liver biochemistry, and significantly improve short- and long-term patient survival in HBsAg-positive RTRs. However, it has the burden of high drug resistance. The prevention and management of drug-resistant HBV infection in RTRs has emerged as an important clinical issue. In treatment-naïve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive RTRs, ETV has demonstrated high efficacy, low resistance rates, and favorable tolerability. Entecavir can also significantly improve transaminasemia in LAM-resistant patients, although the virological response is relatively modest in comparison to the virological response in treatment-naïve patients. Adefovir (ADV and tenofovir (TDF are viable options for LAM-resistant HBV infection in RTR; however, their use in patients with moderate to severe allograft dysfunction entails a balance between the potential risk and benefit, the appropriate dose adjustment, and allograft function monitoring for nephrotoxicity. The long-term patient survival of HBsAg-positive RTRs has significantly improved with the progress in these effective antiviral treatments, and is approaching the survival rate of their HBsAg-negative counterparts. Many efficacious options of first-line and rescue therapies are available, but the choice of NA in HBsAg-positive RTR should take into consideration antiviral potency, drug resistance pattern, renal allograft function, and the cost and availability of drugs in different localities.

  9. Demographic patterns and harvest vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected white-tailed deer in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, D.A.; Samuel, M.D.; Langenberg, J.A.; Keane, D.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal disease of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) caused by transmissible protease-resistant prions. Since the discovery of CWD in southern Wisconsin in 2001, more than 20,000 deer have been removed from a >2,500-km2 disease eradication zone surrounding the three initial cases. Nearly all deer removed were tested for CWD infection and sex, age, and harvest location were recorded. Our analysis used data from a 310-km2 core study area where disease prevalence was higher than surrounding areas. We found no difference in harvest rates between CWD infected and noninfected deer. Our results show that the probability of infection increased with age and that adult males were more likely to be infected than adult females. Six fawns tested positive for CWD, five fawns from the core study area, including the youngest (5 months) free-ranging cervid to test positive. The increase in male prevalence with age is nearly twice the increase found in females. We concluded that CWD is not randomly distributed among deer and that differential transmission among sex and age classes is likely driving the observed patterns in disease prevalence. We discuss alternative hypotheses for CWD transmission and spread and, in addition, discuss several possible nonlinear relationships between prevalence and age. Understanding CWD transmission in free-ranging cervid populations will be essential to the development of strategies to manage this disease in areas where CWD is found, as well as for surveillance strategies in areas where CWD threatens to spread.

  10. Multiple immune factors are involved in controlling acute and chronic chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Suan Poo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA.

  11. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  12. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Romani; Seyed Masoud Hosseini; Seyed Reza Mohebbi; Shabnam Kazemian; Shaghayegh Derakhshani; Mahsa Khanyaghma; Pedram Azimzadeh; Afsaneh Sharifian; Mohammad Reza Zali

    2014-01-01

    Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16) cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis. We genotyped three single nuc...

  13. Dysfunction of peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Sheng Wang1; Li-He Xing; Ming-Xu Liu; Cnuan-Lin Zhu; Hui-Gang Liu; Hui- Fen Wang; Zhou-Yun Lei

    2001-01-01

    AIM To identify the property of dendritic cella (DCs) of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) in patlents with chronic HBV infection. METHODS Twenty patients with persistent HBV infectlon were included in this study, 10 healthy subjects being used as a control group. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T cell-depleted populations were incubated and induced into mature dendritic cells in the RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of cytokines GMCSF, IL-4, FLt-3, TNF-α and 100 mL@ L-1 of fetal calf serum for a total of 10 - 12 days. The expressions of surface markers on DCs were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis. ELISA method was used to determine the cytokine levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 in the supernatant produced by DCs. For detection of the stimulatory capacity of DCs to T cell proliferation,mytomycin C-treated DC were incubated with allogenic T cells. RESULTS A typical morphology of mature DCs from healthy subjects and HBV-infected patients was induced in in vitro incubation, but the proliferation ability and cellular number of DCs from HBV-infected patients significantly decreased compared with healthy individuals. In particular, the expression levels of HLADR, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) on DC surface from patients were also lower than that from healthy individuals (0.46 vs 0.92 for HLA-DR, 0.44 vs 0.88 for CD80 and 0.44 vs 0. 84 for CD86, P< 0.05). The stimulatory capacity and production of IL-12 of DCs from patients in allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) significantly decreased, but the production level of nitric oxide (NO) by DCa simultaneously increased compared with healthy subjects (86± 15 vs 170±22 μmoI@L 1, P<0.05). CONCLUSION The patients with chronic HBV infection have the defective function and immature phenotype of dendritic cells, which may be associated with the inability of efficient presentation of HBV antigens to host immune system for the clearance of HBV.

  14. Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptoms

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    Aghokeng Avelin F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the evolution of natural SIV infection in chimpanzees (SIVcpz and on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, the natural reservoir of the ancestors of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we report a case of naturally-acquired SIVcpz infection in a P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee with clinical and biological data and analysis of viral evolution over the course of infection. Results A male chimpanzee (Cam155, 1.5 years, was seized in southern Cameroon in November 2003 and screened SIV positive during quarantine. Clinical follow-up and biological analyses have been performed for 7 years and showed a significant decline of CD4 counts (1,380 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 287 in 2009, a severe thrombocytopenia (130,000 cells/mm3 in 2004 vs 5,000 cells/mm3 in 2009, a weight loss of 21.8% from August 2009 to January 2010 (16 to 12.5 kg and frequent periods of infections with diverse pathogens. DNA from PBMC, leftover from clinical follow-up samples collected in 2004 and 2009, was used to amplify overlapping fragments and sequence two full-length SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 genomes. SIVcpzPtt-Cam155 was phylogenetically related to other SIVcpzPtt from Cameroon (SIVcpzPtt-Cam13 and Gabon (SIVcpzPtt-Gab1. Ten molecular clones 5 years apart, spanning the V1V4 gp120 env region (1,100 bp, were obtained. Analyses of the env region showed positive selection (dN-dS >0, intra-host length variation and extensive amino acid diversity between clones, greater in 2009. Over 5 years, N-glycosylation site frequency significantly increased (p Conclusions Here, we describe for the first time the clinical history and viral evolution of a naturally SIV infected P.t.troglodytes chimpanzee. The findings show an increasing viral diversity over time and suggest clinical progression to an AIDS-like disease, showing that

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in the pharynx of patients with chronic pharyngitis detected with TDT-FP and modified Giemsa stain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Ping Zhang; Zhen-Hui Peng; Ju Zhang; Xiang-Hong Zhang; Qing Yin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect whether there is Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) colonization in the pharynx mucous membrane of healthy people and whether chronic pharyngitis is related to H pylori infection.METHODS: Fifty cases of chronic pharyngitis refractory over three months were prospectively studied from Match 2004 to August 2004 in the otolaryngology outpatient department of the Second Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Template-directed dye-terminator incorporated with fluorescence polarization detection (TDI-FP) and modified Giemsa stain were used to examine pharynx mucous membrane tissue for H pylori colonization in the patients with chronic pharyngitis and the healthy people as a control group.RESULTS: In the control group, no people were detected to have H pylori in the pharynx. In contrast, in 50cases with chronic pharyngitis, 19 (38.0%) cases were H pylori positive with a TDI-FP assay and 4 (8%) cases were TDI-FP positive with Giemsa staining in the pharynx. Sixteen of the 50 pharyngitis cases had stomach ailment history, 11 cases (68.8%) of these 16 patients were determined to be H pylori positive in the pharynx with the TDI-FP assay. x2 test showed that this infection rate was remarkably higher (P= 0.0007) than that in the cases without stomach ailment history. Giemsa staining showed that 3 cases (18.8%) of the patients with stomach ailment history were infected with H pylori in the pharynx, which was remarkably higher (P =0.042) than that in the patients without stomach ailment history (1case, which was 2.9%).CONCLUSION: H pylori may not be detected in the pharynx of healthy people. Chronic pharyngitis may be related to H pylori infection. The infection rate with H pylori in the pharynx is higher in patients with stomach ailment histories than in patients without stomach ailment histories, suggesting that chronic pharyngitis may be related to stomach ailment history.

  16. INFLATED PROBABILITY MODEL FOR RISK OF VULNERABILITY TO HIV/AIDS INFECTION AMONG FEMALE MIGRANTS

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    Himanshu Pandey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned in the development of the probability model which is based onthe risk of sexual transmitted infection for the number of close boy friends to describe thedistribution of single unmarried female migrants. The parameters involve in the model areestimated. The application of the model is illustrated through real data.

  17. Chronic parasitic infection maintains high frequencies of short-lived Ly6C+CD4+ effector T cells that are required for protection against re-infection.

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    Nathan C Peters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the ability of long-lived CD8(+ memory T cells to mediate protection against systemic viral infections, the relationship between CD4(+ T cell memory and acquired resistance against infectious pathogens remains poorly defined. This is especially true for T helper 1 (Th1 concomitant immunity, in which protection against reinfection coincides with a persisting primary infection. In these situations, pre-existing effector CD4 T cells generated by ongoing chronic infection, not memory cells, may be essential for protection against reinfection. We present a systematic study of the tissue homing properties, functionality, and life span of subsets of memory and effector CD4 T cells activated in the setting of chronic Leishmania major infection in resistant C57Bl/6 mice. We found that pre-existing, CD44(+CD62L(-T-bet(+Ly6C+ effector (T(EFF cells that are short-lived in the absence of infection and are not derived from memory cells reactivated by secondary challenge, mediate concomitant immunity. Upon adoptive transfer and challenge, non-dividing Ly6C(+ T(EFF cells preferentially homed to the skin, released IFN-γ, and conferred protection as compared to CD44(+CD62L(-Ly6C(- effector memory or CD44(+CD62L(+Ly6C(- central memory cells. During chronic infection, Ly6C(+ T(EFF cells were maintained at high frequencies via reactivation of T(CM and the T(EFF themselves. The lack of effective vaccines for many chronic diseases may be because protection against infectious challenge requires the maintenance of pre-existing T(EFF cells, and is therefore not amenable to conventional, memory inducing, vaccination strategies.

  18. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

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    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  19. Evidence of protection against clinical and chronic hepatitis B infection 20 years after infant vaccination in a high endemicity region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovorawan, Y; Chongsrisawat, V; Theamboonlers, A; Leroux-Roels, G; Kuriyakose, S; Leyssen, M; Jacquet, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) immediately after birth prevents neonatal infection by vertical transmission from HBV carrier mothers. There is an ongoing debate whether infant vaccination is sufficient to protect against infection when exposed to HBV later in life. We studied 222 Thai infants born to HBsAg -/+ and HBeAg -/+ mothers who were vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-12 months of age. A subset of 100 subjects received a booster dose at age 5 years. Blood samples collected yearly for 20 years were examined for anti-HBs antibodies and serological markers of hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc, HBsAg, and in selected cases HBeAg, anti-HBe, HBV DNA). During the 20-year follow-up, no subject acquired new chronic HBV infection or clinical hepatitis B disease. During the first decade, possible subclinical breakthrough HBV infection (anti-HBc seroconversion) was only observed in subjects born to HBsAg +/HBeAg + mothers (6/49 [12.2%]). During the second decade, breakthrough HBV infections were detected in all groups (18/140 [12.8%]). Increases in anti-HBs concentrations that were unrelated to additional HBV vaccination or infection were detected in approximately 10% of subjects in each decade. Primary infant vaccination with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical disease and new chronic hepatitis B infection despite confirmed hepatitis B exposure. PMID:20384962

  20. A Standardized Algorithm for Determining the Underlying Cause of Death in HIV Infection as AIDS or non-AIDS Related: Results from the EuroSIDA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  1. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

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    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  2. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Level of Serum Testosterone in Males with Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

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    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of animals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmosis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Center were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365 as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05.The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.

  3. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: mechanistic insights into chronic disturbances following enteric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Bhargava, Amol; Buret, Andre G

    2014-04-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a commonly encountered chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Approximately 10% of IBS patients can trace the onset of their symptoms to a previous a bout of infectious dysentery. The appearance of new IBS symptoms following an infectious event is defined as post-infectious-IBS. Indeed, with the World Health Organization estimating between 2 and 4 billion cases annually, infectious diarrheal disease represents an incredible international healthcare burden. Additionally, compounding evidence suggests many commonly encountered enteropathogens as unique triggers behind IBS symptom generation and underlying pathophysiological features. A growing body of work provides evidence supporting a role for pathogen-mediated modifications in the resident intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier integrity, effector cell functions, and innate and adaptive immune features, all proposed physiological manifestations that can underlie GI abnormalities in IBS. Enteric pathogens must employ a vast array of machinery to evade host protective immune mechanisms, and illicit successful infections. Consequently, the impact of infectious events on host physiology can be multidimensional in terms of anatomical location, functional scope, and duration. This review offers a unique discussion of the mechanisms employed by many commonly encountered enteric pathogens that cause acute disease, but may also lead to the establishment of chronic GI dysfunction compatible with IBS. PMID:24744587

  4. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

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    Rhoads Daniel D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in markedly different results being reported to clinicians. This study compares the results of aerobic culturing and molecular testing (culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and it examines the relative abundance score that is generated by the molecular test and the usefulness of the relative abundance score in predicting the likelihood that the same organism would be detected by culture. Methods Parallel samples from 51 chronic wounds were studied using aerobic culturing and 16S DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. Results One hundred forty-five (145 unique genera were identified using molecular methods, and 68 of these genera were aerotolerant. Fourteen (14 unique genera were identified using aerobic culture methods. One-third (31/92 of the cultures were determined to be Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis with higher relative abundance scores were more likely to be detected by culture as demonstrated with regression modeling. Conclusion Discordance between molecular and culture testing is often observed. However, culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and its relative abundance score can provide clinicians with insight into which bacteria are most abundant in a sample and which are most likely to be detected by culture.

  5. [Vulnerability of women in common-law marriage to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS: a study of social representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Larissa Silva Abreu; Paiva, Mirian Santos; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; da Nóbrega, Sheva Maia

    2012-04-01

    This article discusses the social representations of women living in common-law marriage in terms of their vulnerability to becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained through the free association of words, and consisted of an excerpt of a study founded on the Social Representations Theory developed with HIV-negative women living in the state capital and cities in the interior of Bahia. The correspondence factor analysis showed significance for the variables: origin, education level and time spent in common-law marriage. Their acceptance of marital affairs emerged as a vulnerability factor for respondents with one to five years spent in common-law marriage, living in cities in the interior. Women from the capital, with 6-10 years spent in common-law marriage, reported monogamy as a form of prevention. Women with a longer common-law marriage who had completed only a primary education reported feeling invulnerable, which was the opposite of those with one to five years in common-law marriage with a secondary education. Results show there is a need for more interventions aiming to denaturalize the socio-cultural coercions that generate representations and make women in common-law marriages more vulnerable to AIDS.

  6. A STUDY ON ADJUVANT HEAD CORING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LONGITUDINAL PANCREATICOJEJUNOSTOMY AND ITS AID IN PAIN REDUCTION IN CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

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    Sudhansu Sekhar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The condition manifests as recurrent intractable abdominal pain. 1 This is the most important indication for surgical procedures. The pain is caused by increased pancreatic parenchymal and ductal pressure. Another cause is that chronic inflammation of the pancreas may lead to fibrosis of the peripancreatic capsule and perilobular parenchyma, which impairs local and regional blood flow, therefore causing pain through tissue ischaemia and acidosis. 2 This is the rationalisation behind adding the head coring to the decompression surgeries that had been classically in practice. METHODS This is a retrospective study. The study period spans over from January 2003 to December 2013, which is a 10-year period. Patients with intractable and non-relenting abdominal pain and a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis with evidence of fibrosis of head of pancreas in imaging studies were included. 35 patients were randomly allocated for Head coring and LPJ by lottery method. The patients were analysed for duration of surgery, hospital stay, operative/postoperative complications and assessment of postoperative pain relief. Pain relief was assessed as complete (No analgesic required, satisfactory (Tolerable pain with normal daily activities and unsatisfactory (Hospitalisation and hampered daily activities. RESULTS Alcohol consumption (65.71% was the main cause of pancreatitis in the study group, followed by gallstones (14.28% and idiopathic (20% cause. Head coring (120 minutes takes a median operative time of 30 minutes more when done adjuvant to LPJ (90 minutes. Incidence of complications were comparable in both the surgeries. The common complications of prolonged ileus and wound infection are in the percentage of 12.5% in only LPJ and 15.78% in adjuvant head coring surgeries. Pain relief was good when the complete and satisfactory groups were compared. But there is not much of difference in unsatisfactory group comparison. CONCLUSION A 30 minutes

  7. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Bak Holm

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes.

  9. A Nationwide Survey of Hepatitis E Virus Infection and Chronic Hepatitis E in Liver Transplant Recipients in Japan

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    Yuki Inagaki

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: The prevalence of HEV antibodies in liver transplant recipients was 2.9%, which is low compared with the healthy population in Japan and with organ transplant recipients in European countries; however, the present study found, for the first time, two Japanese patients with chronic HEV infection that was acquired via blood transfusion during or after liver transplantation.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H; Song, Z; Givskov, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal-generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared...

  11. Production of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones by P. aeruginosa isolates from chronic lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisenberger, O; Givskov, M; Riedel, K;

    2000-01-01

    The N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by sequential Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from chronically infected patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. It is demonstrated that both the amounts and the types of molecules synthesized by isolates from...

  12. Inhibition of protease-resistant prion protein formation in a transformed deer cell line infected with chronic wasting disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymond, G.J.; Olsen, E.A.; Lee, K.S.; Raymond, L.D.; Bryant, P.K.; Baron, G.S.; Caughey, W.S.; Kocisko, D.A.; McHolland, L.E.; Favara, C.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Mayer, R.T.; Miller, M.W.; Williams, E.S.; Caughey, B.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of North American cervids, i.e., mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk (wapiti). To facilitate in vitro studies of CWD, we have developed a transformed deer cell line that is persistently infected wi

  13. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood: an unusual cause of recurrent uncommon infections in a 61-year-old man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Isman-Nelkenbaum; B. Wolach; R. Gavrieli; D. Roos; E. Sprecher; E. Bash; A. Gat; H. Sprecher; R. Ben-Ami; T. Zeeli

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that affects 1 : 250 000 of the population, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and by granuloma formation. We investigated a 61-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a relapsing skin

  14. Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms Are Considerable Host Genetic Factors for Patients’ Susceptibility to Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

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    Sara Romani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Host genetic background is known as an important factor in patients’ susceptibility to infectious diseases such as viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-16 (IL-16 cytokine on susceptibility of hepatitis B virus (HBV infected patients to develop chronic HBV infection. Genotyping was conducted using PCR followed by enzymatic digestion and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Il-16 gene (rs11556218 T>G, rs4778889 T>C, and rs4072111 C>T to test for relationship between variation at these loci and patients’ susceptibility to chronic HBV infection. Allele frequency of Il-16 gene rs4072111 and rs11556218 was significantly different between chronic HBV patients and healthy blood donors. Genotype frequency of rs4778889 polymorphism of Il-16 gene was significantly different when chronic HBV patients and HBV clearance subjects were compared. Our results showed that Il-16 gene polymorphisms are considerable host genetic factors when we chase biomarkers for prognosis of HBV infected patients.

  15. Evolution and diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the paranasal sinuses of cystic fibrosis children have implications for chronic lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Rau, Martin Holm; Johansen, Helle Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent colonizer of the airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Depending on early treatment regimens, the colonization will, with high probability, develop into chronic infections sooner or later, and it is important to es...

  16. Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Ewings, Fiona M; Porter, Kholoud;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). DESIGN: Two populations with protocol-in...

  17. Chronic Trichuris muris infection decreases diversity of the intestinal microbiota and concomitantly increases the abundance of lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia;

    2015-01-01

    microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal...