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Sample records for aided lateral crystallization

  1. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  2. Lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong-Da; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Han Li-Hong; Liu Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite element method, this paper investigates lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in a pho-tonic crystal fibre of hexagonal symmetry. The results of simulation show the strong stress dependence of effective index of the fundamental guided mode, phase modal birefringence and confinement loss. It also finds that the contribution of the geometrical effect that is related only to deformation of the photonic crystal fibre and the stress-related contribution to phase modal birefringence and confinement loss are entirely different. Furthermore, polarization-dependent stress sensitivity of confinement loss is proposed in this paper.

  3. Lateral IBIC characterization of single crystal synthetic diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, A Lo; Manfredotti, C; Marinelli, M; Milani, E; Picollo, F; Prestopino, G; Re, A; Rigato, V; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the charge collection efficiency (CCE) profile of single-crystal diamond devices based on a p type/intrinsic/metal configuration, a lateral Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) analysis was performed over their cleaved cross sections using a 2 MeV proton microbeam. CCE profiles in the depth direction were extracted from the cross-sectional maps at variable bias voltage. IBIC spectra relevant to the depletion region extending beneath the frontal Schottky electrode show a 100% CCE, with a spectral resolution of about 1.5%. The dependence of the width of the high efficiency region from applied bias voltage allows the constant residual doping concentration of the active region to be evaluated. The region where the electric field is absent shows an exponentially decreasing CCE profile, from which it is possible to estimate the diffusion length of the minority carriers by means of a drift-diffusion model.

  4. Al-induced Lateral Crystallization of Amorphous Si Thin Films by Microwave Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Rui; XU Zhong-yang; ZENG Xiang-bing

    2002-01-01

    Al-induced lateral crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films by microwave annealing is investigated. The crystallized Si films are examined by optical microscopy , Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron diffraction micrography. After microwave annealing at 480 ℃ for 50 min,the amorphous Si is completely crystallized with large grains of main ( 111 ) orientation. The rate of lateral crystallization is 0.04μm/min. This process, labeled MILC-MA, not only lowers the temperature but also reduces the time of crystallization. The crystallization mechanism during microwave annealing and the electrical properties of polycrystalline Si thin films are analyzed. This MILC-MA process has potential applications in large area electronics.

  5. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Song, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Ducharme, Stephen; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-04-13

    Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a p-i-n structure.

  6. Control of lateral divergence in high-power, broad-area photonic crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiamin; Xing, Enbo; Wang, Lijie; Shu, Shili; Tian, Sicong; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) lasers have demonstrated ultra-low vertical divergence and record brightness; however, their future development is limited by their lateral beam quality. In this paper, a fishbone microstructure is proposed to control the lateral modes in broad-area PBC lasers. The findings reveal that the introduction of the microstructure improves the full width at half maximum of the lateral far field by 22.2% and increases the output power to a small extent. The detailed measurements show that the lateral beam parameter product decreases by 15.9%.

  7. Enhanced Au induced lateral crystallization in electron-irradiated amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Shin; Kaneko, Takahiro; Ootsubo, Takanobu; Sakai, Takatsugu; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Moto, Kenta; Yoneoka, Masashi; Takakura, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Isao, E-mail: isao_tsunoda@kumamoto-nct.ac.jp

    2014-04-30

    We have investigated the low temperature of Au induced lateral crystallization of electron irradiated amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The reduction of the critical annealing time to cause the Au induced lateral crystallization is realized by high energy electron irradiation. In addition, the lateral crystallization region of the sample with electron irradiation has high crystalline quality as well as the sample without electron irradiation. We have speculated that the Au induced lateral crystallization of amorphous Ge on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate was enhanced by electron irradiation, due to the introduction of point defects into amorphous Ge able to diffuse easily of Au atoms. - Highlights: • Au induced lateral crystallization of electron irradiated Ge is investigated. • Crystallization annealing time is significantly reduced. • High crystalline quality of lateral region was not changed by electron irradiation.

  8. Computer aided diagnosis and localization of lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy using interictal FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Thomas Kerr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interictal FDG-PET (iPET is a core tool for localizing the epileptogenic focus, potentially before structural MRI, that does not require rare and transient epileptiform discharges or seizures on EEG. The visual interpretation of iPET is challenging and requires years of epilepsy-specific expertise. We have developed an automated computer-aided diagnostic (CAD tool that has the potential to work both independent of and synergistically with expert analysis. Our tool operates on distributed metabolic changes across the whole brain measured by iPET to both diagnose and lateralize temporal lobe epilepsy. When diagnosing left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE or right TLE (RTLE versus non-epileptic seizures (NES, our accuracy in reproducing the results of the gold standard long term video-EEG monitoring was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 69-90% or 88% (95% CI 76-94%, respectively. The classifier that both diagnosed and lateralized the disease had overall accuracy of 76% (95% CI 66-84%, where 89% (95% CI 77-96% of patients correctly identified with epilepsy were correctly lateralized. When identifying LTLE, our CAD tool utilized metabolic changes across the entire brain. By contrast, only temporal regions and the right frontal lobe cortex, were needed to identify RTLE accurately, a finding consistent with clinical observations and indicative of a potential pathophysiological difference between RTLE and LTLE. The goal of CADs is to complement—not replace—expert analysis. In our dataset, the accuracy of manual analysis of iPET (~80% was similar to CAD. The square correlation between our CAD tool and manual analysis, however, was only 30%, indicating that our CAD tool does not recreate manual analysis. The addition of clinical information to our CAD, however, did not substantively change performance. These results suggest that automated analysis might provide clinically valuable information to focus treatment more effectively.

  9. Protein Crystal Growth With the Aid of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Protein crystallography is one of three well-known methods to obtain the structure of proteins. A major rate limiting step in protein crystallography is protein crystal nucleation and growth, which is still largely a process conducted by trial-and-error methods. Many attempts have been made to improve protein crystal growth by performing growth in microgravity. Although the use of microgravity appears to improve crystal quality in some attempts, this method has been inefficient because several reasons: we lack a fundamental understanding of macromolecular crystal growth in general and of the influence of microgravity in particular, we have to start with crystal growth conditions in microgravity based on conditions on the ground and finally the hardware does not allow for experimental iteration without reloading samples on the ground. To partially accommodate the disadvantages of the current hardware, we have used microfluidic technology (Lab-on-a-Chip devices) to design the concept of a more efficient crystallization device, suitable for use on the International Space Station and in high-throughput applications on the ground. The concept and properties of microfluidics, the application design process, and the advances in protein crystal growth hardware will be discussed in this presentation. Some examples of proteins crystallized in the new hardware will be discussed, including the differences between conventional crystallization versus crystallization in microfluidics.

  10. A computer-aided molecular design framework for crystallization solvent design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Achenie, Luke E.K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    One of the key decisions in designing solution crystallization processes is the selection of solvents. In this paper, we present a computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) framework for the design and selection of solvents and/or anti-solvents for solution crystallization. The CAMD problem...... solvent molecules. Solvent design and selection for two types of solution crystallization processes namely cooling crystallization and drowning out crystallization are presented. In the first case study, the design of single compound solvent for crystallization of ibuprofen, which is an important...... pharmaceutical compound, is addressed. One of the important issues namely, the effect of solvent on the shape of ibuprofen crystals is also considered in the MINLP model. The second case study is a mixture design problem where an optimal solvent/anti-solvent mixture is designed for crystallization of ibuprofen...

  11. Crystal doping aided by rapid expansion of supercritical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemavarapu, Chandra; Mollan, Matthew J; Needham, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the utility of rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) based cocrystallizations in inducing polymorph conversion and crystal disruption of chlorpropamide (CPD). CPD crystals were recrystallized by the RESS process utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent. The supercritical region investigated for solute extraction ranged from 45 to 100 degrees C and 2000 to 8000 psi. While pure solute recrystallization formed stage I of these studies, stage II involved recrystallization of CPD in the presence of urea (model impurity). The composition, morphology, and crystallinity of the particles thus produced were characterized utilizing techniques such as microscopy, thermal analysis, x-ray powder diffractometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Also, comparative evaluation between RESS and evaporative crystallization from liquid solvents was performed. RESS recrystallizations of commercially available CPD (form A) resulted in polymorph conversion to metastable forms C and V, depending on the temperature and pressure of the recrystallizing solvent. Cocrystallization studies revealed the formation of eutectic mixtures and solid solutions of CPD + urea. Formation of the solid solutions resulted in the crystal disruption of CPD and subsequent amorphous conversion at urea levels higher than 40% wt/wt. Consistent with these results were the reductions in melting point (up to 9 degrees C) and in the DeltaH(f) values of CPD (up to 50%). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a particle size reduction of up to an order of magnitude upon RESS processing. Unlike RESS, recrystallizations from liquid organic solvents lacked the ability to affect polymorphic conversions. Also, the incorporation of urea into the lattice of CPD was found to be inadequate. In providing the ability to control both the particle and crystal morphologies of active pharmaceutical ingredients, RESS proved potentially advantageous to crystal

  12. Thermocapillary instabilities with crystal and feed rod rotation in laterally heated liquid bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Laurent Martin; Kahouadji, Lyes; Walker, John S.

    2006-11-01

    Rotation is involved in many industrial processes for crystal growth. The main reason is that heating is usually not uniform in the azimuthal direction. A drawback (or advantage) of rotation is that it modifies the flow originating from thermal or electromagnetic sources. In the needle-eye float-zone process, the optimum angular velocity of the feed rod and crystal is found empirically. The ratio of these velocities is often negative but not always. Early numerical studies focused on the baseflow of the melt and were restricted to axisymmetry. The main finding is that when rotation is large enough the flow is confined toward the periphery as a result of Taylor column effect. More recent research is devoted to the stability of thermocapillary convection to tridimensional disturbances either by direct numerical simulations or by linear analysis but few relate to the effect of rotation. In order to have a better understanding of the effect of rotation rate on the critical Marangoni number for a laterally heated liquid bridge, we have studied the stability of tridimensional perturbation by a linear analysis for various angular velocity ratio. The competition between different azimuthal modes has been explored and some interpretations are given.

  13. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  14. Effect of MSi{sub 2}/Si(111) (M = Co, Ni) interface structure on metal induced lateral crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Ji-Su [Nano Device Lab., Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143–747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeo-Geon [Samsung Display Co., Ltd., Nongseo-dong, Kiheung, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446–920 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Deok-kee, E-mail: deokkeekim@sejong.ac.kr [Nano Device Lab., Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143–747 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seung-Ki [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56–1, Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151–742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-02

    MSi{sub 2}/Si(111) (M = Co, Ni) crystallographic interface structure influenced metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) significantly. MILC growth with Ni, wherein only half the Si atoms in NiSi{sub 2} are required to change positions, was preferred to that with Co, where all the Si atoms in CoSi{sub 2} are required to change positions, which was corroborated by the experimental result. In case of pure Ni, unidirectional growth of the MILC needlelike grain at the front of MILC region became dominant and the bi-directional division was restrained. The so-called “Ni ion Ni vacancy hopping model” was modified by adding metal atom migration into the a-Si region, before Si atom adsorption at the MSi{sub 2}/a-Si interface. - Highlights: • Effect of MSi{sub 2}/Si (M = Co, Ni) interface structure on crystallization was examined. • Ni-induced lateral crystallization rate was retarded by Co addition significantly. • Only half the Si atoms in NiSi{sub 2} change positions during crystallization. • All the Si atoms in CoSi{sub 2} are required to change positions during crystallization.

  15. Crystal Tilts in Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Films Determined by Four-Circle X-Ray Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪峰; 张荣; 陈志忠; 吴小山; 顾书林; 沈波; 郑有堃; 蒋树声

    2001-01-01

    Crystal tilts in epitaxially laterally overgrown (ELO) GaN films via hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) onsapphire substrates have been investigated by using the four-circle x-ray diffraction method. Three diffractionpeaks corresponding to the (0002) reflection of vertically epitaxial and tilted GaN domains are observable in thex-ray rocking curve. The angle separations △ω between the main peak and two lobes change with the azimuthangle φ. The dependence of △ω on φ and the crystal tilt angle θ has been calculated based on the standardkinetic x-ray diffraction model. The crystal tilt angle of a typical HVPE ELO GaN sample has been determinedto be 2.379°.

  16. Leakage Current Suppression on Metal-Induced Laterally Crystallized Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Transistors by Asymmetrically Deposited Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Chang Woo; Son, Se Wan; Lee, Yong Woo; Hyo Park, Jae; Vakilipour Takaloo, Ashkan; Joo, Seung Ki

    2013-10-01

    The electrical performance of low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) is greatly affected by metal catalyst contaminations, such as Ni and Ni silicide trapped in the channel, since they concentrate in front of laterally grown crystallites. In the present work, the effect of the MILC/MILC boundary (MMB) on MILC polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is investigated by the comparison of MILC poly-Si TFTs with MMB at the center of the channel, and equivalent TFTs with MMB at a position ejected from the channel. The MMB location was controlled by the Ni catalyst position. Both a low off-state leakage current and a free from short channel effect (kink effect) were observed in high electric-field conditions. Furthermore, the field-effect mobility and drain current noise were drastically improved by ejecting the MILC boundary in the source direction.

  17. Seed Crystal Homogeneity Controls Lateral and Vertical Heteroepitaxy of Monolayer MoS2 and WS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Youngdong; Degregorio, Zachary P; Johns, James E

    2015-11-18

    Heteroepitaxy between transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers can fabricate atomically thin semiconductor heterojunctions without interfacial contamination, which are essential for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report a controllable two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for lateral and vertical heteroepitaxy between monolayer WS2 and MoS2 on a c-cut sapphire substrate. Lateral and vertical heteroepitaxy can be selectively achieved by carefully controlling the growth of MoS2 monolayers that are used as two-dimensional (2D) seed crystals. Using hydrogen as a carrier gas, we synthesize ultraclean MoS2 monolayers, which enable lateral heteroepitaxial growth of monolayer WS2 from the MoS2 edges to create atomically coherent and sharp in-plane WS2/MoS2 heterojunctions. When no hydrogen is used, we obtain MoS2 monolayers decorated with small particles along the edges, inducing vertical heteroepitaxial growth of monolayer WS2 on top of the MoS2 to form vertical WS2/MoS2 heterojunctions. Our lateral and vertical atomic layer heteroepitaxy steered by seed defect engineering opens up a new route toward atomically controlled fabrication of 2D heterojunction architectures. PMID:26488069

  18. The potential of computed crystal energy landscapes to aid solid-form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah L; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Solid-form screening to identify all solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) has become increasingly important in ensuring the quality by design of pharmaceutical products and their manufacturing processes. However, despite considerable enlargement of the range of techniques that have been shown capable of producing novel solid forms, it is possible that practically important forms might not be found in the short timescales currently allowed for solid-form screening. Here, we report on the state-of-the-art use of computed crystal energy landscapes to complement pharmaceutical solid-form screening. We illustrate how crystal energy landscapes can help establish molecular-level understanding of the crystallization behavior of APIs and enhance the ability of solid-form screening to facilitate pharmaceutical development. PMID:26851154

  19. Data Mining-Aided Crystal Engineering for the Design of Transparent Conducting Oxides: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, C.; Kim, K.; Berry, J. J.; Lee, J.; Jones, W. B.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to accelerate the pace of material discovery processes by systematically visualizing the huge search space that conventionally needs to be explored. To this end, we demonstrate not only the use of empirical- or crystal chemistry-based physical intuition for decision-making, but also to utilize knowledge-based data mining methodologies in the context of finding p-type delafossite transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). We report on examples using high-dimensional visualizations such as radial visualization combined with machine learning algorithms such as k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN) to better define and visualize the search space (i.e. structure maps) of functional materials design. The vital role of search space generated from these approaches is discussed in the context of crystal chemistry of delafossite crystal structure.

  20. Structural Characterization of Lateral-grown 6H-SiC am-plane Seed Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Spry, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) power devices is limited due to inherently high density of screw dislocations (SD), which are necessary for maintaining polytype during boule growth and commercially viable growth rates. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently proposed a new bulk growth process based on axial fiber growth (parallel to the c-axis) followed by lateral expansion (perpendicular to the c-axis) for producing multi-faceted m-plane SiC boules that can potentially produce wafers with as few as one SD per wafer. In order to implement this novel growth technique, the lateral homoepitaxial growth expansion of a SiC fiber without introducing a significant number of additional defects is critical. Lateral expansion is being investigated by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) growth of 6H-SiC am-plane seed crystals (0.8mm x 0.5mm x 15mm) designed to replicate axially grown SiC single crystal fibers. The post-growth crystals exhibit hexagonal morphology with approximately 1500 m (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Preliminary analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms that the growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed crystal. Axial and transverse sections from the as grown crystal samples were characterized in detail by a combination of SWBXT, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy to map defect types and distribution. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the seed crystal contained stacking disorders and this appears to have been reproduced in the lateral growth sections. Analysis of the relative intensity for folded transverse acoustic (FTA) and optical (FTO) modes on the Raman spectra indicate the existence of stacking faults. Further, the density of stacking faults is higher in the seed than in the grown crystal. Bundles of dislocations are observed propagating from the seed in m-axis lateral directions

  1. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous-Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, comple...

  2. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous−Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; (UC)

    2009-11-04

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, complementary to current SAM and lipid methods, for rapidly generating mobile, functionalized SAMs. This method relies on plugs, droplets surrounded by a fluorous carrier fluid, to rapidly explore chemical space. Specifically, we implemented his-tag binding chemistry to design a new fluorinated amphiphile, RfNTA, using an improved one-step synthesis of RfOEG under Mitsunobu conditions. RfNTA introduces specific binding of protein at the fluorous-aqueous interface, which concentrates and orients proteins at the interface, even in the presence of other surfactants. We then applied this approach to the crystallization of a his-tagged membrane protein, Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, performed 2400 crystallization trials, and showed that this approach can increase the range of crystal-producing conditions, the success rate at a given condition, the rate of nucleation, and the quality of the crystal formed.

  3. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  4. Progress of p-channel bottom-gate poly-Si thin-film transistor by nickel silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sol Kyu; Seok, Ki Hwan; Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Chae, Hee Jae; Jang, Gil Su; Lee, Yong Hee; Han, Ji Su; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-06-01

    Excimer laser annealing (ELA) is known to be the most common crystallization technology for the fabrication of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) in the mass production industry. This technology, however, cannot be applied to bottom-gate (BG) TFTs, which are well developed for the liquid-crystal display (LCD) back-planes, because strong laser energy of ELA can seriously damage the other layers. Here, we propose a novel high-performance BG poly-Si TFT using Ni silicide seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC). The SILC technology renders it possible to ensure low damage in the layers, smooth surface, and longitudinal large grains in the channel. It was observed that the electrical properties exhibited a steep subthreshold slope of 110 mV/dec, high field-effect mobility of 304 cm2/Vsec, high I on/ I off ratio of 5.9 × 107, and a low threshold voltage of -3.9 V.

  5. High-performance poly-Si thin film transistors with highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films using double line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Masayuki; Kuroki, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kotani, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Highly biaxially oriented poly-Si thin films were formed by double-line beam continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization (DLB-CLC). The crystallinities of the DLB-CLC poly-Si thin films were (110), (111), and (211) for the laser scan, transverse, and surface directions, respectively, and an energetically stable Σ3 grain boundary was observed to be dominant. All silicon grains were elongated in the laser scan direction and one-dimensionally very large silicon grains with lengths of more than 100 µm were fabricated. Using these biaxially oriented polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films, low-temperature poly-Si TFTs (LTPS-TFTs) were fabricated at low temperatures (≦550 °C) by a metal gate self-aligned process. As a result, a TFT with a high electron field effect mobility of μFE = 450 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a linear region was realized.

  6. Electrical characterization of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors crystallized by a new alignment sequential lateral solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conventional sequential lateral solidification (SLS) method for polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors (poly-Si TFTs), as a starting process in general, one just performs a basic pre-alignment of the substrate on the stage and applies laser irradiation for a whole substrate area scan. Therefore, each thin-film transistor (TFT) has different grain boundary (GB) locations in a corresponding channel region. The number of GBs in the channel also varies from one to two, which can give rise to electrically non-uniform TFT characteristics and an image quality deterioration of the panel. We developed a new alignment SLS method for controlling the GB location in the TFT channel region, allowing us to locate the GB at the same position in the channel region of each TFT. We fabricated TFT by applying the new alignment SLS process and compared the TFT electrical characteristics between a normal SLS method and the new one. We also analyzed degradation phenomena under hot carrier stress conditions for lightly doped drain n-type metal oxide semiconducting field effect transistors.

  7. Crystal Structures of the GCaMP Calcium Sensor Reveal the Mechanism of Fluorescence Signal Change and Aid Rational Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerboom, Jasper; Velez Rivera, Jonathan D.; Rodriguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Hernandez, Hector H.; Tian, Lin; Hires, S. Andrew; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.; (MIT); (Puerto Rico); (HHMI)

    2009-03-16

    The genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 shows promise for neural network activity imaging, but is currently limited by low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe x-ray crystal structures as well as solution biophysical and spectroscopic characterization of GCaMP2 in the calcium-free dark state, and in two calcium-bound bright states: a monomeric form that dominates at intracellular concentrations observed during imaging experiments and an unexpected domain-swapped dimer with decreased fluorescence. This series of structures provides insight into the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+}-induced fluorescence change. Upon calcium binding, the calmodulin (CaM) domain wraps around the M13 peptide, creating a new domain interface between CaM and the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein domain. Residues from CaM alter the chemical environment of the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein chromophore and, together with flexible inter-domain linkers, block solvent access to the chromophore. Guided by the crystal structures, we engineered a series of GCaMP2 point mutants to probe the mechanism of GCaMP2 function and characterized one mutant with significantly improved signal-to-noise. The mutation is located at a domain interface and its effect on sensor function could not have been predicted in the absence of structural data.

  8. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency

  9. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  10. Lateral Growth Expansion of 4H/6H-SiC m-plane Pseudo Fiber Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Powell, J. A.; Spry, David J.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lateral expansion of small mixed polytype 4H/6H-SiC slivers were realized by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Small slivers cut from m-oriented ..11..00.. SiC boule slices containing regions of 4H and 6H SiC were exposed to HWCVD conditions using standard silane/propane chemistry for a period of up to eight hours. The slivers exhibited approximately 1500 microns (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Initial analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms, that the lateral growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed sliver.

  11. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  12. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  13. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  14. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  15. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  16. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  17. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  18. Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  19. Flux-Aided Synthesis of Lu2O3 and Lu2O3:Eu—Single Crystal Structure, Morphology Control and Radioluminescence Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Li2SO4 or (Li2SO4 + SiO2-mixture fluxes were used to prepare a Lu2O3:Eu powder phosphor as well as an undoped Lu2O3 utilizing commercial lutetia and europia as starting reagents. SEM images showed that the fabricated powders were non-agglomerated and the particles sizes varied from single microns to tens of micrometers depending largely on the flux composition rather than the oxide(s-to-flux ratio. In the presence of SiO2 in the flux, certain grains grew up to 300–400 μm. The lack of agglomeration and the large sizes of crystallites allowed making single crystal structural measurements and analysis on an undoped Lu2O3 obtained by means of the flux technique. The cubic structure with a = 10.393(2 Å, and Ia  space group at 298 K was determined. The most efficient radioluminescence of Lu2O3:Eu powders reached 95%–105% of the commercial Gd2O2S:Eu.

  20. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  1. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  2. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. R...

  3. Lateral orientation (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lateral orientation is a position away from the midline of the body. For instance, the arms are lateral to the ... ears are lateral to the head. A medial orientation is a position toward the midline of the ...

  4. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  5. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  6. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet Feature Federal domestic HIV/AIDS information ... Where can I get more information? What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a condition ...

  7. AIDS Epidemiyolojisi

    OpenAIRE

    SÜNTER, A.T.; PEKŞEN, Y.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS was first defined in the United States in 1981. It spreads to nearly all the countries of the world with a great speed and can infect everbody without any differantiation. The infection results in death and there is no cure or vaccine for it, yet. To data given to World Health Organization until July-1994, it is estimated that there are about 1 million patients and about 22 millions HIV positive persons In the world. Sixty percent of HIV positive persons are men and 40% are women. The di...

  8. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can ...

  9. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  10. Percutaienus traisfnramiial eidnscnnic lumbar discectnmy aid fnramiinnlasty ii the treatmeit nf lumbar disc heriiatini aid lateral recess steinsis%经皮椎间孔镜下腰椎间盘髓核摘除术并椎间孔成型术治疗腰椎间盘突出合并侧隐窝狭窄症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启勇; 刘一星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic lumbar discectomy(TESSYS)and foraminoplasty in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation and lateral recess stenosis. Methnds A total of 68 cases of lumbar disc herniation complicated with lat-eral recess stenosis were collected. TESSYS and foraminoplasty techniques were used. The treatment effect was analyzed and followed - up. Re-sults The mean operative time was 57. 8 ± 15. 9 min and blood loss during operation was 39. 3 ± 7. 9 ml. No nerve damage,wound infection,pa-raspinal hematoma and other complications were found. Postoperative VSA score was significantly lower than the preoperative. One month postoper-ative VSA score was significantly lower than 3 days after surgery. Postoperative ODI score was significantly lower than before the surgery. One month postoperative ODI score was significantly lower than 3 days after surgery. Three months postoperative ODI score was significantly lower than one month after surgery. Cniclusini TESSYS for lumbar disc herniation and lateral recess stenosis has less trauma,fewer complications and bet-ter short - term effect,which is worthy of clinical use.%目的:探讨经皮椎间孔镜下腰椎间盘髓核摘除术(TESSYS)并椎间孔成型术治疗腰椎间盘突出合并侧隐窝狭窄症的临床效果。方法选择腰椎间盘突出合并侧隐窝狭窄症患者共68例,采用 TESSYS 与椎间孔成型技术,分析并随访治疗效果。结果平均手术时间(57.8±15.9)min,术中出血量(39.3±7.9)ml,未发现患者存在神经损伤、伤口感染、椎旁血肿等并发症。术后 VSA 评分显著低于术前,且术后1个月 VSA 评分显著低于术后3天。术后 ODI 评分均显著低于术前,术后1个月 ODI 评分显著低于术后3天,术后3个月 ODI 评分显著低于术后1个月。结论 TESSYS并椎间孔成型术治疗腰椎间盘突出症合并侧隐窝狭窄症疗效显著,创伤小,并发

  11. AIDS.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from AIDS.gov Read more AIDS.gov tweets AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  12. Lateral elbow instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Dominic Stracey Clitherow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral elbow stability utilises a combination of bony and soft tissue constraints. Lateral elbow instability is usually associated with an episode of elbow dislocation. Isolated lateral ligament complex insufficiency results in posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI, The most common presentation is lateral elbow discomfort and a sensation of instability, without recurrent dislocation. The lateral pivot shift test is unreliable for diagnosing PLRI when the patient is awake due to significant apprehension. Stress radiographs, fluoroscopy, computed tomography and arthroscopy are all useful investigations to confirm the diagnosis of lateral instability. Surgical treatment is indicated for functional instability. All associated fractures need to be addressed. In severe cases, the medial structures and the posterolateral capsule may also require reconstruction.

  13. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  14. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  15. Nosebleed, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Nosebleed, First Aid A A A First Aid for Nosebleed: View ... of the nose, causing bleeding into the throat. First Aid Guide The following self-care measures are recommended: ...

  16. Splinter, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  17. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  18. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  19. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  20. Cognitive impairment in patients with AIDS – prevalence and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins CC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal C Watkins,1,2 Glenn J Treisman2 1The Memory Center in Neuropsychiatry, Sheppard Pratt Health System, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV patients and decreased the number of adults who progress to AIDS and HIV-associated dementia. However, neurocognitive deficits remain a pronounced consequence of HIV/AIDS. HIV-1 infection targets the central nervous system in subcortical brain areas and leads to high rates of delirium, depression, opportunistic central nervous system infections, and dementia. Long-term HIV replication in the brain occurs in astrocytes and microglia, allowing the virus to hide from antiviral medication and later compromise neuronal function. The associated cognitive disturbance is linked to both viral activity and inflammatory and other mediators from these immune cells that lead to the damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, a general term given for these disturbances. We review the severity and prevalence of the neuropsychiatric complications of HIV including delirium, neurobehavioral impairments (depression, minor cognitive-motor dysfunction, and HIV-associated dementia. Keywords: HIV, delirium, depression, HAND, dementia; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

  1. Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Envelope Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vincent C.; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A.; Fremont, Daved H. (WU-MED)

    2012-03-13

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  3. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  4. Thinking about Aid Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Matthew; Wilhelm, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Researchers are giving more attention to aid predictability. In part, this is because of increases in the number of aid agencies and aid dollars and the growing complexity of the aid community. A growing body of research is examining key questions: Is aid unpredictable? What causes unpredictability? What can be done about it? This note draws from a selection of recent literature to bring s...

  5. [AIDS information in Zimbabwe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L

    1993-11-20

    The difficulties of health education concerning AIDs prevention in Zimbabwe include communicating simple information about complicated processes, resistance to the information because of status or tradition, and lack of experience with translating material that was produced in the West. The beliefs in ghosts and witch doctors are still part of the tradition in Zimbabwe, providing cultural diversity and a sense of identification. Traditional medicine is characterized by Westerners as often irrational behavior that is deleterious to one's health. However, even in the allegedly educated part of the world compliance is often lacking and alternative treatment forms are actively pursued in tandem with formal medicine. When there is a short time period between harmful behavior and infection, most people realize that there is a causative connection. On the other hand, it is a more complicated mental exercise to fathom that intercourse can result in HIV infection that 5 years later may lead to death from tuberculosis. No other disease is known by these people that has a corresponding delay from the time of infection to disease or death. It is also confusing that a sexually transmitted disease does not produce symptoms such as discharge or genital sores. It is difficult to comprehend that a sole causative agent, HIV, can lead to so many different diseases and symptoms. When a young man died after having been hospitalized with protracted cough and TB as a result of HIV infection that he had contracted from a girlfriend, the father told the folks at home that his son had died of TB. These conflicting pieces of information make AIDS prevention education wrought with difficulties, which adds to the rapid spread of the disease, although the authorities and international organizations have responded with strategies, informational materials, and educational courses. PMID:8273086

  6. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? To get hearing aids, you should first have ...

  7. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...

  8. Crystal Meth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, ... about my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting ...

  9. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  10. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  11. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  12. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  13. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri K

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  14. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  16. Aids for visual impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue.

  17. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  18. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  19. Frostbite, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  20. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  1. Unconsciousness, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Unconsciousness, First Aid A A A Unconsciousness signs and symptoms can ... keep the airway clear while awaiting medical care. First Aid Guide If you find an unconscious person, try ...

  2. Tick Bites, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  3. Blisters, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Blisters, First Aid A A A Blisters on the feet are ... can also be found via the Disease List. First Aid Guide Blisters often go away on their own ...

  4. Heatstroke, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  5. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  6. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  7. Head Trauma, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Head Trauma, First Aid A A A Head trauma signs and symptoms ... to take care for potential neck/spinal injury. First Aid Guide If you suspect either a serious head ...

  8. Bruises, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  9. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top priority. ... to call for help, and more. First Aid & Safety Center Home Sweet Home A Safe and Spooktacular ...

  10. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY AIDS ... sweat, saliva or urine of an infected person. Myth: A pregnant woman with HIV infection always infects ...

  11. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  12. Music and Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Sara M. K.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems a...

  13. Fiscal effects of aid

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, Emilija

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses fiscal effects of aid, first of health aid on health spending for a sample of developing countries and then broadly for Ethiopia and Tanzania. Particular attention is paid to data quality and the severe difficulties in achieving a reliable disaggregation of aid into its on-budget and off-budget components. The first essay assesses the sensitivity of estimated health aid fungibility to how the missing data (often considerable) are treated and explores a novel (at least in...

  14. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing questions of aid policy and practice—such as: Should international development aid exist at all? How should aid be conducted? Should humanitarian relief be provided in conflict situations when it can ...

  15. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  16. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  17. First Aid: Rashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  18. First Aid: Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  19. First Aid: Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  20. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  1. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  2. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  3. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  4. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  5. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  6. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  7. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  8. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  9. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  10. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  11. Can Solution Supersaturation Affect Protein Crystal Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The formation of large protein crystals of "high quality" is considered a characteristic manifestation of microgravity. The physical processes that predict the formation of large, high quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of space are considered rooted in the existence of a "depletion zone" in the vicinity of crystal. Namely, it is considered reasonable that crystal quality suffers in earth-grown crystals as a result of the incorporation of large aggregates, micro-crystals and/or large molecular weight "impurities", processes which are aided by density driven convective flow or mixing at the crystal-liquid interface. Sedimentation and density driven convection produce unfavorable solution conditions in the vicinity of the crystal surface, which promotes rapid crystal growth to the detriment of crystal size and quality. In this effort, we shall further present the hypothesis that the solution supersaturatoin at the crystal surface determines the growth mechanism, or mode, by which protein crystals grow. It is further hypothesized that protein crystal quality is affected by the mechanism or mode of crystal growth. Hence the formation of a depletion zone in microgravity environment is beneficial due to inhibition of impurity incorporatoin as well as preventing a kinetic roughening transition. It should be noted that for many proteins the magnitude of neither protein crystal growth rates nor solution supersaturation are predictors of a kinetic roughening transition. That is, the kinetic roughening transition supersaturation must be dtermined for each individual protein.

  12. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Rahimkutty; K Rajendra Babu; K Sreedharan Pillai; M R Sudarsana Kumar; C M K Nair

    2001-04-01

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are locked up in the lattice with different strengths in the grown crystals.

  14. Unifying the crystallization behavior of hexagonal and square crystals with the phase-field-crystal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Zheng, Chen; Jing, Zhang; Yongxin, Wang; Yanli, Lu

    2016-03-01

    By employing the phase-field-crystal models, the atomic crystallization process of hexagonal and square crystals is investigated with the emphasis on the growth mechanism and morphological change. A unified regime describing the crystallization behavior of both crystals is obtained with the thermodynamic driving force varying. By increasing the driving force, both crystals (in the steady-state) transform from a faceted polygon to an apex-bulged polygon, and then into a symmetric dendrite. For the faceted polygon, the interface advances by a layer-by-layer (LL) mode while for the apex-bulged polygonal and the dendritic crystals, it first adopts the LL mode and then transits into the multi-layer (ML) mode in the later stage. In particular, a shift of the nucleation sites from the face center to the area around the crystal tips is detected in the early growth stage of both crystals and is rationalized in terms of the relation between the crystal size and the driving force distribution. Finally, a parameter characterizing the complex shape change of square crystal is introduced. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 54175378, 51474176, and 51274167), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014JM7261), and the Doctoral Foundation Program of Ministry of China (Grant No. 20136102120021).

  15. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services. PMID:24974278

  16. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  17. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  18. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... not established that aid works. Using meta-regression analysis it is shown that about 20 factors influence the results. Much of the variation between studies is an artifact and can be attributed to publication outlet, institu¬tional affiliation, and specification differences. However, some of the difference...

  19. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  20. Hearing Aids and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even...

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  2. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  3. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  4. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  5. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  6. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  7. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  8. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  9. Laterality and language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  10. HIV/AIDS in prisons: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In a report released on 20 November 2002, entitled Action on HIV/AIDS in Prisons: Too Little, Too Late--A Report Card, the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network concluded that despite repeated studies and nearly ten years of recommendations for urgent and pragmatic action, the response of Canadian governments to HIV/AIDS, HCV, and injection drug use in prisons remains inadequate. Only a few weeks later, the House of Commons Special Committee on Non-Medical Use of Drugs released its report, which contained a number of recommendations to the Correctional Service of Canada. Although the Committee avoided talking about needle exchange programs in prisons, it did recommend them! Meanwhile, in Ireland, not even condoms or bleach are provided. PMID:14719487

  11. SOLUTION CRYSTALLIZATION OF METALLOCENE SHORT CHAIN BRANCHED POLYETHYLENE: MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Fu; Rong-ni Du; Fang-Chyou Chiu

    2000-01-01

    Solution crystallization of metallocene short chain branched polyethylene (SCBPE) was carried out and very nice single crystals were obtained. Compared with single crystals grown from linear polyethylene, SCBPE single crystals are dirty due to intermolecular heterogeneity The crystal morphology changes with crystallization temperatures. Lozenge, truncated lozenge, hexagonal, rounded and elongated crystal morphologies have been found at much lower crystallization temperature than in linear polyethylene. The electron diffraction shows there is a possibility that the single crystals may have hexagonal packing in a crystallization temperature range. The lateral habits of single crystal are discussed based on roughening theories.

  12. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  13. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for spine surgery called XLIF, extreme lateral interbody fusion. Dr. Juan Uribe will perform the procedure. Dr. ... A better term would be extreme lateral interbody fusion. This is a procedure that has been performed ...

  14. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. AIDS as Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  17. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  18. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  19. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

  20. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  1. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  2. International Aid to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  3. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  4. Hearing aid and Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Reza Nazeri

    1999-01-01

    Prescription of hearing aid is an extensive special category of knowledge in the field of audiology. This article is aimed at discussing the function of hearing aid and also management of patients in the noisy environments and presenting solutions to overcome problems regarding to this issue along with taking a look to the equipments prepared nowadays to cope with noisy situations.

  5. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  6. Lateral vibration effects in atomic-scale friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R. [Climate and Environment Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fajardo, O. Y.; Mazo, J. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Meyer, E. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Gnecco, E. [Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA Nanociencia, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-24

    The influence of lateral vibrations on the stick-slip motion of a nanotip elastically pulled on a flat crystal surface is studied by atomic force microscopy measurements on a NaCl(001) surface in ultra-high vacuum. The slippage of the nanotip across the crystal lattice is anticipated at increasing driving amplitude, similarly to what is observed in presence of normal vibrations. This lowers the average friction force, as explained by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model with lateral vibrations superimposed at finite temperature. Nevertheless, the peak values of the lateral force, and the total energy losses, are expected to increase with the excitation amplitude, which may limit the practical relevance of this effect.

  7. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  8. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  9. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  10. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  11. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  12. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  14. Clinical Testing for Extra-Articular Lateral Knee Pain. A Modification and Combination of Traditional Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Knee pain is one of the most common problems encountered by recreational and competitive athletes. Pain over the lateral aspect of the knee can be the result of intra or extra articular conditions. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to present the modification of a traditional clinical test to aide in the differential diagnosis of lateral knee pain. This method has not been described elsewhere and anecdotally has been helpful in the evaluation of patients with lateral knee pain. PMID:21509133

  15. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  16. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  17. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  20. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  1. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  2. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jun; Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-07-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  3. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  4. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  5. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. PMID:26792536

  6. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  7. Intracranial venous sinus thrombosis complicating AIDS-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Khosrow; Frank, Jeffrey; Vaksman, Yulia; Nguyen, Thanhan V

    2003-03-01

    An alert and oriented 27-year-old African American woman with AIDS presented with a 10-day history of fever, cough productive of yellow sputum, nausea, and vomiting and a 1-day history of excruciating headache and photophobia. Her condition rapidly deteriorated into a coma with decorticate and then decerebrate posture, and she died 3 weeks later. There was evidence of extensive intracranial venous sinus thrombosis (ICVST), renal vein thrombosis (RVT), and multiple cerebral hemorrhagic infarcts due to a hypercoagulable state complicating AIDS-associated nephrotic syndrome. This is the first reported case of fatal ICVST and RVT with extensive cerebral hemorrhagic infarcts complicating nephrotic syndrome in a patient with AIDS.

  8. Opportunistic infections and malignancies in 231 Danish AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P;

    1990-01-01

    We analysed cumulative disease frequencies in the first 231 adult Danish AIDS patients with life tables. There was a certain hierarchical pattern in the occurrence of complicating diseases. Herpes zoster, Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were early manifestations, whereas...... diseases caused by cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria tended to occur later in the course of AIDS. Compared with all other AIDS patients, homosexual men were more likely to develop Kaposi's sarcoma, cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis and mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infection. The proportion...... of patients who developed particular diseases changed with calendar time. Most striking was a three to fourfold decrease in diseases caused by cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, the study showed that disease frequencies in patients with AIDS may vary with the patients risk behaviour and duration of AIDS...

  9. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments & Cures Buying a Hearing Aid Cancer Treatment Scams Cancer Treatment Scams CURE-ious Bookmark Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests ... Money Privacy, Identity & Online Security Blog Video & Media Scam Alerts Get health and fitness updates by email ...

  10. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  11. World AIDS Day 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  12. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  13. Chagas' disease and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidian, Anil K; Louis M Weiss; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV/AIDS. The overlap of HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi infection occurs not only in endemic ar...

  14. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  15. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  16. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  17. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  18. Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Thin Crystal Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The formulas for atomic displacements and Hamiltonian of a thin crystal film in phonon occupation number representation are obtained with the aid of Green's function theory. On the basis of these results, the formulas for thermal expansion coefficients of the thin crystal film are derived with the perturbation theory, and the numerical calculations are carried out. The results show that the thinner films have larger thermal expansion coefficients.

  19. Crystallization Thermodynamic and Kinetic Behaviors of Vitamin C in Batch Crystallizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The bench-scale cooling crystallization for ternary solution of L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was studied. The solid-liquid phase diagram of Vitamin C-water-ethanol system was obtained on the basis of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves. The heat of crystallization of Vitamin C was calculated with the aid of quantitative analysis. According to the population balance equation under unsteady state, the rates of nucleation and growth were determined. The parameters of crystallization kinetics equations were estimated by regression of experimental data. Crystal morphology and size were determined with x-ray diffraction and TA Ⅱ Coulter Counter.

  20. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  1. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron;

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  2. AIDS ORPHANS GET SPECIAL VISITOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  3. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  4. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  5. A new era of crystallization: advances in polysilicon crystallization and crystal engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-quality poly-Si microstructure is needed for the fabrication of high-quality poly-Si TFTs. The crystallization process is a very critical step of the thin film transistor (TFT) fabrication process, as it needs to satisfy conflicting requirements on material quality and cost and, at the same time, comply with the thermal-budget constraints imposed by the display substrate. Historically, solid-phase-crystallization (SPC) was the first technology to produce poly-Si films for display applications, followed by the development of laser-annealing crystallization (LAC). Both of the technologies evolved significantly over the past 20 years with a variety of spin-offs that aimed at improving different features of the poly-Si crystallization process and/or the poly-Si microstructure. This paper discusses the motivation behind the evolution process in the crystallization technology. We discuss in detail the different aspects of various crystallization techniques and provide the rationale behind our belief that lateral-crystallization technology possesses the best collection of features to enable the formation of very high-quality poly-Si films compatible with the fabrication of state-of-the-art, ultra-high performance poly-Si TFT devices

  6. Lateral Asymmetries in Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Bradshaw; Nettleton, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral asymmetries are not confined to humans. Palaeozoic trilobites and calcichordates are now known to have been asymmetrical; song control in passerines is vested in the left cerebral hemisphere; learning which is lateralized to the left forebrain of chicks includes imprinting, visual discrimination learning and auditory habituation, while responses to novelty, attack and copulation are activated by the right; in rats the right hemisphere is involved in emotional behavior and spatial disc...

  7. Solute Trapping in Silicon by Lateral Motion of {111} Ledges

    OpenAIRE

    White, C. Woody; Aziz, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the nonequilibrium partition coefficient of Bi in Si at constant solid-liquid interface velocity has been measured. The partition coefficient, measured with pulsed-laser melting techniques on a series of Si wafers cut at 5° increments from (110) through (111) to (001), is sharply peaked at (111) and decreases monotonically with increasing inclination from (111). The results suggest that crystal growth and solute trapping occur by the lateral motion of {111} ledges.

  8. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  9. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  10. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been d

  11. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  12. First aid advisor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, S.I.; Weng, Wen-Chang [Texas A & M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A knowledge-based system (KBS), First Aid Advisor (FAA), is developed to provide a guidance for either a trained or untrained person to take some emergent actions to rescue the victim from life-threatening hazard or to prevent from causing serious problem before the Emergency Medical Service System (EMS) personnels arrive the scene. The First Aid Advisor will collect victim`s information by interacting with the user through a sequence of questions, analyze the victim`s problem, and give instructions step by step before offering a final advice. Since all the possible conditions are taken into consideration, it will guide the user to perform first aid from the most to the least urgent step for the victim. Furthermore, it will offer a suitable first aid advice for victim and eliminate the possibility of wrong actions done by trained person due to carelessness or nervousness. Offering advice to handle problems involving life-threatening conditions is the main objective of this system. In this paper, we will describe six major components of FAA and their respective tasks. Decision tables and dependency diagrams used in FAA implementation will also be described. System performance issues will conclude the paper.

  13. Oesophageal candiasis in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, S. P. S.; Ranga, Rupender K.; Singh, Jagat; Yadav, Rohtas

    2003-01-01

    With the explosion in the number of AIDS patients, many of these are likely to consult to otolaryngologists the head & neck is a rather common site to be affected. Sometimes only oesophageal candidiasis is the presenting feature as in the present case which is being reported show typical radiological appearance. the differential diagnosis and treatment of nesophageal candidiasis is briefly discussed

  14. AIDS Overspill to Everyman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Xu Wenqing, national project officer of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), recently issued a warning that the men/women ratio of HIV infection in China now stands at 5:5. This indicates that AiDS now threatens other than intravenous drug users, sex workers and hemophiliacs.

  15. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health days Meetings and consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2015, 1.1 (940 000– ...

  16. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  17. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles; WOOD; William; HARRINGTON; Jr

    2005-01-01

    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  18. Coil Welding Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  19. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  20. Aid Projects Benefit Xigaze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the thirdnational conference onwork in Tibet held by theCPC Central Committeeand the State Council meeting in July1994, Shanghai and Shandong provincedecided to provide aid to the Xigazearea from May 1995 onwards. Thefourth conference on work in Tibet heldin May 2001 again established that the

  1. AIDS: there's hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices. PMID:12179231

  2. Screening for AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-29

    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  3. Foreign Aid and Consumption Smoothing; Evidence From Global Food Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Tiongson; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta

    2003-01-01

    Global food aid is considered a critical consumption smoothing mechanism in many countries. However, its record of stabilizing consumption has been mixed. This paper examines the cyclical properties of food aid with respect to food availability in recipient countries, with a view to assessing its impact on consumption in some 150 developing countries and transition economies, covering 1970 to 2000. The results show that global food aid has been allocated to countries most in need. Food aid ha...

  4. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  5. Light in the darkening on Naica gypsum crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Sandoval, I.; Fuentes-Cobas, L. E.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Carreno-Márquez, J.; Montero-Cabrera, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih 31109, México (Mexico); Fuentes-Montero, M. E. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Campus Universitario#2, Circuito Universitario, C.P.31125, Chihuahua, Chih. México (Mexico); Reyes-Cortes, M. [Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Campus Universitario#2, Circuito Universitario, C.P.31125, Chihuahua, Chih. México (Mexico)

    2015-07-23

    Naica mine is located in a semi-desertic region at the central-south of Chihuahua State. The Cave of Swords was discovered in 1910 and the Cave of Crystals 90 years later at Naica mines. It is expected that during the last century the human presence has changed the microclimatic conditions inside the cave, resulting in the deterioration of the crystals and the deposition of impurities on gypsum surfaces. As a contribution to the clarification of the mentioned issues, the present work refers to the use of synchrotron radiation for the identification of phases on these surfaces. All the experiments were performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and radiography-aided X-ray diffraction (RAXRD) experiments were performed at beamline 11-3. X-Ray micro-fluorescence (μ-SXRF) and micro-X-ray absorption (μ-XANES) were measured at beamline 2-3. Representative results obtained may be summarized as follows: a) Gypsum, galena, sphalerite, hematite and cuprite at the surface of the gypsum crystals were determined. b) The samples micro-structure is affected by impurities. c) The elemental distributions and correlations (0.6-0.9) of Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca and S were identified by μ-SXRF. The correlations among elemental contents confirmed the phase identification, with the exception of manganese and potassium due to the amorphous nature of some impurity compounds in these samples. The compounds hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), β-MnO{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO and/or MnCO{sub 3}, PbS, PbCO{sub 3} and/or PbSO4, ZnO{sub 4}, ZnS and/or smithsonite (ZnCO{sub 3}), CuS + Cu Oxide were identified by XANES. Plausibly, these latter compounds do not form crystalline phases.

  6. Henan Surveys Blood Donors to Aid AIDS Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Central China's Henan Province, one of the worst AIDS-hit provinces in the country, launched a sweeping survey in September of past blood donors to ascertain tile number of HIV-infected individuals to aid AIDS prevention and control work.

  7. A systematic framework for design of process monitoring and control (PAT) systems for crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist;

    2013-01-01

    A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations.The systematic design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling toolbox, a tool for...

  8. An Experimental Verification of morphology of ibuprofen crystals from CAMD designed solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Acquah, Charles; Achenie, Luke E.K.;

    2007-01-01

    of crystals formed from solvents, necessitates additional experimental verification steps. In this work we report the experimental verification of crystal morphology for the case study, solvent design for ibuprofen crystallization, presented in Karunanithi et al. [2006. A computer-aided molecular design...

  9. Women and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) The human ... HIV, is a sexually transmitted infection and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, about one in four Americans ...

  10. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  11. Ten Common First Aid Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Latest in Workplace Safety Ten Common First Aid Mistakes These days, there are countless resources to ... We’ve listed some of the most common first aid mistakes below, along with the correct response methods. ...

  12. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid......-corruption paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  13. Different Styles of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aids available and offer some cosmetic and listening advantages. Photo courtesy of Phonak Click for larger image ... in place. These aids offer cosmetic and listening advantages and are used typically for adults. Photo courtesy ...

  14. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  15. Global NeuroAIDS roundtable

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, J.; Achim, CL; Boivin, MJ; Brew, BJ; Clifford, DB; Colosi, DA; Ellis, RJ; Heaton, RK; Gallo-Diop, A; Grant, I; Kanmogne, GD; Kumar, M; Letendre, S; Marcotte, TD; Nath, A

    2013-01-01

    In May 2012, the Division of AIDS Research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) organized the "Global NeuroAIDS Roundtable" in conjunction with the 11th International Symposium on Neurovirology and the 2012 Conference on HIV in the Nervous System. The meeting was held in New York, NY, USA and brought together NIMH-funded investigators who are currently working on projects related to the neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin Amer...

  16. Aid allocation and fragile states

    OpenAIRE

    McGillivray, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises research on aid allocation and effectiveness, highlighting the current findings of recent research on aid allocation to fragile states. Fragile states are defined by the donor community as those with either critically poor policies or poorly performing institutions, or both. The paper examines the research findings in the broader context of research and analysis on how aid should and is being allocated across all developing countries. Various aid allocation models and th...

  17. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.

    1986-02-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur.

  19. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  20. Mycobacterial Infections in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ross Hill

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains uniquely important among acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-associated opportunistic infections: it presents the greatest public health hazard worldwide, is the most readily curable, and is largely preventable with existing means. Given the expanding pool of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive persons, particularly in developing nations where Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading health problem, one can expect a continued rise in TB cases during the 1990s. Global efforts to eliminate TB are now inextricably entwined with the effectiveness of measures to curtail the HIV epidemic. Mycobacterium avium complex infection, currently an intractable late complication of aids, may increase in clinical importance as success in managing other opportunistic infections and HIV disease itself improves. Understanding of the pathogenesis and management of mycobacterial diseases should increase rapidly given the renewed research spurred on by the advent of HIV.

  1. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  3. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy

  4. Pulmonary mycosis in AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Schinina, Vincenzo; Bellussi, Angelo; De Santis, Andrea; Mazzuoli, Giovanna; Giosue, Sandro; Bibbolino, Corrado

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed our series of 35 pulmonary mycosis in patients with AIDS, observed from 1987 to 1999, to correlate the imaging and pathologic findings. We further evaluated the frequency of fungal pneumonia before and after the use of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early recognition of pulmonary mycosis is imperative in these patients and improved survival can be achieved with early CT detection and prompt institution of high-dose antifungal therapy.

  5. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul;

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  6. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  7. Redirecting British foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M

    1994-01-01

    Britain has longed followed a disease-control strategy for providing aid in the health sector to developing, low-income countries. Given, however, the high level of waste upon tertiary care and specialized medicine in current health programs of low-income countries as documented by the World Bank; the poor performance of existing general government hospitals and clinics; and the poor image of Third World health systems in the eyes of Western officials and government ministers, the chief health advisor of the Overseas Development Administration has called for a drastic redirection of policy toward development aid. Specifically, a shift away from a specific-disease control approach toward an overall, sweeping reform of the health sector in developing countries is urged. The level of waste needs to be reduced and more attention given to the poor. Unless such changes result, government ministers will grow increasingly reluctant to provide tangible aid to the health sectors of countries in need. The availability of such funds invested in effective, well-managed health programs will grow more critical to health in the Third World as populations shift away from communicable disease morbidity and mortality toward illnesses which are of a more noncommunicable nature such as stroke and cancer.

  8. Emergency laparotomy in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, T; Allen-Mersh, T G; Miles, A J; Gazzard, B; Wastell, C; Vipond, M; Stotter, A; Miller, R F; Fieldman, N R; Slack, W W

    1991-08-01

    The presentation, operative management and final diagnosis were reviewed in 28 patients with AIDS (27 men and one woman) who underwent emergency laparotomy. On clinical and radiological examination, six patients showed features of toxic megacolon, five patients had small bowel obstruction, six patients had localized peritonitis and three had perforated viscus with generalized peritonitis. The most common disease processes were acute colitis in seven patients (associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in six), intra-abdominal lymphoma in five patients, acute appendicitis in five patients (associated with CMV infection in two), and atypical mycobacterial (MAI) infection in four patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred; one in a patient with acute pancreatitis and a second with generalized peritonitis. Later deaths were due to progression of AIDS, and patient survival at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months was 89 per cent, 64 per cent and 48 per cent, respectively. Lower operative mortality than in previously reported series may be due to earlier intervention in CMV toxic megacolon. Surgery, however, conferred less benefit in patients with acute abdominal pain from MAI infection or lymphoma. With careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy may achieve worthwhile palliation in patients with AIDS. PMID:1655153

  9. Music and hearing aids--an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Marshall

    2012-09-01

    Modern digital hearing aids have provided improved fidelity over those of earlier decades for speech. The same however cannot be said for music. Most modern hearing aids have a limitation of their "front end," which comprises the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. For a number of reasons, the spectral nature of music as an input to a hearing aid is beyond the optimal operating conditions of the "front end" components. Amplified music tends to be of rather poor fidelity. Once the music signal is distorted, no amount of software manipulation that occurs later in the circuitry can improve things. The solution is not a software issue. Some characteristics of music that make it difficult to be transduced without significant distortion include an increased sound level relative to that of speech, and the crest factor- the difference in dB between the instantaneous peak of a signal and its RMS value. Clinical strategies and technical innovations have helped to improve the fidelity of amplified music and these include a reduction of the level of the input that is presented to the A/D converter. PMID:23258616

  10. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  11. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This muscle is really important for us to work around, and we have to go through that ... levels to approach from the lateral approach. It works really well at L4/5, L3/4, L2/ ...

  12. Pregnancy and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, R

    1988-02-01

    Since the first cases of a new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described by Oleske et al. and Rubinstein et al. in children in 1983, we have witnessed an ever-increasing number of such observations. As serology is not being performed on all pregnant women in many European countries, obstetricians must try to identify those belonging to risk groups: intravenous drug abusers, natives of affected regions or women having travelled to these areas, women having numerous sexual partners, presenting with other sexually transmitted diseases or living with infected individuals, prostitutes, transfused women. If the woman belongs to risk groups, HIV antibody testing is to be done at the beginning of pregnancy. The risks for the mother remain ill-defined, due in part to the difficulties inherent in keeping track of heroin abusers. Aggravation is certain if the mother is affected with AIDS or an associated syndrome called ARC (AIDS-related complex). It is debatable and at least rarer if the mother presents no clinical symptoms. Infant risks are becoming better known. The existence of materno-fetal contamination by transplacental route is undebatable. However, contamination during delivery or during the passage through the maternal genital tract cannot be excluded. The proportion of contaminated infants is approximately 40%. The disease in the infant is highly dangerous. According to these data, the procedure adopted by most obstetricians is the following: abortion is recommended at the first trimester of the pregnancy, a free choice is left open for the woman at the second trimester and at the third trimester delivery is carried out naturally. Caesarean sections are only done when there are obstetrical indications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3281969

  13. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  14. First aid at mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This Code of Practice has been approved by the Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. It gives practical guidance on the requirements placed on employers and self-employed persons by the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as they now apply to mines and comes into effect on 1 October 1993 which is the date on which the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 come into force.

  15. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  16. Computer aided engineering drawing

    CERN Document Server

    Dubey, N H

    2006-01-01

    This book caters to the need of First Year Engineering Students desiring to achieve a firm footage in the Subject Computer Aided Engineering Drawing. The formulation and methodology of the contents in this book is that one can easily understand the finer details of the subject and can master them with regular practice. It is essential that every on involved in engineering field must understand CAD for Drawing. This book contains well-illustrated figures along with theory for explaining procedures wherever necessary. A large number of solved and unsolved problems are provided so that one can ge

  17. Refocusing disaster aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg

    2005-08-12

    With new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing the risks of natural disasters, the donor community is now in a position to help the poor cope with the economic repercussions of disasters by assisting before they happen. Such assistance is possible with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risks to the global financial markets. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs not only would leverage limited disaster-aid budgets but also would free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of postdisaster assistance. Both donors and recipients stand to gain, especially because the instruments can be closely coupled with preventive measures. PMID:16099976

  18. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  19. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  20. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  1. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care. PMID:27456751

  2. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active......’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  3. Crystal growth and characterization of L-valine cadmium acetate a semiorganic NLO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, J.; Ilayabarathi, P.; Maadeswaran, P.

    2012-08-01

    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-valine cadmium acetate, was grown successfully from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals characterized by using Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the structure of the grown title compound. The functional groups have been identified using FTIR spectral data. Transmittance compound was analyzed by using UV-vis spectrum. The thermal behavior of the grown crystal was determined with the aid of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric constant was studied as a function of frequency for various temperatures. The grown crystal has positive photoconductivity nature. The fluorescence spectrum of the crystal was recorded and its optical band gap is about 3.4479 eV. Second order nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal has been confirmed by modified Kurtz-Perry powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  4. Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Kyprianidis, A; Becker, P; Lee, A; Smith, J; Pagano, G; Potirniche, I -D; Potter, A C; Vishwanath, A; Yao, N Y; Monroe, C

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, ranging from cosmology and particle physics to condensed matter. A prime example is the breaking of spatial translation symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Analogous to crystals in space, the breaking of translation symmetry in time and the emergence of a "time crystal" was recently proposed, but later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems subject to a periodic drive can exhibit persistent time-correlations at an emergent sub-harmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a "discrete time crystal" (DTC). Here, we present the first experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization (MBL) conditions, and observe a sub-harmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbat...

  5. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor

    2010-01-01

    A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...

  6. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mehta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable for analysis.

  7. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  8. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  9. Talking about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.

  10. AIDS-related myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Rafiq A.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Munn, Robert; Ruebner, Boris H.; Ellis, William G.

    1999-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and wasting is one of the defining clinical features of AIDS. Muscular weakness due to myopathy may develop at any stage of HIV infection. We report two illustrative cases of HIV-associated myopathies. One was due to inflammatory myosits most likely directly related to the HIV infection, and the other was most likely the result of mitochondrial damage due to zidovudine, a nucleoside analogue commonly used in treating HIV infection. Biopsies from both patients showed alterations of myofiber structures, of varying severity, culminating in necrosis, lipid droplets, and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory response. The zidovudine-treated patient also showed distinctive mitochondrial changes, predominantly enlargement, variation in shape and size, and disorganization of the cristae. These two types of HIV-associated inflammatory myopathies are reviewed, along with other HIV-associated myopathies, including HIV wasting syndrome, nemaline rod myopathy, pyomyositis, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, and other miscellaneous myopathies associated with HIV infection. PMID:11810429

  11. Single crystals of V Amylose complexed with glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulleman, S.H.D.; Helbert, W.; Chanzy, H.

    1996-01-01

    Lamellar single crystals of amylose V glycerol were grown at 100°C by evaporating water from solutions of amylose in aqueous glycerol. The crystals which were square, with lateral dimensions of several micrometers, gave sharp electron diffraction patterns presenting an orthorhombic symmetry with a p

  12. Aid, social policy, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the 'Paris-style' aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future glo...

  13. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  15. Lateral spread of implanted ion distributions in 6H-SiC: simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, E.; Flores, D.; Vellvehi, M.; Rebollo, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Centro Nacional de Microelectronica; Mestres, N. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials (CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Pascual, J. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-07-30

    In this paper, Monte Carlo simulation, using improved models for electronic stopping and 3D damage accumulation has been carried out to calculate the lateral distribution of ions implanted into 6H-SiC crystal. Two dimensional concentration contour plots are used to show the lateral spread of implanted Al{sup +} ions at mask edges. It appears that channeling strongly influences the shape of lateral distributions due to the capture of random implanted ions by axial channels lying parallel to the (0001) surface of 6H-SiC which appears alternatively every 30 around the left angle 0001 right angle axis, according to the symmetry of the 6H-SiC crystal. This phenomenon, if confirmed by SIMS 2D profiling, could have important consequences on the behavior of ion implanted lateral junctions of SiC devices. (orig.)

  16. The Use of Media as a Sleep Aid in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 844 adults, aged 18-94 years old, was queried about media habits and sleep behavior in face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaires. A substantial proportion of this sample reported using books (39.8%), television (31.2%), music (26.0%), Internet (23.2%), and videogames (10.3%) as a sleep aid. The use of media as sleep aids was associated with increased fatigue and higher scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), indicating poorer sleep quality. There was no relationship with sleep duration. Finally, results suggest that media use coincides with later bedtimes, but also later rise times, a process called time shifting. PMID:25313639

  17. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  18. Crystal Stratigraphy of Two Basalts from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic Basalt 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium Basalt 65703,9-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five basaltic samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of basaltic samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of basaltic rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare basalts, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine basalts, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.

  19. Photon Aided and Inhibited Tunneling of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    liu, xuele

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the interest in the transport of single photons in arrays of waveguides, fiber couplers, photonic crystals, etc., we consider the quantum mechanical process of the tunneling of photons through evanescently or otherwise coupled structures. We specifically examine the issue of tunneling between two structures when one structure already contains few photons. We demonstrate the possibility of both photon aided and inhibited tunneling of photons. The Bosonic nature of photons enhances the tunneling probability. We also show how the multiphoton tunneling probability can be either enhanced or inhibited due to the presence of photons. We find similar results for the higher order tunneling. Finally, we show that the presence of a squeezed field changes the nature of tunneling considerably.

  20. The psychological well-being of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the workplace / Joalane Mokhethi

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhethi, Thelma Joalane

    2006-01-01

    The history of HIV/AIDS dates back to 1985, when it was thought to be a disease affecting animals. Later, HIV/AIDS was regarded as an illness which affected gay individuals. However, research world-wide has shown that HIV/AIDS is a disease that affects everyone irrespective of race, gender, social status and sexual orientation. Research regarding the psychological well-being (coping, sense of coherence, locus of control and general health) of HIV infected persons in the workpla...

  1. Computer-aided recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography.

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Massimo; Coppini, Giuseppe; Monti, Simonetta; Bottai, Matteo; Paterni, Marco; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) is the benchmark for diagnosis emphysema, but is costly and imparts a substantial radiation burden to the patient. Objective To develop a computer-aided procedure that allows recognition of emphysema on digital chest radiography by using simple descriptors of the lung shape. The procedure was tested against CT. Methods Patients (N=225), who had undergone postero-anterior and lateral digital chest radiographs and CT for diagnostic purposes, were studied and ...

  2. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  3. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  4. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  5. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  6. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...

  7. Performative Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Olwig, Mette Fog

    This paper argues that contextualizing the celebrity-led benefit event in relation to local cultural norms is of pivotal importance to understanding the rationales behind its execution and its potential impact in terms of local understandings and acts of humanitarianism. The paper is based...... on the analysis of two Danish benefit events: The annual national telethon and media event Danmarks Indsamling (Denmark’s Fundraiser), and the annual small-scale music concert Hammershus Fairtrade Concert. The campaigns are different in scope and location, but share important common global and local features....... By focusing on a peripheral case set outside the classical Anglo-American context we aim to illustrate how the two benefit events seek to promote development aid and fair trade by drawing on a combination of international trends and local sets of cultural norms. The Danish case, we posit, can thereby shed...

  8. Learning to aid learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  9. AIDS Care Ignores Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apoorva; Mandavilli; 张祖明

    2005-01-01

    艾滋病的全称为"获得性免疫缺陷综合症(AIDS)",通过性、血液和母婴三种接触方式传播,是一种严重危害健康的传染性疾病。它通过破坏人的免疫系统和机体抵抗能力给人以致命的打击,被称为"超级绝症"。儿童感染艾滋病通常是由于母体传播的,但是他们却成为艾滋病防治过程中的一个"盲点"。究竟为什么呢?请看下文。

  10. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. M. Greeter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. ‘sideslips’, of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep, allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta.

  11. Direct lateral maneuvers in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeter, Jeremy S M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2016-01-01

    We used videography to investigate direct lateral maneuvers, i.e. 'sideslips', of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. M. sexta sideslip by rolling their entire body and wings to reorient their net force vector. During sideslip they increase net aerodynamic force by flapping with greater amplitude, (in both wing elevation and sweep), allowing them to continue to support body weight while rolled. To execute the roll maneuver we observed in sideslips, they use an asymmetric wing stroke; increasing the pitch of the roll-contralateral wing pair, while decreasing that of the roll-ipsilateral pair. They also increase the wing sweep amplitude of, and decrease the elevation amplitude of, the contralateral wing pair relative to the ipsilateral pair. The roll maneuver unfolds in a stairstep manner, with orientation changing more during downstroke than upstroke. This is due to smaller upstroke wing pitch angle asymmetries as well as increased upstroke flapping counter-torque from left-right differences in global reference frame wing velocity about the moth's roll axis. Rolls are also opposed by stabilizing aerodynamic moments from lateral motion, such that rightward roll velocity will be opposed by rightward motion. Computational modeling using blade-element approaches confirm the plausibility of a causal linkage between the previously mentioned wing kinematics and roll/sideslip. Model results also predict high degrees of axial and lateral damping. On the time scale of whole and half wing strokes, left-right wing pair asymmetries directly relate to the first, but not second, derivative of roll. Collectively, these results strongly support a roll-based sideslip with a high degree of roll damping in M. sexta. PMID:26740573

  12. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior. PMID

  13. Detecting lateral genetic material transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Calderón, C; Mireles, V; Miramontes, P

    2012-01-01

    The bioinformatical methods to detect lateral gene transfer events are mainly based on functional coding DNA characteristics. In this paper, we propose the use of DNA traits not depending on protein coding requirements. We introduce several semilocal variables that depend on DNA primary sequence and that reflect thermodynamic as well as physico-chemical magnitudes that are able to tell apart the genome of different organisms. After combining these variables in a neural classificator, we obtain results whose power of resolution go as far as to detect the exchange of genomic material between bacteria that are phylogenetically close.

  14. Laterally Mounted Azobenzenes on Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Melanie; Herges, Rainer

    2015-11-20

    Triazatriangulenium ions have previously been used as platforms to prepare self-assembled monolayers of functional molecules such as azobenzenes with vertical orientation and that are free-standing on gold surfaces. We have now prepared azobenzenes that are spanned between two posts which are attached on two platforms. Absorbed on a gold surface, the azobenzene should be laterally oriented at a distance of more than 4 Å above and thus electronically decoupled from the surface, and the system should perform a muscle-type movement upon isomerization. PMID:26551306

  15. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also address...

  16. Large area crystallization of amorphous Si with overlapping high repetition rate laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang-Gil [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Gruber, Ivan [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: cgrigoro@me.berkeley.edu [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Poulikakos, Dimos [Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Moon, Seung-Jae [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang1dong, Seondonggu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a pulsed laser crystallization technique, enabling large area crystallization of amorphous Si to produce grains having well-defined size and orientation. The method is developed by first determining the parameters influencing crystallization induced by single laser pulses of circular cross-sectional profile. In a second step, crystallization by overlapping round spots is examined. The experiments reveal three zones characterized by distinctly different crystallized morphologies following the laser irradiation. One of these zones corresponds to the regime of lateral crystal growth, wherein grains are driven towards the center of the spot by the radial temperature gradient. These findings are then applied to processing via line beam profiles that facilitate large area crystallization upon rapid translation of the specimen. Crystallization of extended areas hinges on the determination of the crystal growth length for a single spot. The pitch between successive pulses is then set on the basis of this information. It is shown that the pulse energy has only a weak effect on the crystal growth length. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated lateral crystal growth in laser annealing of thin silicon films Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined effects of laser beam profile and pulse energy on crystallization Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Showed the dependence of lateral crystal growth length on laser fluence Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated large area film crystallization using overlapping laser pulses.

  17. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  18. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  19. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    nucleotides is usually pH dependent (pH < 6) four different TFOs were examined: TFO-1 was unmodified while TFOs 2-4 contained additional stabilizing analogues capable of extending triplex formation to pH 7. In addition, each of the TFOs contained a Cy5 dye at the 5'-end of the oligonucleotide to aid in characterization of TFO binding - crystals were obtained with all four variations of TFOs. Formation of DNA triplex in the motif was characterized by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), UV melting studies and FRET. Crystals containing TFO-1 (unmodified) and TFO-2 (with 2'-amino ethoxy modification) were isolated and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen for X-ray data collection at beam line NSLS-X25. X-ray data was also collected for crystals of the 3-turn triangle without any TFO bound to it. Difference maps were done between the crystals with TFO against the one without to identify any additional electron density corresponding to the third strand in the triplex binding region. The data from the crystal containing TFO-2 was used to further analyze if the additional density can match the expected position of the TFO on the triangle motif. Since the additional density did not correspond to the entire binding region, 2Fo-Fc, 3Fo-2Fc and 4Fo-3Fc maps were done to check for missing pieces of the electron density. From the resulting 2Fo-Fc map, the asymmetric unit from the 3-turn triangle (31-bp duplex model based on previous structure 3UBI) was inserted into the density as a reference. However, the electron density corresponding to the TFO was still not continuous throughout the 13-nt triplex binding region and allowed only a partial fit of the TFO. The third nucleotide in positions 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were fit into the density in the major groove of the underlying duplex with proper triplex configuration. The third chapter describes the triplex approach to position a functional group (the UV cross-linking agent psoralen) within a pre-formed DNA motif. Triplex formation and

  20. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  1. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  2. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  3. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  4. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  5. An introduction to hearing aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  6. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  7. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  8. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  9. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. PMID:27269269

  10. Rehabilitation and Aids during the Developing Years in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martino Avellis; Alda Pellegri; Andrea Cazzaniga; Stefania Chierici; Marida Farina; Antonio Cinquegrana; Ciro Grazioli; Giovanni De Angelis

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of children with disabilities should be initiated as early as possible,as soon as problems or disorders are diagnosed in the development,to prevent or promptly counteract the consolidation of disability.In Italy the institutes involved in the rehabilitation of children with serious disability must be by law highly specialized.The devices have a key part in rehabilitation courses in developmental age.They are often planned and designed in the same rehabilitation center."La Nostra Famiglia" has been in Italy one of the first specialized rehabilitation centers for children and adolescents.By "La Nostra Famiglia" have been designed aids for children which later became a model throughout Europe.Our National Health System provides free aids for children and adolescents and describes in detail the characteristics of great adaptability that aids for children and adolescents should have.The "pressure mapping" allows you to test the effects of adapted aids versus aids not properly adapted to the size and needs.

  11. Can computed crystal energy landscapes help understand pharmaceutical solids?

    OpenAIRE

    Price, S.L.; Braun, D. E.; Reutzel-Edens, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Computational crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods can now be applied to the smaller pharmaceutical molecules currently in drug development. We review the recent uses of computed crystal energy landscapes for pharmaceuticals, concentrating on examples where they have been used in collaboration with industrial-style experimental solid form screening. There is a strong complementarity in aiding experiment to find and characterise practically important solid forms and understanding the nat...

  12. Metal mining to the aid of the oil sands? Lateral opportunities in industrial cross-breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabag, S.F. [Dumont Nickel Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper demonstrated how oil sands operations can benefit from supporting innovative low cost metal mining to enhance their eco-footprint. Northeast Alberta contains large accumulations of recoverable metals, hosted in metal bearing black shales. Immense low grade polymetallic zones were discovered in 1995 but could not be exploited with existing recovery technologies. However, significant advances in bioleaching of metals from polymetallic black shale deposits have propelled this new deposit type to the forefront over the past 5 years as a long term future source of metals. Compared to traditional smelting and refining, bioleaching has lower Capex/Opex, lower eco-footprint and less energy dependence. Envisaged metal mining in the black shales of northeast Alberta can benefit oil sands operations by consuming large amounts of waste sulfur while also providing collateral opportunities for carbon sinks/offsets. Black shales have the capacity to sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Dumont Nickel Inc. is advancing 6 polymetallic black shale projects in northeast Alberta over 2,500 km{sup 2} with potential for hosting up to 20 billion tons in six 50-100 km{sup 2} deposits. The projects present opportunities to develop low footprint metal mines, to use run-of-river hydro, to harvest waste heat, and to combine local technologies to create a new valuable industry independent of energy markets.

  13. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank. PMID:12321757

  14. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  15. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  16. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play... cases be kept within such limits that the driving wheels, rods, or crank pins will not interfere...

  17. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  18. Managing Your Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Related information How ... any reason. Return to top More information on Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Explore other publications ...

  19. How Do You Get HIV or AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  20. Reuse of London’s crystal palaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Slivnik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and use of both London crystal palaces, namely Crystal Palace at Sydenham and Alexandra Palace on Muswell Hill are described. They share some common characteristics. Built for two World Fairs, their iron structure was later disassembled, remodelled and consequently rebuilt slightly modified at another location. Both were located outside the city centre, at a central viewpoint within a vast park. Both hosted cultural, educational, and sports events and in the second half of the nineteenth century became the two most visited London leisure time attractions. Advantages and drawbacks of the crystal palace as a building type are reviewed and the role of crystal palaces in Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City is stressed.

  1. Electrically driven photonic crystal nanocavity devices

    CERN Document Server

    Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasing in our junctions with a threshold of 181 nA at 50K - the lowest threshold ever demonstrated in an electrically pumped laser. At room temperature we find that our devices behave as single-mode light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which when directly modulated, have an ultrafast electrical response up to 10 GHz corresponding to less than 1 fJ/bit energy operation - the lowest for any optical transmitter. In addition, we have demonstrated electrical pumping of photonic crystal nanobeam LEDs...

  2. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  3. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  4. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  5. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Daniel A Fletcher; Herr, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified captu...

  6. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R.; Skandarajah, A.; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  7. Lateralization in Insects: Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a variety of left–right asymmetries among vertebrates and invertebrates. In many species, left- and right-lateralized individuals coexist, but in unequal numbers (‘population-level’ lateralization). It has been argued that brain lateralization increases individual efficiency (e.g. avoiding unnecessary duplication of neural circuitry and reducing interference between functions), thus counteracting the ecological disadvantages of lateral biases in behaviour (making ...

  8. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Keidser, Gitte; Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in develo...

  9. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda.......This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...

  10. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...... that the effect is significant and positive both in the tradables and the nontradables sectors. The paper thus finds no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. Possible reasons are the existence of large idle labour capacity and high levels...

  11. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  12. Economic principles of state aid control

    OpenAIRE

    Haucap, Justus; Schwalbe, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the economic principles of European state aid control. We start with a discussion of the economic justification for state aid control, including the definition of state aid in European law and exceptions to the general ban of state aid. We then explore the motives for granting state aid, ranging from the correction of market failures over political motives to political economy considerations. We then discuss how state aid control fits into the framework of European compe...

  13. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  14. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  15. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe;

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...

  16. Experiment and theory for heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayen, Naomi E.; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Sear, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of high-resolution structures of proteins requires crystals of suitable quality. Because of the new impetus given to structural biology by structural genomics/proteomics, the problem of crystallizing proteins is becoming increasingly acute. There is therefore an urgent requirement for the development of new efficient methods to aid crystal growth. Nucleation is the crucial step that determines the entire crystallization process. Hence, the holy grail is to design a "universal nucleant," a substrate that induces the nucleation of crystals of any protein. We report a theory for nucleation on disordered porous media and its experimental testing and validation using a mesoporous bioactive gel-glass. This material induced the crystallization of the largest number of proteins ever crystallized using a single nucleant. The combination of the model and the experimental results opens up the scope for the rational design of nucleants, leading to alternative means of controlling crystallization. protein crystallization | phase diagram | microbatch | vapor diffusion

  17. Protein crystallization: from HTS to kilogram-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyushnichenko, Vadim

    2003-11-01

    The first experiments on protein crystallization started randomly during the 19th century. This technique has been widely used for the determination of the tertiary structure of proteins since the 1950s, when an understanding of the physics of protein crystallization began to emerge. In the 1980s and 1990s, research focused on the study of protein crystal growth processes in microgravity environments, which were created in space shuttle experiments. High-throughput screening (HTS) systems were developed that later found broader laboratory applications. The combination of HTS with an engineering approach opens new opportunities for the protein crystallization process to become a robust, scalable, reproducible and economically viable industrial unit operation.

  18. HIV/AIDS epidemic and the development of comprehensive surveillance system in China with challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ AIDS is the most severe infectious disease that has appeared in the second half of the 20th century.Since the United States Center of Disease Control & Prevention (US CDC) reported the first case of HIV carrier in the men who had sex with men (MSM)population in 1981, HIV/AIDS had spread globally. By the end of December 2008, UNAIDS and WHO estimated that there were 3340 million (3110-3580 million)infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide.1 While the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia began later than the epidemic in Europe, America and Africa, experts predict that countries in Asia, especially in three countries, China,India and Indonesia, which have a population of more than 100 million, will have the world's largest number of HIV/AIDS in the near future.

  19. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  20. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  1. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  2. Hearing Aid Fitting & Electrophysiologic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of deaf individual is one of the important subjects that has attracted attention of many researchers during past centuries. Different opinions have been established in this direction. Electrophysiologic tests were established and developed parallel to developments in rehabilitation. Therefore, opinion of using electrophysiologic test for evaluation and fitting of hearing aid became gradually popular. Ultimately, the electrophysiologic tests are used in evaluation and fitting of hearing aid in two ways: 1-Direct way 2- Indirect way "nIn direct way aided ABR is obtained and special attention is paid to wave V. This technique has many difficulties. Inindirect way, electrophysiologic tests such, ECochG, OAE and ABR, AMLR, ALR and P300 and other objective tests are used, especially in infants and neonates for evaluating the state of hearing. Researches are continuing in this field. It is probable to have aided electrophysiologic responses with speech stimuli in near future.

  3. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Apps APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español small ... Renal (Kidney) Complications/Damage Skin Diseases FDA-Approved HIV Drugs Abacavir Atazanavir Atripla Cobicistat Combivir Complera Darunavir ...

  4. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  5. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series To use the sharing ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  6. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  7. Growth of Ho-123 superconducting single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To grow single crystals of HoBa2Cu3O7-δ we first used the citrate gel approach to provide finely divided and homogeneous starting materials and to develop a crystal growing regime in oxygen. Crystals grown on the surface of the melts with compositions 1:4:6 and 1:4:10, were up to 20mg in mass and superconducting with a Tc of 92K. More recently, we have grown crystals from mixtures of either simple or complex oxides of composition 1:11:25 and 1:12:26 as starting materials, under different temperature control so as to produce larger crystals at the bottom of the crucible. These crystals are up to 50mg in mass, with Tcs of about 45K, which may be raised close to 90K by later annealing in oxygen. Crystals grown by the first method were always found to be tetragonal. We speculate on the reasons for this. (orig.)

  8. Trade, Aid, Remittances and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Sule

    2009-01-01

    I investigated whether migration is interrelated with trade, aid and remittances so that any policies that consider trade, aid and remittances also affect the decision to migrate. We developed and estimated an empirical model of Turkish migration to Germany and tested the model for the 1969-2004, using the cointegration technique. A single cointegrating vector is found among the gross migration inflows and the following explanatory variables: the relative income ratio between Germany and Turk...

  9. Understanding physicians' response to AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, K M; Shapiro, M.; Skinner, H A; Eakin, J; Kelner, M

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to comprehend physicians' extreme reaction to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) have met with great difficulty since the disease brings into question traditional norms and assumptions. As the medical profession struggles to develop guidelines and policies to help it deal with this disease, it can draw on very little systematic research on the effect of AIDS on physicians' attitudes and practices. We suggest a framework developed from the literature on physicians' and society...

  10. Foreign aid and sustainable forestry

    OpenAIRE

    KAUPPI, PEKKA

    2013-01-01

    Foreign aid can contribute to sustainable forestry in many ways. The goal is to secure forest benefits of the future, without compromising the needs of the present generations. This paper elaborates on forestry aid as it has evolved in the past. Future directions are suggested, referring to short and midterm projects, as well as long-term programmes. Tree planting has worked in the past, and is an option for scaling up the activity in the future. Distributing fuel efficient cooking stoves cou...

  11. A Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) System Design for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist;

    2013-01-01

    A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations. The design framework contains a generic multidimensional modelling framework, a tool for gen...

  12. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  13. Theoretical explanation of electron paramagnetic resonance and optical parameters for Cu2+ ion in LiNbO3 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ravi; P Subramanian

    2007-08-01

    The EPR parameters, anisotropic -factors , and for Cu2+ ion and hyperfine structure constants , and for Cu2+ in LiNbO3 crystal are calculated by the method of diagonalizing the full Hamiltonian matrix. The crystal-field parameters contact with the crystal structure by the aid of the superposition model. The optical transition parameters are calculated using Zhao crystal-field model. The calculated results are in good agreement with the observed values. The results are discussed.

  14. Reinvestigation of growth of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; Nadkarni, V. S.

    2013-08-01

    The reaction of urea with thiosemicarbazide in 1:1 mole ratio in aqueous solution does not result in the formation of urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate crystal, as reported by Hanumantharao, Kalainathan and Bhagavannarayana [Spectrochim. Acta A91 (2012) 345-351]. A reinvestigation of the reported reaction reveals that the crystal obtained is the starting material namely thiosemicarbazide, which has been unambiguously confirmed with the aid of infrared and 1H NMR spectra and single crystal X-ray structure determination. Analysis of 1H NMR spectrum reveals that thiosemicarbazide exhibits thione-thiol tautomerism in solution. In contrast, thiosemicarbazide exists as the thione tautomer in the solid state.

  15. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  16. Lateral Ulnar Collateral ligament Lesions in patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: MR Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Farouk Aggag*and Ragy Tantawi Amin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work was to determine if a correlation between lateral epicondylitis and abnormalities of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament is found on MR imaging. Subjects and Methods. The Study group comprised 50 consecutive patients who were referred for MR imaging to rule out lateral epicondylitis. On MR imaging "lateral epicondylitis" was defined as increased signal intensity of the extensor tendons close to their insertion on the lateral epicondylitis. The severity of the lateral epicondylitis was graded as mild, moderate or severe. The origin of the lateral colleteral ligamantous complex was characterized and the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was normal, thickened, partially torn or torn. Sixteen patients underwent elbow surgery after the initial MR examination. Results. In 15 patients, MR imaging revealed characteristics of mild lateral epicondylitis. In 13 of these patients the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was normal. One patient showed a thickened lateral ulnar collateral ligament and one patient had a thinned ligament. In 17 patients, MR imaging showed features of moderate lateral epicondylitis. One patient had a thinned ligament feature of moderate lateral epicondylitis. In 14 of these patients, the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was thickened and in the remaining three patients, the ligament was normal All eighteen patients with severe lateral epicondylitis showed abnormalities of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament on MR imaging. In two of these patients, the lateral ulnar collateral ligament was thickened. In Six patients we saw a partial tear, and in the remaining ten patients we saw a complete tear of the ligament. Conclusion. In our study, MR imaging features of lateral epicondylitis were offen associated with thickening and tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament and the frequency and severity of lateral ulnar collatered ligament lesions were directly related the severity (degree of lateral

  17. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  18. FOREIGN AID, AID UNCERTAINTY AND PRIVATE INVESTMENT IN WEST AFRICA: AN UNOBSERVED COUNTRY EFFECTS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    EBERECHUKWU UNEZE

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether foreign aid has any impact on private investment in West Africa, taking other determinants of private investment into account. Following from this, the paper investigates whether multilateral aid and bilateral aid affect private investment differently. In a related analysis, the paper examines the impact of aid uncertainty (aid volatility) on private investment. The results show that multilateral aid affects private investment positively, but not bilateral aid, and...

  19. Latest methods of fluorescence-based protein crystal identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence, whether intrinsic or by using trace fluorescent labeling, can be a powerful aid in macromolecule crystallization. Its use in screening for crystals is discussed here. Successful protein crystallization screening experiments are dependent upon the experimenter being able to identify positive outcomes. The introduction of fluorescence techniques has brought a powerful and versatile tool to the aid of the crystal grower. Trace fluorescent labeling, in which a fluorescent probe is covalently bound to a subpopulation (<0.5%) of the protein, enables the use of visible fluorescence. Alternatively, one can avoid covalent modification and use UV fluorescence, exploiting the intrinsic fluorescent amino acids present in most proteins. By the use of these techniques, crystals that had previously been obscured in the crystallization drop can readily be identified and distinguished from amorphous precipitate or salt crystals. Additionally, lead conditions that may not have been obvious as such under white-light illumination can be identified. In all cases review of the screening plate is considerably accelerated, as the eye can quickly note objects of increased intensity

  20. Security devices based on liquid crystals doped with a colour dye

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Vela, Carlos; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier; Otón, E.; Geday, Morten Andreas; Otón Sánchez, José Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Liquid crystal properties make them useful for the development of security devices in applications of authentication and detection of fakes. Induced orientation of liquid crystal molecules and birefringence are the two main properties used in security devices. Employing liquid crystal and dichroic colorants, we have developed devices that show, with the aid of a polarizer, multiple images on each side of the device. Rubbed polyimide is used as alignment layer on each substrate of the LC ce...

  1. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health > African-Americans Minority Women's Health HIV/AIDS Find HIV/AIDS Prevention & Service Providers GO Enter your location, such ... For more information on this widget, please visit AIDS.gov . Please contact contact@aids.gov with any ...

  2. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Prevention HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials (Last updated 9/15/2015; last reviewed 9/15/2015) Key Points HIV/AIDS clinical ... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help ...

  3. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  4. 30 CFR 57.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 57.18010 Section 57.18010 Mineral... Underground § 57.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all... aid training shall be made available to all interested miners....

  5. 29 CFR 1915.98 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid...

  6. 7 CFR 15b.37 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary...

  7. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  8. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26758166

  9. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  10. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  11. Radiographic evaluation of AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V. [Miami Univ., FL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1995-09-01

    Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts.

  12. Development of a lateral PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Karl; Kronberger, Hermann; Fafilek, Guenter [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Technology Vienna, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytic/EC 164, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Loibl, Helmut; Schlauf, Thomas [FOTEC Forschungs und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pallanits, Josef [HTP High Tech Plastics AG, A-7201 Neudoerfl (Austria); Gornik, Christian [Battenfeld Kunststoffmaschinen GmbH, Wiener Neustaedterstrasse 81, A-2542 Kottingbrunn (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard [ECHEM Center of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Viktor Kaplanstr.2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Vienna, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Waehringerstr. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-06-15

    A novel lateral PEM fuel cell was developed. The anodes and cathodes are situated nearby each other on a polymer electrolyte membrane. The transport of the protons takes place in a lateral way in the membrane. All manufacturing steps of the lateral PEM fuel cell were designed to meet the requirements of mass production. The base plate being the central part was made by means of polymer micro injection moulding. (author)

  13. Computer-Aided Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Computer-aided methods and tools have the potential to reduce the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and there is a benefit of working...... development and application. The proposed work is a part of the project for development of methods and tools that will allow systematic generation, analysis and solution of models for various objectives. It will use the computer-aided modeling framework that is based on a modeling methodology, which combines....... In this contribution, the concept of template-based modeling is presented and application is highlighted for the specific case of catalytic membrane fixed bed models. The modeling template is integrated in a generic computer-aided modeling framework. Furthermore, modeling templates enable the idea of model reuse...

  14. Reading and Spelling Abilities of Deaf Adolescents with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret; Terlektsi, Emmanouela

    2011-01-01

    A total of 86 deaf children aged between 12 and 16 years were recruited from schools for the deaf, specialist units attached to a school, and mainstream schools. Approximately one-third used hearing aids, one-third had received a cochlear implant before 42 months, and one-third had been implanted later. The 3 subgroups were matched for age and…

  15. Computer aided diagnosis in digital chest radiography: evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giuseppe; Ferdeghini, Ezio Maria; Paterni, Marco; Tonelli, Lucia; Bauleo, Carolina; Monti, Simonetta; Miniati, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided quantitative analysis of chest radiographs is a useful tool in describing alterations in lung shape that occur in patients with emphysema. In the present study, the analysis was limited to the lateral chest radiograph, but we expect that the use of the postero-anterior view may further improve the rate of correct classification.

  16. Photonic crystal fibres in the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Laurila, Marko; Noordegraaf, Danny;

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) emerged as a research topic in the mid 1990'ies [1]. Today, 15 years later, these fibres are increasing deployed in various commercial markets. Here, we will address three of these markets; medical imaging, materials processing and sensors. We will describe how...... the PCFs provide radical improvements and illustrate the strong diversity in the evolution of PCFs to serve these different markets....

  17. Diffusion-Mediated Synthesis of MoS2/WS2 Lateral Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Kevin; Liu, Song; Chesin, Jordan; Titow, Denis; Gradečak, Silvija; Garaj, Slaven

    2016-08-10

    Controlled growth of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) lateral heterostructures would enable on-demand tuning of electronic and optoelectronic properties in this new class of materials. Prior to this work, compositional modulations in lateral TMD heterostructures have been considered to depend solely on the growth chronology. We show that in-plane diffusion can play a significant role in the chemical vapor deposition of MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures leading to a variety of nontrivial structures whose composition does not necessarily follow the growth order. Optical, structural, and compositional studies of TMD crystals captured at different growth temperatures and in different diffusion stages suggest that compositional mixing versus segregation are favored at high and low growth temperatures, respectively. The observed diffusion mechanism will expand the realm of possible lateral heterostructures, particularly ones that cannot be synthesized using traditional methods. PMID:27438807

  18. Changing the Course of AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2010-01-01

    accounts of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment to consist of explanations of sexual practices or of biomedical details that would not be readily accessible to the general reader. But despite its somewhat misleading, overly ambitious, and functionalist title, Dickinson's book should interest all students...... of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage...

  19. Aid Volatility and Poverty Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Joshua Aizenman

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of aid volatility in a two-period model where production may occur with either a traditional or a modern technology. Public spending is productive and "time to build" requires expenditure in both periods for the modern technology to be used. The possibility of a poverty trap induced by high aid volatility is first examined in a benchmark case where taxation is absent. The analysis is then extended to account for self insurance (taking the form of a first-period c...

  20. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  1. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...

  2. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  3. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal with initial transmission T0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  4. Crystallization and crystal properties of squid rhodopsin

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Midori; Kitahara, Rei; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    Truncated rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was extracted and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution.

  5. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  6. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco;

    2010-01-01

    may lead to large lateral responses. Several recently published load models are based on this assumption. Yet, few experimental studies exist to support this hypothesis. Therefore, an extensive experimental campaign, involving 71 test subjects, has been carried out to determine the lateral forces...... of correlated pedestrian forces in the form of "negative damping" that can be generated at all frequencies....

  7. Sensor data fusion for lateral safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A; Floudas, N.; Polychronopoulos, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, B. van den; Oechsle, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms that are being developed for the perception layer of the PReVENT subproject LATERAL SAFE. These algorithms aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, present at the lateral and rear field of the ego-vehicle. The work presented

  8. Naphthyl azomesogens with lateral chloro groups†

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; H M Pandya; N L Bonde

    2004-06-01

    A homologous series of azomesogens, 2"-[4-(4'--alkoxybenzoyloxy)-2-chlorophenylazo] naphthalenes, with lateral chloro groups was synthesised. All the homologues synthesized exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. The mesomorphic properties of the present series are compared with other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of lateral chloro group and its position on mesomorphism.

  9. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  10. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  11. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  12. A Hearing Aid Primer 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This hearing aid primer is designed to define the differences among the three levels of hearing instrument technology: conventional analog circuit technology (most basic), digitally programmable/analog circuit technology (moderately advanced), and fully digital technology (most advanced). Both moderate and advanced technologies mean that hearing…

  13. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  14. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  15. A Checklist of Aid Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Getting the mountains of earthquake relief supplies from the point of arrival at Shuangliu Airport,a major distribution hub for domestic and international aid provision in Chengdu, capital of quake-hit Sichuan Province,to the far reaches of the devastated countryside is no mean feat.It is a systematic process that

  16. Laser-aided plasma diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donne, A. J. H.; Barth, C. J.; Weisen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Laser-aided diagnostics are widely applied in the field of high-temperature plasma diagnostics for a large variety of measurements. Incoherent Thomson scattering is used for highly localized measurements of the electron temperature and density in the plasma. Coherent Thomson scattering yields inform

  17. An Interactive Aid to Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersting, John M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A brief nontechnical description of time-sharing computer software developed at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis as an aid in disseminating class schedule information. Design criteria include maintenance of a data base on sections offered, display of sections closed, and creation of reports on in individual schedules for closed…

  18. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  19. Echelle spectrograph software design aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzler, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for mapping, to first order, the spectrograms that result from echelle spectrographic systems is discussed. An in-depth description of the principles behind the method are given so that software may be generated. Such software is an invaluable echelle spectrograph design aid. Results from two applications are discussed.

  20. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  1. Artistic Crystal Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In this inquiry-based, integrative art and science activity, Grade 5-8 students use multicolored Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) crystallizing solutions to reveal beautiful, cylindrical, 3-dimensional, needle-shaped structures. Through observations of the crystal art, students analyze factors that contribute to crystal size and formation, compare…

  2. Computer Aided Aerodynamic Design of Missile Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Panneerselvam

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic configurations of tactical missiles have to produce the required lateral force with minimum time lag to meet the required manoeuvability and response time. The present design which is mainly based on linearised potential flow involves (a indentification of critical design points, (b design of lifting components and their integration with mutual interference, (c evaluation of aerodynamic characteristics, (d checking its adequacy at otherpoints, (e optimization of parameters and selection of configuration, and (f detailed evaluation including aerodynamic pressure distribution. Iterative design process in involed because of the mutual dependance between aerodynamic charactertistics and the parameters of the configuration. though this design method is based on third level of approximation with respect to real flow, aid of computer is essential for carrying out the iterative design process and also for effective selection of configuration by analysing performance. Futuristic design requirement which demand better accuracy on design and estimation calls for sophisticated super computer based theoretical methods viz. , full Euler solution/Navier-Strokes solutions.

  3. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  4. An Array of One-Dimensional Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal Reflector Islands for a Far-Infrared Image Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jie; XU Shao-Hui; WANG Lian-Wei; CHU Jun-Hao; CAO Zhi-Shen; ZHAN Peng; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the aid of photolithography, an array of one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal reflector islands for a far infrared image detector ranging from 10μm to 14μm is successfully fabricated. Silicon nitride formed by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) was used as the masking layer for the island array formation. After etching, the microstructures were examined by a scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the result indicates that the multilayer structure could be obtained in the perpendicular direction via periodically alternative etching current in each pre-patteru. At the same time, the island array has a well-proportioned lateral etching effect, which is very useful for the thermal isolation in lateral orientation of the application in devices. It is concluded that regardless of the absorption of the deposition layer on the substrate, the localized photonic crystalline islands have higher reflectivity. The designed islands structure not only prevents the cracking of the porous silicon layers but is also useful for the application in the cold part for the sensor devices and the interconnection of each pixel.

  5. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  6. Experiments and analysis of lateral piezoresistance gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M.K.W.

    1993-07-01

    The response of lateral piezoresistance gauges to shock wave uniaxial strain loading has been examined in a combined experimental and calculational effort. Plate impact experiments provided lateral gauge data which were analyzed using quasi-static and dynamic inclusion analyses. Experimental data showed that the response of the lateral gauge output depended upon the matrix material and gauge emplacement method. The calculations indicated that these differences were due to complex gauge-matrix interactions. These interactions were influenced by the stress and strain distributions in and around the gauge, plasticity effects, properties of the gauge and matrix materials, and emplacement conditions.

  7. Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong

    2014-08-01

    Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.

  8. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Wook; Yun, Byung Min

    2016-07-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  9. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Lateral Canthoplasty to Lengthen the Lateral Canthal Angle and Correct the Outer Tail of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Byung Min

    2016-01-01

    There are many women who want larger and brighter eyes that will give a favorable impression. Surgical methods that make the eye larger and brighter include double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, as well as lateral canthoplasty. Double eyelidplasty produces changes in the vertical dimension of the eyes, whereas epicanthoplasty and lateral canthoplasty create changes in the horizontal dimension of the eyes. Epicanthoplasty, a surgical procedure which enlarges the eye horizontally, is performed at the inner corner of the eye, whereas lateral canthoplasty enlarges the outer edge of the eye. In particular, if the slant of the palpebral fissure is raised and the horizontal dimension of the palpebral fissure is short, adjusting the slant of the palpebral fissure through lateral canthoplasty can achieve an enlargement of eye width and smoother features. Depending on the patient's condition, even better results can be achieved if this procedure is performed in conjunction with other procedures, such as double eyelidplasty, epicanthoplasty, eye roll formation surgery, fat graft, and facial bone contouring surgery. In this paper, the authors will introduce in detail their surgical method for a cosmetic lateral canthoplasty that lengthens the lateral canthal angle and corrects the outer tail of the eyes, in order to ease the unfavorable impression. PMID:27462564

  10. Cooler for obtaining crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabric, B.; Danilovic, N. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 60, 34000 Kragujevac (RS); Pavlovic, T. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (RS)

    2011-03-15

    A modular air-cooled tube, with a series of movable Tamman test tubes or plugs (modular unilateral and bilateral ''crystallization comb''), installed in a laboratory tube furnace is presented. The setup allows easy regulation and simultaneous crystallization tests of a series of different crystallization parameters in crucible columns, enabling rapid acquisition of crystals. The relationship between the crystallization parameters has been given and numerically analyzed. This method can also be applied in crucible and chamber furnaces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Shear-horizontal Vibrations of Crystal Plates for Acoustic Wave Resonators and Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, theoretical analysis of shear-horizontal vibrations of crystal plates under lateral electric field excitation (LFE) without and with a fluid layer is presented. A crystal plate with separated electrodes under thickness electric field excitation (TFE) in contact with a fluid layer is also analyzed.We have started with analyzing the coupled face-shear (FS) and thickness-twist (TT) motions of piezoelectric plates with lateral electric fields, using the Mindlin's first-order theory ...

  12. Welding Molecular Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, Cyril R R; Ferlay, Sylvie; Kyritsakas, Nathalie; Hosseini, Mir Wais

    2015-12-16

    Both for fundamental and applied sciences, the design of complex molecular systems in the crystalline phase with strict control of order and periodicity at both microscopic and macroscopic levels is of prime importance for development of new solid-state materials and devices. The design and fabrication of complex crystalline systems as networks of crystals displaying task-specific properties is a step toward smart materials. Here we report on isostructural and almost isometric molecular crystals of different colors, their use for fabrication of core-shell crystals, and their welding by 3D epitaxial growth into networks of crystals as single-crystalline entities. Welding of crystals by self-assembly processes into macroscopic networks of crystals is a powerful strategy for the design of hierarchically organized periodic complex architectures composed of different subdomains displaying targeted characteristics. Crystal welding may be regarded as a first step toward the design of new hierarchically organized complex crystalline systems. PMID:26581391

  13. Aid effectiveness in education sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Mumtaz Anwar; Aman, Sughra

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of sector-specific foreign aid given to education sector and aggregate foreign aid on the national educational outcomes of Pakistan, respectively.

  14. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  15. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  16. HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but Prevention Is ... than 30 years since a disease now called AIDS was first recognized in the United States. Back ...

  17. Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newsletter | contact Share | Object in Eye or Skin, First Aid A A A A splinter is considered a ... and should be conducted while awaiting medical assistance. First Aid Guide In the case of a foreign object ...

  18. World AIDS Day: a time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP) used World AIDS Day 1993 and its theme "A Time to Act" as an opportunity to focus attention on the urgency of the struggle against AIDS. Some of the events AIDSCAP promoted included the release of hundreds of balloons inscribed with the message "Think: AIDS is Still Here" in Haiti, where a major radio station also devoted all of the day's advertising time to HIV/AIDS prevention messages; the distribution of 500,000 condoms as inserts in a major Brazilian newspaper; and a 15-km walk in Ethiopia undertaken by thousands of people to promote AIDS prevention. While such events are not expected to have a measurable impact on the epidemic, they could instigate the long-term efforts to create a social environment conducive to HIV prevention through individual behavior change. The theme chosen for the 1994 World AIDS Day is "AIDS and the Family." PMID:12345905

  19. Strategy for AIDS Prevention and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has been circulating in China for over 25 year. While making progress and achievements on HIV/AIDS prevention, there still are great challenge and difficulties such as HIV epidemic controlling and vaccine research.

  20. UN Says AIDS Crisis Is Getting Worse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 邹国如

    2004-01-01

    The fifteenth International AIDS Conference ends Fridav in Bangkok, Thailand.There has not been much good news. In fact,the United Nations AIDS program reported last week that the crisis (危机) is getting worse.

  1. Video art and AIDS: artists shouting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, B

    1996-01-01

    Video art in AIDS activism can be used in many formats, such as public service announcements, documentaries, and investigative reporting. Some public service announcements have been trendy, using an MTV-type format and involving diverse characters and situations. Other forms of video art are more commemorative, humanizing AIDS and persons living with AIDS. These cultural practices need to be continued to present the struggle against AIDS. PMID:11363330

  2. Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Achilles Tendon Bursitis Achilles Tendon Enthesopathy Bunion Corns and Calluses Damage ... the Foot Freiberg Disease Hammer Toe Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerve Entrapment Metatarsal Joint ...

  3. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    few national and international codes of practice and official design guidelines currently exist to help the designer address this issue. Most of these are based on the main hypothesis, that pedestrian-induced lateral loads can be modelled as velocity proportional or as negative dampers, resulting from...... sufficient experimental evidence to support their applicability. Especially, the importance of human-structure synchronisation for the development of large footbridge vibrations is questionable. Therefore, an extensive experimental campaign has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated...... by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...

  4. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  5. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  6. Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159416.html Teen Obesity May Mean Liver Disease Later Study found risk ... Overweight is defined as a BMI above 25. Obesity is defined as a BMI above 30, according ...

  7. The National Report--Five Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Six theme articles assess the impact five years later of the National Academy of Sciences report, "Understanding Agriculture." Topics discussed include strategic planning, agricultural education's mission, teacher education, policy research needs, and agricultural literacy. (SK)

  8. LATERAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF HIGH RISE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADITYA .S. RAMDASI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High rise building can be one that by virtue of its height is affected by lateral forces due to Wind and Earthquake or sometimes both. Therefore it becomes necessary to consider the effects of lateral loads induced from wind and earthquake in design of high rise structures. The objective of this paper is to assess comparative effects of lateral loads like wind and earthquake. For this purpose, typical multistory buildings of different heights are chosen in predominant wind zone. Here the Base Shear and storey displacements are compared for both the lateral loads for buildings with G+11, G+15, and G+21 story’s with and without Shear wall using software’s

  9. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile primary lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (3 links) Motor Neurone Disease Association (UK) Muscular Dystrophy Association National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 link) ALS2-Related Disorders Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ...

  10. Upper blepharoplasty and lateral wound dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment, tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  11. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  12. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more f...

  13. Discoid lateral meniscus and its arthroscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Asik, Mehmet; Sen, Cengiz; Dikici, Fatih; Sozen, Yunus V.; Taser, Omer F.; Alturfan, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in patients with lateral discoid menisci of the knee. Methods: Lateral discoid menisci were documented in 274 patients, of whom 183 patients (110 males, 73 females; mean age 34.8 years; range 6-67 years) were clinically and arthroscopically found to be symptomatic and underwent total, subtotal, or partial meniscectomy. The most common complaints were pain, lurch, feeling of giving way, locking, limited extension, and marked ...

  14. Lateral phase separation of confined membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Mesfin

    2010-01-01

    We consider membranes interacting via short, intermediate and long stickers. The effects of the intermediate stickers on the lateral phase separation of the membranes are studied via mean-field approximation. The critical potential depth of the stickers increases in the presence of the intermediate sticker. The lateral phase separation of the membrane thus suppressed by the intermediate stickers. Considering membranes interacting with short and long stickers, the effect of confinement on the ...

  15. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia.......This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  16. Lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele : a rare anomaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty D

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele is a rare spinal developmental anomaly. In the case under report, the fat attached to the neural placode was blending with the gluteal fat externally. The cord was tethered at this level. Multiple bony anomalies and diastematomyelia were associated findings. A case of lateral sacral lipomyelomeningocele with excellent imaging detail provided by the multiplanar magnetic resonance (MR scan is reported.

  17. Lateral shear interferometry with holo shear lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joenathan, C.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sirohi, R. S.

    1984-12-01

    A simple method for obtaining lateral shear using holo shear lenses (HSL) has been discussed. This simple device which produces lateral shears in the orthogonal directions has been used for lens testing. The holo shear lens is placed at or near the focus of the lens to be tested. It has also been shown that HSL can be used in speckle shear interferometry as it performs both the functions of shearing and imaging.

  18. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  19. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without co...

  20. Social Determinants of Depression in Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schaan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation thesis adds to the understanding of the social etiology of depression in later life from a theory based, empirical perspective. By means of three different research questions, the essays of this dissertation shed light on the social causes of depression from different angles: the associations between widowhood and depression as well as retirement and depression are used as examples for the impact of critical life events on mental health in later life. A third research que...

  1. Numerical Modeling of Laterally Loaded Piles

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Kok; B. B.k. Huat

    2008-01-01

    Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and piles response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the ca...

  2. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Meuleman, J.H.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2013-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to

  3. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  4. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  5. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  6. Mass Media Use and Knowledge of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Carolyn A.; Seltzer, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Examines the associations between media use and knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Explores how media consumption is related to attitudes toward AIDS and policy issues pertaining to AIDS. Finds newspaper users better informed than television viewers. Finds television news users more likely to be misinformed than frequent…

  7. State Aid for Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines differences among undergraduates who attended postsecondary education in states that provide different levels of state student financial aid. Describes aid types and sources, the price of college attendance, and personal characteristics of students. Also considers undergraduates' probability of attending institutions in high-aid or…

  8. Making the UK's aid budget work better

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Boone

    2010-01-01

    All the UK's major parties agree on ring-fencing foreign aid spending at current levels, even while the country's dire financial situation requires sharp cuts to other budgets. Peter Boone draws on the evidence on aid effectiveness to argue that our focus should not be on the amount we spend but rather on making aid work better.

  9. VISUAL AIDS HANDBOOK FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARIBALDI, VIRGINIA; STRASHEIM, LORRAINE A.

    TEACHERS ARE SHOWN HOW TO CONSTRUCT AND USE THEIR OWN VISUAL AIDS FOR ILLUSTRATING USEFUL BUT DIFFICULT EXPRESSIONS COMMON TO ALL LANGUAGES. SUCH SPECIFIC AIDS AS PROPS, REALIA, FLASHCARDS, CHARTS, FLANNEL AND MAGNETIC BOARDS, POCKET CHARTS, PUPPETS, DRILL CUING DEVICES, AND CULTURALLY ORIENTED VISUAL AIDS ARE DESCRIBED. LISTS OF PROFESSIONAL…

  10. Observations from One Champion of AIDS Orphans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUJIA

    2004-01-01

    ON December 1, 2003,the CCTV program News Research aired a special feature on AIDS orphans at the Love and Care Family AIDS orphanage. The public attention this raised brought large social donations for the orphanage and signaled greater public efforts to help AIDS orphans.

  11. 21 CFR 874.3300 - Hearing Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing Aid. 874.3300 Section 874.3300 Food and... EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3300 Hearing Aid. (a) Identification. A hearing aid is wearable sound-amplifying device that is intended to compensate for impaired hearing....

  12. 30 CFR 56.18010 - First aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 56.18010 Section 56.18010 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Programs § 56.18010 First aid. An individual capable of providing first aid shall be available on all shifts. The individual...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting...

  14. 45 CFR 707.10 - Auxiliary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary aids. 707.10 Section 707.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT OF... § 707.10 Auxiliary aids. (a) The Agency shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids where necessary...

  15. 27 CFR 24.243 - Filtering aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filtering aids. 24.243... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.243 Filtering aids. Inert fibers, pulps, earths, or similar materials, may be used as filtering aids in the cellar treatment...

  16. 9 CFR 113.2 - Testing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing aids. 113.2 Section 113.2... Testing aids. To better ensure consistent and reproducible test results when Standard Requirement tests... Agriculture, may provide testing aids, when available, to licensees, permittees, and applicants for...

  17. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  18. Does Foreign Aid Impede Foreign Investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Beladi, Hamid; Reza OLADI

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of foreign aid on foreign investment when foreign aid is used to finance a public consumption good. By formulating and analyzing a three-good general equilibrium model, we show that such foreign aid could crowd out foreign investment, given a factor intensity condition.

  19. The water footprint of food aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Nicole; Konar, Megan; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Food aid is a critical component of the global food system, particularly when emergency situations arise. For the first time, we evaluate the water footprint of food aid. To do this, we draw on food aid data from theWorld Food Programme and virtual water content estimates from WaterStat. We find tha

  20. Engineering crystal growth of calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikiric, M.; Babic-Ivancic, V. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia); Milat, O. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Inst. za Fiziku; Sarig, S.; Fueredi-Milhofer, H. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The factors underlying calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate (CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, DCPD) interactions with several structurally different additives: glutamic and aspartic acid, sodium citrate, hexaammonium tetrapolyphosphate, calcium phytate and polyaspartic acid were studied. DCPD crystals were prepared under controlled conditions by fast mixing of the anionic and cationic reactant solutions and subsequent growth without further stirring in the course of 24 hours at 37 C. The initial conditions were c(CaCl{sub 2}) = c(Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) = 0.021 mol dm{sup -3}, c(NaCl) = 0.3 mol dm{sup -3}, pH{sub i} 5.5. The respective additive was added to the anionic component prior to pH adjustment. Crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, while their morphology was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Miller indices of the crystal faces were determined from SEM micrographs, after the orientation of the most prominent face was ascertained by the Weissenberg method. Mechanism of additive-DCPD crystals interaction depends on size and structure of additive molecule, structural fit between organic molecule and the ionic structure of particular crystal face. Small molecules (ions) specifically adsorb on lateral faces by electrostatic interactions, while macromolecules and molecules with hindered structure specifically adsorb on dominant (010) face, for which certain degree of structural fit is necessary. (orig.)

  1. MELTING CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF NYLON 66

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-xin Zhang; Zhi-shen Mo

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of nylon 66 was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The commonly used Avrami equation and that modified by Jeziorny were used, respectively, to fit the primary stage of isothermal and nonisothermal crystallizations of nylon 66. In the isothermal crystallization process, mechanisms of spherulitic nucleation and growth were discussed. The lateral and folding surface free energies determined from the Lauritzen-Hoffman treatment are σ= 9.77 erg/cm2 and σe = 155.48 erg/cm2, respectively; and the work of chain folding is q = 33.14 kJ/mol. The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of nylon 66 was analyzed by using the Mo method combined with the Avrami and Ozawa equations. The average Avrami exponent n was determined to be 3.45. The activation energies (ΔE) were determined to be -485.45 kJ/mol and -331.27 kJ/mol, respectively, for the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization processes by the Arrhenius and the Kissinger methods.

  2. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magat, Maria; Brown, Culum

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization refers to the division of information processing in either hemisphere of the brain and is a ubiquitous trait among vertebrates and invertebrates. Given its widespread occurrence, it is likely that cerebral lateralization confers a fitness advantage. It has been hypothesized that this advantage takes the form of enhanced cognitive function, potentially via a dual processing mechanism whereby each hemisphere can be used to process specific types of information without contralateral interference. Here, we examined the influence of lateralization on problem solving by Australian parrots. The first task, a pebble-seed discrimination test, was designed for small parrot species that feed predominately on small seeds, which do not require any significant manipulation with the foot prior to ingestion. The second task, a string-pull problem, was designed for larger bodied species that regularly use their feet to manipulate food objects. In both cases, strongly lateralized individuals (those showing significant foot and eye biases) outperformed less strongly lateralized individuals, and this relationship was substantially stronger in the more demanding task. These results suggest that cerebral lateralization is a ubiquitous trait among Australian parrots and conveys a significant foraging advantage. Our results provide strong support for the enhanced cognitive function hypothesis.

  3. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...... networks, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and cognitive radio. Location based approaches are found to allevi- ate significant signaling overhead in various forms of modern communication paradigms that are very information hungry in terms of channel state information at the transmitter...

  4. Alignment technology and applications of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Takatoh, Kohki; Hasegawa, Ray; Koden, Mitsushiro; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignme...

  5. Aid instability as a measure of uncertainty and the positive impact of aid on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Morrissey, O

    2000-01-01

    This article contributes to the literature on aid and economic growth. We posit that uncertainty, measured as the instability of aid receipts, will influence the relationship between aid and investment, how recipient governments respond to aid, and will capture the fact that some countries are espec

  6. Diffuse small bowel thickening in aids patient - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Samriti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is common in HIV/AIDS patients, caused by both classic enteric pathogens and different opportunistic agents. Infection with these different pathogens may lead to similar radiological findings, thus causing diagnostic confusion. Case presentation A 30-yr-old female with AIDS presented with chronic diarrhea of 4 months duration. She had diffuse small bowel thickening present on CT scan of her abdomen, with stool examination showing no parasites. She was erroneously diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis and given antituberculosis drugs with which she showed no improvement. Repeat stool examination later at a specialized laboratory revealed Cryptosporidium parvum infection. The patient was given an extended course of nitazoxanide treatment, as her stool examination was positive for Cryptosporidium parvum even after 2 weeks of drug consumption. Parasite clearance was documented after 10 weeks of treatment. Interestingly, the bowel thickening reversed with parasitological clearance. Conclusions Cryptosporidium parvum may lead to small bowel thickening in AIDS patients. This small bowel thickening may reverse following parasitological clearance.

  7. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine H. N. Ng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  8. Crystallization Kinetics of Organic–Inorganic Trihalide Perovskites and the Role of the Lead Anion in Crystal Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, David T.

    2015-02-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Methylammonium lead halide perovskite solar cells continue to excite the research community due to their rapidly increasing performance which, in large part, is due to improvements in film morphology. The next step in this progression is control of the crystal morphology which requires a better fundamental understanding of the crystal growth. In this study we use in situ X-ray scattering data to study isothermal transformations of perovskite films derived from chloride, iodide, nitrate, and acetate lead salts. Using established models we determine the activation energy for crystallization and find that it changes as a function of the lead salt. Further analysis enabled determination of the precursor composition and showed that the primary step in perovskite formation is removal of excess organic salt from the precursor. This understanding suggests that careful choice of the lead salt will aid in controlling crystal growth, leading to superior films and better performing solar cells.

  9. Does foreign aid harm political institutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The notion that foreign aid harms the institutions of recipient governments remains prevalent. We combine new disaggregated aid data and various metrics of political institutions to re-examine this relationship. Long-run cross-section and alternative dynamic panel estimators show a small positive...... net effect of total aid on political institutions. Distinguishing between types of aid according to their frequency domain and stated objectives, we find this aggregate net effect is driven primarily by the positive contribution of more stable inflows of ‘governance aid’. We conclude the data do...... not support the view that aid has had a systematic negative effect on political institutions....

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo [Pundang CHA Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  11. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  12. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  13. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Edward H [Biophysics Group, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Code XD42, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Helliwell, John R [Department of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  14. Photonic Crystal Waveguide Fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Høvik, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This research is entirely devoted to the study and fabrication of structures with periodic dielectric constants, also known as photonic crystals (PhCs). These structures show interesting dispersion characteristics which give them a range of prohibited frequencies that are not allowed to propagate within the crystal. This property makes them suited for a wide array of photonic-based components. One-dimensional photonic crystals are already commercialized and are of widespread use in for exampl...

  15. Ion Coulomb Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Ion Coulomb crystals (ICC), formed by atomic ions at low temperatures in radiofrequency and Penning ion traps, are structures that have remarkable properties and many applications. Images of Coulomb crystals are striking and reveal the crystal structure, which arises from a balance between the trapping forces acting on the ions and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. Applications of these structures range from frequency standards and quantum simulation through to measurement of the cross sections of chemical reactions of ions.

  16. Holographic liquid crystal devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pavani, Kotakonda, (Thesis)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals have become natural candidates for use in electro-optic devices for their ability to change the orientation of the director with the application of an electric field, and exhibiting large range of refractive index. The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to fabricate liquid crystal optoelectronic devices such as electrically switchable liquid crystal diffraction gratings and polarization rotators by exploiting the holographic surface relief effect in photopolymer and b...

  17. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  18. Lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticulum: anatomical and videofluoroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Milton Melciades Barbosa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Laboratorio de Motilidade Digestiva e Imagem, S. F1-008, Departamento de Anatomia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Koch, Hilton Augusto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro ICB/CCS/UFRJ, Departamento de Radiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The aims were to characterize the anatomical region where the lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion occurs and to define if this protrusion is a normal or a pathological entity. This protrusion was observed on frontal contrasted radiographs as an addition image on the upper portion of the laryngopharynx. We carried out a plane-by-plane qualitative anatomical study through macroscopic and mesoscopic surgical dissection on 12 pieces and analyzed through a videofluoroscopic method on frontal incidence the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing process of 33 patients who had a lateral laryngopharyngeal protrusion. The anatomical study allowed us to identify the morphological characteristics that configure the high portion of the piriform recess as a weak anatomical point. The videofluoroscopic study allowed us to observe the laryngopharyngeal protrusion and its relation to pharyngeal repletion of the contrast medium. All kinds of the observed protrusions could be classified as ''lateral laryngopharyngeal diverticula.'' The lateral diverticula were more frequent in older people. These lateral protrusions can be found on one or both sides, usually with a small volume, without sex or side prevalence. This formation is probably a sign of a pharyngeal transference difficulty associated with a deficient tissue resistance in the weak anatomical point of the high portion of the piriform recess. (orig.)

  19. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  20. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  1. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  2. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  3. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  4. Crystal Packing Analysis of Rhodopsin Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodowski, D.T.; Salom, D.; Trong, I.Le; Teller, D.C.; Ballesteros, J.A.; Palczewski, K.; Stenkamp, R.E.; /Basel U. /Texas U. /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-10

    Oligomerization has been proposed as one of several mechanisms to regulate the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), but little is known about the structure of GPCR oligomers. Crystallographic analyses of two new crystal forms of rhodopsin reveal an interaction surface which may be involved in the formation of functional dimers or oligomers. New crystallization conditions lead to the formation of two crystal forms with similar rhodopsin-rhodopsin interactions, but changes in the crystal lattice are induced by the addition of different surfactant additives. However, the intermolecular interactions between rhodopsin molecules in these crystal structures may reflect the contacts necessary for the maintenance of dimers or oligomers in rod outer segment membranes. Similar contacts may assist in the formation of dimers or oligomers in other GPCRs as well. These new dimers are compared with other models proposed by crystallography or EM and AFM studies. The inter-monomer surface contacts are different for each model, but several of these models coincide in implicating helix I, II, and H-8 as contributors to the main contact surface stabilizing the dimers.

  5. Staging the use of teaching aids in the development of manipulation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; McGregor, Marion; Dinulos, Maricelle; Tran, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Skill development in manual therapies is influenced by a number of factors. The effects of the training program organization, mentor coaching, feedback in various forms, and electromechanical training aids are factors that have been studied. A significant gap exists in understanding when teaching aids might be most effective within a defined curriculum structure. This project used the ratio of instructional theory and laboratory practice to define the learning context. An electromechanical training aid (Dynadjust™) was introduced at different stages (year 2 and year 4) of training for high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation. Learners were assigned to either the Aid group or the NoAid group. Independent assessment of skill was evaluated before and after 6 weeks by means of recording force-time profiles of HVLA performance. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated change scores in the force amplitude and rate of rise in force. Program features were dominated by a low ratio of laboratory practice to didactic foundational education components. Use of the aid was not associated with any measurable gains for participants when used in year 2. Later participation in year 4 suggested enhanced development in rate of rise for force (p < 0.0597) and for peak force (p < 0.0303). Careful attention should be given to the sequencing of content and laboratory work in designing curricula for training programs. For programs using lower ratios of laboratory contact hours, teaching aids to augment practice may result in better performance gains when introduced later than if added early in the curriculum.

  6. ORTEP-III: Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot Program for crystal structure illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.N.; Johnson, C.K.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes a computer program for drawing crystal structure illustrations. Ball-and-stick type illustrations of a quality suitable for publication are produced with either spheres or thermal-motion probability ellipsoids on the atomic sites. The program can also produce stereoscopic pairs of illustrations which aid in the visualization of complex packing arrangements of atoms and thermal motion patterns. Interatomic distances, bond angles, and principal axes of thermal motion are also calculated to aid the structural study.

  7. EAS thermal neutron lateral and temporal distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Stenkin, Yu V; Petrukhin, A A; Shchegolev, O B; Stepanov, V I; Volchenko, V I; Yashin, I I; Zadeba, E A

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of EAS array (PRISMA-32) has been constructed on the base of NEVOD-DECOR experiment (MEPhI,Moscow) and is now taking data. It consists of 32 specially designed scintillator en-detectors able to measure two main EAS components: hadrons (n) and electrons (e). First results on thermal neutron lateral as well as temporal distributions are presented. Obtained exponential neutron lateral distributions are consistent with that expected for normal hadron production with exponential transverse momentum distribution. As there are no other experimental data on thermal neutron distributions and so, to compare results with other measurements, we additionally obtained electron lateral distribution function (using the same detectors) and compared it with NKG - function. Recorded neutron temporal distributions are very close to that obtained with data of our previous prototypes.

  8. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    The earliest scientific descriptions of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations are dated back to the 1970s, but it was not until the beginning of the new millennium that bridge engineers fully comprehended the potential negative effect of pedestrian crowds on long-span footbridges...... of studies related to pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges is provided, primarily focusing on studies published within the last decade. Research in this field can generally be split into three categories; (i) fullscale testing of existing bridges subject to crowd loading, (ii) laboratory...... studies on human-structure interaction between single pedestrians and laterally moving platforms and (iii) mathematical modelling of the pedestrian-induced load. It is shown herein, that a significant amount of research has been carried out within each of the three categories, but there is only limited...

  9. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  10. Stress and laterality - The comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Korte, S Mechiel; Peterburs, Jutta; Wolf, Oliver T; Güntürkün, Onur

    2016-10-01

    Functional hemispheric asymmetries can vary over time and steroid hormones have been shown to be one of the factors that can modulate them. Research into this matter has mainly focused on sex steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestogens), although there is increasing evidence that glucocorticoids which are related to the body's response to stress (e.g. cortisol or corticosterone) might also modulate functional hemispheric asymmetries. Here, we review studies in humans and non-human model species investigating the relation of stress and laterality. Results indicate a dual relationship of the two parameters. Both acute and chronic stress can affect different forms of lateralization in the human brain, often (but not always) resulting in greater involvement of the right hemisphere. Moreover, lateralization as a form of functional brain architecture can also represent a protective factor against adverse effects of stress. PMID:27321757

  11. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  12. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Keidser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.

  13. Computer-aided lens assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-20

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet. PMID:14765916

  14. Computer aided Warship Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Arora

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided warship stability assessment, software program effectively puts a ship stability expert onboard and provides ship board personnel with a rapid and accurate means to assess changes in vessel's stability. These changes may be :Routine - as the ship is loaded/unloaded in harbour or due to consumables enroute.Emergency - when the ship suffers collision/battle damage underway and begins to take on water.After assessing the stability status, the program helps the crew to determine the actions needed to restore optimum stability.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of recombinant human galectin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Stacy A. [Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Scott, Ken [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Blanchard, Helen, E-mail: h.blanchard@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2007-11-01

    Human galectin-1 has been cloned, expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of both lactose (ligand) and β-mercaptoethanol under six different conditions. The X-ray diffraction data obtained have enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for two novel crystal forms of human galectin-1. Galectin-1 is considered to be a regulator protein as it is ubiquitously expressed throughout the adult body and is responsible for a broad range of cellular regulatory functions. Interest in galectin-1 from a drug-design perspective is founded on evidence of its overexpression by many cancers and its immunomodulatory properties. The development of galectin-1-specific inhibitors is a rational approach to the fight against cancer because although galectin-1 induces a plethora of effects, null mice appear normal. X-ray crystallographic structure determination will aid the structure-based design of galectin-1 inhibitors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of human galectin-1 crystals generated under six different conditions is reported. X-ray diffraction data enabled the assignment of unit-cell parameters for crystals grown under two conditions, one belongs to a tetragonal crystal system and the other was determined as monoclinic P2{sub 1}, representing two new crystal forms of human galectin-1.

  16. Realtime vision-based lateral drift correction

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, T; Pajarola, R.

    2009-01-01

    A major drawback in many robotics projects is the dependance on a specific environment and the otherwise uncertain behavior of the hardware. Simple navigation tasks like driving in a straight line can lead to a strong lateral drift over time in an unknown environment. In this paper we propose a fast and simple solution for the lateral drift problem for vision guided robots by real-time scene analysis. Without an environment-specific calibration of the robot’s drive system, we balance the ...

  17. Conservation as a ‘Later Addition’

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Peters

    2002-01-01

    This paper contends that conservation is not a neutral process and plays a part in the history of the object under treatment. As such, conservation always involves changes in the physical fabric of the object and/or in its cultural significance. These changes are referred to here as ‘later additions’, and discussed within the framework of some issues related to conservation practice and theory. It is argued that conservators should be reflexive in their analysis and treatment of ‘later additi...

  18. Mitek Suspension of the Lateral Nasal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Hamilton, Grant S

    2016-02-01

    The nasal valve has long been described as the anatomical boundary most likely to inhibit nasal airflow and lead to subsequent nasal obstruction. Although many procedures can address this area to improve the nasal airway, for over 20 years, suture lateralization of the external nasal valve has been described as a minimally invasive technique that can improve nasal breathing. We report our modification of the standard technique in which we lateralize the placement of the bone-anchored suture and incorporate Gore-Tex within the nasal vestibular incision to prevent tissue migration. PMID:26862966

  19. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  20. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period.

  1. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  2. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  3. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  4. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  5. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  6. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  7. Opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO

    2008-01-01

    As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.

  8. Effect of prosthodontic planning on lateral occlusion scheme: a comparison between conventional and digital planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar ABDUO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, digital wax-up is proposed as a tool to aid prosthodontic planning. However, there are no data about the effect of prosthodontic planning on lateral occlusion scheme. Objective : This study aims to evaluate the impact of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning on lateral occlusion scheme. Material and Methods : Dental models of 10 patients were collected. All models had Angle Class I occlusion and were undergoing prosthodontic treatment that would influence the lateral occlusion scheme. Each set of models had received both conventional wax-up and digital wax-up. In relation to the lateral occlusion scheme, the following variables were evaluated: the prevalence of the different lateral occlusion scheme, number of contacting teeth and percentage of each contacting tooth. Four excursive positions on the working side were included: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm from the maximal intercuspation position. Results : The lateral occlusion scheme of the two wax-up models was subjected to alterations following excursion. There was a tendency for the prevalence of canine-guided occlusion to increase and for the prevalence of group function occlusion to decrease with increasing excursion. The number of contacting teeth was decreasing with the increasing magnitude of excursion. For the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm positions, the two wax-ups had significantly greater contacts than the pre-treatment models, while at the 2.0 mm and 3.0 mm positions, all the models were similar. For all models, canines were the most commonly contacting teeth, followed by the teeth adjacent to them. No difference was observed between the two wax-ups in relation to the number of contacting teeth. Conclusion : Although the prosthodontic planning had influenced the pattern of the lateral occlusion scheme and contacts, there was no difference between the conventional and digital prosthodontic planning.

  9. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicle...

  10. Eccentric Strengthening for Chronic Lateral Epicondylosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dennis Y.; Schultz, Brian J.; Schaal, Bob; Graham, Scott T.; Kim, Byung Sung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective treatments for chronic lateral epicondylosis have not been studied adequately. Eccentric overload exercises have been used with success for other chronic tendinopathy, mainly Achilles and patellar. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare a wrist extensor eccentric strengthening exercise program with a wrist extensor stretching/modality program for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylosis. The authors hypothesized that the eccentric strengthening program would produce more favorable results than a stretching/modality program. Study Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-eight adults with lateral epicondylosis of greater than 4 weeks’ duration were randomized to an eccentric strengthening group or a stretching group. Exercises were taught by a physical therapist, and participants performed most of the exercises on their own at home. Pain scores with visual analog scale from 0 to 100 were obtained at baseline and then at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks after the start of the exercise program. Results: Both groups improved their pain scores from baseline to the 4-week time point, followed by nonsignificant further decreases in pain scores thereafter. No statistically significant differences were found between the eccentric strengthening group and stretching groups at any follow-up time point. Conclusions: Despite previous reports documenting favorable results with eccentric exercises for other tendinopathy, the authors were unable to show any statistical advantage to eccentric exercises for lateral epicondylosis during these periods compared with local modalities and stretching exercises. PMID:23016049

  11. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal C. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

  12. Lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained and atomistic models to study the lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers. We first consider simple oil/air and oil/water interfaces, and then proceed to lipid monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. The results are qual

  13. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  14. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the rol

  15. Protein aggregation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, Anna M.; Groen, Ewout J. N.; Koppers, Max; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in affected motor neurons. Recent studies have identified several new molecular constituents of ALS-linked cellular aggregates, including FUS, TDP-43, OPTN, UBQLN2 and the tr

  16. Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Michiel; Hesselman, M.C.; Beek, te T.A.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly quantifyi

  17. Complexity of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blitterswijk, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Each year approximately 400 patients are diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in The Netherlands.Thesepatients are ~65 years of age at time of diagnosis.They develop progressive muscleweakness, frequently affecting their arms, legs and trunk, but also muscles involved in speech, swallo

  18. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  19. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  20. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.