WorldWideScience

Sample records for aided intervention development

  1. Developing an AIDS prevention intervention for incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights. PMID:12413191

  2. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  3. Closing the digital divide in HIV/AIDS care: development of a theory-based intervention to increase Internet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, S C; Weinhardt, L; Benotsch, E; Cherry, C

    2002-08-01

    Advances in information technology are revolutionizing medical patient education and the Internet is becoming a major source of information for people with chronic medical conditions, including HIV/AIDS. However, many AIDS patients do not have equal access to the Internet and are therefore at an information disadvantage, particularly minorities, persons of low-income levels and individuals with limited education. This paper describes the development and pilot testing of a workshop-style intervention designed to close the digital divide in AIDS care. Grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behaviour change, we developed an intervention for persons with no prior history of using the Internet. The intervention included instruction in using hardware and search engines, motivational enhancement to increase interest and perceived relevance of the Internet, and skills for critically evaluating and using health information accessed via the Internet. Participants were also introduced to communication and support functions of the Internet including e-mail, newsgroups and chat groups. Pilot testing demonstrated feasibility, acceptability and promise for closing the digital divide in HIV/AIDS care using a relatively brief and intensive theory-based intervention that could be implemented in community settings. PMID:12204154

  4. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  5. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  6. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; DeHovitz, Jack A; Amico, K Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). Our application of intervention mapping (IM) strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to produce a brief clinic-based intervention entitled the Situated Optimal Adherence Intervention Estonia (sOAI Estonia) which uses both Next-Step Counseling (NSC) and Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model approach to facilitate integration of ART into the context and demands of daily life. We present the intervention development process, the resulting sOAI Estonia approach, and describe a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which is under way to evaluate the intervention (results due in spring 2013). PMID:23391132

  7. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  8. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  9. Developing an adherence support intervention for patients on antiretroviral therapy in the context of the recent IDU-driven HIV/AIDS epidemic in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Uusküla, Anneli; Sharma, Anjali; Jack A Dehovitz; Amico, K. Rivet

    2013-01-01

    There is limited data on and experience with interventions for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence support for patients on ART in Eastern Europe. We sought to identify a feasible adherence support intervention for delivery amongst HIV-positive adults receiving care in Estonia, where the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been mainly concentrated among injection drug users. Our application of intervention mapping strategies used existing literature, formative research and multidisciplinary team input to...

  10. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE): Initial open trial of a novel early intervention fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Poor self-regulation during the preschool years predicts a wide array of adverse adult outcomes and, as such, is an important treatment target. We assessed the efficacy of a novel early intervention aimed at fostering the development of preschoolers' self-regulation. Enhancing Neurobehavioral Gains with the Aid of Games and Exercise (ENGAGE) involves parents and children playing a wide range of games targeting self-regulation on a daily basis over a 5-week period. Twenty-five New Zealand families, in whom parents identified their children as difficult to manage, took part in this study. Parent hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems ratings on the BASC-2 were used to assess improvements in behavioral self-regulation, and subtests of the Stanford Binet-5 and NEPSY-2 were used to assess improvements in cognitive control. Improvements in parent-rated hyperactivity, aggression, and attention problems were maintained throughout the 12-month follow-up. In addition, improvements were found in two neurocognitive areas associated with self-regulation. While more rigorous randomized controlled trials are necessary, ENGAGE shows promise as a novel intervention for developing self-regulation in at-risk preschoolers.

  11. A decision support system for AIDS intervention and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L D

    1994-08-01

    In recent years, the importance of information systems has been identified as a vital issue to continuing success in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). The advances in information technology have resulted in integrative information systems including decision support systems (DSS). The concept of DSS for AIP was created at the intersection of two trends. The first trend was a growing belief that AIP information systems are successful in automating operations in AIP programs. The second was a continuing improvement in modeling and software development in the AIP area. This paper presents an integrated DSS for AIP. The system is integrated with a database and achieves its efficiency by incorporating various algorithms and models to support AIP decision processes. The application examples include screening AIDS-risky behaviors, evaluating educational interventions, and scheduling AIP sessions. The implementation results present evidence of the usefulness of the system in AIP.

  12. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  13. Aid, social policy, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the 'Paris-style' aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future glo...

  14. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda.......This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium...

  15. The application of Intervention Mapping in developing and implementing school-based sexuality and HIV/AIDS education in a developing country context: the case of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkumbo, K.; Schaalma, H.P.; Kaaya, S.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Mbwambo, J.; Kilonzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Effective sexuality and HIV/AIDS education programmes are needed to protect young people against HIV/AIDS and teenage pregnancy in Tanzania and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a theory- and evidence-based approach and adapting the programmes to local contexts, increases the effectiv

  16. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng; ZHANG Kong-lai; SHAN Guang-liang

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism.Methods Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project.Results In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P<0.001),and some indices of the villagers' behavior using condoms improved after the intervention. But this improvement was poorer than that in the women group. In the Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P<0.001).Conclusion The results suggested that the Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms,but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  17. Electromagnetic tracking for abdominal interventions in computer aided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Banovac, Filip; Lin, Ralph; Glossop, Neil; Wood, Bradford J; Lindisch, David; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    Electromagnetic tracking has great potential for assisting physicians in precision placement of instruments during minimally invasive interventions in the abdomen, since electromagnetic tracking is not limited by the line-of-sight restrictions of optical tracking. A new generation of electromagnetic tracking has recently become available, with sensors small enough to be included in the tips of instruments. To fully exploit the potential of this technology, our research group has been developing a computer aided, image-guided system that uses electromagnetic tracking for visualization of the internal anatomy during abdominal interventions. As registration is a critical component in developing an accurate image-guided system, we present three registration techniques: 1) enhanced paired-point registration (time-stamp match registration and dynamic registration); 2) orientation-based registration; and 3) needle shape-based registration. Respiration compensation is another important issue, particularly in the abdomen, where respiratory motion can make precise targeting difficult. To address this problem, we propose reference tracking and affine transformation methods. Finally, we present our prototype navigation system, which integrates the registration, segmentation, path-planning and navigation functions to provide real-time image guidance in the clinical environment. The methods presented here have been tested with a respiratory phantom specially designed by our group and in swine animal studies under approved protocols. Based on these tests, we conclude that our system can provide quick and accurate localization of tracked instruments in abdominal interventions, and that it offers a user-friendly display for the physician.

  18. Diaspora and development aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2008-01-01

    Diaspora and Development: The Case of Las Qoray Port project Paper for the Second Nordic Horn of Africa Conference, Oslo (31. Oct.- 1. November 2008) Introduction As a Diaspora Somalis are not yet an established Diaspora like the Chinese but could be described as a significantly emerging Diaspora...

  19. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)

    2002-01-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  20. Rock music as a medium for AIDS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, J A; Williams, M L; Johnson, J

    1991-01-01

    As the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescents increases, public health workers continue to seek media for intervention. An interview-based study conducted with a large sample of adolescent intravenous drug users (AIVDUs) by the National AIDS Demonstration and Research Project in Houston, Texas has located two ways in which rock music has potential value as a vehicle for AIDS intervention. First, as a topic of conversation, rock music can serve to rejuvenate the interview and retrieve the respondent's attention. Second, as a primary source of everyday life meaning for AIVDUs, rock music can serve as a medium for transmitting preventive care messages. Suggestions for the implementation of the latter are presented. PMID:2036290

  1. Circle of Life HIV/AIDS-Prevention Intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Carol E.; Litchfield, Anne; Schupman, Edwin; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the objectives, theoretical bases, development process, and evaluation efforts to-date for the Circle of Life (COL) curricula, HIV/AIDS prevention interventions designed for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth. The curricula are based on Indigenous models of learning and behavior encompassing concepts of Western…

  2. Interventions after screening for hearing difficulties: a retrospective investigation of interventions other than hearing aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafydd Stephens

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of studies on screening of hearing in adult populations. Despite the high importance of interventions following screening for hearing (Wilson and Jungner, 1968 there is a dearth of information on the nature of interventions following such screening, other than hearing aid fitting (HA or referral to audiology/ENT departments (Pronk et al., 2011. In the late 1980s and early 1990s four studies were performed in Wales, which offered such other interventions to those individuals indicating hearing disabilities in screening questionnaires (eg Stephens et al., 1990; Davis et al., 1992. The majority of the patient notes from these studies were still accessible and have been examined to extract the following information: - what interventions were used other than hearing aids? - who received these interventions? - would they have been more appropriate than HAs for some of those fitted? The aim of this paper is to list the interventions provided in these studies and relate them to the initial complaints of those indicating hearing problems.

  3. Tanzania HIV/AIDS, Work and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Sabine; Rai, Pallavi

    2004-01-01

    This paper was prepared as part of a series addressing the context of HIV/AIDS, work and development at the country level. It examines the demographic and socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. The paper describes the effects of HIV/AIDS on labour supply and on the demand in key skills and occupations. It identifies current and potential shortages inhuman resource capacity that will significantly affect economic development and growth in Tanzania. It also develops policy implications ...

  4. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Shandor Miles, Margaret; Roman Isler, Malika

    2013-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using intervention mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people…

  5. Development of a Multilevel Intervention to Increase HIV Clinical Trial Participation among Rural Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Odeneye, Ebun; Banks, Bahby; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Isler, Malika Roman

    2012-01-01

    Minorities are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the rural Southeast; therefore, it is important to develop targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to support rural minority participation in HIV/AIDS research. Using Intervention Mapping, we developed a comprehensive multilevel intervention for service providers (SPs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We collected data from both groups through 11 focus groups and 35 individual interviews. Resultant data were used to deve...

  6. Integrating eHealth in HIV/AIDS intervention programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasile D. Osunyomi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With an estimated 12.2% of its population infected in 2012, South Africa has the highest percentage of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the mortality rate of the epidemic is decreasing, it has adverse impacts on the socio-economic development status and human capital of South Africa.Objective: The key aim of this article is to explore the status quo of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in selected intervention programmes in the South African HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. The contribution of this article is the mapping of key intervention activities along an HIV care value chain and to suggest a roadmap towards the integration of ICTs in service delivery programmes.Method: 20 managers of HIV/AIDS intervention programmes were surveyed, followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews with these respondents. A further five in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in the ICT area for exploring the uses of and barriers to integrating ICTs in the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain.Results: The researchers mapped the barriers to implementation and ICT tools utilised within the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain, which proves to be a useful tool to explore the status quo of technology in such service delivery programmes. The researchers then considered the wider policy environment and provided a roadmap based on the analysis and the South Africa eHealth strategy for driving development in this sector.Conclusion: The authors found that South Africa’s eHealth environment is still nascent and that the South African eHealth strategy does not place enough emphasis on systems integration and stakeholder engagement or the planning and process of uptake of ICTs by target audiences.

  7. The impact of official development aid on maternal and reproductive health outcomes: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Michelle Taylor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning. DISCUSSION: This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid.

  8. STD/AIDS Education and Behavioral Intervention Among Shenzhen Female Barbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); HONG Fuchang(洪福昌); LUO Bin(罗斌); CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); LI Xiaohuan(李小环); ZHOU Hua(周华); DONG Shifu(董时富); Joseph Lau(刘德辉)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To understand female barbers' currentawareness of STD/AIDS and evaluate the effect of healtheducation and behavioral interventions.Methods: 53 barbershops in Shenzhen were selected bysampling, and their 382 female barbers were given abase-line survey and assessment of intervention followingthe intervention. Results: The survey showed that female barbersgenerally have little education and knew little aboutSTDs/AIDS. They also had some misunderstanding aboutSTDs/AIDS. Most of them knew the main transmission ofSTDs/AIDS' through sexual contact, but didn't knowwhether AIDS could be transmitted through casual contactin daily life. Their knowledge of STDs/AIDS was limited,but they had lower condom use rates and correct ideasabout when to see the doctor.Conclusion: Health education and behavioralintervention related to STD/AIDS on special populationwere effective and of good social consequence.

  9. HIV/AIDS, Population and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The wide-ranging impact of HIV/ AIDS on demographic trends and socio-economic development of African countries deserves renewed attention and additional research. HIV/ AIDS severely undermines the development prospects of many African countries, most of which have recorded shockingly high prevalence rates of the epidemic. In the years to come, Sub-Saharan Africa is far more certain to experience further demographic changes that would continue to impact negatively on developm...

  10. Could AIDS retard India′s development?

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    Pavri K

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV entered and began to spread throughout India approximately one decade later than it did in the US, Canada, Europe, other developed countries, Africa, and the Caribbean. Accordingly, the AIDS epidemic in India continues to evolve, with the spread of HIV infection in many parts of India already reaching epidemic proportions. The long incubation period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS, however, means that the majority of infected adults will come down with AIDS in the mid-1990s. AIDS in India will have significant adverse economic effects upon the country. Once ill with opportunistic infections as a result of HIV infection, people will require treatment. The costs of such treatment will strain resources. High levels of AIDS morbidity and mortality among individuals in their most productive years will also reduce the overall productive contributions of society to economic development. The extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in India needs to be accurately assessed, then followed by the implementation of appropriate prevention and care programs. The situation will not be able to reversed if responsible parties act only after the existence of HIV/AIDS becomes evident in large numbers of people. Policymakers and program planners working against the spread of HIV throughout India will be called upon to strike and maintain a balance in the allocation of resources for treatment and prevention. They will have to be realistic, yet humanistic, while considering individual rights in the context of more broad social welfare. The authors explain that it is cheaper to prevent AIDS than to treat and manage it, and that urgent measures are needed to protect the productive base of the economy. Sections discuss the role of epidemiology, the spread of HIV through infected needles and syringes, AIDS and HIV in Maharashtra, and the economics of AIDS.

  11. Development of cartilage conduction hearing aid

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    H. Hosoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The potential demand for hearing aids is increasing in accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries. Because certain patients cannot use air conduction hearing aids, they usually use bone conduction hearing aids. However, bone does not transmit sound as efficiently as air, and bone conduction hearing aids require surgery (bone anchored hearing aid or great pressure to the skull. The first purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a new sound conduction pathway via the cartilage. The second purpose is to develop a hearing aid with a cartilage conduction transducer for patients who cannot use regular air conduction hearing aids.Design/methodology/approach: We examined the hearing ability of a patient with atresia of both external auditory meatuses via three kinds of conduction pathways (air, bone, and cartilage. After the best position for the cartilage conduction transducer was found, audiometric evaluation was performed for his left ear with an insertion earphone (air conduction, a bone conduction transducer, and a cartilage conduction transducer. Then we made a new hearing aid using cartilage conduction and got subjective data from the patients.Findings: The tragal cartilage was the best position for the cartilage conduction transducer. The patient’s mean hearing levels were 58.3 dBHL, 6.7 dBHL, and 3.3 dBHL for air conduction, bone conduction, and cartilage conduction respectively. The hearing ability of the patients obtained from the cartilage conduction hearing aid was comparable to those from the bone conduction hearing aid.Practical implications: Hearing levels using cartilage conduction are very similar to those via bone conduction. Cartilage conduction hearing aids may overcome the practical disadvantages of bone conduction hearing aids such as pain and the need for surgery.Originality/value: We have clarified the efficacy of the cartilage conduction pathway and developed a prototype

  12. Reducing occupational risk for blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides: an intervention effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuwo, Shakirudeen; Lipscomb, Jane; McPhaul, Kathleen; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental pretest/posttest research study was to examine the effectiveness of an intervention designed through a participatory process to reduce blood and body fluid exposure among home care aides. Employer A, the intervention site, was a large agency with approximately 1,200 unionized home care aides. Employer B, the comparison group, was a medium-sized agency with approximately 200 home care aides. The intervention was developed in partnership with labor and management and included a 1-day educational session utilizing peer educators and active learning methods to increase awareness about the risks for occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among home care aides and a follow-up session introducing materials to facilitate communication with clients about safe sharps disposal. Self-administered preintervention and postintervention questionnaires identifying knowledge about and self-reported practices to reduce bloodborne pathogen exposure were completed in person during mandatory training sessions 18 months apart. Home care aides in the intervention group for whom the preintervention and postintervention questionnaires could be directly matched reported an increase in their clients' use of proper sharps containers (31.9% pre to 52.2% post; p = .033). At follow-up, the intervention group as a whole also reported increased use of sharps containers among their clients when compared to controls (p = .041).

  13. Interventions and Patterns of Risk in Adolescent HIV/AIDS Prevention

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    Robert M. Malow

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-way through the third decade of experience in preventing HIV/AIDS among adolescents, behavioral interventions and outcomes for high risk subgroups have generated evidence extremely instructive for navigating future priorities in reducing transmission risk behavior. Youth who abuse alcohol or drugs, who are detained or incarcerated, or have mental health co-morbidity such as externalizing disorders, represent the most significant challenge to current and future efforts to control the epidemic among the adolescent population. Although there is no unambiguous, standard intervention approach with adolescents, patterns of risks and outcomes with these subgroups are instructive in the critical priority of creating more sustainable gains with our HIV prevention resources. This article provides a synthesis of the evidence with these subgroups, discusses important limitations and difficulties in the current intervention science and highlights promising directions for the next generation of effort in reducing adolescent HIV-related sexual risk behavior. Because individual-level interventions have had only modest effects, a key current emphasis within the field is to develop multi-level interventions with a more ecological or contextual focus. We review various pragmatic responses that acknowledge this priority and the debt owed to individual-level intervention work with adolescents.

  14. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  15. ASHA-Life Intervention Perspectives Voiced by Rural Indian Women Living With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Srivastava, Neha; Carpenter, Catherine L; Salem, Benissa E; Al-Harrasi, Shawana; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    In this focus group study, we explored the experiences of 16 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) who participated in the Asha-Life (AL) intervention to gain an understanding of the environmental, psychosocial, and cultural impact of the AL on their lives. Four themes emerged among AL participants: (a) the importance of tangible support, (b) need for social support, (c) ongoing challenges to accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (d) perspectives on future programs. Our research findings support the development of future programs targeting mother-child dyads which emphasize nutritional knowledge, while reducing barriers to receiving ART, and physical, emotional, and financial support.

  16. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the construct

  17. Computer aided training system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software

  18. Cultural Competence in a Group Intervention Designed for Latino Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Although the trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed dramatically over the past 25 years, addressing the psychosocial needs of patients living with HIV/AIDS remains vital. Ensuring the effective delivery of services demands that interventions be rooted in cultural competence and aimed at vulnerable populations. This article describes a…

  19. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  20. AIDS: Legal Tools Helpful for Mental Health Counseling Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ann Lorentson; Hughes, Rosemary B.

    1994-01-01

    Complex HIV and AIDS related legal issues confronting mental health professionals are addressed, specifically: living will, statutes, durable power of attorney, durable power of attorney for health care, rational suicide, euthanasia, workplace discrimination, and laws affecting minors. (JBJ)

  1. Psychosocial Interventions for Women with HIV/AIDS: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Julieta P.; Macgowan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recent research on psychosocial interventions addressing the well-being of women with HIV/AIDS has brought new options for practitioners. This study critically reviews the treatment features, methodological quality, and efficacy of these interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search between 2000 and 2011 identified 19 studies employing…

  2. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  3. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services...

  4. Perceived Risk of AIDS among Prisoners Following Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Angela D.; Martin, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the impact of an AIDS education program on inmates' (N=140) perceived risk of HIV infection on the street and in prison. Results reveal that the men's perceived risk declined significantly, whereas the women's increased. Regression analyses indicated that change in perceptions was related to various variables outside of the prison's…

  5. Need for HIV/AIDS education and intervention for MTF transgenders: responding to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Sausa, Lydia A; Operario, Don; Keatley, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of qualitative and quantitative research to develop an HIV/AIDS education intervention for MTF transgenders. Findings revealed that MTF transgenders have high prevalence of adverse health outcomes such as HIV, substance use, and psychological problems. MTF transgenders of color-African American, Latina, and Asian Pacific Islanders-experience heightened risk due to multiple stigmas associated with ethnicity and gender identity. Based on this evidence of need, we developed a series of transgender- specific HIV prevention, substance use and mental health treatment, and health education programs. Future health programs for stigmatized gender minorities, such as MTF transgenders, will benefit from conducting descriptive studies to identify the health needs of the community, and by linking research scientists, health providers, and community agencies to form a collaborative network for delivering evidence based and community sensitive services. PMID:16893831

  6. Nurse specific intervention in first aid of serious traumatic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mata Escriche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the serious traumatic injuries is accepted as the first cause of death in the young people of the 15 to 34 years and third in the general population, causing about the 55% of children died between the 5 to 14 years. According to a study performed in 2000, more than 25% of the deaths have been due to inadequate first aid.Recent studies show the initial evaluation and medical attention and transport inprove the survival in these patients. Is accepted the first 30 minutes as the main moment to take decision and in consequence it is necessary multidisciplinary equipment, as well as the emergency plan, in order to assist every patient, mainly in case of multiple victims.The goal of this study is to review the first aid to serious traumatic patient and to approach specifically the nursery assistance as important element in the daily work.

  7. The Development of an AIDS Mucosal Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mucosal tissues contain the largest surface area of the human body and are the front line of natural host defense against various pathogens. In fact, more than 80% of infectious disease pathogens probably gain entry into the susceptible human hosts through open mucosal surfaces. Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1, a mainly sexually transmitted virus, also primarily targets the vaginal and gastrointestinal mucosa as entry sites for viral transmission, seeding, replication and amplification. Since HIV-1 establishes its early replication in vaginal or rectal mucosal tissues, the induction of sufficient mucosal immunity at the initial site of HIV-1 transmission becomes essential for a protective vaccine. However, despite the fact that current conventional vaccine strategies have remained unsuccessful in preventing HIV-1 infection, sufficient financial support and resources have yet to be given to develop a vaccine able to elicit protective mucosal immunity against sexual transmissions. Interestingly, Chinese ancestors invented variolation through intranasal administration about one thousand years ago, which led to the discovery of a successful smallpox vaccine and the final eradication of the disease. It is the hope for all mankind that the development of a mucosal AIDS vaccine will ultimately help control the AIDS pandemic. In order to discover an effective mucosal AIDS vaccine, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of mucosal immunology and to test various mucosal vaccination strategies.

  8. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AID OR INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the supreme goal of modern civilization. This phenomenon is seen not just in terms of growth, but rather as an overall improvement in living standards. Economic development is a national goal, but also an objective of international economic bodies. Talks about development are held in the context of the opposition between developed countries and developing countries.In this article, we discuss whether development aid that originates from industrialized states supports sustainable economic rise of the countries lagging behind and whether it is preferable to let market operate freely, through the liberalization of international trade. Our conclusion is that economic development through the promotion of free trade would be achieved faster and more efficiently, based on net gains from trade and the pride of the peoples who would have won by themselves their daily bread and a place in the global market.

  9. Medical image computing and computer-aided medical interventions applied to soft tissues. Work in progress in urology

    CERN Document Server

    Troccaz, Jocelyne; Berkelman, Peter; Cinquin, Philippe; Daanen, Vincent; Leroy, Antoine; Marchal, Maud; Payan, Yohan; Promayon, Emmanuel; Voros, Sandrine; Bart, Stéphane; Bolla, Michel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Dusserre, Andrée; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Long, Jean-Alexandre; Moalic, Ronan; Mozer, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, Computer-Aided Medical Interventions (CAMI) and Medical Robotics have focused on rigid and non deformable anatomical structures. Nowadays, special attention is paid to soft tissues, raising complex issues due to their mobility and deformation. Mini-invasive digestive surgery was probably one of the first fields where soft tissues were handled through the development of simulators, tracking of anatomical structures and specific assistance robots. However, other clinical domains, for instance urology, are concerned. Indeed, laparoscopic surgery, new tumour destruction techniques (e.g. HIFU, radiofrequency, or cryoablation), increasingly early detection of cancer, and use of interventional and diagnostic imaging modalities, recently opened new challenges to the urologist and scientists involved in CAMI. This resulted in the last five years in a very significant increase of research and developments of computer-aided urology systems. In this paper, we propose a description of the main problems rel...

  10. Medical image computing and computer-aided medical interventions applied to soft tissues. Work in progress in urology

    OpenAIRE

    Troccaz, Jocelyne; Baumann, Michael; Berkelman, Peter; Cinquin, Philippe; Daanen, Vincent; Leroy, Antoine; Marchal, Maud; Payan, Yohan; Promayon, Emmanuel; Voros, Sandrine; Bart, Stéphane; Bolla, Michel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Dusserre, Andrée

    2006-01-01

    International audience Until recently, Computer-Aided Medical Interventions (CAMI) and Medical Robotics have focused on rigid and non deformable anatomical structures. Nowadays, special attention is paid to soft tissues, raising complex issues due to their mobility and deformation. Mini-invasive digestive surgery was probably one of the first fields where soft tissues were handled through the development of simulators, tracking of anatomical structures and specific assistance robots. Howev...

  11. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  12. A brief sexual barrier intervention for women living with AIDS: Acceptability, use, and ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M; Malow, Robert; ISHII, MARY; Devieux, Jessy; Stanley, Heidi; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Brondolo, Elizabeth; LaPerriere, Arthur; Efantis-Potter, Jonell; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Schneiderman, Neil

    2001-01-01

    Interventions aimed at reducing sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs) have focused primarily on male condom use among seronegative men and women. However, female-controlled sexual barriers (female condoms and vaginal microbicides) offer women living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) alternative methods to protect themselves and others from disease transmission. A pilot behavioral intervention was conducted to increase sexual ...

  13. Aid Fuels Faster Socio-Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the past 40 years since the founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the area has developed at an extraordinarily fast rate. All this has taken place with the strong support of the Central Government and various fraternal provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government. Blind to the situation, however, the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique, last April,again dished up the so-called Intemational Development Project in Tibet and Guidelines for Sustainable Development (hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines). The proposal contains lies and distorted facts,negating the great achievements in the social and economic development in Tibet, openly attacking national aid to the region and rejecting the idea of the Tibetan people accepting the socialist system.

  14. Computer-aided software development process design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an intelligent tool designed to aid managers of software development projects in planning, managing, and controlling the development process of medium- to large-scale software projects. Its purpose is to reduce uncertainties in the budget, personnel, and schedule planning of software development projects. It is based on dynamic model for the software development and maintenance life-cycle process. This dynamic process is composed of a number of time-varying, interacting developmental phases, each characterized by its intended functions and requirements. System dynamics is used as a modeling methodology. The resulting Software LIfe-Cycle Simulator (SLICS) and the hybrid expert simulation system of which it is a subsystem are described.

  15. Impact of AIDS in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, J W

    1988-01-01

    Some features of the HIV infection are unique to the developing world (as exemplified by Africa, which is the frontline continent for AIDS). The infection affects all social groups, and since it is spread by heterosexual activity, it affects equal numbers of men and women, and the infection of women has dire consequences for population structure. Opportunistic infections are caused by organisms against which there is no effective treatment. Health budgets, with an average of $10 per capita, cannot buy such drugs as are available. Political instability and poverty create a climate favorable to casual sex and prostitution. Infection is highest among adults in their 20s and 30s, when the men are most productive economically, and the women have begun but not completed their childbearing. In Zaire the mean age at infection is 37 for men and 30 for women, and the mean age at death in Zambia is 35 for men and 26 for women. Seroprevalence is as high as 76% (among barmaids in Uganda), and at least half of the spouses of seropositive persons are infected. The number of new cases at 1 hospital in Kampala was 3-8/day in 1986. Using what is known about AIDS and what is know about the population structure in African countries, it is possible to model the impact of AIDS on a typical developing country with a population of 10 million. If seropositivity were 5%, 20.000 cases of AIDS could be expected each year among 15-50-year olds, with an additional 1500 cases among newborns. At least half of the babies of seropositive women will be seropositive. For every adult death, 20 man- or 40 woman-hours of work will be lost. The deaths of young married women will leave an immense burden of sick and dying orphans on extended families whose kinship ties are no longer close enough to cope, in countries which have no institutional facilities for orphan care. The number of opportunistic infections will increase, and, unless AIDS patients are turned away, health resources will be drained from

  16. HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON HIV/AIDS AMONG THE URBAN SLUM DWELLERS OF DIBRUGARH, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forhad Akhtar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS: HIV/AIDS has become the most challenging as well a s dreaded phenomenon in the global epidemiological transition a nd has become truly universal threat to civilization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Information, Education & Communication (IEC on Knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP on HI V/AIDS among the slum dwellers of Dibrugarh using the standard IEC package for urban s lums formulated by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO. METHODS: A total of 246 slum dwellers aged 15-49 years were selected from all the slums of Dibrugarh by stratif ied systematic random sampling method. The study was conducted in three stages. First a baseli ne KAP survey on HIV/AIDS was done followed by health education intervention (IEC. Ju st after the intervention and after three months period, the evaluation of the intervention wa s conducted. RESULTS: 87% of the respondents were found to have heard of HIV/AIDS. Ba seline Knowledge regarding prevention of transmission of HIV/AIDS by having one faithful sex partner was there among 65% of the respondents which increased amongst 82.2% of the res pondents just after the intervention & amongst 68.5% of the respondents after three months period; similarly knowledge of prevention by using condom, increased from 70.7% to 80.3% & 76.3% of the respondents; using safe blood, increased from 57.7% to 75.4% & 62.9% o f the respondents. CONCLUSIONS: From the above findings it was evident that, interventio n programs were useful in enhancing the awareness regarding HIV/AIDS among the underprivileg ed population.

  17. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  18. Internet-Based Health Information Consumer Skills Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an…

  19. HIV/AIDS Interventions in an Aging U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 25 percent of people living with HIV in the United States in 2006 were age 50 and older. HIV prevention for people over 50 is an important health concern, especially as the U.S. population grows older. Scholarly research has identified the need for HIV/AIDS interventions in the…

  20. Promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization in HIV/AIDS programmes: lessons and curricular tools from a South African intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail; de Wet, Jacques; Bonell, Christopher Philip; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Proynk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Morison, Linda; Porter, John D H; Busza, Joanna; Watts, Charlotte; Hargreaves, James R

    2011-06-01

    The development of critical consciousness is seen as a key stage in communities increasing levels of dialogue about priority problems and effecting structural change for health. However, relatively little research identifies concrete methods for programmes to build critical consciousness. We examined how a South African structural intervention used critical consciousness as a tool for prevention of intimate partner violence and HIV infection. We collected qualitative data in the form of in-depth interviews with managers, trainers, and participants of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity intervention (IMAGE) in rural South Africa. The data were analysed through a coding structure developed in QSR NVivo. We draw practical lessons from IMAGE to guide other HIV programmes aiming to promoting critical consciousness and social mobilization. This research suggests that specific curricular tools can work towards critical consciousness and that mobilization efforts in future programmes can be strengthened by including individual and collective efforts by participants. PMID:20965911

  1. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  2. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  3. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  4. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  5. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  6. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  7. Internet interventions for depression: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Westermann, Stefan; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    A wide range of Internet interventions, mostly grounded in methods of cognitive behavioral therapy, have been developed and tested for several mental disorders. The evidence to date shows that these interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of depression. Metaanalyses report small-to-medium effect sizes when Internet interventions are delivered as stand-alone self-help interventions (d=0.25-0.36), and medium-to-large effect sizes when delivered as therapist-guided interventions (d=0.58-0.78), both compared with usual care. Only a minority of people suffering from depression receive adequate treatment, and Internet interventions might help bridge the large treatment gap. This review summarizes the current body of evidence and highlights pros and cons of Internet interventions. It also outlines how they could be implemented in mental health care systems and points out unresolved questions, as well as future directions, in this research field. PMID:27489460

  8. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  9. Institutional strengthening in Egyptian development aid projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walbeek, M.M.; Vlotman, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years Dutch aid projects have focused more on institutional strengthening. The overall impact of this type of aid has been limited. This paper explores possible reasons for this. In Egypt, it appeared to be difficult to make significant changes in the institutional setting. Main constraint

  10. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way. PMID:24450275

  11. A systematic review of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the scope of microfinance-based interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention. A systematic review was carried out of literature published between 1986 and 2012 from EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct, Emerald, and JSTOR. The search included original research articles that presented evaluated interventions. Books, dissertations, gray literature, and theoretical reviews were excluded. Findings revealed a total of fourteen studies focused on the evaluation of: the IMAGE project, female sex workers, life skills and risk behavior reduction, adherence to treatment, and children and their families. Most of these interventions have shown to have beneficial effects, although results depend on: the type of program, monitoring, sustainability of microcredits, and contextual conditions. The findings of this review should be complemented with interventions carried out by various NGOs and microfinance institutions in different countries that present their results in a dissimilar way.

  12. Impact of Asha intervention on stigma among rural Indian women with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Ekstrand, Maria; Salem, Benissa E; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan K; Leake, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Rural women living with HIV/AIDS (WLA) in India face multifarious challenges which affect access to antiretroviral regimens and management of HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this pilot study, using cluster randomization, is to compare the effectiveness of the Asha-Life (AL) intervention, delivered by HIV-trained village women, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activists), with a usual care group on reduction of internalized stigma and avoidant coping among 68 WLA in rural India over a 6-month period. The findings demonstrated that participation in the AL intervention was associated with significant reductions in internalized stigma and the use of avoidant coping strategies at follow-up. The findings of our study are promising in terms of the role rural village women (Asha) may play in reducing internalized stigma and avoidant coping in the lives of rural WLA in India.

  13. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  14. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM. PMID:26241373

  15. Contributions of Qualitative Research in Informing HIV/AIDS Interventions Targeting Black MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Valera, Pamela; Martos, Alexander J; Wittlin, Natalie M; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Parker, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies focusing on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. We reviewed studies that were published between 1980 and 2014. Qualitative methods employed in the studies reviewed include in-depth interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and ethnography. We searched several databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, JSTOR, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Google Scholar) for relevant articles using the following broad terms: "Black men" "Black gay/bisexual" or "Black men who have sex with men," and "qualitative" and/or "ethnography." We include 70 studies in this review. The key themes observed across studies were (1) heterogeneity, (2) layered stigma and intersectionality, (3) risk behaviors, (4) mental health, (5) resilience, and (6) community engagement. The review suggests that sexual behavior and HIV-status disclosure, sexual risk taking, substance use, and psychological well-being were contextually situated. Interventions occurring at multiple levels and within multiple contexts are needed to reduce stigma within the Black community. Similarly, structural interventions targeting religious groups, schools, and health care systems are needed to improve the health outcomes among BMSM. Community engagement and using community-based participatory research methods may facilitate the development and implementation of culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions targeting BMSM.

  16. HIV/AIDS in prisons: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    In a report released on 20 November 2002, entitled Action on HIV/AIDS in Prisons: Too Little, Too Late--A Report Card, the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network concluded that despite repeated studies and nearly ten years of recommendations for urgent and pragmatic action, the response of Canadian governments to HIV/AIDS, HCV, and injection drug use in prisons remains inadequate. Only a few weeks later, the House of Commons Special Committee on Non-Medical Use of Drugs released its report, which contained a number of recommendations to the Correctional Service of Canada. Although the Committee avoided talking about needle exchange programs in prisons, it did recommend them! Meanwhile, in Ireland, not even condoms or bleach are provided. PMID:14719487

  17. Civil Society, Aid and Development: a Cross-Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); E. Webbink (Ellen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInternational cooperation for development relies on several aid modalities and - in addition to bilateral and multilateral programs - non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role in channeling development aid towards their Southern partners. The support of the Netherlands

  18. FDI, Aid, Terrorism: Conditional Threshold Evidence from Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Efobi, Uchenna; Ibukun BEECROFT

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how foreign aid dampens the effects of terrorism on FDI using interactive quantile regressions. The empirical evidence is based on 78 developing countries for the period 1984-2008. Bilateral and multilateral aid variables are used, while terrorism dynamics entail: domestic, unclear, transnational and total number of terrorist attacks. The following findings are established. First, while the effects of multilateral aid are consistently significant with positive threshold evidenc...

  19. Project Management in Development Aid Industry – Public vs. Private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Dragana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the type of a development aid implementing organisation (public or private and the quality of project management in development aid. The author begins with main public administration considerations - how public aid administration is different from private and furthermore, how particular sectoral characteristics of organisations influence the quality of the management process. The article combines empirical findings on the differences between the public and private sector with a complex setting of development aid and main success factors in development aid activity, in order to determine whether for-profit or public companies are more likely to achieve better project management processes. The article identifies some indices that favorise private companies, and outlines further necessary steps that should be taken in order to broaden the argumentation and confirm or reject this assertion

  20. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides' communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides' (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides' communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents' psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff.

  1. A modified mathematical model for HIV transmission, AIDS and intervention strategies in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Mary T

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project was to modify transmission models previously developed to describe HIV transmission in Ireland through more precise estimates of parameters delineating sexual and needle sharing behaviour and AIDS related mortality, with a view to examining the extent of spread from IVDUs to the general heterosexual population. To provide predictions on HIV transmission and AIDS cases up to the year 2010 and to examine the sensitivity of the predictions to changes in the key parameters...

  2. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frameworks. This map can be an aid to decision makers to identify the relevant criteria for priority setting in their specific context. Methods We made an inventory of all possible criteria for priority setting on the basis of literature review. We categorized the criteria according to both health system frameworks that spell out a country’s health system goals and input. We reason that the criteria that decision makers use in priority setting exercises are a direct manifestation of this. Results Our map includes thirty-one criteria that are distributed among five categories that reflect the goals of a health system (i.e. to improve level of health, fair distribution of health, responsiveness, social & financial risk protection and efficiency and leadership/governance one category that reflects feasibiliy based on the health system building blocks (i.e. service delivery, health care workforce , information, medical products, vaccines & technologies, financing and. Conclusions This conceptual mapping of criteria, based on well-established health system frameworks, will further develop the field of priority setting by assisting decision makers in the identification of multiple criteria for selection of health interventions.

  3. Decision aids for respite service choices by carers of people with dementia: development and pilot RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirling Christine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids are often used to assist individuals confronted with a diagnosis of a serious illness to make decisions about treatment options. However, they are rarely utilised to help those with chronic or age related conditions to make decisions about care services. Decision aids should also be useful for carers of people with decreased decisional capacity. These carers' choices must balance health outcomes for themselves and for salient others with relational and value-based concerns, while relying on information from health professionals. This paper reports on a study that both developed and pilot tested a decision aid aimed at assisting carers to make evaluative judgements of community services, particularly respite care. Methods A mixed method sequential study, involving qualitative development and a pilot randomised controlled trial, was conducted in Tasmania, Australia. We undertook 13 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups to inform the development of the decision aid. For the randomised control trial we randomly assigned 31 carers of people with dementia to either receive the service decision aid at the start or end of the study. The primary outcome was measured by comparing the difference in carer burden between the two groups three months after the intervention group received the decision aid. Pilot data was collected from carers using interviewer-administered questionnaires at the commencement of the project, two weeks and 12 weeks later. Results The qualitative data strongly suggest that the intervention provides carers with needed decision support. Most carers felt that the decision aid was useful. The trial data demonstrated that, using the mean change between baseline and three month follow-up, the intervention group had less increase in burden, a decrease in decisional conflict and increased knowledge compared to control group participants. Conclusions While these results must be interpreted with

  4. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  5. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  6. The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Liu; Si-Ping Dong; Guang-Ming Gao; Ming-Yu Fan; Zong-Jiu Zhang; Peng-Qian Fang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers’KBP before and after the interventions of highwayAIDS prevention project. Methods:Multi-stage random sampling method was employeed to select workers of8 sites from14 sites along highway to investigate theirAIDS knowledge, belief and performance(KBP) before and after highwayAIDS prevention project.Results:Over90% of the investigated workers had ever heard aboutAIDS, and the non-skilled workers of lower educational level improved more after intervention.The correct answer rate of the three transmitting ways ofAIDS of drivers which is the focused group of highway before and after intervention had the obvious statistical significance(P<0.05), and the other group’s correct answer rates also had improved after intervention.Most people’s understanding of preventingAIDS through correct use of condoms when having sex had a statistically significant difference(P<0.05) after prevention.The rates of using condoms of foremen and skilled workers when having sex with commercial sex worker/casual partner increased after intervention.Conclusions:The health education ofHIV among the road construction workers is effective and further health education ofHIV prevention should be carried out among the road construction workers to improve their knowledge and awareness of avoiding the high-risk behaviors.

  7. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, ''multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of ''multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Explaining development aid allocation by growth: A meta study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

      an interesting factor for two reasons: (1) It is relatively easy to interpret the results, and (2) it  is an important piece in the picture which suggests aid ineffectiveness. The paper is a meta-analysis of the 211 growth-aid estimates found in the 30 empirical studies. Additionally, we present new evidence...... using a panel data for 147 countries for the period 1967-2004. The result from both the meta-analysis and the primary data analysis is that growth does generate aid, so the dominating sign is positive. This result is driven partly by the large development banks....

  9. Effect of Health Education Intervention on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Risky Sexual Behaviours amongst Prison Inmates in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audu Onyemocho,

    2013-04-01

    53.3 %. Health education intervention was found to have very strong positive influence on the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and risky sexual behaviour among the prison inmates in Kaduna; hence it should be developed for prison inmates nationwide.

  10. French development aid and the reforms of 1998–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieff, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the changes to the institutions and doctrines of French development aid between 1998 and 2002, and specifically the reforms announced by Prime Minister Jospin in February 1998. This includes analysis of institutional reorganisation and of new policy doctrines. The study considers the implications of these changes for the relations between France and former French colonies of sub- Saharan Africa, including detailed analysis of the aid relationship be...

  11. Study of Peer-led Intervention on Reproductive Health Education and AIDS Prevention in Joint Venture Factories in Kunshan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ming SUN; Jian-fang ZHOU; Feng-ming YAN; Qin YIN; Jing-shu MAO; Cai-ying HUANG; Bo TAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To disseminate the knowledge of contraception and STD/AIDS prevention to unmarried young adults.Methods A peer-led 8-month intervention on reproductive health promotion and STD/AIDS prevention was conducted in joint venture factories in Kunshan Countythrough existing family planning service network. A quasi-experimental design was used.Results The contraception, STD/AIDS related knowledge and attitudes improved significantly, and the use of condom also increased significantly in experimental group after the intervention. No such changes occurred in control group.Conclusion This study demonstrates that the peer-led education is an effective approach of expanding reproductive health and AIDS prevention services to unmarried young adults in the joint venture factories.

  12. Librarian-initiated HIV/AIDS prevention intervention program outcome in rural communities in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, G A; Komolafe-Opadeji, H O; Ikhizama, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to meet the HIV/AIDS information and service needs of citizens living in selected rural, underserved communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a librarian-initiated intervention program (pre-post) study of heads of rural households in Oyo State. A questionnaire was used for pre- and post-intervention assessment. The education covered knowledge about HIV/AIDS, routes of transmission, prevention strategies, and attitude toward persons living with HIV. It increased participants' knowledge about AIDS and improved attitude toward those living with HIV. Provision and dissemination of information on HIV/AIDS through librarians to rural settlers is an important prevention strategy and librarians can make major contributions. PMID:25228485

  13. Adoption of workplaces and reach of employees for a multi-faceted intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    and work environment intervention targeting low back pain among nurses' aides in elderly care. METHODS: Percentage of adopters was calculated among eligible workplaces and differences between adopters and non-adopters were evaluated through workplace registrations and manager questionnaires from all...... physical exertion during work compared to non-consenters. CONCLUSIONS: Our recruitment effort yielded a population of consenters that was representative of the target population of nurses' aides with respect to demographic factors, and health. Moreover more consenters had problems like pain and high...... physical exertion during work, which fitted the scope of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered as ISRCTN78113519....

  14. Development and application of culturally appropriate decision aids for smoking cessation in Korea: a pragmatic clustered randomization crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Suh, Beomseok; Chun, Sohyun; Nam, You-Seon; Cho, Belong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Asian countries, reluctance to seek pharmacological intervention is a major barrier for smoking cessation. Culturally appropriate decision aids are expected to help people in the decision making for the use of smoking cessation medication. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally tailored decision aid for smoking cessation and evaluate its effect on the use of smoking cessation medication. Patients and methods A 7-minute video on smoking cessation information and options was developed. Physicians were randomized into intervention and control groups. The decision aid was provided to patients in the intervention group, and they watched it, while those in the control group were provided usual medical care for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was the proportion of smokers who were prescribed smoking cessation medication within 1 month after consultation. The secondary outcomes were abstinence rate and use of smoking cessation medication within 6 months. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of the decision aid on the outcomes. Results In total, 414 current smokers (intervention group: 195; control group: 219) were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 48.2 years, and 381 subjects (92%) were males. In total, 11.8% of the participants in the intervention group and 10.5% in the control group were prescribed smoking cessation medications within 1 month. The odds ratio was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.40–2.63) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Within 6 months, 17.4% of the participants in the intervention group and 15% in the control group were prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI: 0.59–2.13). Conclusion The culturally tailored smoking cessation decision aid developed in this study did not show a significant impact on the decision to use smoking cessation medication. Further research to develop more effective and more interactive interventions is expected.

  15. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude and Performance of High School Girl Students about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Peyman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of the most complex problems of health in the world. Since young population and mostly students are one of main groups at risk, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude and performance of high school students about AIDS. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 girls selected randomly from two public schools and they divided into two control and intervention groups. Research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire including two parts (demographic questions and specialized questions about AIDS. Firstly, a pretest was held, then 3 educational sessions were held on AIDS, its’ transmission and prevention ways by lecture, ask and answer, and educational pamphlet. Students took posttests immediately after educational intervention and two months later. Data were analyzed by statistical tests including chi-square test, paired t test, independent t, and Rapid Manager and using SPSS 13.   Results: Mean score of participants' knowledge about HIV was 16.8±3.8 before intervention; it increased to 24.4±3.1 immediately, and 24.5±3.1 two months after intervention (P

  16. Advantages and disadvantages for receiving Internet-based HIV/AIDS interventions at home or at community-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907

  17. DE MINIMIS AID FOR LOCAL ECONOMY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TILEAGA COSMIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the current particular economic situation but also the community regulations developed by the EU Commission to diminish the crisis effects, we believe that local institutions should still take into consideration measures to encourage investments and creating work places by supporting potential investors, which very often have to confront against difficulties in accessing funds. However, unlike large sized companies, small and medium sized ones are confronted to this issue of accessing funds. This global economic situation, not only affects severely the economic situation of most solid enterprises and their employees on short term, but it also has negative effects on long term. In this context we have to stress the fact that future investments from the common market of EU, especially those that concern the long term development and other strategic objectives from Lisboan, could be delayed or even cancelled.

  18. Hydraulic fracturing aids geothermal field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, K.; Ott, W.K.; Nutley, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to stimulate steam production or improve brine injectivity has helped Dohan Geothermal Energy Co., Ltd. more economically develop Nigorikawa Field in SW Hokkaido, Japan. To make these wells commercial, fracturing treatments were performed in lieu of redrilling. To date, several wells have been treated in 2 separate projects. Seven were treated during fall 1978. In Spring 1980, 4 were retreated and several additional wells were treated for the first time. Although these frac jobs are the first known in geothermal wells, the enhanced production or injectivity that resulted in some cases has encouraged similar applications in other geothermal areas.

  19. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  20. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),...

  1. Effect of health education on trainee teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and first aid management of epilepsy : An interventional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eze, Christian N.; Ebuehi, Olufunke M.; Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M.; Igwe, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High rates of poor knowledge of, and negative attitudes towards people with epilepsy (PWE) are generally found among school teachers. Their first aid epilepsy management skills are poor. It remains unknown if this is different among trainee teachers and whether educational intervention migh

  2. Learning Aids in Chemistry: Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TienTien Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry is found to be a difficult topic to learn due to its abstract concepts that involve the macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic representation levels. Research showed that animation and simulation using Information and Communication Technology (ICT can help students to visualize and hence enhance students’ understanding in learning abstract chemistry topics. As a result, Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agent (IMMPA named EC Lab was developed in order to assist students in the learning of the Electrochemistry topic. KemGerly Model (combination of Kemp Model, Gerlach and Ely Model were combined as instructional design models for the design of IMMPA EC Lab. Pedagogical Agents (PAs were added in IMMPA EC Lab to facilitate learning in computer-mediated learning environments. The information delivery and the flow of content follow the Needham phases in constructivism theory. It is hoped that the IMMPA EC Lab would be able to assist students in the learning of Electrochemistry in terms of concept understanding and motivation level.

  3. Reducing World Poverty by Improving Evaluation of Development Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Paul; Chianca, Thomaz; Sasaki, Ryoh

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that given its structural conditions, development aid bears a particularly heavy burden of learning and accountability. Unfortunately, however, the organization of evaluation guarantees that evaluations will be inconsistent and it creates incentives for positive bias. This article presents evidence from organizational studies…

  4. Rehabilitation and Aids during the Developing Years in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martino Avellis; Alda Pellegri; Andrea Cazzaniga; Stefania Chierici; Marida Farina; Antonio Cinquegrana; Ciro Grazioli; Giovanni De Angelis

    2011-01-01

    The rehabilitation of children with disabilities should be initiated as early as possible,as soon as problems or disorders are diagnosed in the development,to prevent or promptly counteract the consolidation of disability.In Italy the institutes involved in the rehabilitation of children with serious disability must be by law highly specialized.The devices have a key part in rehabilitation courses in developmental age.They are often planned and designed in the same rehabilitation center."La Nostra Famiglia" has been in Italy one of the first specialized rehabilitation centers for children and adolescents.By "La Nostra Famiglia" have been designed aids for children which later became a model throughout Europe.Our National Health System provides free aids for children and adolescents and describes in detail the characteristics of great adaptability that aids for children and adolescents should have.The "pressure mapping" allows you to test the effects of adapted aids versus aids not properly adapted to the size and needs.

  5. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  6. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H.; Yoshida, T.; Butsuen, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N.; Nakano, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Percutaneous Retrieval of Foreign Bodies Around Vital Vessels Aided with Vascular Intervention: A Technical Note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ObjectiveTo describe a new interventional technique to remove foreign bodies (FBs) embedded in soft tissues around vital vessels.MethodsUnder fluoroscopic guidance and using local anesthesia, percutaneous removal of FBs was performed using forceps in nine patients. All patients suffered from a metallic soft tissue FB located in close proximity to important vessels and one also had a small traumatic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the FB. Prior to removal of the FB, the position of the nearest vessel was identified using a guide wire or catheter placed into the vessel. Balloon catheter was also simultaneously used to temporarily stop the blood flow of the nearest artery during the FB removal in three of the nine patients.ResultsAll of the nine FBs with 0–2 mm interval to the nearest vessel were successfully removed in the nine patients without any serious complications. The removed FBs measured 3–12 mm in length and 1–3 mm in width. The total fluoroscopic time of retrieval of each FB was 5–9 min (mean, 6.4 min). The volume of intraoperative bleeding ranged from 5 to 12 ml (mean, 7.5 ml). The length of hospital stay for each patient ranged from 4 to 8 days (mean, 5.5 days).ConclusionVascular intervention-aided percutaneous FB removal is minimally invasive and an effective method for removal of FBs around vital vessels

  8. Percutaneous Retrieval of Foreign Bodies Around Vital Vessels Aided with Vascular Intervention: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Jun, E-mail: woothingyang2008@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Xing, Guang-Fu, E-mail: xgf8848@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2015-10-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a new interventional technique to remove foreign bodies (FBs) embedded in soft tissues around vital vessels.MethodsUnder fluoroscopic guidance and using local anesthesia, percutaneous removal of FBs was performed using forceps in nine patients. All patients suffered from a metallic soft tissue FB located in close proximity to important vessels and one also had a small traumatic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the FB. Prior to removal of the FB, the position of the nearest vessel was identified using a guide wire or catheter placed into the vessel. Balloon catheter was also simultaneously used to temporarily stop the blood flow of the nearest artery during the FB removal in three of the nine patients.ResultsAll of the nine FBs with 0–2 mm interval to the nearest vessel were successfully removed in the nine patients without any serious complications. The removed FBs measured 3–12 mm in length and 1–3 mm in width. The total fluoroscopic time of retrieval of each FB was 5–9 min (mean, 6.4 min). The volume of intraoperative bleeding ranged from 5 to 12 ml (mean, 7.5 ml). The length of hospital stay for each patient ranged from 4 to 8 days (mean, 5.5 days).ConclusionVascular intervention-aided percutaneous FB removal is minimally invasive and an effective method for removal of FBs around vital vessels.

  9. DOES FOREIGN AID AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES?

    OpenAIRE

    B Mak Arvin; Parviz Dabir-Alai; Byron Lew

    2006-01-01

    Preserving the environment is important from both national and international perspectives. Similarly, the provision of foreign assistance from richer to poorer nations is often seen as an imperative. However, there is a noticeable gap in research on how aid flows are linked to the environment in developing economies. Using the method of Granger causality, this paper explores the possible linkages. Results indicate that the external debt of a developing country bears upon the relationship in i...

  10. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  11. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  12. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter, A.S.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. Methods The ...

  13. Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Katz; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the f...

  14. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID)

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psych...

  15. Review of human factors in operator aids development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three related Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) projects in the area of human factors in diagnostic aids are described. The goal of the first, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI RP2184), is to provide guidance to nuclear-utility engineers in the selection and retrofit of computer-generated display systems in nuclear-plant control rooms. The goal of the second, sponsored by the Office of Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is to provide the NRC with a preview of some of the operator aids currently under development by industry for the purpose of assessing the applicability of current requirements. The goal of the third, also sponsored by the NRC, is to develop a methodology to determine the proper allocation of function between an operator and an automated system. The status of each project is given, together with the current and expected findings

  16. Perceptions of secondary technical schools students in Assiut, upper Egypt, about AIDS: Effect of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohei El-Din A Selim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is a great threat to the youth. The aim is to assess the knowledge of secondary technical schools students on AIDS, identify related misconceptions, and measure the effect of a short health education program on their level of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on 575 secondary technical schools students in Assiut City, recruited through a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. A health education program was implemented, and its effect assessed through pre-post testing. Results: The age range of the students was 16 to 20 years, with more girls (57.0%. Only 30.8% had satisfactory knowledge about AIDS in the pretest. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge were revealed after program implementation (P<0.001. Students who were Muslim, of urban residence, and had mobile phones had significantly higher scores (P=0.037, 0.004, 0.038 respectively. The most common misconceptions were the definition of AIDS according to transmission, and phobias related to transmission, which decreased after the intervention. Multivariate analysis showed that the statistically significant independent predictors of the change in knowledge score after the intervention were age, religion and the health education program. Conclusion: Secondary technical schools students in Assiut city have a major deficiency in knowledge and many misconceptions regarding AIDS. The educational intervention had a positive impact on their knowledge, but a less marked effect on misconceptions. Knowledge was affected by age and religious belief. It is recommended that more health educational efforts tailored to needs and with approaches suitable to community cultures and values be introduced.

  17. Role of nanotechnology in HIV/AIDS vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Chunying

    2016-08-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worst crises affecting global health and influencing economic development and social stability. Preventing and treating HIV infection is a crucial task. However, there is still no effective HIV vaccine for clinical application. Nanotechnology has the potential to solve the problems associated with traditional HIV vaccines. At present, various nano-architectures and nanomaterials can function as potential HIV vaccine carriers or adjuvants, including inorganic nanomaterials, liposomes, micelles and polymer nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current progress in the use of nanotechnology for the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine and discuss its potential to greatly improve the solubility, permeability, stability and pharmacokinetics of HIV vaccines. Although nanotechnology holds great promise for applications in HIV/AIDS vaccines, there are still many inadequacies that result in a variety of risks and challenges. The potential hazards to the human body and environment associated with some nano-carriers, and their underlying mechanisms require in-depth study. Non-toxic or low-toxic nanomaterials with adjuvant activity have been identified. However, studying the confluence of factors that affect the adjuvant activity of nanomaterials may be more important for the optimization of the dosage and immunization strategy and investigations into the exact mechanism of action. Moreover, there are no uniform standards for investigations of nanomaterials as potential vaccine adjuvants. These limitations make it harder to analyze and deduce rules from the existing data. Developing vaccine nano-carriers or adjuvants with high benefit-cost ratios is important to ensure their broad usage. Despite some shortcomings, nanomaterials have great potential and application prospects in the fields of AIDS treatment and prevention. PMID:26952542

  18. Present state of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics of computer-aided detection (CAD) are reviewed. Commercially available, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CAD systems are for fields of breast cancer (mammography), chest (flat X-ray and CT imaging) and colon (polyp detection). In Japan, only mammography CAD is approved. Efficacy of CAD is controversial, for which reliable database is important, and its construction is under development in various medical fields. Digitalized image is now popularized, which conceivably leads to improve the cost-effectiveness of diagnosis with CAD. For incentive, approval for health insurance would be the case as seen in the increased CAD sale by R2 Technology Co., and MHLW actually assists facilities to introduce the reading-aid system of mammography by sharing a half of its cost. There are 2 big projects for CAD study supported by MECSST, which the author concerns. One is the development of diagnostic aid for the multi-dimensional medical images where the multi-organ, multi-disease CAD system is considered. The other involves the CAD in brain MRI, in breast US and in eyeground picture. It is not in so far future for patients and doctors to fully enjoy the benefit of CAD. (R.T.)

  19. Utilizing Mutual Aid in Reducing Adolescent Substance Use and Developing Group Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogro-Wilson, Cristina; Letendre, Joan; Toi, Hiroki; Bryan, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of mutual aid groups for high school students. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was applied to 242 adolescents, where every other adolescent was assigned to the intervention or the control condition. The study evaluated the influence of implementing mutual aid groups in decreasing perceived risk…

  20. Towards a Psychology of Rural Development Processes and Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landini, F.; Leeuwis, C.; Long, N.; Murtagh, S.

    2014-01-01

    A psychosocial approach to rural development and development interventions, which we designate as ‘psychology of rural development’ (PsyRD), does not yet exist as an area of research or intervention within the field of psychology or development studies, even though rural development is in part obvio

  1. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  2. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  3. Development of reactor design aid tool using virtual reality technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of aid system for fusion reactor design, to which the virtual reality (VR) visualization and sonification techniques are applied, is developed. This system provides us with an intuitive interaction environment in the VR space between the observer and the designed objects constructed by the conventional 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system. We have applied the design aid tool to the heliotron-type fusion reactor design activity FFHR2m [A. Sagara, S. Imagawa, O. Mitarai, T. Dolan, T. Tanaka, Y. Kubota, et al., Improved structure and long -life blanket concepts for heliotron reactors, Nucl. Fusion 45 (2005) 258-263] on the virtual reality system CompleXcope [Y. Tamura, A. Kageyama, T. Sato, S. Fujiwara, H. Nakamura, Virtual reality system to visualize and auralize numerical imulation data, Comp. Phys. Comm. 142 (2001) 227-230] of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan, and have evaluated its performance. The tool includes the functions of transfer of the observer, translation and scaling of the objects, recording of the operations and the check of interference

  4. AIDS vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN: expanding the regional role in developing HIV vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread and an AIDS vaccine is urgently needed. Regional alliances and international collaborations can foster the development and evaluation of the next generation of AIDS vaccine candidates. The importance of coordinating and harmonizing efforts across regional alliances has become abundantly clear. We recently formed the AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN to help facilitate the development of a regional AIDS vaccine strategy that accelerates research and development of an AIDS vaccine through government advocacy, improved coordination, and harmonization of research; develops clinical trial and manufacturing capacity; supports ethical and regulatory frameworks; and ensures community participation.

  5. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. PMID:24571211

  6. The influence of hearing aids on the speech and language development of children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Oleson, Jacob J; Ambrose, Sophie E; Walker, Elizabeth; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE Hearing loss (HL) in children can be deleterious to their speech and language development. The standard of practice has been early provision of hearing aids (HAs) to moderate these effects; however, there have been few empirical studies evaluating the effectiveness of this practice on speech and language development among children with mild-to-severe HL. OBJECTIVE To investigate the contributions of aided hearing and duration of HA use to speech and language outcomes in children with mild-to-severe HL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational cross-sectional design was used to examine the association of aided hearing levels and length of HA use with levels of speech and language outcomes. One hundred eighty 3- and 5-year-old children with HL were recruited through records of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and referrals from clinical service providers in the general community in 6 US states. INTERVENTIONS All but 4 children had been fitted with HAs, and measures of aided hearing and the duration of HA use were obtained. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Standardized measures of speech and language ability were obtained. RESULTS Measures of the gain in hearing ability for speech provided by the HA were significantly correlated with levels of speech (ρ179 = 0.20; P = .008) and language: ρ155 = 0.21; P = .01) ability. These correlations were indicative of modest levels of association between aided hearing and speech and language outcomes. These benefits were found for children with mild and moderate-to-severe HL. In addition, the amount of benefit from aided hearing interacted with the duration of HA experience (Speech: F4,161 = 4.98; P hearing. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The degree of improved hearing provided by HAs was associated with better speech and language development in children. In addition, the duration of HA experience interacted with the aided hearing to influence outcomes. These results provide support for the

  7. The impact of a community-based pilot health education intervention for older people as caregivers of orphaned and sick children as a result of HIV and AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Hermien; Ruiter, Robert A C; James, Shegs; Van Den Borne, Bart; Williams, Eka; Reddy, Priscilla

    2009-12-01

    The increasing HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa poses a substantial burden to older people, in particular older women who mainly provide care for sick adult children and their grandchildren who have become orphaned and rendered vulnerable by the death or illness of their parents. In this study, 202 isiXhosa speaking older caregivers from Motherwell in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were trained to provide care for grandchildren and adult children living with HIV or AIDS. Based on a community needs assessment, a health education intervention comprising four modules was designed to improve skills and knowledge which would be used to assist older people in their care-giving tasks. Some topics were HIV and AIDS knowledge, effective intergenerational communication, providing home-based basic nursing care, accessing social services and grants, and relaxation techniques. Structured one-on-one interviews measured differences between pre-intervention and post-intervention scores among those who attended all four modules vs. those that missed one or more of the sessions. The results demonstrated that older people who participated in all four workshops perceived themselves more able and in control to provide nursing care. The participants also showed a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV or AIDS and reported an increased level of HIV and AIDS knowledge. The results provided valuable information upon which the development of future interventions may be based and psychosocial and structural needs of the older caregivers may be addressed by relevant stakeholders. PMID:19813083

  8. Development of a Dutch intervention for obese young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van E.; Bouwman, L.I.; Koelen, M.A.; Lutt, M.A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide insight in the five-step development process of the best evidence, best practice intervention for obese young children ‘AanTafel!’. A set of requirements for intervention development was developed to guide the data inquiry: the use of theory, influencing f

  9. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  11. Game playbooks: tools to guide multidisciplinary teams in developing videogame-based behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Culyba, Sabrina; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-03-01

    As mobile technologies and videogaming platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in the realm of health and healthcare, so are the opportunities to use these resources to conduct behavioral interventions. The creation and empirical testing of game style interventions, however, is challenged by the requisite collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, including researchers and game developers who have different cultures, terminologies, and standards of evidence. Thus, traditional intervention development tools such as logic models and intervention manuals may need to be augmented by creating what we have termed "Game Playbooks" which are intervention guidebooks that are created by, understood by, and acceptable to all members of the multidisciplinary game development team. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance and content of a Game Playbook created to aide in the development of a videogame intervention designed specifically for health behavior change in young teens as well as the process for creating such a tool. We draw on the experience of our research and game design team to describe the critical components of the Game Playbook and the necessity of creating such a tool.

  12. Intervention Mapping as a Framework for Developing an Intervention at the Worksite for Older Construction Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Molen, H.F. van der; Bongers, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of intervention mapping to develop a worksite intervention designed to improve the work ability of construction workers. A six-step methodology was implemented that included the following: needs assessment; preparing matrices of change objectives; selecting theory-info

  13. Developing and Modeling Complex Social Interventions: Introducing the Connecting People Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Modeling the processes involved in complex social interventions is important in social work practice, as it facilitates their implementation and translation into different contexts. This article reports the process of developing and modeling the connecting people intervention (CPI), a model of practice that supports people with mental…

  14. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psychological, individual behaviour change orientation and some take years to implement. This paper presents a pragmatic guide to six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQuID). The focus is on public health interventions but the model should have wider applicability. Once a problem has been identified as needing intervention, the process of designing an intervention can be broken down into six crucial steps: (1) defining and understanding the problem and its causes; (2) identifying which causal or contextual factors are modifiable: which have the greatest scope for change and who would benefit most; (3) deciding on the mechanisms of change; (4) clarifying how these will be delivered; (5) testing and adapting the intervention; and (6) collecting sufficient evidence of effectiveness to proceed to a rigorous evaluation. If each of these steps is carefully addressed, better use will be made of scarce public resources by avoiding the costly evaluation, or implementation, of unpromising interventions. PMID:26573236

  15. History of the technological development of air conduction hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, A; Dodelé, L

    2000-06-01

    This was a study of the history of the technological development of air conduction hearing aids, and a review of international literature on the subject. The technological evolution of amplification devices, from their origin to the present day, can be divided into seven distinct periods: the period of sound collectors, the period of hearing devices constructed from carbon, the period of vacuum tubes, the transistor period, the period of integrated circuits, the microprocessor period and the period of digital hearing instruments. Throughout these different stages, hearing instruments have progressively developed reaching their present state. The current era is itself undergoing constant development and change. With the introduction of new technologies, we expect that the rate of change will increase rapidly in the future.

  16. "America Responds to AIDS": its content, development process, and outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, D. R.; Davis, D; Westover, B J

    1991-01-01

    During the 1987-90 period, five phases of new AIDS information materials were released to the general public in the ARTA campaign, including a national mailer. The five were "General Awareness: Humanizing AIDS" in October 1987, "Understanding AIDS," the national mailout, April 1988, "Women at Risk/Multiple Partner, Sexually Active Adults," October 1988, "Parents and Youth," May 1989, and "Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS: Taking The Next Steps," July 1990. From planning to implementation to ...

  17. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conner Mark

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information, motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support and environment (e.g. management support and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active. The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009.

  18. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Indonesia: does primary health care as a prevention and intervention strategy work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kusman; Songwathana, Praneed; Boonyasopun, Umaporn; Francis, Karen

    2010-04-01

    The continuing increase in the number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Indonesia is impacting on society. Various policies and strategies have been adopted and implemented to tackle this epidemic including primary health-care (PHC) initiatives. This paper describes the current HIV/AIDS epidemic in Indonesia and highlights a range of prevention and intervention initiatives introduced to limit the spread and impact of this disease factors, such as the characteristics of high-risk groups, the decentralization policy in the health sector, and the lack of skilled human resources and supplies in health centres have been identified as influencing access to health-care services among high-risk groups. Revitalization of a PHC approach coupled with adequate fiscal, infrastructure and human resources if addressed will increase of PLWHA and other risk groups to health care. PMID:20487052

  19. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  20. The 'Honne-Tatemae' Dimension in Japan's Foreign Aid Policy: Overseas Development Aid Allocations in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka, and KATO, Iwao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the socio-psychological concept of 'honne-tatemae' to analyse Japanese foreign aid policy. Tatemae refers to the 'façade' or 'appearances' while honne signifies the 'real intention'. The Japanese government has pledged to use foreign aid to promote economic development and political stability in developing countries. On the other hand, Japan's official development assistance (ODA program has been repeatedly criticised for being employed as a tool to promote Japan's own commercial interests. In this context, altruism could be a superficial principle of Japanese foreign aid policy which forms the 'tatemae' dimension while selfishness could represent a true hidden motive for the aid giving and form the 'honne' dimension. The present paper uses panel data analysis to examine which element – honne or tatemae – has influenced the decision-making process of allocation of Japan's ODA to Southeast Asia. The findings indicate that the volumes of Japan's exports to and income levels in the aid recipient countries had a significant influence on foreign aid distribution. The Japanese government tended to allocate bigger amounts of money to Japan's major trade partners in ASEAN. At the same time, the poorer nations in the region received more of Japan's ODA compared to the comparatively well-off nations. In other words, both altruism (tatemae dimension and selfishness (honne dimension characterise Japan's ODA flows.

  1. Simulator development in vascular and visceral interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Derek A.; Bello, Fernando; John, Nigel; Johnson, Sheena; Hunt, Carrie; Woolnough, Helen; Bulpitt, Andy; Luboz, Vincent; King, Daniel; Villard, Pierre-Frederic; Pisharody, S.; Vidal, Franck; Sinha, A.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the practice of procedural medicine, there is an unrelenting shift to management by less invasive techniques such as interventional radiology (IR). This subspecialty within radiology uses imaging to guide needles, wires and catheters using tiny access incisions. Like other minimally invasive techniques, risk, pain and recovery times are reduced as compared with more invasive approaches such as open surgery. These benefits, alongside the emergence of increasingly novel therapeutic t...

  2. Impact of an Asha Intervention on Depressive Symptoms among Rural Women Living with AIDS in India: Comparison of the Asha-Life and Usual Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Meyer, Visha; Ganguly, Kalyan K.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ramakrishnan, Padma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study is to conduct an intervention with 68 rural women living with AIDS to compare the effectiveness of two different programs on depressive symptoms. The trial was designed to assess the impact of the Asha-Life intervention engaging with an HIV-trained village woman, Asha (Accredited Social Health Activist),…

  3. Technology-Aided Interventions and Instruction for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Samuel L.; Thompson, Julie L.; Hedges, Susan; Boyd, Brian A.; Dykstra, Jessica R.; Duda, Michelle A.; Szidon, Kathrine L.; Smith, Leann E.; Bord, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    The use of technology in intervention and instruction for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing at a striking rate. The purpose of this paper is to examine the research literature underlying the use of technology in interventions and instruction for high school students with ASD. In this paper, authors propose a theoretical…

  4. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  5. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Conner Mark; Jackson Cath; Lawton Rebecca J; McEachan Rosemary RC; Lunt Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an i...

  6. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools. PMID:27417598

  7. Developing a Complex Educational–Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Clarkesmith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework, clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several “active theoretical ingredients” were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR, with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months. Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1 clinical guidelines; (2 appropriate theoretical models; (3 patient input; and (4 appropriate evaluation tools.

  8. Developing a Complex Educational-Behavioural Intervention: The TREAT Intervention for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Borg Xuereb, Christian; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-14

    This article describes the theoretical and pragmatic development of a patient-centred intervention for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Theoretical models (Common Sense Model, Necessity-Concerns Framework), clinical frameworks, and AF patient feedback contributed to the design of a one-off hour-long behaviour-change intervention package. Intervention materials consisted of a DVD, educational booklet, diary and worksheet, which were patient-centred and easy to administer. The intervention was evaluated within a randomised controlled trial. Several "active theoretical ingredients" were identified (for e.g., where patients believed their medication was less harmful they spent more time within the therapeutic range (TTR), with general harm scores predicting TTR at 6 months). Allowing for social comparison and adopting behaviour change techniques enabled accurate patient understanding of their condition and medication. The process of developing the intervention using theory-derived content and evaluation tools allowed a greater understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention was successful. Alleviating concerns about treatment medication by educating patients can help to improve adherence. This process of intervention development could be adopted for a range of chronic illnesses and treatments. Critical elements should include the use of: (1) clinical guidelines; (2) appropriate theoretical models; (3) patient input; and (4) appropriate evaluation tools.

  9. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.

  10. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p < 0.001); the global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p < 0.001). The findings of this study demonstrate that the intervention was partially effective; the health outcomes showed beneficial effects. However, at the end of the study and throughout the follow-up phase, only one third of the participants were able to develop and maintain a legal operating business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program.

  11. Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Dahlström, Orjan; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7 years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  12. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli

    2015-05-01

    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV. PMID:25844941

  13. Focusing on the interventional technique research for bone and joint and cultivating the equalization development of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and current status of interventional and minimal invasive technique in bones and joints are reviewed. The common interventional techniques such as percutaneous bone biopsy, interventions for disc herniation and percutaneous vertebroplasty have been commented. It is believed that there are a lot of spaces to be developed for these intervention techniques although possessing long history over other interventional field like vascular interventions. (authors)

  14. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bialas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  15. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research. PMID:27240360

  16. Media Aid Beyond the Factual: Culture, Development, and Audiovisual Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. J. Pearson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses audiovisual assistance, a form of development aid that focuses on the production and distribution of cultural and entertainment media such as fictional films and TV shows. While the first audiovisual assistance program dates back to UNESCO’s International Fund for the Promotion of Culture in the 1970s, the past two decades have seen a proliferation of audiovisual assistance that, I argue, is related to a growing concern for culture in post-2015 global development agendas. In this paper, I examine the aims and motivations behind the EU’s audiovisual assistance programs to countries in the Global South, using data from policy documents and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Program Managers and administrative staff in Brussels. These programs prioritize forms of audiovisual content that are locally specific, yet globally tradable. Furthermore, I argue that they have an ambivalent relationship with traditional notions of international development, one that conceptualizes media not only as a means to achieve economic development and human rights aims, but as a form of development itself.

  17. Computer-Aided Sensor Development Focused on Security Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2016-05-26

    The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.

  18. Setting priorities for development of emerging interventions against childhood diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An expert panel exercise was conducted to assess feasibility and potential effectiveness of 10 emerging health interventions against childhood diarrhoea. Twelve international experts were invited to take part in a CHNRI priority setting process. This group used 12 different criteria relevant to successful development and implementation of the emerging interventions, nine of which were retained in the final analysis. They showed most collective optimism towards developing household or community-level water treatment, followed by sustainable, affordable latrine options; those two emerging interventions were followed by antibiotic therapy of Cryptosporidium diarrhoea, and oral or transcutaneous enteric vaccine development.

  19. A Financial Aid Competency Model for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Neil; Martinez, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the competencies that financial aid officers need to be successful in their jobs. A survey of 30 competencies was distributed to 508 financial aid officers in the Western United States. Respondents were asked to rate 30 job competencies for their relative importance and frequency of use. Using exploratory factor analysis,…

  20. The Role of Theory in Developing Psycho-Environmental Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Palacios Delgado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of psychology is to promote positive change in personal behavior. This article show the usefulness of the theory for behavior change through design effective messages to behavioral change and development programs of psychosocial intervention. The theoretical model focuses in factors of behavioral changing: self-efficacy, skills, disposition and intention (MAHDI. The article describes the theory, shows how they can be applied to the selection environmental behavior, as well as their appropriate application in complementary intervention strategies that includes needs analysis, development and piloting program, applicability, social marketing and evaluation. Finally, how the theory can contribute to design youth intervention programs is discussed.

  1. HIV/AIDS Situation in Economic Cooperation Countries; Achievement and Gaps toward Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: An efficient surveillance system in needed to illustrate an exact picture of HIV/AIDS in all countries. This study shows that though the epidemics has started lately in member countries compared with other parts of the world, no proper intervention has been adopted for controlling the epidemics yet. Moreover, in those countries which AIDS epidemics are concentrated among drug users, harm reduction activities are necessary to control the problem. Increasing the coverage of antiretroviral treatment and awareness of general and high risk population could help countries to achieve HIV/AIDS indicators.

  2. The development of a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development process of a protocol for a fear of falling interdisciplinary intervention program based on the main factors associated with fear of falling. Design/methods: The process of developing a protocol consisted of defining the target population, selecting the initial assessment components, adapting the intervention program based on findings about fear of falling and restriction of activities in this population. Settings: University-affiliated outpatient vertig...

  3. Private development aid in Europe: Foreign aid between the public and the private domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebink, P.R.J.; Schulpen, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book which makes a detailed analysis of private aid organizations in Europe, their historical background and current position in six European countries - Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands and Spain. The authors investigate the relation between governments and priv

  4. Latest developments for a computer aided thermohydraulic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermohydraulic networks are I-D systems characterized by a small number of basic components (pumps, valves, heat exchangers, etc) connected by pipes and limited spatially by a defined number of boundary conditions (tanks, atmosphere, etc). The network system is simulated by the well known computer program RELAPS/mod3. Information concerning the network geometry component behaviour, initial and boundary conditions are usually supplied to the RELAPS code using an ASCII input file by means of 'input cards'. CATNET (Computer Aided Thermalhydraulic NETwork) is a graphically user interface that, under specific user guidelines which completely define its range of applicability, permits a very high level of standardization and simplification of the RELAPS/mod3 input deck development process as well as of the output processing. The characteristics of the components (pipes, valves, pumps etc), defining the network system can be entered through CATNET. The CATNET interface is provided by special functions to compute form losses in the most typical bending and branching configurations. When the input of all system components is ready, CATNET is able to generate the RELAPS/mod3 input file. Finally, by means of CATNET, the RELAPS/mod3 code can be run and its output results can be transformed to an intuitive display form. The paper presents an example of application of the CATNET interface as well as the latest developments which greatly simplified the work of the users and allowed to reduce the possibility of input errors. (authors)

  5. The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jambert Elodie; Bärnighausen Till; Diedrichsen Ellen; Waning Brenda; Li Yun; Pouw Mieke; Moon Suerie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Important advances in the development and production of quality-certified pediatric antiretroviral (ARV) formulations have recently been made despite significant market disincentives for manufacturers. This progress resulted from lobbying and innovative interventions from HIV/AIDS activists, civil society organizations, and international organizations. Research on uptake and dispersion of these improved products across countries and international organizations has not been...

  6. Using locational data from mobile phones in development aid projects - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Saarinen, Vesa

    2015-01-01

    Today’s mobile phones often possess the ability to record locational data, i.e. the ability to locate the device and its user anywhere in the world. One interesting but less-researched context where this ability is used is the context of development aid. This research contributes to development aid research and to locational data research by showcasing how locational data from mobile phones has been advocated in development aid projects. The following research questions are presented: 1) ...

  7. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans;

    2015-01-01

    pain among workers in eldercare. Thus, multi-faceted interventions may be relevant for improving low back pain in a working population.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial No Derivatives 3.0 License, which permits downloading...

  8. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  9. A systematic literature search on psychological first aid: lack of evidence to develop guidelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Dieltjens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Providing psychological first aid (PFA is generally considered to be an important element in preliminary care of disaster victims. Using the best available scientific basis for courses and educational materials, the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders wants to ensure that its volunteers are trained in the best way possible. OBJECTIVE: To identify effective PFA practices, by systematically reviewing the evidence in existing guidelines, systematic reviews and individual studies. METHODS: Systematic literature searches in five bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, PILOTS and G-I-N were conducted from inception to July 2013. RESULTS: Five practice guidelines were included which were found to vary in the development process (AGREE II score 20-53% and evidence base used. None of them provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. Additionally, two systematic reviews of PFA were found, both noting a lack of studies on PFA. A complementary search for individual studies, using a more sensitive search strategy, identified 11 237 references of which 102 were included for further full-text examination, none of which ultimately provides solid evidence concerning the effectiveness of PFA practices. CONCLUSION: The scientific literature on psychological first aid available to date, does not provide any evidence about the effectiveness of PFA interventions. Currently it is impossible to make evidence-based guidelines about which practices in psychosocial support are most effective to help disaster and trauma victims.

  10. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina

    2015-02-24

    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  11. Development of a postgraduate interventional cardiac nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currey, Judy; White, Kevin; Rolley, John; Oldland, Elizabeth; Driscoll, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Interventional cardiology practices have advanced immensely in the last two decades, but the educational preparation of the workforce in cardiac catheter laboratories has not seen commensurate changes. Although on-the-job training has sufficed in the past, recognition of this workforce as a specialty practice domain now demands specialist educational preparation. The aim of this paper is to present the development of an interventional cardiac nursing curriculum nested within a Master of Nursing Practice in Australia. International and national health educational principles, teaching and learning theories and professional frameworks and philosophies are foundational to the program designed for interventional cardiac specialist nurses. These broader health, educational and professional underpinnings will be described to illustrate their application to the program's theoretical and clinical components. Situating interventional cardiac nursing within a Master's degree program at University provides nurses with the opportunities to develop high level critical thinking and problem solving knowledge and skills. PMID:25687694

  12. Language Development of Individuals Who Require Aided Communication: Reflections on State of the Science and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martine M

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition theories differ in the importance they assign to production as a learning mechanism. This review summarizes some of the theoretical issues linked to this debate and considers their implications for children with severe speech and physical impairments. The unique aspects of the language-learning contexts of these children are explored. Drawing largely on papers published within the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication, this review summarizes features of language development that have been described over the past 3 decades and considers how these findings might illuminate our understanding of language development across both spoken and aided modalities. Implications for assessment, intervention and for further research are suggested.

  13. The effect of organisational context on organisational development (OD interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Brijball Parumasur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD interventions.Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions.Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions.Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures.Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures.Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary.Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.

  14. Professional Development and Teacher Aides in Inclusive Education Contexts: Where to from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    During the past 10 years in Australia teacher aides have been employed in mainstream schools as support personnel in special education intervention programmes, and their numbers are increasing. At the same time workplace reform in relation to inclusive education is impacting on their employment and deployment in schools to support students with…

  15. Development of an intervention to improve contraceptive use amongst adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to identify key psychological variables associated with effective contraceptive use to target within an intervention aimed at improving contraceptive use amongst adolescents, since rates of pregnancy amongst UK adolescents remain the highest in Western Europe (Summerfield & Babb, 2004). A further aim was to implement and evaluate such an intervention. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 18 adolescents in order to inform the development of measu...

  16. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves Colin J; Logan Stuart; Lloyd Jennifer J; Wyatt Katrina M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in chil...

  17. On the terms of the recipient? Norwegian sports development aid to Tanzania in the 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Straume, Solveig; Steen-Johnsen, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the donor–recipient1 relationship in a sports development aid context, and identifies potential dilemmas occurring when aiming to give aid on the recipient’s terms. Using the case of the Norwegian sports development aid project Sport for All, it is argued that the Norwegian Confederation of Sports was clearly in control of the project throughout its various phases, and thus a contradiction between the discourse of equality and the actual practice was evid...

  18. Developing the Competitive Organization: Interventions and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael; Walton, Elise

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how a competitive environment has given rise to a paradigmatic transformation in how corporations organize and manage people. Discusses the following topics: (1) the field of organization development; (2) how corporations transform their culture; (3) the role of effective change leaders; and (4) the role of the consultant. (JS)

  19. Democracy or Intervention? Adapting Orientations to Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Many institutional cultures resist change, and within universities academic developers vary their response to such resistance, depending on the type of change, the institution and their own characteristic styles, working preferences and strategic judgements. Variables influencing the successful introduction of innovation in academic practice…

  20. Development of an Intervention Map for a Parent Education Intervention to Prevent Violence Among Hispanic Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nancy; Kelder, Steve; Parcel, Guy; Orpinas, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Describes development of an intervention program for Hispanic parents to reduce violence by increased monitoring of their middle school students. Program development used a five-step guided intervention mapping process. Student surveys and parent interviews provided data to inform program design. Intervention mapping ensured involvement with the…

  1. Using Intervention Mapping for Systematic Development of Two School-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaerts, E.; De Nooijer, J.; De Vries, N. K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how the intervention mapping (IM) protocol could be applied to the development of two school-based interventions. It provides an extensive description of the development, implementation and evaluation of two interventions which aimed to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption among primary…

  2. Decreased Depression Up to One Year Following CBSM+ Intervention in Depressed Women with AIDS: The Smart/EST Women’s Project

    OpenAIRE

    LaPerriere, Arthur; Ironson, Gail H.; Antoni, Michael H.; POMM, HEIDI; Jones, Deborah; ISHII, MARY; Lydston, David; Lawrence, Peter; GROSSMAN, ALISON; BRONDOLO, ELIZABETH; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Schneiderman, Neil; Stephen M. Weiss

    2005-01-01

    This prospective multisite Phase III clinical trial (Miami, New York, New Jersey) investigated the long-term (one year) effects of a 10-week group cognitive-behavioral stress management/expressive supportive therapy (CBSM+) intervention on disadvantaged minority women living with AIDS. The CBSM+ intervention consisted of 10-weekly group session of stress management, cognitive-behavioral skill training, relaxation techniques and expressive-supportive therapeutic strategies. The primary study o...

  3. Developing a Reporting Guideline for Social and Psychological Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Montgomery, Paul; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2013-11-01

    Social and psychological interventions are often complex. Understanding randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of these complex interventions requires a detailed description of the interventions tested and the methods used to evaluate them; however, RCT reports often omit, or inadequately report, this information. Incomplete and inaccurate reporting hinders the optimal use of research, wastes resources, and fails to meet ethical obligations to research participants and consumers. In this article, we explain how reporting guidelines have improved the quality of reports in medicine and describe the ongoing development of a new reporting guideline for RCTs: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials-SPI (an extension for social and psychological interventions). We invite readers to participate in the project by visiting our website, in order to help us reach the best-informed consensus on these guidelines (http://tinyurl.com/CONSORT-study).

  4. Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Steven J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

  5. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  6. Development and Challenge of HIV/AIDS Testing Laboratory Network and Quality Assurance System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development and challenge of HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network and quality assurance system in China. At present, the HIV/AIDS testing laboratories includes three classes, the National AIDS Reference Laboratory, HIV/AIDS confirmatory laboratories and HIV/AIDS screening laboratories. All of them are accredited by the health authorities, and each class of laboratories take charge of their function strictly according to the "National Management of HIV/AIDS Detection (2006)". A complete quality assurance and quality control system for HIV/AIDS testing has been developed, which includes technical training, strict laboratory monitoring and approval,examination or proficiency testing on HIV/AIDS detection, and quality evaluation and supervision of HIV/AIDS diagnostic kits. Besides conduct the routine anti-HIV antibody test, more and more laboratories began to conduct other tests, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counting, HIV viral load, HIV DNA PCR, genotyping, drug resistance, and HIV-1 recent infection test. The primary challenges faced by the HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network are in the areas of laboratory management and quality control. For example, the provincial PT program is inefficient, the internal quality control is conducted perfunctorily, personnel training can not met the needs of the workplace, which need to be improved.

  7. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention. PMID:27189199

  8. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Young Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective: This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design: An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results: Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  9. Process evaluation of the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James; Hatcher, Abigail; Strange, Vicki; Phetla, Godfrey; Busza, Joanna; Kim, Julia; Watts, Charlotte; Morison, Linda; Porter, John; Pronyk, Paul; Bonell, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) combines microfinance, gender/HIV training and community mobilization (CM) in South Africa. A trial found reduced intimate partner violence among clients but less evidence for impact on sexual behaviour among clients' households or communities. This process evaluation examined how feasible IMAGE was to deliver and how accessible and acceptable it was to intended beneficiaries during a trial and subsequent scale-up. Data came from attendance registers, financial records, observations, structured questionnaires (378) and focus group discussions and interviews (128) with clients and staff. Gender/HIV training and CM were managed initially by an academic unit ('linked' model) and later by the microfinance institution (MFI) ('parallel' model). Microfinance and gender/HIV training were feasible to deliver and accessible and acceptable to most clients. Though participation in CM was high for some clients, others experienced barriers to collective action, a finding which may help explain lack of intervention effects among household/community members. Delivery was feasible in the short term but both models were considered unsustainable in the longer term. A linked model involving a MFI and a non-academic partner agency may be more sustainable and is being tried. Feasible models for delivering microfinance and health promotion require further investigation. PMID:19797337

  10. Why culture matters in health interventions: lessons from HIV/AIDS stigma and NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Ford, Chandra L; Iwelunmor, Juliet I

    2014-02-01

    Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies to reduce the global disease burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes requires a reassessment of individual-based approaches to behavior change. We argue that public health and health behavior intervention should focus more on culture than behavior to achieve meaningful and sustainable change resulting in positive health outcomes. To change negative health behaviors, one must first identify and promote positive health behaviors within the cultural logic of its contexts. To illustrate these points, we discuss stigma associated with obesity and human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We conclude that focusing on positive behaviors and sustaining cultural and personal transformations requires a culturally grounded approach to public health interventions, such as that provided by the PEN-3 model.

  11. Technique development for photoacoustic imaging guided interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Zhang, Haonan; Yuan, Jie; Feng, Ting; Xu, Guan; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), i.e. tissue destruction induced by a local increase of temperature by means of laser light energy transmission, has been frequently used for minimally invasive treatments of various diseases such as benign thyroid nodules and liver cancer. The emerging photoacoustic (PA) imaging, when integrated with ultrasound (US), could contribute to LITT procedure. PA can enable a good visualization of percutaneous apparatus deep inside tissue and, therefore, can offer accurate guidance of the optical fibers to the target tissue. Our initial experiment demonstrated that, by picking the strong photoacoustic signals generated at the tips of optical fibers as a needle, the trajectory and position of the fibers could be visualized clearly using a commercial available US unit. When working the conventional US Bscan mode, the fibers disappeared when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 60 degree; while working on the new PA mode, the fibers could be visualized without any problem even when the angle between the fibers and the probe surface was larger than 75 degree. Moreover, with PA imaging function integrated, the optical fibers positioned into the target tissue, besides delivering optical energy for thermotherapy, can also be used to generate PA signals for on-line evaluation of LITT. Powered by our recently developed PA physio-chemical analysis, PA measurements from the tissue can provide a direct and accurate feedback of the tissue responses to laser ablation, including the changes in not only chemical compositions but also histological microstructures. The initial experiment on the rat liver model has demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of PA imaging to the changes in tissue temperature rise and tissue status (from native to coagulated) when the tissue is treated in vivo with LITT.

  12. A logo-leadership intervention: Implications for leadership development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Scholtz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Logo-leadership development challenges leaders to move beyond financial or individual gain to accepting leadership as a calling.Research purpose: The objective of the study was to ascertain whether an intervention embedded in the life and teachings of logo-therapist Viktor Frankl affects the way aspiring leaders construct leadership in terms of meaning (logo-leadership.Motivation for the study: A consideration of Frankl’s life gives rise to the question of whether aspiring leaders can learn from and use his life teachings as an inspiration in the discovery of meaning for themselves as leaders.Research approach, design and method: Participants comprised 20 students registered for an MCom degree at a South African metropolitan university. The research process involved three phases: (1 a pre-intervention questionnaire, (2 an appreciative inquiry intervention and (3 a post-intervention questionnaire. Framework analysis and a comparative method were used to analyse the data.Main findings: A meaning-centred leadership development intervention may impact the leadership role orientation of aspiring leaders, changing it from a predominantly career orientation to a calling. However, this effect largely occurred on an explicit (extrinsic level.Managerial implications: Organisations that wish to develop logo-leadership may consider using the life teachings and work of Frankl as a development tool.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes theoretically to a relatively new development within the field of Frankl’s logotherapy, leadership with meaning (logo-leadership. On apractical level, this study introduced the concept of logo-leadership for leadership development and suggests that leadership may be influenced by exposure to a leadership intervention.

  13. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  14. Reflections on conducting evaluations for rural development interventions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Laura Pan; Liu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    An appropriate evaluation methodology is critical in collecting valid data in complex development intervention contexts. This paper explores this issue by putting forward an appropriate evaluation methodology for development interventions in rural China. It draws on the experience of an impact evaluation of a sustainable agricultural biodiversity management project conducted in Hainan, China in 2010. The authors propose that evaluation be culturally responsive and the evaluation design be rooted in the particular cultural context where an evaluation is conducted. The appropriate use of the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach and methods helps generate data that are relevant and meaningful for evaluation purposes in rural China. PMID:25045841

  15. A health department's response to AIDS. Condomania: a public education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, L M

    1993-01-01

    Experience gleaned from no smoking campaigns, seatbelt safety crusades, dental hygiene programs and other health promotion efforts, have pointed to the usefulness of social marketing principles in formulating and implementing broad-based behaviour change programs. Using social marketing as a tool of health promotion, the Vancouver Health Department, in cooperation with the Vancouver Women and AIDS Project and the Positive Women's Support Network, implemented a three-year plan for six one-month condom awareness campaigns. Two of these campaigns have been successfully completed; the third is in the planning stage. The purpose of these campaigns is to make condoms a more acceptable feature of everyday sexual activity with 19-30 year-olds; women in particular have been targeted because of the increasing incidence of HIV among this population. The program consists of six major components. They are: design and production of campaign materials; public promotion-advertising; focused community education; volunteer recruitment and training; media relations; and program evaluation.

  16. Developing an Interactive Intervention Planner - A Systems Engineering Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fabry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intervention planning is crucial for maintenance operations in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation, during which the radiation dose received by maintenance workers should be reduced to a minimum. In this context, we discuss the development of a new software tool and the entailed methodology, including the visualization aspects. The software tool integrates interactive exploration of a scene depicting an accelerator facility augmented with residual radiation level simulations, with the visualization of intervention data such as the followed trajectory and maintenance tasks. Its conception allows for future inclusion of measurements performed by mobile robotic devices. In this work, we explore the systems engineering life cycle of the development process of an interactive intervention planner, which includes the needs analysis, specification explicitation, conceptual mathematical modelling, iterative implementation, design and prototype testing and usability testing.

  17. Symposium: Organizational Health Intervention Research: Current Empirical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jenny, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    This symposium is one of three symposia submitted by the "International organizational health intervention research partnership". The aim of this symposium is to present new empirical developments based on participatory intervention models. All five studies have developed and applied intervention...... models in various settings with the aim to initiate and implement organizational level preventive changes. It applies to all studies that they put a strong focus on collective change: it's about triggering discourse, collective reflection, mutual support, collective learning and changes in teams......-promoting leader-follower interaction in German companies. The findings show that leaders have become more authentic and the team-climate is perceived to be more participative. • Finally, the fifth study by Busch et al. is another comprehensive project with focus on low qualified work. The research team has...

  18. Guidelines for Developing Yoga Interventions for Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little guidance is available to assist researchers in developing treatment protocols for research on yoga for health concerns. Because yoga is a complex multifactorial mind-body discipline historically developed for nonmedical purposes, numerous decisions must be made in order to thoughtfully develop such protocols. In this paper, a systematic approach is proposed to assist researchers in selecting an intervention that is appropriate for the condition under consideration and explicitly developed. Researchers need to consider the type or “style” of yoga, the components to include (e.g., breathing exercises, postures as well as the specific protocol for each component, the dose to be delivered (frequency, duration of practice, and the total duration of practice, and issues related to selection of instructors and monitoring the fidelity to the intervention. Each of these domains and the key issues for the development of protocols is discussed. Finally, some areas for further research related to protocol development are recommended.

  19. Notes on financial system development and political intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fenghua; Thakor, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies the impact of political intervention on a financial system that consists of banks and financial markets and develops over time. In this financial system, banks and markets exhibit three forms of interaction: they compete, they complement each other, and they co-evolve. Coevolution is generated by two new ingredients of financial system architecture relative to the existin...

  20. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  1. Development of a Barbershop-Based Cancer Communication Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Lewis, Ivey; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Huckaby, Francine; Stroud, Leonardo; Southward, Penny L.; Simons, Virgil; Lee, Crystal; Ross, Louis; Mitchell, Theodies

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African-American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an intervention in which barbers were trained to educate clients about early detection for prostate and CRC. Design/methodology/approach: Working with an advisory panel of local…

  2. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national cou...

  3. Competencies for Rural Development Professionals in the Era of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Dine; Westendorp, Annemarie M. B.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Mulder, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural livelihoods is still insufficiently understood. It is evident, however, that rural development professionals need to respond to the changes that have taken place in rural areas due to the pandemic. This article explores competencies that they need in order to deal with the complex HIV/AIDS issues…

  4. Review of AIDS development. [airborne computers for reliability engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, H. C.; Danielsson, S. G.

    1981-01-01

    The operation and implementation of the aircraft integrated data system AIDS are described. The system is described as an engineering tool with strong emphasis on analysis of recorded information. The AIDS is primarily directed to the monitoring of parameters related to: the safety of the flight; the performance of the aircraft; the performance of the flight guidance system; and the performance and condition of the engines. The system provide short term trend analysis on a trend chart that is updated by the flight engineer on every flight that lasts more than 4 flight hours. Engine data prints are automatically presented during take-off and in the case of limit excedance, e.g., the print shows an automatically reported impending hotstarts on engine nr. 1. Other significant features are reported.

  5. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann B.; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. OBJECTIVES This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. SOURCES OF DATA The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. PROCEDURES The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. RESULTS The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include 1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; 2) assess the population, need, and context; 3

  6. The political economy of AIDS leadership in developing countries: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    The commitment of high-level government leaders is widely recognized as a key factor in curbing national AIDS epidemics. But where does such leadership come from? This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the determinants of AIDS leadership in 54 developing countries, using the 2003 AIDS Program Effort Index "political support" score as an indicator of political commitment. Explanatory variables include measures of political institutions as well as economic development and integration. Models developed in the analysis explain over half of the variation in commitment across the countries in the sample. In particular, press freedoms, income equality, and HIV prevalence stand out as determinants of political commitment.

  7. Developing effective chronic disease interventions in Africa: insights from Ghana and Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boynton Petra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa faces an urgent but 'neglected epidemic' of chronic disease. In some countries stroke, hypertension, diabetes and cancers cause a greater number of adult medical admissions and deaths compared to communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS or tuberculosis. Experts propose a three-pronged solution consisting of epidemiological surveillance, primary prevention and secondary prevention. In addition, interventions must be implemented through 'multifaceted multi-institutional' strategies that make efficient use of limited economic and human resources. Epidemiological surveillance has been prioritised over primary and secondary prevention. We discuss the challenge of developing effective primary and secondary prevention to tackle Africa's chronic disease epidemic through in-depth case studies of Ghanaian and Cameroonian responses. Methods A review of chronic disease research, interventions and policy in Ghana and Cameroon instructed by an applied psychology conceptual framework. Data included published research and grey literature, health policy initiatives and reports, and available information on lay community responses to chronic diseases. Results There are fundamental differences between Ghana and Cameroon in terms of 'multi-institutional and multi-faceted responses' to chronic diseases. Ghana does not have a chronic disease policy but has a national health insurance policy that covers drug treatment of some chronic diseases, a culture of patient advocacy for a broad range of chronic conditions and mass media involvement in chronic disease education. Cameroon has a policy on diabetes and hypertension, has established diabetes clinics across the country and provided training to health workers to improve treatment and education, but lacks community and media engagement. In both countries churches provide public education on major chronic diseases. Neither country has conducted systematic evaluation of the impact of

  8. Hardware additions to microprocessor architecture aid software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    An address trap (breakpoint) mechanism and last-in-first-out (LIFO) address stack are suggested as two additions to the basic microprocessor architecture whose functions are solely to aid the programmer. These devices provide the programmer with the ability to specify address breakpoints and to trace program execution back through N instructions, where N is the depth of the stack. Both devices, plus interface logic and buffering, have been designed for an INTEL 8080-based system using approximately 25 integrated-circuit packages.

  9. The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in developing countries; the current scenario in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Masroor E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus causes (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, in which the immune system of body totally fails to develop any defense against the foreign invaders. Infection with HIV occurs by transfer of blood, semen, and breast milk. HIV/AIDS is a global problem and it results nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Developing countries like Pakistan have issues regarding Public Health. Currently, epidemic of HIV/AIDS is established in Pakistan and there is a threat of an expanded HIV/AIDS outbreak in the country. The major reason is that population is engaging in high-risk practices, low awareness about HIV/AIDS, and treacherous blood transfusion practices. A supplementary threat to Pakistan is India because both sharing a border and India is facing a rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local NGOs, National and International organizations are warning that in near future Pakistan may experiences bad situation regarding HIV/AIDS. In the present article we focused current situation of surveillance of HIV/AIDS, its virology, genotype, diagnostics, high-risk groups, reasons of vulnerability in Pakistani population, and the role of different national and international organizations in this situation.

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF STATE AID TO RnD ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In economic terms, the importance of state aid policy refers to the maintaining of an undistorted competition and the correction of inherent “market failures” which may occur in the economy, aiming at increasing economic efficiency, based on the traditional assumption that an effective competition will have a positive impact on economic development. The main objective of the present paper is to establish a possible correlation between state aid to research and development (RnD and GDP level in the EU. Our research hypothesis relates to considering state aid as a significant contribution to the economic development, measured by GDP level, which will be estimated as a function of state aid. Consequently, the main variables of this study are state aid to RnD and GDP level, considered in both relative and absolute terms. The relationship between technological change and economic development has been at the centre of the interest in both theoretical and empirical literature. The role of institutions and government policies in stimulating technological change has been provided mainly by the evolutionary theory, which considers economic development as a technological change driven process featured by a complex pattern which includes both uniformity and idiosyncrasy across time and countries. The relationship between these variables was estimated through a panel model which used seemly unrelated regression (SUR and ordinary least squares estimation (OLS. Taking into account that the economic value is likely to be realized after the innovation process took place we have interpreted this economic aspect in an econometric sense by using time lags. In analysing the relative importance of state aid to RnD, we have proposed an index which evaluates the relation between state aid and the relative size of the Member State’s economy. The relationship between state aid and GDP level was found to be positive and

  11. An exploratory study to examine intentions to adopt an evidence-based HIV linkage-to-care intervention among state health department AIDS directors in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Wynne E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread dissemination and implementation of evidence-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV linkage-to-care (LTC interventions is essential for improving HIV-positive patients' health outcomes and reducing transmission to uninfected others. To date, however, little work has focused on identifying factors associated with intentions to adopt LTC interventions among policy makers, including city, state, and territory health department AIDS directors who play a critical role in deciding whether an intervention is endorsed, distributed, and/or funded throughout their region. Methods Between December 2010 and February 2011, we administered an online questionnaire with state, territory, and city health department AIDS directors throughout the United States to identify factors associated with intentions to adopt an LTC intervention. Guided by pertinent theoretical frameworks, including the Diffusion of Innovations and the "push-pull" capacity model, we assessed participants' attitudes towards the intervention, perceived organizational and contextual demand and support for the intervention, likelihood of adoption given endorsement from stakeholder groups (e.g., academic researchers, federal agencies, activist organizations, and likelihood of enabling future dissemination efforts by recommending the intervention to other health departments and community-based organizations. Results Forty-four participants (67% of the eligible sample completed the online questionnaire. Approximately one-third (34.9% reported that they intended to adopt the LTC intervention for use in their city, state, or territory in the future. Consistent with prior, related work, these participants were classified as LTC intervention "adopters" and were compared to "nonadopters" for data analysis. Overall, adopters reported more positive attitudes and greater perceived demand and support for the intervention than did nonadopters. Further, participants varied with

  12. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    OpenAIRE

    Tromp Noor; Baltussen Rob

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frame...

  13. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    indicating how foreign aid and democracy can be associated with a more, not less, skewed income distribution. By using data on income quintiles derived from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, the results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated...... with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries....

  14. Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; O'Connor, A.; Stacey, D.; Volk, R.; Edwards, A.; Coulter, A.; Thomson, R.; Barratt, A.; Barry, M.; Bernstein, S.; Butow, P.; Clarke, A.; Entwistle, V.A.; Feldman-Stewart, D.; Holmes-Rovner, M.; Llewellyn-Thomas, H.; Moumjid, N.; Mulley, A.; Ruland, C.; Sepucha, K.; Sykes, A.; Whelan, T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). DESIGN AND SETTING: Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, pr

  15. North-South Commerce and Oficial Development Aid: Some Contradictory Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadi Oliveres Boadella

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available That, traditionally, North-South commerce is unfavorably tilted towards the interests of the former is not new: but how is a countries official Aid for Development implicated in the equation? This two-pronged relationship is the subject of the article, which, based on statistics from 1988 to 1995, underlines the importance of the global petroleum trade in the balance between Spainís contribution to Aid for Development and Spainish commercialimport-export gains with countries in the South. By using petroleum as a key ingredient in analyzing the overall relationship, the author demonstrates the quantitative deterioration of Spainish Aid for Development during this period which, in constant prices, revealsthat only in 1991 did the Aid for Development show favorable results for the countries of the South vis a vis the commercial relationship.

  16. Effect of Community Interventions on Intelligence Development of Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qin LIU; Xiao-ping ZHOU; Ning LIU; Li-feng ZHOU; Jie YANG; Er-sheng GAO; Rui-zhu CHEN; Juan-ping HE; Zhi-xin RONG; Chen-ping XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the interventions effect on intelligence of the infants through the community.Methods A total of 309 newborns and their families were recruited in Xuhui district,Shanghai. They were asked to fill out the baseline questionnaires. The newborns'intelligence quotients were measured by Developmental Screening Test for Child Under Six, and physical examinations were conducted at the same time. The newborns were randomly assigned to intervention group (156 cases) and control group (153 cases). The infants and their families were followed up every 6 months. A questionnaire of follow-up was completed by face-to-face interview at the communities and infant intelligence quotients were measured and had their physical check-ups again at the end of the 6th month.Results After 6 months' intervention, the means of MI and DQ in the intervention group were respectively 5.96 and 9.80 higher than those in control group after adjustment of the baseline scores.Conclusion Early intelligence education in the community may promote the intelligence development of infants.

  17. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS... with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental... providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group as...

  18. 75 FR 54898 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient...

  19. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-Competitive One-Time Program Expansion Supplement Award of Ryan White HIV/AIDS.../AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...

  20. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of a non-competitive one-time replacement award from Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C... replacement award to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS,...

  1. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the Comprehensive Care...

  2. Evaluation of a School-Based Train-the-Trainer Intervention Program to Teach First Aid and Risk Reduction among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…

  3. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  4. Trade, Danish development aid and Africa: A case of Symbolic Politics?

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldtoft, Sebastian Stryhn

    2014-01-01

    This project critically examines how the Danish government throughout 2013 has attempted to create a new discourse on Africa's economic growth in relation to the purpose of Danish development aid. Through a discourse analysis of relevant texts in Danish national media in the period 9.12.2012-9.12.2013, the project finds that the Government has attempted to instill development aid with a new priority; to increase Danish exports to Africa and spur job creation in Denmark. Surprisingly, this 'sp...

  5. Yarrow, Thomas. Development beyond politics: aid, activism and NGOs in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Development beyond politics is a book about the lives of activists, aid workers, and the social elite who run NGOs in Ghana. It is also a book about the lives of concepts, in the hands of these specific actors.......Development beyond politics is a book about the lives of activists, aid workers, and the social elite who run NGOs in Ghana. It is also a book about the lives of concepts, in the hands of these specific actors....

  6. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was two-fold. Firstly to develop a music perception test for hearing aid users and secondly to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of a music perception test. To date, the main direction in frequency lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life grew. The Music Perception Test (MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording while Phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n=15 and hearing aid users (n=4. Based on the findings of Phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During Phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n=4 and twenty hearing aid users. Results proved that normal hearing adults as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT although hearing aid users scored less on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing aid users and 83% for the timbre section compared to 62.3% by hearing aid users. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section compared to the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing aid users. This implicates that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing aid users within the South African

  7. Developing the Moti-4 intervention, assessing its feasibility and pilot testing its effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Hans B.; Lemmens, Paul; Adriana, Gerald; Mheen, Dike; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-01-01

    Background The Moti-4 intervention was developed to prevent addiction and other health problems among vulnerable adolescent cannabis users. The aims of Moti-4 are to reduce the use of cannabis among adolescents and to encourage their motivation to change their behavior. Methods Intervention Mapping, a systematic approach to developing theory- and evidence-based interventions, was used to develop a protocol for the intervention. The process of developing the intervention also used the method o...

  8. Measurement of the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS intervention programme on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Polise Service employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cherian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if there was any change in the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of the South African Police Service’s (SAPS employees of Limpopo province after attending the HIV/AIDS intervention programme. From a population of (N=108 employees, those who attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop participated as experimental group (n=51 while those who attended the suicide prevention and disability workshop as control group (n=57. Random sampling method was used to select the above sample. Both workshops were conducted at various places in Limpopo Province. Pre-tests were administered before the workshops while the post-tests were administered after the workshops. The results were analysed using 2 (Group: Experimental versus Control Group x 2 (Time: Pre-test versus Post-test, a repeated measure Analyses of Variances (ANOVA. The findings showed that there was a significant change in HIV/AIDS knowledge after employees have attended the HIV/AIDS awareness workshop. There was however no significant change in attitude and behaviour after the HIV/AIDS awareness programme. The study recommends that a one day workshop is not enough to change attitude and behaviour. It also recommends that a follow up in the form of delayed post-test is required to investigate if the behaviour of the members who promised to change positively had actually changed as behaviour changes cannot manifest in a one day workshop. This can also serve as a suggestion for further research.

  9. Predicting long-term outcomes for children affected by HIV and AIDS: perspectives from the scientific study of children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Alan; Desmond, Christopher; Garbarino, James; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Barbarin, Oscar; Black, Maureen M; Stein, Aryeh D; Hillis, Susan D; Kalichman, Seth C; Mercy, James A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Rapa, Elizabeth; Saul, Janet R; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A; Richter, Linda M

    2014-07-01

    The immediate and short-term consequences of adult HIV for affected children are well documented. Little research has examined the long-term implications of childhood adversity stemming from caregiver HIV infection. Through overviews provided by experts in the field, together with an iterative process of consultation and refinement, we have extracted insights from the broader field of child development of relevance to predicting the long-term consequences to children affected by HIV and AIDS. We focus on what is known about the impact of adversities similar to those experienced by HIV-affected children, and for which there is longitudinal evidence. Cautioning that findings are not directly transferable across children or contexts, we examine findings from the study of parental death, divorce, poor parental mental health, institutionalization, undernutrition, and exposure to violence. Regardless of the type of adversity, the majority of children manifest resilience and do not experience any long-term negative consequences. However, a significant minority do and these children experience not one, but multiple problems, which frequently endure over time in the absence of support and opportunities for recovery. As a result, they are highly likely to suffer numerous and enduring impacts. These insights suggest a new strategic approach to interventions for children affected by HIV and AIDS, one that effectively combines a universal lattice of protection with intensive intervention targeted to selected children and families. PMID:24991899

  10. Factors associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5,025 European patients with AIDS. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Barton, S E; Lazzarin, A;

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with the development of a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 5,025 patients with AIDS, including 1,976 patients with primary PCP at the time of AIDS diagnosis and 635 with primary PCP occurring subsequently. Compared with untreated...... patients, patients treated with zidovudine were at similar risk of developing PCP during the first year of therapy but were at greater risk after longer intervals of treatment. The following factors were associated with an increased risk of PCP (either at the time of AIDS diagnosis or thereafter): lack...... of primary PCP prophylaxis, male homosexuality/bisexuality, diagnosis of AIDS in northern Europe, and CD4 cell count below 200 x 10(6)/L at the time of AIDS diagnosis. Patients with severe weight loss had a 60% higher risk of developing PCP during follow-up than those without such weight loss. Thus...

  11. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbestel Vera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of

  12. Factors associated with the development of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in 5,025 European patients with AIDS. AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Barton, S E; Lazzarin, A;

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the factors associated with the development of a first episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 5,025 patients with AIDS, including 1,976 patients with primary PCP at the time of AIDS diagnosis and 635 with primary PCP occurring subsequently. Compared with untreated ...

  13. Effects of integrated child development and nutrition interventions on child development and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Fernald, Lia C H; Kagawa, Rose M C; Walker, Susan

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that examined the effect of interventions combining a child development component with a nutrition one; in some cases the nutrition interventions also included health-promotion components. Only papers with both child development and nutrition outcomes and rated as moderate-to-good quality were included. Eleven efficacy and two nonrandomized trials, and eight program evaluations were identified. Only six trials examined interventions separately and combined. The trials showed nutritional interventions usually benefited nutritional status and sometimes benefited child development. Stimulation consistently benefited child development. There was no significant loss of any effect when interventions were combined, but there was little evidence of synergistic interaction between nutrition and stimulation on child development. Only three trials followed up the children after intervention. All at-scale program evaluations were combined interventions. Five benefited child development, but one did not, and two showed deficits. There was generally little benefit of at-scale programs to nutritional status. We found no rigorous evaluations of adding stimulation to health and nutrition services at scale and there is an urgent need for them. There is also a need to establish quality-control mechanisms for existing scaled-up programs and to determine their long-term effects. There is also a need to determine if there are any sustained benefits for the children after programs finish.

  14. INTERVENTIONAL STUDY OF IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM CHANGES IN HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE AMONG SCHOOL STUDENTS IN AN URBAN SLUM IN MUMBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Shekhar Padhyegurjar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education sector plays an important role in imparting vital information regarding HIV AIDS to large number of adolescents. The present study was carried out to assess the baseline level of knowledge and attitude regarding HIV / AIDS and retention of various aspects of information over the period of one year among ninth standard school students in Mumbai. Methods and Material: The present study was designed as a school based interventional follow up study. Health education sessions on HIV/AIDS were conducted. Pre test, immediate post test, along with a follow up post test at six months and one year were administered. SPSS (Version 16 and Excel software were used for statistical analysis. Z tests for difference between proportions were applied. Results: The proportion of correct responses regarding some of the aspects of knowledge of HIV / AIDS significantly increased on health education intervention. However, no significant change in the proportion of correct responses regarding blood donation leading to HIV transmission was observed. Significant waning (p < 0.01 away of the effect of health education has been observed in some important aspects especially regarding spread without being aware of transmission, involvement of infected needles, condoms as mode of prevention and no complete cure till date. Though there is a general acceptance of HIV positive patients, attitudes involving sexual mode of transmission, drug abuse and homosexuality did not show positive change post intervention. Conclusions: Health education sessions were very effective in increasing knowledge. However, students tend to lose information regarding certain aspects. We thus need strategies for reinforcing knowledge as well as attitude aspect in school AIDS education.

  15. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; van Dijk, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this research was twofold: firstly, to develop a music perception test (MPT) for hearing-aid users, and secondly, to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of the MPT. To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing-aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. As hearing-aid technology has improved, interest has grown in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing-aid users' quality of life. The MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design-based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording, while phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n = 15) and hearing-aid users (n = 4). Based on the findings of phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n = 4) and 20 hearing-aid users. Results proved that adults with normal hearing as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT, although hearing-aid users scored lower on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing-aid users; for the timbre section the scores were 83% versus 62.3% respectively. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section, compared with the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing-aid users. This implies that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing-aid users within the South African context and may therefore result in

  16. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  17. Rethinking Sound : Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing children using cochlear implants or hearing aids

    OpenAIRE

    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    In the present thesis, computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach was examined in deaf and hard of hearing children (DHH) aged 5, 6 or 7 years old using cochlear implants, hearing aids or a combination of both. Children with normal hearing (NH), matched for non-verbal intelligence and age, served as a reference group. Deaf and hard of hearing children constitute a heterogenetic population regarding cognitive and academic achievement. Many of them do not reach age appropria...

  18. Developing a multichannel temperature probe for interventional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaranarayanan, A; Duerk, J L; Lewin, J S

    1998-01-01

    Interventional MRI (I-MRI) guided thermal tissue ablation has been used for a variety of interventional cancer therapies. These would be further facilitated by temperature-sensitive sequences on low magnetic field MR images. However, until these sequences have been reliably implemented at low fields, other methods of temperature measurement are required. This project describes the development of a low cost, reliable, MRI-compatible temperature sensor array useful at a temperature range from 37 degrees C to higher than 90 degrees C. The device uses a three-channel thermocouple sensor array connected to a variety of filtering and signal-conditioning electronics, analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, and personal computers. The sensors induce negligible field distortion. Similarly, no MRI-based measurement artifacts are observed. One-dimensional temperature profiles are generated with thermocouple signal linearization performed by the software. PMID:9500280

  19. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived f...... income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries. The paper closes with a discussion of potential mechanisms generating this perverse effect.......A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived...... from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, a set of results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed...

  20. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Van Der Hoeven, Kraft, K. J.; Teasdale, R.

    2011-01-01

    Using On-Line Volcano Monitoring Data in College and University Courses: The Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP); Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, 26–30 July 2010; Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  1. Volcanology curricula development aided by online educational resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Teasdale, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic activity is an excellent hook for engaging college and university students in geoscience classes. An increasing number of Internet-accessible real-time and near–real time volcano monitoring data are now available and constitute an important resource for geoscience education; however, relatively few data sets are comprehensive, and many lack background information to aid in interpretation. In response to the need for organized, accessible, and well-documented volcano education resources, the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), in collaboration with NASA and the University of Hawai`i at Manoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu`u `Ō`ō (VEPP). The VEPP Web site (http://vepp.wr.usgs.gov) is an educational resource that provides access, in near real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the active Pu`u `Ō`ō eruptive vent on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, along with background and context information. A strength of the VEPP site is the common theme of the Pu`u `Ō`ō eruption, which allows the site to be revisited multiple times to demonstrate different principles and integrate many aspects of volcanology.

  2. 男男性行为人群现状与艾滋病行为干预研究%Study on MSM status and AIDS behavioral intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 袁海燕

    2013-01-01

    男男性行为人群(men who have Sex with men,MSM)是我国艾滋病防制工作的重点人群之一,艾滋病高危行为干预是预防艾滋病病毒(humanimmunodeficiency virus,HIV)传播的有效方法.该文从男男性行为人群规模、HIV感染状况、性行为特征及MSM行为干预现状进行综述,探索艾滋病有效的干预模式,为进一步开展行为干预工作提供参考信息.%MSM (men who have sex with men) is the key population of AIDS prevention and control work in China.Behavioral intervention for high risk of AIDS is an effective method to prevent the spread of AIDS.This article reviews the population size,HIV infection status,sexual behavior characteristics and status of the intervention in MSM.Effective pattern is also discussed,so as to provide reference information for further behavioral intervention work.

  3. Development of a robotic mobile mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation: a geomatics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bayoud, Fadi Atef; Merminod, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Vision-based inertial-aided navigation is gaining ground due to its many potential applications. In previous decades, the integration of vision and inertial sensors was monopolised by the defence industry due to its complexity and unrealistic economic burden. After the technology advancement, high-quality hardware and computing power became reachable for the investigation and realisation of various applications. In this thesis, a mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was develope...

  4. Political power and aid tying practices in the development assistance committee countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pincin, Jared

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines on a panel of 22 OECD Development Assistance Committee countries whether fragmentation of executive power and the degree of competition in the legislative branch of government increases the amount of tied aid over the 1979-2009 period. Fragmentation and competition are broadly defined as the degree to which the costs of a dollar of aid expenditure are internalized by decision makers and the relative strength of the government’s position vis-à-vis legislative composition re...

  5. Social representations of sexuality developed by women in the context of Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Gurgel Alexandre; Maria Lúcia Duarte Pereira; Raquel Santos Monte; Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Jemima Samela Marques Barbosa; Sammya Karla Borges Moura

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the social representations of sexuality, developed by women aged 50 and older with or without HIV/AIDS. This was a research with qualitative approach, based on Social Representations Theory, carried out in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with 44 women, 22 diagnosed with and 22 diagnosed without HIV/AIDS. We used the techniques of semi-structured interview and non-systematic observation. Data were submitted to content analysis and two main categories were verified: concept...

  6. A process for developing an implementation intervention: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allee Elise

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the process used by the authors in developing an implementation intervention to assist VA substance use disorder clinics in adopting guideline-based practices for treating depression. This article is one in a Series of articles documenting implementation science frameworks and tools developed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI. Methods The process involves two steps: 1 diagnosis of site-specific implementation needs, barriers, and facilitators (i.e., formative evaluation; and 2 the use of multi-disciplinary teams of local staff, implementation experts, and clinical experts to interpret diagnostic data and develop site-specific interventions. In the current project, data were collected via observations of program activities and key informant interviews with clinic staff and patients. The assessment investigated a wide range of macro- and micro-level determinants of organizational and provider behavior. Conclusion The implementation development process described here is presented as an optional method (or series of steps to consider when designing a small scale, multi-site implementation study. The process grew from an evidence-based quality improvement strategy developed for – and proven efficacious in – primary care settings. The authors are currently studying the efficacy of the process across a spectrum of specialty care treatment settings.

  7. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented. PMID:23564493

  8. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented.

  9. A Review of Supportive Interventions Targeting Individuals or Couples Undergoing Infertility Treatment: Directions for the Development of Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2016-08-17

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the types, content, and outcomes of different psychosocial approaches used in existing interventions for infertile individuals or couples. Relevant intervention studies published in English between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus. A total of 23 articles were identified and included in this review. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and counseling were the most commonly adopted psychosocial interventions for infertile individuals or couples. After reviewing the various approaches, directions are given on the development of interventions for couples suffering from infertility. PMID:26259844

  10. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  11. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; de Waard, Hans; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadshe

  12. Healthcare professionals and managers' participation in developing an intervention: A pre-intervention study in the elderly care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the

  13. Development and validation of a generic questionnaire for the implementation of complex medical interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Lena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC, the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB. In our study we aimed to develop and validate a generic and multifaceted questionnaire based on the TPB to detect physicians’ willingness to implement complex medical interventions and the factors influencing this willingness.Methods: The questionnaire was developed according to the literature and was informed by previous qualitative research of our department. It was validated on the example of an electronic library of decision aids, arriba-lib. The sample consisted of 181 General Practitioners (GPs who received a training regarding arriba-lib and subsequently filled in the questionnaire, assessing the TPB variables attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control and intention. Follow-up assessments were conducted after two (assessing retest reliability and eight weeks (assessing target behaviour. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis investigating the factorial structure of our questionnaire according to the TPB. Beside the calculation of the questionnaire’s psychometric properties we conducted a structural equation model and an ordinal regression to predict actual behaviour regarding the installation and application of arriba-lib.Results: The postulated three factorial model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behaviour control of our questionnaire based on the TPB was rejected. A two factorial model with a combined factor subjective norm/perceived behaviour control was accepted. The explained variance in the ordinal regression was low (Nagelkerke’s R=.12. Neither attitude nor intention were able to predict

  14. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment. DESIGN: Randomised, parallel group, superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Outpatient intervention a...

  15. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  16. Preferential Market Access, Foreign Aid and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Abreha, Kaleb Girma

    contributed to the economic development of the beneficiary countries. Focusing on the ACP countries over the period 1970-2009, we show that only the EU preferential scheme is effective in promoting exports and that market access plays a significant and economically large role in the development of beneficiary......Several studies highlight that exporters in developing countries face substantial trade costs. To reduce these costs, a few developed countries mainly Canada, the EU, Japan and the USA granted preferential market access to these exporters. We assess whether these preferential accesses have...

  17. Development and evaluation of the lifestyle intervention "Obeldicks light" for overweight children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reinehr, Thomas; Schaefer, Anke; Winkel, Katrin; Finne, Emily; Kolip, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim Specific interventions for overweight but not obese children have not been established yet. Therefore, we developed the methods, materials, and an evaluation protocol for a lifestyle intervention for overweight children based on an intervention for obese children. Subjects and methods The 1-year lifestyle intervention ?Obeldicks? for obese children, compromised of physical activity plans, nutr...

  18. Foreign Aid and Microfinance: A new policy proposal for financing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalle-Calderón, Maricruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review and compare the potential and limitations of foreign aid and microfinance as a top-down and bottom-up approaches to financing the development process in poor countries. We not only sustain that reviewing foreign aid is a must for the future of the least-developed countries but also posit that microfinance is a complementary and financially sustainable approach that creates better incentives for development. After calculating the potential effects of microfinance over employment and GDP through a simple empirical exercise, we propose a policy recommendation of redirecting a very small share of official development aid (ODA resources to microfinance in order to provide options for the most underprivileged populations.

  19. Developing computer aided model for selecting players in badminton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ağılönü

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a decision support model for selecting the most appropriate players in Badminton via Fuzzy Multi Attribute Decision Making (FMADM algorithm. Developed model has been applied on active Badminton players in age between 9 and 11 among Muğla Province by using the data of player’s physical appropriateness scores and technical observation values in computer environment. In developed model, it has been ensured that using both significant criteria and the weights of criteria make results more sensitive. Finally, it is proved that model’s results are appropriate and consistent.

  20. "Japanese Foreign Aid, Development Expenditures and Taxation in Thailand: Econometric Results from a Bounded Rationality Model of Fiscal Behavior"

    OpenAIRE

    Haider Khan

    2002-01-01

    How does Japanese aid influence the allocation of government expenditures and the raising of government revenues? Using a non-linear model with an asymmetric loss function the case of Japanese aid to Thailand is examined at the macroeconomic level. It turns out that Japanese aid led to proportionately more development expenditures than did other aid. It also might have been positively related to an increased effort by the Thai government to raise taxes. Economic explanations based on a set of...

  1. Japanese Foreign Aid, Development Expenditures and Taxation in Thailand: Econometric Results from a Bounded Rationality Model of Fiscal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haider

    2002-01-01

    How does Japanese aid influence the allocation of government expenditures and the raising of government revenues? Using a non-linear model with an asymmetric loss function the case of Japanese aid to Thailand is examined at the macroeconomic level. It turns out that Japanese aid led to proportionately more development expenditures than did other aid. It also might have been positively related to an increased effort by the Thai government to raise taxes. Economic explanations based on a set of...

  2. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for suicidal ideation and behaviour: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a statistically rare event, but devastating to those left behind and one of the worst possible outcomes associated with mental illness. Although a friend, family member or co-worker may be the first person to notice that a person is highly distressed, few have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple guidelines may help such a person to encourage a suicidal individual to seek professional help or decide against suicide. Methods This research was conducted using the Delphi methodology, a method of reaching consensus in a panel of experts. Experts recruited to the panels included 22 professionals, 10 people who had been suicidal in the past and 6 carers of people who had been suicidal in the past. Statements about how to assist someone who is thinking about suicide were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. The guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed by all three panels. Results Of 114 statements presented to the panels, 30 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public when they encounter someone who is experiencing suicidal thoughts or engaging in suicidal behaviour. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid and suicide intervention training programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist a suicidal person.

  3. Developing a decision aid to guide public sector health policy decisions: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision aids have been developed in a number of health disciplines to support evidence-informed decision making, including patient decision aids and clinical practice guidelines. However, policy contexts differ from clinical contexts in terms of complexity and uncertainty, requiring different approaches for identifying, interpreting, and applying many different types of evidence to support decisions. With few studies in the literature offering decision guidance specifically to health policymakers, the present study aims to facilitate the structured and systematic incorporation of research evidence and, where there is currently very little guidance, values and other non-research-based evidence, into the policy making process. The resulting decision aid is intended to help public sector health policy decision makers who are tasked with making evidence-informed decisions on behalf of populations. The intent is not to develop a decision aid that will yield uniform recommendations across jurisdictions, but rather to facilitate more transparent policy decisions that reflect a balanced consideration of all relevant factors. Methods/design The study comprises three phases: a modified meta-narrative review, the use of focus groups, and the application of a Delphi method. The modified meta-narrative review will inform the initial development of the decision aid by identifying as many policy decision factors as possible and other features of methodological guidance deemed to be desirable in the literatures of all relevant disciplines. The first of two focus groups will then seek to marry these findings with focus group members' own experience and expertise in public sector population-based health policy making and screening decisions. The second focus group will examine issues surrounding the application of the decision aid and act as a sounding board for initial feedback and refinement of the draft decision aid. Finally, the Delphi

  4. Discuss the Development of Computer-Aided Industrial Design Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the development of the industrial design gradually approaches mechanical-electrical integration and informational and electronic products. With an increasing improvement of its technical content, and better social economic conditions, peoples consumption concept are getting more and more different. Consumer concerns not just the functionality and quality of the product, more and more people are starting to focus on the appearance of the product, degree of innovation, environmental protection, and so on, which brings a higher degree of difficulty to the industrial technology. It is because the increasing demands of people and the industrial design, many scholars are increasingly concerned about the industrial design in recent years. With the continuous development of computer technology, a wide variety of hardware and software are developed, and a variety of ever-changing technologies are attracting the industrial design talents as well.

  5. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  6. Migration, Aid and Trade: Policy Coherence for Development. Policy Brief No. 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton-Johnson, Jeff; Katseli, Louka T.

    2006-01-01

    Many Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries recruit internationally skilled workers for their health, education, or public administration sectors and the subsequent emigration of such workers can cause critical shortages in developing countries, even as these countries receive substantial aid from those same OECD…

  7. Cross-Language Support Mechanisms Significantly Aid Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    , (2) static checking, (3) navigation, and (4) refactoring of cross-language relations. We investigate whether these four mechanisms indeed improve efficiency and quality of development of multi-language systems. We run a controlled experiment in which 22 participants perform typical software evolution...... tasks on the JTrac web application using a prototype tool implementing these mechanisms. The results speak clearly for integration of cross-language support mechanisms into software development tools, and justify research on automatic inference, manipulation and handling of cross-language relations....

  8. Transformações da "aids aguda" para a "aids crônica": percepção corporal e intervenções cirúrgicas entre pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids From "acute AIDS" to "chronic AIDS": body perception and surgical interventions in people living with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatianna Meireles Dantas de Alencar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Após dez anos de uso da terapia anti-retroviral de alta potência, um novo problema surge: a síndrome lipodistrófica do HIV, uma distribuição irregular de gordura no corpo, decorrente do uso das medicações anti-retrovirais. Se no início da epidemia, a aids era caracterizada, sobretudo, pela magreza, hoje - tempos de "aids crônica"- estamos, uma vez mais, diante do estigma sobre o corpo, só que, paradoxalmente, com sinal trocado - o acúmulo "desordenado" de gordura no corpo. Este artigo apresenta e compara as mudanças corporais percebidas por pessoas que vivem com HIV e aids, ocorridas nos últimos anos da epidemia, com a utilização dos anti-retrovirais. Foram analisadas 32 entrevistas qualitativas com pessoas vivendo com HIV e aids, realizadas nos anos de 1999 e 2005. Ao nos depararmos com as novas questões emergentes e analisarmos sua interação com a crescente disponibilidade e utilização de tecnologias, fica a forte sensação de ressurgimento, sob nova forma, dos mesmos paradoxos previamente existentes nos tempos da aids aguda: o impacto dos sinais e um certo tipo de ressurgimento da desesperança quanto ao futuro de vida dessas pessoas.The Brazilian government has been providing free and universal access to the HAART therapy for people living with HIV and AIDS for ten years. Since then, many epidemiological characteristics have changed, and AIDS passed scientifically and medically to be classified as a chronic condition. This qualitative study aims to comprehend the challenges posed by self-perception of body changes experienced by people living with AIDS during recent years, as a result of prolonged use of antiretroviral medication.With this purpose, in 1999 and 2005, 32 semi-structured interviews with HIV positive individuals were held in the State of Sao Paulo to capture the challenges occurred during this period, in particular with regard to the lipodystrophy syndrome. The analysis of the data indicates that even with

  9. Musical Experience: An Aid to the Development of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLullich, Helen H.

    Since all preschool children do not have fully developed listening abilities, a program of musical activities is useful for teachers as a diagnostic tool and as an enjoyable way to improve children's listening skills. A five stage program, involving (1) short span listening, (2) active responses to aural stimuli, (3) creative expression, (4)…

  10. 艾滋病低流行区暗娼人群干预的单位成本分析%Analysis of the unit cost of CSW interventions in the areas of low HIV/AIDS prevalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘仰本; 徐丹; 谢玉庆; 邹华明; 王晓春; 李洋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To calculate the unit cost of interventions for commercial sex workers (CSW) by applying health economics aproaches through investigating the contents and expenditures of interventions in districts A and B of X City with low HIV/AIDS prevalence. Methods The contents and unit price of interventions were analyzed through direct inquiry and data review. A descriptive analysis of the data obtained was developed to calculate the u-nit cost by using the "Costing Guideline for HIV/AIDS Intervention Strategies (ADB model)". Results In 2010, the unit cost of CSW interventions in districts A and B was RMB 98. 46 and 68. 07 yuan per person per year. In districts A and B, the intervention expenditures were mainly used for outreach activities, peer education, condom use and information education and communication (IEC). Conclusions The contents, frequency and unit prize of interventions and size of the target population are all important factors influencing the unit cost of CSW interventions.%目的 运用卫生经济学方法,通过调查艾滋病低流行区某市的A、B两地暗娼人群干预的活动内容与单价,测算暗娼人群干预的单位成本.方法 采用查阅资料与直接询问相结合的方式,获取暗娼人群干预的活动内容及单价等信息,借鉴“ADB模型”对数据进行描述性分析,测算单位成本.结果 2010年,A、B两地暗娼人群干预的年度单位成本分别为98.46元/人、68.07元/人.干预经费支出以外展、同伴教育活动、安全套和宣传材料为主.结论 暗娼人群干预的单位成本受干预的活动内容、频次、单价及目标人群规模大小等影响.

  11. Intervention Mapping as a Guide for the Development of a Diabetes Peer Support Intervention in Rural Alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Cherrington, Andrea; Martin, Michelle Y.; Hayes, Michaela; Halanych, Jewell H.; Andreae, Susan J.; Safford, Monika; Wright, Mary Annette; Appel, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Peer support is a promising strategy for the reduction of diabetes-related health disparities; however, few studies describe the development of such strategies in enough detail to allow for replication. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a 1-year peer support intervention to improve diabetes self-management among African American adults with diabetes in Alabama's Black Belt. Methods We used principles of intervention mapping, including literature revi...

  12. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J;

    1987-01-01

    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...... lymphocytes to T suppressor lymphocytes (CD4:CD8 ratio) was less than 1.0 before the study began were included. Forty two were positive for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom 38 were reinvestigated after a median observation period of 10 months. Among the seropositive men...

  13. English Songs as Means of Aiding Students’ Proficiency Development

    OpenAIRE

    Roszainora Setia; Rozlan Abdul Rahim; Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair; Aileen Farida binti Mohd Adam; Norhayati Husin; Elangkeeran Sabapathy; Razita Mohamad; Shahidatul Maslina Mat So’od; Nurul Izatee Md Yusoff; Razifa Mohd Razlan; Nur Amalia Abd Jalil; Rozita Mohamed Kassim; Norhafiza Abu Seman

    2012-01-01

    The major aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of using songs in teaching English language to primary school students. This research will specifically investigate to what extent songs can contribute to the development of students’ language proficiency. The research is designed to find out whether using songs can be an effective way in creating positive attitude and motivation in language learners. The research will be carried out through the use of questionnaire. The data wi...

  14. Staging the use of teaching aids in the development of manipulation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triano, John J; McGregor, Marion; Dinulos, Maricelle; Tran, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Skill development in manual therapies is influenced by a number of factors. The effects of the training program organization, mentor coaching, feedback in various forms, and electromechanical training aids are factors that have been studied. A significant gap exists in understanding when teaching aids might be most effective within a defined curriculum structure. This project used the ratio of instructional theory and laboratory practice to define the learning context. An electromechanical training aid (Dynadjust™) was introduced at different stages (year 2 and year 4) of training for high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation. Learners were assigned to either the Aid group or the NoAid group. Independent assessment of skill was evaluated before and after 6 weeks by means of recording force-time profiles of HVLA performance. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated change scores in the force amplitude and rate of rise in force. Program features were dominated by a low ratio of laboratory practice to didactic foundational education components. Use of the aid was not associated with any measurable gains for participants when used in year 2. Later participation in year 4 suggested enhanced development in rate of rise for force (p < 0.0597) and for peak force (p < 0.0303). Careful attention should be given to the sequencing of content and laboratory work in designing curricula for training programs. For programs using lower ratios of laboratory contact hours, teaching aids to augment practice may result in better performance gains when introduced later than if added early in the curriculum.

  15. Lifting the lid of the "black intervention box" - the systematic development of an action competence programme for people with screen-detected dysglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandbæk Annelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence gained from effective self-management interventions is often criticised for the ambiguity of its active components, and consequently the obstruction of their implementation into daily practice. Our aim is to report how an intervention development model aids the careful selection of active components in an intervention for people with dysglycaemia. Methods The first three phases of the UK Medical Research Council's model for developing complex interventions in primary care were used to develop a self-management intervention targeting people with screen-detected dysglycaemia. In the preclinical phase, the expected needs of the target group were assessed by review of empirical literature and theories. In phase I, a preliminary intervention was modelled and in phase II, the preliminary intervention was pilot tested. Results In the preclinical phase the achievement of health-related action competence was defined as the overall intervention goal and four learning objectives were identified: motivation, informed decision-making, action experience and social involvement. In Phase I, the educational activities were defined and the pedagogical tools tested. In phase II, the intervention was tested in two different primary healthcare settings and adjusted accordingly. The 18-hour intervention "Ready to Act" ran for 3 months and consisted of two motivational one-to-one sessions conducted by nurses and eight group meetings conducted by multidisciplinary teams. Conclusions An intervention aimed at health-related action competence was successfully developed for people with screen-detected dysglycaemia. The systematic and transparent developmental process is expected to facilitate future clinical research. The MRC model provides the necessary steps to inform intervention development but should be prioritised according to existing evidence in order to save time.

  16. "Did the trial kill the intervention?" experiences from the development, implementation and evaluation of a complex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Karen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development, implementation and evaluation of any new health intervention is complex. This paper uses experiences from the design, implementation and evaluation of a rehabilitation programme to shed light on, and prompt discussion around, some of the complexities involved in such an undertaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trial participants and five members of staff at the conclusion of a trial evaluating a rehabilitation programme aimed at promoting recovery after stem cell transplantation. Results This study identified a number of challenges relating to the development and evaluation of complex interventions. The difficulty of providing a standardised intervention that was acceptable to patients was highlighted in the participant interviews. Trial participants and some members of staff found the concept of equipoise and randomisation challenging and there was discord between the psychosocial nature of the intervention and the predominant bio-medical culture in which the research took place. Conclusions A lack of scientific evidence as to the efficacy of an intervention does not preclude staff and patients holding strong views about the benefits of an intervention. The evaluation of complex interventions should, where possible, facilitate not restrict that complexity. Within the local environment where the trial is conducted, acquiescence from those in positions of authority is insufficient; commitment to the trial is required.

  17. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  18. 中学生艾滋病知识知晓宣教干预因素效果研究%Study of the middle school students’ knowledge about AIDS public health education intervention effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安玉靖; 黄锡嫦; 何振雄; 林秋炜; 叶丽宜; 刘杰; 马静; 陈巧玲; 卢凤群; 伍燕萍

    2014-01-01

    spot investigation, developing questionnaires, as wel as the knowledge training to investigators from February to December in 2012. After the proposed interventions from February to December in 2013 went on to survey. Choosing 1866 middle school students from Zhaoqinq middle school,they were randomly divided into experiment group and control group. Conducting AIDS health education intervention, both experiment group and control group used questionnaires. Comparing the middle school students’ AIDS-related knowledge and related psychological behavior between experiment group and control group.Result:A total of 1866 middle school students ,both experiment group and control group distributed 933 questionnaires. The control group took back 933 questionnaires. The experiment group took back 896 questionnaires. The recovery ratios are 100% and 96.03% respective.The degree of the concern of AIDS for the students in the experiment group is higher than the control group . The measures which were taken are affirmed.Conclusion:Through various forms of health education, significantly increased the level of students' knowledge of AIDS and effectively promoted their healthy psychological behavior. AIDS is not just a disease in the medical sense, it is more a social problem1,2].To make the students develop a good habit before they entering the society, establish the prevention awareness and skils to AIDS, and curb the spread of AIDS among adolescents[3].

  19. Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries La sexualidad en personas con discapacidad intelectual: una propuesta de intervención educacional para padres y consejeros en paises en desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Katz; Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the f...

  20. Effect of assertive outreach after suicide attempt in the AID (assertive intervention for deliberate self harm) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt; Krogh, Jesper; Erlangsen, Annette;

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment.......To assess whether an assertive outreach intervention after suicide attempt could reduce the frequency of subsequent suicidal acts, compared with standard treatment....

  1. Application of the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop Keys, a family child care home intervention to prevent early childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Courtney M.; Ward, Dianne S.; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Long Vidal, Lenita J.; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention M...

  2. The development and validation of the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - Nurse (HASI-N)

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlhu, Deliwe, R.; Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Mullan, Joseph; Cuca, Yvette P.; Naidoo, Joanne R.

    2009-01-01

    Illness-related stigma remains a serious problem in the management of HIV disease in Africa. This article describes a series of study phases conducted to develop and validate an instrument to measure HIV/AIDS-related stigma as perpetrated and experienced by nurses. Data were collected in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania, from 2004-2006. The first phase was a qualitative study with focus group participants (n=251) to gather emic and etic descriptions of HIV/AIDS-related st...

  3. 2015 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: The Evolving Global Radiology Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselman, Andrew; Soroosh, Garshasb; Mollura, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Radiology in low- and middle-income (developing) countries continues to make progress. Research and international outreach projects presented at the 2015 annual RAD-AID conference emphasize important global themes, including (1) recent slowing of emerging market growth that threatens to constrain the advance of radiology, (2) increasing global noncommunicable diseases (such as cancer and cardiovascular disease) needing radiology for detection and management, (3) strategic prioritization for pediatric radiology in global public health initiatives, (4) continuous expansion of global health curricula at radiology residencies and the RAD-AID Chapter Network's participating institutions, and (5) technologic innovation for recently accelerated implementation of PACS in low-resource countries. PMID:27233909

  4. Embedded Filming for Social Change Learning about HIV/AIDS and Rural Development Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Loes; Lie, Rico

    2009-01-01

    Rural Development Professionals (RDPs) are key actors in processes of social change for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. This article reports on the filming of a series of workshops and courses for RDPs in Ghana, India, Tanzania and Zambia. In this article the filming and the films are analyzed as tools for learning and social change…

  5. Theory-of-Mind Development in Oral Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants or Conventional Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants…

  6. Competencies for rural development professionals in the Era of HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, B.; Westendorp, A.M.B.; Wals, A.E.J.; Mulder, M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on food security and rural livelihoods is still insufficiently understood. It is evident, however, that rural development professionals need to respond to the changes that have taken place in rural areas due to the pandemic. This article explores competencies that they need in

  7. 艾滋病危险性性行为干预面临的伦理难题%Ethical Dilemma Facing AIDS-Risky Sexual Behavior Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海林

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the fact that sexual intercourse has become a major path of sexual transmitted diseases in our country,the AIDS-risky sexual behavior intervention naturally turns out to be the main means taken to prevent and control AIDS.Presently,the intervention of high risky sexual behaviors of AIDS patients still faces a series of ethic problems.For example,there exists an obvious conflict between sex moral education and sexual health education;commercial sexual behavior intervention is still faced with an ethical,legal and political plight;homosexuals generally living in the “underground”condition face the social environment of“Moral Ma-jority”;multi-sexual partners have very complicated behavior motives;condom promotion still facing ethical and legal disputes is hard to put into practice;and a significant number of HIV infected people and patients have not been identified or detected.In face of all these challenges and many other,China should adjust the AIDS prevention and control work pattern,implement the“Prevention First”policy,put the sexual behavior in-tervention as a major means of the current HIV/AIDS prevention and control,and adopt intervention strategies targeting the specific AIDS-risky sexual behaviors.%在性传播成为我国艾滋病传播主要途径的情况下,客观上要求把危险性性行为干预作为我国艾滋病防控的重点。目前我国艾滋病危险性性行为干预仍然面临一系列伦理难题,如性道德教育与性健康教育存在明显冲突,商业性性行为干预面临伦理、法律或政策困境,同性恋者面临“道德多数”的社会环境且基本处于“地下状态”,多性伴行为动机复杂,安全套推广仍然面临伦理、法律争议和实际困难,相当数量的艾滋病病毒感染者和病人未被发现等。面对这些难题,国家应在调整艾滋病防治工作格局、落实“预防为主”方针的基础上,明确把危险

  8. Using intervention mapping to develop a home-based parental supervised toothbrushing intervention for young children

    OpenAIRE

    Gray-Burrows, Kara; P, Day; Marshman, Z.; Aliakbari, E.; Prady, Stephanie Louise; McEachan, Rosemary R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries in young children is a major public health problem impacting on the child and their family in terms of pain, infection, and substantial financial burden on health care funders. In the UK, national guidance on the prevention of dental caries advises parents to supervise their child's brushing with a fluoride toothpaste until age seven. However, there is a dearth of evidence based interventions to encourage this practice in parents. The current study used intervention ...

  9. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  10. Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. This article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. In Mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in

  11. Growth with endogenous migration hump and the multiple, dynamically interacting effects of aid in poor developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2008-01-01

    We show empirically that aid given to poor developing countries enhances growth and reduces emigration once several dynamically interacting effects of aid are taken into account in a system of equations. We estimate equations for net immigration flows as a share of the labour force and GDP per capita growth and also for all their regressors including remittances and official development aid. We use dynamic panel data methods for a sample of poor countries with GDP per capita below $1200 (2000...

  12. Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimling, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

  13. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides: a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive-behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of -0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.19 to -0.38), LBP intensity of -0.4 (95% CI, -0.60 to -0.26), and bothersomeness days of -0.5 (95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population. PMID:25993549

  14. Development and evaluation of computer-aided assessment in discrete and decision mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Zaczek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. This thesis describes the development of Computer-Aided Assessment questions for elementary discrete and decision mathematics at the school/university interface, stressing the pedagogy behind the questions’ design and the development of methodology for assessing their efficacy in improving students’ engagement and perceptions, as well as on their exams results. The questions give i...

  15. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for panic attacks: a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Jorm Anthony F; Kelly Claire M; Kitchener Betty A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Panic attacks are common, and while they are not life-threatening events, they can lead to the development of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Appropriate help at the time that a panic attack occurs may decrease the fear associated with the attack and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple first aid guidelines may help members of the public to offer help to people who experience panic a...

  16. Review of research and development of computer-aided Kansei Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIN; Chengqi XUE

    2009-01-01

    Kansei Engineering is an important research approach and has become the hotspot of research in design fields. The concept of Kansei Engineering is introduced based on the investigation of related literatures. The working process and the key technology of computer-aided Kansei Engineering systems are discussed. Finally, the development trend of Kansei Engineering is outlined according to the development of computer and networking technology.

  17. Gender mainstreaming on the ground? The case of EU development aid towards Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Debusscher, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates why gender mainstreaming has not occurred in European Union (EU) development aid towards Rwanda despite a two-sided receptiveness from Rwanda and the EU’s Directorate-General for Development and Cooperation. I use a feminist institutionalist approach to examine formal and informal institutions as well as the actors, networks and processes involved in policy formation and implementation. I argue that the largest stumbling block to effective implementation is an instit...

  18. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  19. Social representations of sexuality developed by women in the context of Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Gurgel Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the social representations of sexuality, developed by women aged 50 and older with or without HIV/AIDS. This was a research with qualitative approach, based on Social Representations Theory, carried out in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with 44 women, 22 diagnosed with and 22 diagnosed without HIV/AIDS. We used the techniques of semi-structured interview and non-systematic observation. Data were submitted to content analysis and two main categories were verified: concepts on HIV/AIDS and experiences of sexuality. The results showed that for the women living with the disease there was a mix of anxiety, stigma, socioeconomic difficulties, disruption of emotional bonds, guilt and fear. Among women diagnosed without, a low perception of the risk of acquiring the infection and the fear of discovering the seropositivity, come from the misinformation on the disease. Studies on the issues of HIV/AIDS infection in women aged 50 and older should be widely encouraged, in order to support the development of actions and prevention programs addressed to this population.

  20. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. A

  1. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  2. Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS%AIDS合并症的经皮介入治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文科; 陆普选; 黄湘荣; 张莉萍; 李苑; 刘锦清; 曹义; 张辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical application value of percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS.Methods Twenty-one AIDS patients with complications were enrolled.CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy and drainage were conducted,and the correct rate of diagnosis,clinical curative effect and complications post-interventional therapy were observed.Results The operations of all patients executed successfully.Fourteen patients underwent 16 times biopsy,11 were correctly diagnosed,the diagnostic accordance rate was 81.25%.Drainage was performed in 6 patients with abscess or cystis,then the lesions completely disappeared in 3,deflated in 2,while the rest one needed continously draining.Partial splenic embolization (50%) was performed in 1 patient,and after operation platelet content increased,while hepatic function decreased temporality.No complicated infection and other severe complications occurred.Conclusion Percutaneous interventional techniques for the treatment of complications of AIDS are safe and feasible.Medical staffs should be careful to exposition of HIV infection.%目的 探讨经皮介入技术在艾滋病(AIDS)伴发合并症患者中的临床应用价值.方法 对21例AIDS伴发合并症患者,采用CT引导下经皮穿刺活检或置管引流术,观察介入诊断的正确率、临床疗效及术后并发症.结果 所有患者均获得操作成功.14例患者接受16次穿刺活检,11例(13例次)获得诊断,诊断率81.25%.6例脓肿及囊肿引流,病灶完全消失3例,病灶缩小2例,1例无明显变化,仍持续保留导管引流.1例脾栓塞面积约50%,术后血小板升高,出现暂时性肝功能降低.所有患者均无并发感染及其他严重并发症.未发生医护人员暴露感染.结论 介入技术在AIDS患者合并症的临床应用是安全可行的,但应注意严格预防暴露感染.

  3. Developing a Manualized Occupational Therapy Diabetes Management Intervention: Resilient, Empowered, Active Living With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Davis, Shain

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the development of a manualized occupational therapy intervention for diabetes management. An initial theoretical framework and core content areas for a Stage I intervention manual were developed based on an in-depth needs assessment and review of existing literature. After evaluation by a panel of experts and completion of a feasibility study, the intervention was revised into a Stage 2 manual in preparation for a randomized study evaluating the intervention's efficacy. In developing the initial manual, we delineated core theoretical principles to allow for flexible application and tailoring of the intervention's content areas. Expert panel feedback and feasibility study results led to changes to the intervention structure and content as we developed the Stage 2 manual. Through describing this process, we illustrate the dynamic evolution of intervention manuals, which undergo revisions due to both theoretical and practical considerations at each stage of the research-to-clinical practice pipeline. PMID:26594741

  4. Intervenção de base comunitária para a prevenção das DST/Aids na região amazônica, Brasil Community-based intervention to control STD/AIDS in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever estudo de caso de intervenção de base comunitária, desenvolvido na perspectiva construcionista-emancipatória, para o controle das DST/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo desenvolvido no município de Manacapuru, Amazonas, de 1997-2004, sobre a utilização de procedimentos desenhados em colaboração com agentes governamentais, profissionais de saúde e comunidade. Foram levantados dados sobre a dinâmica da prostituição e a venda de preservativos na cidade, características comportamentais, avaliação do processo e da assistência às DST/Aids. Sincronicamente, estabeleceram-se ações de prevenção e assistência na rede pública de saúde às DST, centro de testagem, sistema de vigilância epidemiológica, e capacitação de trabalhadoras do sexo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se o fortalecimento das trabalhadoras do sexo como multiplicadoras e sua legitimação como cidadãs e agentes de saúde em projetos com travestis, homossexuais e escolares. Houve incremento da venda de preservativos na cidade, da utilização de preservativos entre trabalhadoras do sexo, redução das DST bacterianas e estabilização da ocorrência de infecção pelo HIV/Aids e sífilis congênita. A sustentabilidade do programa de intervenção estudado, organizado no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saude, foi estimulada pela pactuação política garantindo sede e orçamento regulamentado em lei municipal, e pelo debate permanente dos resultados do processo e programa. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo fortaleceu a noção de que o controle efetivo das DST/Aids depende de uma abordagem sinérgica que combine intervenções no plano individual (biológica-comportamental, sociocultural e programático.OBJECTIVE: To describe a case study of community-based intervention, developed in a constructionist-emancipatory framework to control STD/AIDS. METHODS: Descriptive study developed in the town of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, from 1997 to 2004, focusing on

  5. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally op...

  6. 艾滋病病人服药依从性护理干预效果评价%Nursing intervention on AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巧菊; 潘兰霞; 张靖

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study medication compliance of AIDS patients and patients self-management interventions whether medication can effectively improve patients compliance of taking anti-HIV medicine. Methods:40 AIDS patients were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received medication self-management skills training, medication counseling, medication compliance performance feedback. Results:The regression analysis showed that the weekly medication compliance ratio was greater than 80%, signiifcantly higher than that in the control group (OR=7.6, 95%CI from 2.1 to 26.7). Conclusion:Nursing interventions can improve medication compliance in AIDS patients and effective measures.%目的:研究艾滋病病人的服药依从性和服药自我管理干预是否能有效改善病人服用抗艾滋病药物的依从性。方法:将40例正在服用逆转录病毒药物的艾滋病病人随机分为试验组和对照组。试验组干预包括服药自我管理技能培养、药物咨询指导、药物依从性表现反馈。结果:回归分析结果表明试验组服药依从性的比例每周大于80%,明显高于对照组(OR=7.6,95%CI介于2.1~26.7)。结论:对病人服药依从性的干预是改善艾滋病病人服药依从性的有效措施。

  7. New developments in speech pattern element hearing aids for the profoundly deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, A; Walliker, J R; Howard, I S; Ball, V; Fourcin, A J

    1993-01-01

    Two new developments in speech pattern processing hearing aids will be described. The first development is the use of compound speech pattern coding. Speech information which is invisible to the lipreader was encoded in terms of three acoustic speech factors; the voice fundamental frequency pattern, coded as a sinusoid, the presence of aperiodic excitation, coded as a low-frequency noise, and the wide-band amplitude envelope, coded by amplitude modulation of the sinusoid and noise signals. Each element of the compound stimulus was individually matched in frequency and intensity to the listener's receptive range. Audio-visual speech receptive assessments in five profoundly hearing-impaired listeners were performed to examine the contributions of adding voiceless and amplitude information to the voice fundamental frequency pattern, and to compare these codings to amplified speech. In both consonant recognition and connected discourse tracking (CDT), all five subjects showed an advantage from the addition of amplitude information to the fundamental frequency pattern. In consonant identification, all five subjects showed further improvements in performance when voiceless speech excitation was additionally encoded together with amplitude information, but this effect was not found in CDT. The addition of voiceless information to voice fundamental frequency information did not improve performance in the absence of amplitude information. Three of the subjects performed significantly better in at least one of the compound speech pattern conditions than with amplified speech, while the other two performed similarly with amplified speech and the best compound speech pattern condition. The three speech pattern elements encoded here may represent a near-optimal basis for an acoustic aid to lipreading for this group of listeners. The second development is the use of a trained multi-layer-perceptron (MLP) pattern classification algorithm as the basis for a robust real-time voice

  8. The development of AIDS or AIDS-related conditions in a cohort of HIV antibody-positive homosexual men during a 3-year follow-up period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Kolby, P; Sindrup, J;

    1989-01-01

    , were 18% and 34%. The cumulative incidence of immune deficiency defined as CD4 lymphocytes less than 0.5 x 10(9) l-1 was 70% at 3 years. Absence of antibodies to p24 antigen, HIV antigenaemia, CD4 lymphocytes less than 0.3 x 10 l-1 and elevated serum level of IgA were significantly associated......One hundred and thirty-three homosexual men seropositive for the antibody against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were enrolled in a prospective study in 1984-85. The 3-year cumulative incidences of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related conditions, by life-table analyses...... with the development of AIDS. There was no association between disease progression and persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. When adjusted to the probable year of infection, these results are in accordance with previous cohort studies. It is concluded that most, or all, subjects seropositive for HIV will develop...

  9. The effect on survival of a multidimensional intervention project (SEAD in HIV/AIDS patients with follow-up and adherence (FUP/ADH barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pérez Elías

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Irregular FUP/ADH were associated with higher mortality and resource use [1]. SEAD was a multidimensional intervention project, designed from the patient's perspective, to specifically attend patients with poor FUP/ADH in an HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic. Methods: From Jan 2006 to May 2010, patients with poor FUP/ADH were offered SEAD inclusion, all were evaluated by a nurse or a psychologist (adherence collaborators who assessed all the reasons and barriers precluding a correct FUP/ADH. For each identified problem, different interventions were planned, using our own resources or coordinating others. Follow-up was censored in Nov 2011. Time to death after being admitted to SEAD and the effect of SEAD program intervention were assessed with Kaplan-Meier curves, log-Rank test and a Cox regression model. Summary of results: Overall, 215 patients were assessed: mean age 45 years, 24% women, IDU 75%, with baseline ADH >90% in only 23%; median HIV-RNA and CD4 cell count were 377 copies/ml and 326 cell/mcL. Patients entered in SEAD due to poor ADH in 17%, FUP problems in 23%, and both 60%. Main reasons driving poor FUP/ADH were severe bio-psycho-social problems 28%, severe drug and/or alcohol abuse 26%, logistic problems 18%, other psychiatric disorders 13%, oversights 9%, unknown 4% and antiretroviral intolerance 2%. Only 54% of patients received;>50% of planned interventions, due to population complexity. Cocaine/heroin and alcohol abuse were reported by 34% and 17% respectively. Afer a median follow-up of 3.7 [3.31–4.4] years 193 patients received a mean of 8 (2.5–12 interventions/year, achieving virological control in 64%. Probability of survival was 92%, 89% and 86% after 1, 2 and 3 years respectively. In Cox regression model an intervention of SEAD project higher than 50% of planned was an independent predictor of survival HR 0.336 (95% CI 0.156–0.725; p=0.005, after adjusting for age, alcohol or cocaine abuse

  10. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  11. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources.

  12. Increasing condom use in heterosexual men: development of a theory-based interactive digital intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R; Michie, S; Estcourt, C; Gerressu, M; Bailey, J V

    2016-09-01

    Increasing condom use to prevent sexually transmitted infections is a key public health goal. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are theory- and evidence-based. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a framework for intervention development. To provide an example of how the BCW was used to develop an intervention to increase condom use in heterosexual men (the MenSS website), the steps of the BCW intervention development process were followed, incorporating evidence from the research literature and views of experts and the target population. Capability (e.g. knowledge) and motivation (e.g. beliefs about pleasure) were identified as important targets of the intervention. We devised ways to address each intervention target, including selecting interactive features and behaviour change techniques. The BCW provides a useful framework for integrating sources of evidence to inform intervention content and deciding which influences on behaviour to target. PMID:27528531

  13. Development of an up-to-date NBC self-aid kit for emergency cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with alterations of the political and economical settings of Central Europe in the last decades, the characteristics of NBC hazards have changed. Since war appears unlikely, possible new scenarios involve pandemics, chemical transport accidents or distribution of CB warfare agents and radioactive materials by terroristic acts. Meeting this situation requires new protection and self aid equipment for the German civilian disaster relief forces. The German government has reacted to these risks by designing personal protection equipment for the civilian voluntary and professional disaster relief forces. The new NBC self aid kit will be part of this effort. The scientific approach of the project consisted of an updated risk analysis, a questionnaire for the professionals and volunteers involved in disaster management, a thorough evaluation of commercially available kits and single components, final design of the new kit including user instructions, and validation of a prototype kit in a disaster relief exercise. Results of the questionnaire stressed the need for a NBC self aid kit fulfilling the demands of easy handling, use of commercially available components, stability of materials, consumption adapted supply and portable size and weight of the complete kit. The evaluation of international NBC equipment could not identify any current NBC self aid kit which satisfies all needs of the German civilian disaster relief forces. The authors therefore compiled a new kit consisting of commercially available components. The newly developed kit was evaluated in a disaster relief exercise.

  14. Old Wine in New Bottles? Does Climate Policy Determine Bilateral Development Aid for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Michaelowa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSince the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 bilateral and multilateral donors have stressed that development assistance has increasingly been oriented towards climate-friendly interventions. With respect to energy aid, this should lead to a substantial increase in projects related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given a new database of hundreds of thousands of bilateral development assistance projects, we can assess whether such a reorientation has indeed taken place. We find that, contrary to expectations, the share of bilaterally-funded renewable energy and energy efficiency projects did not increase over the period from 1980 to 2008. This share fluctuated greatly, following the price of oil, peaking with the second oil crisis of the early 1980s. The impacts of global climate policy treaties are minor or inexistent. ‘Traditional’ renewable energies such as hydro and geothermal declined, while “new” renewables showed two peaks in the early 1980s and late 1990s. Differences between donor countries are huge. Several countries, including climate sceptics such as the US and Australia, but also the UK and Switzerland, saw a consistent decline. The self-proclaimed climate pioneers such as Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden show peaks related to both the oil crises and international climate policy. Only in Austria, Denmark, Finland and Spain can ‘new’ climate mitigation development assistance be found.

  15. Systematic development of a self-regulation weight-management intervention for overweight adults

    OpenAIRE

    Flink Ilse; van Empelen Pepijn; van Genugten Lenneke; Oenema Anke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes the systematic development of an intervention for the prevention of obesity among overweight adults. Its development was guided by the six steps of Intervention Mapping (IM), in which the establishment of program needs, objectives and methods is followed by development of the intervention and an implementation and evaluation plan. Methods Weight gain prevention can be achieved by making small changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA). Th...

  16. Design and Development of a Real-Time GPS-Aided SINU System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chot Hun Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Strapdown Inertial Navigation Unit (SINU is a low cost motion measurement device commonly used for navigation solutions. Global Positioning System (GPS is usually adopted as an external reference source to minimize the SINUʹs accumulation errors by applying a Kalman filter to obtain best estimations in positions, velocities and orientations. However, due to the low sampling rate of GPS, such a configuration does not provide intensive orientation estimation. In this paper, a new and efficient real‐time GPS-aided SINU system with incorporated magnetometers is developed to enhance the orientation estimation. An intensive orientation estimation algorithm is developed by combining the extra sensory inputs from magnetometers with the inputs from accelerometers. The estimated orientation was applied in the Kalman filtering, replacing the GPS‐aided orientation estimation. The offline implementation shows promising results in reducing both the accelerometersʹ and gyroscopesʹ errors. Finally, the design is successfully implemented in real‐time.

  17. Development of a lifestyle intervention using the MRC framework for diabetes prevention in people with impaired glucose regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troughton, Jacqui; Chatterjee, Sudesna; Hill, Siân E.; Daly, Heather; Martin Stacey, Lorraine; Stone, Margaret A.; Patel, Naina; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas; Gray, Laura J.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We report development of a group-based lifestyle intervention, Let's Prevent, using the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework, and delivered by structured education to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in a UK multi-ethnic population. Methods Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) is the first national T2DM programme that meets National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria and formed the basis for Let's Prevent. An iterative cycle of initial development, piloting, collecting and collating qualitative and quantitative data, and reflection and modification, was used to inform and refine lifestyle intervention until it was fit for evaluation in a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT). The programme encouraged IGR self-management using simple, non-technical language and visual aids. Results Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that intervention resulted in beneficial short-term behaviour change such as healthier eating patterns, improved health beliefs and greater participant motivation and empowerment. We also demonstrated that recruitment strategy and data collection methods were feasible for RCT implementation. Conclusions Let's Prevent was developed following successful application of MRC framework criteria and the subsequent RCT will determine whether it is feasible, reliable and transferable from research into a real-world NHS primary healthcare setting. Trial Registration ISRCTN80605705. PMID:26311822

  18. Computer-aided modeling framework for efficient model development, analysis and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Sin, Gürkan; Sales Cruz, Mauricio;

    2011-01-01

    Model-based computer aided product-process engineering has attained increased importance in a number of industries, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, fine chemicals, polymers, biotechnology, food, energy, and water. This trend is set to continue due to the substantial benefits computer...... model development is highlighted through a case study related to air pollution control, namely, the thermal treatment of the off-gas stream in adipic acid production in order to reduce its N2O content....

  19. U.S. Aid to Education in Paraguay: The Rural Education Development Project. A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Ronald; And Others

    Between 1970 and 1976, with continued funding and personnel support from the Agency for International Development (AID), Paraguay instituted major rural educational reforms encompassing curriculum revision, teacher training and retraining, training of administrators and supervisors, new school construction, and provision of teaching materials and…

  20. Improved Health among People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Received Packages of Proven Preventive Health Interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Taylor, Ethel V.; Ayers, Tracy; Fantu, Ribka; Abayneh, Sisay Alemayehu; Marston, Barbara; Molla, Yordanos B.; Sewnet, Tegene; Abebe, Fitsum; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Quick, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, basic care packages (BCP) containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001), soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001), and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001) at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001) or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001), and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05). Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes. PMID:25233345

  1. Communication skills training in a nursing home: Effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sprangers (Suzan); K. Dijkstra (Katinka); A. Romijn-Luijten (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEffective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home sta

  2. Improved health among people living with HIV/AIDS who received packages of proven preventive health interventions, Amhara, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara E O'Reilly

    Full Text Available In 2009, basic care packages (BCP containing health products were distributed to HIV-infected persons in Ethiopia who were clients of antiretroviral therapy clinics. To measure health impact, we enrolled clients from an intervention hospital and comparison hospital, and then conducted a baseline survey, and 7 bi-weekly home visits. We enrolled 405 intervention group clients and 344 comparison clients. Intervention clients were more likely than comparison clients to have detectable chlorine in stored water (40% vs. 1%, p<0.001, soap (51% vs. 36%, p<0.001, and a BCP water container (65% vs. 0%, p<0.001 at every home visit. Intervention clients were less likely than comparison clients to report illness (44% vs. 67%, p<0.001 or health facility visits for illness (74% vs. 95%, p<0.001, and had lower median illness scores (1.0 vs. 3.0, p<0.05. Participation in the BCP program appeared to improve reported health outcomes.

  3. Incorporating Prototyping and Iteration into Intervention Development: A Case Study of a Dining Hall-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Arianna D.; Hekler, Eric B.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research from the fields of computer science and engineering highlight the importance of an iterative design process (IDP) to create more creative and effective solutions. Objective: This study describes IDP as a new method for developing health behavior interventions and evaluates the effectiveness of a dining hall--based…

  4. A User-Friendly Model for Spray Drying to Aid Pharmaceutical Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Grasmeijer; Hans de Waard; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model ...

  5. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  6. The Impact of an Instructional Intervention Designed to Support Development of Stochastic Understanding of Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conant, Darcy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic understanding of probability distribution undergirds development of conceptual connections between probability and statistics and supports development of a principled understanding of statistical inference. This study investigated the impact of an instructional course intervention designed to support development of stochastic…

  7. Developing a Manualized Occupational Therapy Diabetes Management Intervention: Resilient, Empowered, Active Living With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carandang, Kristine; Davis, Shain

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a manualized occupational therapy intervention for diabetes management. An initial theoretical framework and core content areas for a Stage 1 intervention manual were developed based on an in-depth needs assessment and review of existing literature. After evaluation by a panel of experts and completion of a feasibility study, the intervention was revised into a Stage 2 manual in preparation for a randomized study evaluating the intervention’s efficac...

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational and feedback intervention aimed at improving consideration of sex differences in guideline development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Keuken; J.A. Haafkens; J. Mohrs; N.S. Klazinga; P.J.E. Bindels

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of an educational and feedback intervention to enhance consideration of sex differences in clinical guideline development. Design Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires in intervention and control groups. Content analysis of intervention guidelines a

  9. Music as an aid in the development of the social self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Elliott; Stefano, George B; Kim, Minsun

    2002-12-01

    The development of the social self has been a topic of interest to developmental psychologists for some time. With the recent emphasis placed on the effect of the nuclear family and its increasing paucity, researchers have been even more pressed to develop alternate means to aid in the social effects of family and subsequently enhance a child's assertion of independence. In our paper we explore some of the possible ways by which developmental learning occurs, most notably by implicit or unconscious acquisition. We further provide some historical background explaining the emergence of this unconscious learning. Once we understand the process by which this learning occurs and the historical context in which it operates we can put forth our hypothesis. We suggest that an effective way of aiding or supplementing the role of the family is by providing a theoretical family unit. Specifically we propose that participation in musical or band related activities aids in the emergence of adolescence independence and a healthy self concept. PMID:12503050

  10. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people living with HIV/AIDS: preliminary review of intervention trial methodologies and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kristen E; Kalichman, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the context of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the management of HIV infection, the harmful effects of stress remain a significant threat. Stress may increase viral replication, suppress immune response, and impede adherence to ART. Stressful living conditions of poverty, facing a chronic life-threatening illness and stigma all exacerbate chronic stress in HIV-affected populations. Stress-reduction interventions are urgently needed for the comprehensive care of people living with HIV. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one approach that has shown promise as an intervention for patients facing other medical conditions for reducing disease progression, psychological distress and maladaptive behaviours. In this systematic review, we identified 11 studies that have examined MBSR as an intervention for HIV-positive populations. Of the studies, six were randomised designs, one was a quasi-experimental design, and the remaining four were pre- and post-test designs. The preliminary outcomes support MBSR to decrease emotional distress with mixed evidence for impact on disease progression. Effect sizes were generally small to moderate in magnitude. The early findings from this emerging literature must be considered preliminary and support moving forward with more rigorous controlled trials, evaluated with objective assessments in longer-term follow-ups to determine the efficacy of MBSR for people living with HIV.

  11. Intervention development to reduce musculoskeletal disorders: Is the process on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Rothmore, Paul; Tappin, David

    2016-09-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders remain an intractable OHS problem. In 2002, Haslam proposed applying the stage of change model to target ergonomics interventions and other health and safety prevention activities. The stage of change model proposes that taking into account an individual's readiness for change in developing intervention strategies is likely to improve uptake and success. This paper revisits Haslam's proposal in the context of interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorders. Effective MSD interventions require a systematic approach and need to take into account a combination of measures. Research evidence suggests that in practice, those charged with the management of MSDs are not consistently adopting such an approach. Consequently, intervention development may not represent contemporary best practice. We propose a potential method of addressing this gap is the stage of change model, and use a case study to illustrate this argument in tailoring intervention development for managing MSDs. PMID:27184326

  12. Developing students' writing skills: an early intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson Diehl, Susan

    2007-01-01

    In what seems to be a universal situation, nurse educators are reading student papers and lamenting the fact that their students cannot write. The author explains a successful model of early intervention aimed at improving academic writing for new graduate students. The model and teaching strategies are helpful to nurse educators who struggle with the quality of their students' written work.

  13. Development of a Patient-Centered Antipsychotic Medication Adherence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Ellen P.; Gilmore, LaNissa; McSweeney, Jean C.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Mittal, Dinesh; Bost, James E.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A substantial gap exists between patients and their mental health providers about patient's perceived barriers, facilitators, and motivators (BFMs) for taking antipsychotic medications. This article describes how we used an intervention mapping (IM) framework coupled with qualitative and quantitative item-selection methods to…

  14. The Gender-Mediated Impact of a Career Development Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…

  15. Value and Impact of Librarians' Interventions on Student Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, Sue; Chelin, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The research aimed to discover the perceived impact and to identify the value of four information skills teaching interventions within the curriculum in three faculties at the University of the West of England. Faculty and library staff interviews and student focus groups were used to gather evidence about the perceived impact of the…

  16. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2009-09-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs, and technologies that have been the objects of diffusion research. Early theorizing from the beginning of the 20th century was gradually displaced by post hoc empirical research that described and explained diffusion processes. By the 1950s, diffusion researchers had begun to apply the collective knowledge learned about naturalistic diffusion in tests of process interventions to affect the spread of innovations. Now, this purposive objective has given form to a science of dissemination in which evidence-based practices are designed a priori not just to result in internal validity but to increase the likelihood that external validity and diffusion both are more likely to result. Here, I review diffusion theory and focus on seven concepts-intervention attributes, intervention clusters, demonstration projects, societal sectors, reinforcing contextual conditions, opinion leadership, and intervention adaptation-with potential for accelerating the spread of evidence-based practices, programs, and policies in the field of social work.

  17. Education and Children with Down Syndrome: Neuroscience, Development, and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Nadel, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Of the recent advances in education-related research in Down syndrome, the characterization of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype has become a potentially critical tool for shaping education and intervention in this population. This article briefly reviews the literature on brain-behavior connections in Down syndrome and identifies aspects of…

  18. Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2009-09-01

    Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. The robustness of this theory derives from the many disciplines and fields of study in which diffusion has been studied, from the international richness of these studies, and from the variety of new ideas, practices, programs, and technologies that have been the objects of diffusion research. Early theorizing from the beginning of the 20th century was gradually displaced by post hoc empirical research that described and explained diffusion processes. By the 1950s, diffusion researchers had begun to apply the collective knowledge learned about naturalistic diffusion in tests of process interventions to affect the spread of innovations. Now, this purposive objective has given form to a science of dissemination in which evidence-based practices are designed a priori not just to result in internal validity but to increase the likelihood that external validity and diffusion both are more likely to result. Here, I review diffusion theory and focus on seven concepts-intervention attributes, intervention clusters, demonstration projects, societal sectors, reinforcing contextual conditions, opinion leadership, and intervention adaptation-with potential for accelerating the spread of evidence-based practices, programs, and policies in the field of social work. PMID:20976022

  19. Relationships between Ongoing Professional Development and Educators' Beliefs Relative to Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose M.; March, Amanda L.; Tan, Sim Yin; Stockslager, Kevin M.; Brundage, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Questions remain regarding whether professional development focused on response to intervention can be implemented effectively on a large scale. One important goal of professional development involves educators' beliefs regarding foundational response-to-intervention concepts (e.g., data-based decision making, importance of effective instruction).…

  20. Consultative Seminar Develops Action Programmes for AIDS Prevention Education in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Outlined are the technical briefings on the global overview of the HIV/AIDS predicament, the modes of disease transmission, the global distribution of HIV/AIDS, and the social impact of the epidemic among the countries in Asia which participated in the World Health Organization/UNESCO-sponsored AIDS consultative seminar on AIDS prevention…

  1. The IMEA project: an intervention based on microfinance, entrepreneurship, and adherence to treatment for women with HIV/AIDS living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Salcedo, Juan Pablo; Pérez, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    A number of issues affect adherence to treatment and quality of life among women living with HIV/AIDS. In particular, women living in poverty have a higher risk of mortality due to their vulnerable conditions and socioeconomic exclusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that combines microfinance, entrepreneurship and adherence to treatment (IMEA) for women with HIV/AIDS and living in poverty in Cali, Colombia. A pre-post research design without a control was utilized, and 48 women were included in the study. The evaluation showed effectiveness of the program in the majority of the results (knowledge of HIV and treatment, adherence to treatment, self-efficacy, and the formation of a microenterprise) (p global indicator increased from 28.3% to 85.5% (p business. It is concluded that the IMEA project should be tested in other contexts and that its consequent results should be analyzed; so it could be converted into a large scale public health program. PMID:25299805

  2. Culturally Based Intervention Development: The Case of Latino Families Dealing With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Concepción; Yamada, Ann-Marie

    2010-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article describes the process of developing a culturally based family intervention for Spanish-speaking Latino families with a relative diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHOD: Our iterative intervention development process was guided by a cultural exchange framework and based on findings from an ethnographic study. We piloted this multifamily group 16-session intervention with 59 Latino families in a randomized control trial. Data were collected on family- and client-level outcomes, and poststudy focus groups were conducted with intervention participants. RESULTS: Preliminary evidence indicates that the intervention is effective by increasing illness knowledge and reducing family burden. CONCLUSIONS: This work can provide a model for how to integrate cultural factors into psychosocial services and enhance interventions in real-world settings for culturally diverse populations.

  3. Ethical considerations of human investigation in developing countries: the AIDS dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M

    1988-10-20

    In the efforts to develop a vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), attention has focused on sub-Saharan Africa, where large populations at risk for HIV infection could be studied easily. Cross cultural bioethics must be examined to address the ethical implications and cultural obstacles of such research. Autonomy and informed consent are difficult to achieve in cultures with limited personal choice. In some cultures, individual personhood is secondary to social relationships in the tribe or village. Language barriers, illiteracy, and the lack of knowledge about modern science all make it difficult to adequately inform participants. While the Helsinki Declaration emphasizes that a subject's well-being takes precedence over the interests of science and society, health policy decisions in nonautonomous populations often place state interests over the individual. Political sensitivities have been aroused by attempts to attribute the origin of AIDS to western or central Africa, leading political controversy and discrimination against Africans. Foreign researchers often exclude African participation once they have obtained the body fluid samples for study. Without joint collaboration and education, human research in developing countries can easily become exploitative. Justice dictates that research subjects be chosen for scientific reasons, not due to easy availability or ability to be manipulated. In vaccine development, Africans should not experience a disproportionate amount of risk without an equal share in the benefits. Furthermore, malnutrition, malaria, tuberculosis, and many other diseases present more urgent health problems to the developing world than AIDS. The health care priorities of the developing nations must be considered. PMID:3173436

  4. A user-friendly model for spray drying to aid pharmaceutical product development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grasmeijer

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a user-friendly model for spray drying that can aid in the development of a pharmaceutical product, by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach. To achieve this, a spray dryer model was developed in commercial and open source spreadsheet software. The output of the model was first fitted to the experimental output of a Büchi B-290 spray dryer and subsequently validated. The predicted outlet temperatures of the spray dryer model matched the experimental values very well over the entire range of spray dryer settings that were tested. Finally, the model was applied to produce glassy sugars by spray drying, an often used excipient in formulations of biopharmaceuticals. For the production of glassy sugars, the model was extended to predict the relative humidity at the outlet, which is not measured in the spray dryer by default. This extended model was then successfully used to predict whether specific settings were suitable for producing glassy trehalose and inulin by spray drying. In conclusion, a spray dryer model was developed that is able to predict the output parameters of the spray drying process. The model can aid the development of spray dried pharmaceutical products by shifting from a trial-and-error towards a quality-by-design approach.

  5. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China.

  6. Violent Children: Bridging Development, Intervention, and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Childhood violence is a major public health and social policy concern in the United States. Scientists and policymakers alike have increasingly turned their attention to the causes of childhood violence and the extent to which its course can be modified through well-planned preventive interventions. However, it is not apparent that policymakers draw upon basic research findings in formulating their priorities and policies, nor is it apparent that developmental scientists incorporate policy co...

  7. Developing Children’s Understanding of Fractions :An Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Florence; Coché, Frédéric; Szucs, Dénes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Fractions constitute a stumbling block in mathematics education. To improve children's understanding of fractions, we designed an intervention based on learning-by-doing activities, which focused on the representation of the magnitude of fractions. Participants were 292 Grade 4 and 5 children. Half of the classes received experimental instruction, while the other half pursued their usual lessons. For 10 weeks, they played five different games using cards representing fractions (e.g. Memory an...

  8. Community Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the features and examine effects of community based HIV prevention interventions implemented in developing countries on HIV-related knowledge and self-reported risk behavior. Background. The HIV epidemic has a significant impact on developing countries, increasing the prevalence of HIV among young persons. Community-based HIV prevention interventions have been designed to improve HIV-related knowledge and decrease engagement in risk behavior. Variations in the design and implementation of these interventions have been reported, which may influence their effectiveness. Design. Systematic review. Method. Data were extracted on the characteristics of the study and interventions and effects of the interventions on knowledge and self-report of risk behavior. Results. In total, 10 studies were included in the review. Overall, the results showed variability in theoretical underpinning, dose, and mode of delivery of the interventions. Multicomponent interventions that used mixed teaching methods produced beneficial effects on knowledge and self-reported risk behavior. Conclusion. Examining the characteristics of HIV-prevention interventions provides direction for researchers in developing efficient interventions to improve knowledge and reduce engagement in self-reported risk behavior and, in turn, decrease transmission of HIV.

  9. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE int...

  10. 77 FR 71600 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient Experiences With Emergency Department Care AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Request for...

  11. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Verbestel Vera; De Henauw Stefaan; Maes Lea; Haerens Leen; Mårild Staffan; Eiben Gabriele; Lissner Lauren; Moreno Luis A; Frauca Natalia; Barba Gianvincenzo; Kovács Éva; Konstabel Kenn; Tornaritis Michael; Gallois Katharina; Hassel Holger

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesi...

  12. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for panic attacks: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panic attacks are common, and while they are not life-threatening events, they can lead to the development of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Appropriate help at the time that a panic attack occurs may decrease the fear associated with the attack and reduce the risk of developing an anxiety disorder. However, few people have the knowledge and skills required to assist. Simple first aid guidelines may help members of the public to offer help to people who experience panic attacks. Methods The Delphi method was used to reach consensus in a panel of experts. Experts included 50 professionals and 6 people who had experience of panic attacks and were active in mental health advocacy. Statements about how to assist someone who is having a panic attack were sourced through a systematic search of both professional and lay literature. These statements were rated for importance as first aid guidelines by the expert and consumer panels and guidelines were written using the items most consistently endorsed. Results Of 144 statements presented to the panels, 27 were accepted. These statements were used to develop the guidelines appended to this paper. Conclusion There are a number of actions which are considered to be useful for members of the public to do if they encounter someone who is having a panic attack. These guidelines will be useful in revision of curricula of mental health first aid programs. They can also be used by members of the public who want immediate information about how to assist someone who is experiencing panic attacks.

  13. Metalloporphyrin catalysts for oxygen reduction developed using computer-aided molecular design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.N.; Hobbs, J.D.; Shelnutt, J.A. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a new class of metalloporphyrin materials used as catalsyts for use in fuel cell applications. The metalloporphyrins are excellent candidates for use as catalysts at both the anode and cathode. The catalysts reduce oxygen in 1 M potassium hydroxide, as well as in 2 M sulfuric acid. Covalent attachment to carbon supports is being investigated. The computer-aided molecular design is an iterative process, in which experimental results feed back into the design of future catalysts.

  14. Using Play Activities and Audio-Visual Aids to Develop Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casallas Mutis Nidia

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A project was conducted in order to improve oral proficiency in English through the use of play activities and audio-visual aids, with students of first grade in a bilingual school, in la Calera. They were between 6 and 7 years old. As the sample for this study, the fivestudents who had the lowest language oral proficiency were selected. According to the results, it is clear that the sample has improved their English oral proficiency a great deal. However, the process has to be continued because this skill needs constant practice in order to be developed.

  15. An intervention to promote patient participation and self-management in long term conditions: development and feasibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew-Graham Carolyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is worldwide interest in managing the global burden of long-term conditions. Current health policy places emphasis on self-management and supporting patient participation as ways of improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. However, achieving genuine participation is difficult. This paper describes the development of an intervention designed to promote participation in the consultation and facilitate self-management in long-term conditions. In line with current guidance on the development of complex interventions, our aim was to develop and refine the initial intervention using qualitative methods, prior to more formal evaluation. Methods We based the intervention on published evidence on effective ways of improving participation. The intervention was developed, piloted and evaluated using a range of qualitative methods. Firstly, focus groups with stakeholders (5 patients and 3 clinicians were held to introduce the prototype and elucidate how it could be improved. Then individual 'think aloud' and qualitative interviews (n = 10 were used to explore how patients responded to and understood the form and provide further refinement. Results The literature highlighted that effective methods of increasing participation include the use of patient reported outcome measures and values clarification exercises. The intervention (called PRISMS integrated these processes, using a structured form which required patients to identify problems, rate their magnitude and identify their priority. PRISMS was well received by patients and professionals. In the individual qualitative interviews the main themes that emerged from the data related to (a the content of the PRISMS (b the process of completing PRISMS and how it could be operationalised in practice and (c the outcomes of completing PRISMS for the patient. A number of different functions of PRISMS were identified by patients including its use as an aide-memoire, to provide a

  16. Self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation for adult hearing aid users in a developing South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pienaar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing impairment has far reaching consequences for affected individuals, in terms of quality of life indicators. In a developing South African context the hearing impaired population is faced with limited aural rehabilitation services. This study evaluated self-reported outcomes of aural rehabilitation in a group of adults in the public healthcare sector with a standardized outcomes measurement tool (IOI-HA. Sixty-one respondents participated (44% males; 56% females, with a mean age of 69.7 years. Results revealed that the majority of respondents experienced favourable outcomes in all domains of the inventory comprising of: daily use of hearing aids, benefits provided by hearing aids, residual activity limitation, satisfaction with hearing aids, residual participation restriction, impact of hearing difficulties on others, and changes in quality of life. Statistically significant relationships were obtained between the daily use of hearing aids, the degree of hearing loss, and the type of hearing aids fitted, as well as the benefits received from hearing aids in difficult listening environments (p < 0.05. Despite challenges of developing contexts, the mean scores distribution compared positively to similar reports from developed countries. Outcomes of improved quality of life emphasize the importance of providing affordable hearing aids and services to all hearing impaired individuals in South Africa.

  17. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  18. Evaluation of computer-aided software engineering tools for data base development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyna, M.A.; Carlson, C.R.

    1989-02-01

    More than 80 computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools were evaluated to determine their usefulness in data base development projects. The goal was to review the current state of the CASE industry and recommend one or more tools for inclusion in the uniform development environment (UDE), a programming environment being designed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Defense Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, J-8 Directorate. This environment gives a computer programmer a consistent user interface and access to a full suite of tools and utilities for software development. In an effort to identify tools that would be useful in the planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance of Argonne's data base development projects for the J-8 Directorate, we evaluated 83 commercially available CASE products. This report outlines the method used and presents the results of the evaluation.

  19. A Paper Presentation on Software Development Automation by Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Dubey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, system developers are faced to produce complex, high quality software to support the demand for new and revised computer applications. This challenge is complicated by strict resource constraints, forcing management to deploy new technologies, methods and procedures to manage this increasingly complex environment. Often the methods, procedures and technologies are not integrated. Therefore, they achieve less than desired improvements in productivity, or force management to make tradeoff decisions between software quality and developer efficiency. Thus the production lines have to be developed faster, too. A very important role in this development is Software Engineering because many production processes are 'computer aided', so software has to be designed for this production system. It seems very important to do the software engineering right and fast.

  20. Computer-Aided Software Engineering - An approach to real-time software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.; Turkovich, John J.

    1989-01-01

    A new software engineering discipline is Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE), a technology aimed at automating the software development process. This paper explores the development of CASE technology, particularly in the area of real-time/scientific/engineering software, and a history of CASE is given. The proposed software development environment for the Advanced Launch System (ALS CASE) is described as an example of an advanced software development system for real-time/scientific/engineering (RT/SE) software. The Automated Programming Subsystem of ALS CASE automatically generates executable code and corresponding documentation from a suitably formatted specification of the software requirements. Software requirements are interactively specified in the form of engineering block diagrams. Several demonstrations of the Automated Programming Subsystem are discussed.

  1. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention: policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on which the theoretical discussion is based took place in various settings: in ministry offices, within the development intervention institution (the CARDER) and at village level. The Community Developm...

  2. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  3. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs......, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention....... After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found...

  4. Teachers' Perspectives on a Professional Development Intervention to Improve Science Instruction Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Adamson, Karen; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime; Lewis, Scott; Thornton, Constance; Leroy, Kathryn

    2008-02-01

    Our 5-year professional development intervention is designed to promote elementary teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practices in teaching science, along with English language and mathematics for English Language Learning (ELL) students in urban schools. In this study, we used an end-of-year questionnaire as a primary data source to seek teachers’ perspectives on our intervention during the first year of implementation. Teachers believed that the intervention, including curriculum materials and teacher workshops, effectively promoted students’ science learning, along with English language development and mathematics learning. Teachers highlighted strengths and areas needing improvement in the intervention. Teachers’ perspectives have been incorporated into our on-going intervention efforts and offer insights into features of effective professional development initiatives in improving science achievement for all students.

  5. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  6. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control

  7. The Continued Effects of Home Intervention on Child Development Outcomes in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadeed, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…

  8. Early Intervention Practices for Children with Hearing Loss: Impact of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prudent, Angi; Lartz, Maribeth; Borders, Christina; Meehan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and appropriate intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing significantly increase the likelihood of better language, speech, and social-emotional development. However, current research suggests that there is a critical shortage of professionals trained to provide early intervention services to deaf and…

  9. Scale Development of a Measure to Assess Community-Based and Clinical Intervention Group Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Neufeld, Sharon; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Though group interventions are widely used in community-based and clinical settings, there are few brief instruments for assessing the group environment. Two studies on the development of a brief measure to assess intervention group environments are described, and psychometric properties of the new scale are presented. The new measure is based on…

  10. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  11. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  12. Development of an internet intervention to address behaviors associated with skin cancer risk among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2015-09-01

    Major conclusions: Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions.

  13. The Development of an Osteoporosis Prevention Education Intervention: Its Effectiveness, Conclusions, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…

  14. 育龄妇女艾滋病知识、态度、行为干预效果研究%THE INTERVENTION STUDY OF AIDS KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR ABOUT WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许雅; 叶小华; 卢嘉明; 江汀

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解广州市越秀区育龄妇女对艾滋病知识、态度和行为的情况,通过干预研究,探讨健康教育在该人群中的效果,为今后开展艾滋病健康教育提供依据.[方法]采用问卷调查方法对广州市越秀区育龄妇女进行基线调查,并对该人群健康教育干预后采用相同调查表进行调查.[结果]艾滋病知识总知晓率从干预前83.1%上升到干预后91.2%,对非传播途径的认识如"蚊虫叮咬可以传播AIDS"、"与AIDS病人共用卫生间、浴室会被传染"及"和AIDS患者同一个泳池游泳,会传染AIDS"的答对率从干预前62.8%、69.2%和81.1%提高到干预后的91.1%、89.2%和92.5%.相关态度总支持率从干预前86.1%上升到干预后93.2%,但涉及亲身利益时,其支持率仅从干预前37.2%提高到干预后的60.1%.安全套使用比例从干预前56.6%上升到干预后64.5%.[结论]健康教育在一定程度上能帮助育龄妇女提高对艾滋病的认识,尤其是对艾滋病非传播途径的认识,对艾滋病的态度和行为也有不同的改变.%[Objective] To understand the AIDS knowledge, attitude and behavior of Yuexiu District in Guangzhou City of women of childbearing age, and explore the effect of the health education in the crowd and provide the basis for future AIDS health education. [Methods] The base survey about women of childbearing age in Guangzhou Yuexiu was carred out by ques tionnaire survey. The survey after intervention was carried out by the same questionnaire. [Results] The overall rates in AIDS knowledge enhanced from 83.1% before intervention to 91.2% after intervention. The knowledge of no-transmission route, such as the correct rates of " the mosquito biting each other might disseminate AIDS", "sharing bathroom \\ bathroom with AIDS might be disseminated" and "swimming with AIDS patients in the same natatorium would spread AIDS" , enhanced from 62.8%, 69.2% and 81.1% before intervention to 91.1%, 89.2% and

  15. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers.

  16. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate an online weight management intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katherine; Dennison, Laura; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article illustrates the use of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of the Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR) programme, an e-health intervention designed to support sustainable weight loss. The studies outlined also explore how human support might enhance intervention usage and weight loss. Methods: Mixed methods were used to develop and evaluate POWeR. In the development phase, we drew on both quantitative and qualitative findings to plan and gain fee...

  17. A computer-aided framework for development, identification andmanagement of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitzig, Martina; Linninger, Andreas; Sin, Gürkan;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a generic computer-aided modelling framework to support the development of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models thereby increasing the efficiency and quality of the modelling process. In particular, the framework systematizes the modelling...... process by identifying the workflow involved and providing the required methods and tools for model documentation, construction, analysis, identification and discrimination. The application and benefits of the developed framework are demonstrated by a case study related to the whole-body physiologically...... physiologically-based scaling laws and identifying model parameters that can be re-fitted by the limited experimental data accessible for humans using sensitivity and identifiability analysis techniques....

  18. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194

  19. Development of performance measures based on visibility for effective placement of aids to navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tae Hyun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the challenging process of placing Aids to Navigation (AtoN, we propose performance measures which quantifies the effect of such placement. The best placement of AtoNs is that from which the navigator can best recognize the information provided by an AtoN. The visibility of AtoNs depends mostly on light sources, the weather condition and the position of the navigator. Visual recognition is enabled by achieving adequate contrast between the AtoN light source and background light. Therefore, the performance measures can be formulated through the amount of differences between these two lights. For simplification, this approach is based on the values of the human factor suggested by International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA. Performance measures for AtoN placement can be evaluated through AtoN Simulator, which has been being developed by KIOST/KRISO in Korea and has been launched by Korea National Research Program. Simulations for evaluation are carried out at waterway in Busan port in Korea.

  20. Development testing of mobile health interventions for cancer patient self-management: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Susan; Wen, Kuang-Yi

    2016-09-01

    As the vision of mobile health (mHealth) is beginning to be realized, rigorous intervention development protocols are needed in order to draw optimal efficacy and effectiveness to support patient-centered oncology care. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a review of published articles that describe the development process of mHealth interventions for patients' cancer care self-management. The review search yielded 11 interventions, reported by 14 manuscripts. The following trends emerged: importance of stakeholder engagement during the development process, addressing the unique needs and experiences of cancer patients and care providers, ensuring user satisfaction with the system, and identifying perceived benefits and limitations of the system. This review provides practical suggestions for mHealth intervention development. Assessments of user perceptions should be both qualitative and quantitative, and researchers should follow an established framework when developing a randomized controlled trial employing mHealth. PMID:25916831

  1. Economic evaluations of non-communicable disease interventions in developing countries: a critical review of the evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic projections suggest a major increase in non-communicable disease (NCD mortality over the next two decades in developing countries. In a climate of scarce resources, policy-makers need to know which interventions represent value for money. The prohibitive cost of performing multiple economic evaluations has generated interest in transferring the results of studies from one setting to another. This paper aims to bridge the gap in the current literature by critically evaluating the available published data on economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Methods We identified and reviewed the methodological quality of 32 economic evaluations of NCD interventions in developing countries. Developing countries were defined according to the World Bank classification for low- and lower middle-income countries. We defined NCDs as the 12 categories listed in the 1993 World Bank report Investing in Health. English language literature was searched for the period January 1984 and January 2003 inclusive in Medline, Science Citation Index, HealthStar, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Embase using medical subheading terms and free text searches. We then assessed the quality of studies according to a set of pre-defined technical criteria. Results We found that the quality of studies was poor and resource allocation decisions made by local and global policy-makers on the basis of this evidence could be misleading. Furthermore we have identified some clear gaps in the literature, particularly around injuries and strategies for tackling the consequences of the emerging tobacco epidemic. Conclusion In the face of poor evidence the role of so-called generalised cost-effectiveness analyses has an important role to play in aiding public health decision-making at the global level. Further research is needed to investigates the causes of variation among cost, effects and cost-effectiveness data within and between

  2. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris

    2015-09-01

    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  3. Development of a Theory-Based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), Culturally Relevant Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Latina Immigrants Using Intervention Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief M...

  4. Development cooperation for health: reviewing a dynamic concept in a complex global aid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, held in Busan, South Korea in November 2011 again promised an opportunity for a "new consensus on development cooperation" to emerge. This paper reviews the recent evolution of the concept of coordination for development assistance in health as the basis from which to understand current discourses. The paper reviews peer-reviewed scientific literature and relevant 'grey' literature, revisiting landmark publications and influential authors, examining the transitions in the conceptualisation of coordination, and the related changes in development assistance. Four distinct transitions in the understanding, orientation and application of coordination have been identified: coordination within the sector, involving geographical zoning, sub-sector specialisation, donor consortia, project co-financing, sector aid, harmonisation of procedures, ear-marked budgetary support, donor agency reform and inter-agency intelligence gathering; sector-wide coordination, expressed particularly through the Sector-Wide Approach; coordination across sectors at national level, expressed in the evolution of Poverty Strategy Reduction Papers and the national monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals; and, most recently, global-level coordination, embodied in the Paris Principles, and the emergence of agencies such as the International Health Partnerships Plus. The transitions are largely but not strictly chronological, and each draws on earlier elements, in ways that are redefined in the new context. With the increasing complexity of both the territory of global health and its governance, and increasing stakeholders and networks, current imaginings of coordination are again being challenged. The High Level Forum in Busan may have been successful in recognising a much more complex landscape for development than previously conceived, but the challenges to coordination remain.

  5. Development of a decision aid to inform patients’ and families’ renal replacement therapy selection decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameling Jessica M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few educational resources have been developed to inform patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT selection decisions. Patients progressing toward end stage renal disease (ESRD must decide among multiple treatment options with varying characteristics. Complex information about treatments must be adequately conveyed to patients with different educational backgrounds and informational needs. Decisions about treatment options also require family input, as families often participate in patients’ treatment and support patients’ decisions. We describe the development, design, and preliminary evaluation of an informational, evidence-based, and patient-and family-centered decision aid for patients with ESRD and varying levels of health literacy, health numeracy, and cognitive function. Methods We designed a decision aid comprising a complementary video and informational handbook. We based our development process on data previously obtained from qualitative focus groups and systematic literature reviews. We simultaneously developed the video and handbook in “stages.” For the video, stages included (1 directed interviews with culturally appropriate patients and families and preliminary script development, (2 video production, and (3 screening the video with patients and their families. For the handbook, stages comprised (1 preliminary content design, (2 a mixed-methods pilot study among diverse patients to assess comprehension of handbook material, and (3 screening the handbook with patients and their families. Results The video and handbook both addressed potential benefits and trade-offs of treatment selections. The 50-minute video consisted of demographically diverse patients and their families describing their positive and negative experiences with selecting a treatment option. The video also incorporated health professionals’ testimonials regarding various considerations that might influence patients’ and families

  6. The effectiveness of emergency obstetric referral interventions in developing country settings: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complications can be unpredictable and many women in developing countries cannot access health facilities where life-saving care is available. This study assesses the effects of referral interventions that enable pregnant women to reach health facilities during an emergency, after the decision to seek care is made. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected bibliographic databases were searched with no date or language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials and quasi experimental study designs with a comparison group were included. Outcomes of interest included maternal and neonatal mortality and other intermediate measures such as service utilisation. Two reviewers independently selected, appraised, and extracted articles using predefined fields. Forest plots, tables, and qualitative summaries of study quality, size, and direction of effect were used for analysis. Nineteen studies were included. In South Asian settings, four studies of organisational interventions in communities that generated funds for transport reduced neonatal deaths, with the largest effect seen in India (odds ratio 0·48 95% CI 0·34-0·68. Three quasi experimental studies from sub-Saharan Africa reported reductions in stillbirths with maternity waiting home interventions, with one statistically significant result (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.32-0.96. Effects of interventions on maternal mortality were unclear. Referral interventions usually improved utilisation of health services but the opposite effect was also documented. The effects of multiple interventions in the studies could not be disentangled. Explanatory mechanisms through which the interventions worked could not be ascertained. CONCLUSIONS: Community mobilisation interventions may reduce neonatal mortality but the contribution of referral components cannot be ascertained. The reduction in stillbirth rates resulting from maternity waiting homes needs further study. Referral interventions can have unexpected

  7. Developing, implementing and evaluating OSH interventions in SMEs: a pilot, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Donato; Cagno, Enrico; Micheli, Guido J L

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions contains many debates on how interventions should work, but far less attention has been paid to how they actually do work, and to the contextual factors that influence their implementation, development and effect. The need of improving the understanding of the OSH interventions issue is particularly relevant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since they experience worse OSH conditions, and have fewer physical, economic and organizational resources if compared to larger enterprises; thus, SMEs strongly need to focus their few resources in the decision-making process so as to select and put in place only the most proper interventions. This exploratory study is based on interviews with safety officers of 5 SMEs, and it gives an overview of the key features of the actual intervention process in SMEs and of the contextual factors making this actual intervention process similar or dissimilar to the ideal case. The results show how much qualitative and experience driven the actual intervention process is; they should be used to direct the future research towards an increasingly applicable one, to enable practitioners from SMEs to develop, implement and evaluate their OSH interventions in an "ideal" way. PMID:25189744

  8. Development of a positive psychology intervention for patients with acute cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Boehm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of depression and other negative psychological states in cardiac patients has been a focus of multiple treatment trials, though such trials have not led to substantial improvements in cardiac outcomes. In contrast, there has been minimal focus on interventions to increase positive psychological states in cardiac patients, despite the fact that optimism and other positive states have been associated with superior cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to develop an 8-week, phone-based positive psychology intervention for patients hospitalized with acute cardiac disease (acute coronary syndrome or decompensated heart failure. Such an intervention would consist of positive psychology exercises adapted for this specific population, and it would need to be feasible for practitioners and patients in real-world settings. By adapting exercises that were previously validated in healthy individuals, we were able to generate a positive psychology telemedicine intervention for cardiac patients that focused on optimism, kindness, and gratitude. In addition, we successfully created a companion treatment manual for subjects to enhance the educational aspects of the intervention and facilitate completion of exercises. Finally, we successfully performed a small pilot trial of this intervention, and found that the positive psychology intervention appeared to be feasible and well-accepted in a cohort of patients with acute cardiac illness. Future studies should further develop this promising intervention and examine its impact on psychological and medical outcomes in this vulnerable population of cardiac patients.

  9. Alzheimer's disease drug development based on Computer-Aided Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huahui; Wu, Xiangxiang

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the excessive deposition of amyloids in the brain. The pathological features mainly include the extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which are the production of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processed by the α-, β- and γ-secretases. Based on the amyloid cascade hypotheses of AD, a large number of amyloid-β agents and secretase inhibitors against AD have been recently developed by using computational methods. This review article describes pathophysiology of AD and the structure of the Aβ plaques, β- and γ-secretases, and discusses the recent advances in the development of the amyloid agents for AD therapy and diagnosis by using Computer-Aided Drug Design approach. PMID:26415837

  10. Accelerating Development of EV Batteries Through Computer-Aided Engineering (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Vehicle Technology Program has launched the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) project to work with national labs, industry and software venders to develop sophisticated software. As coordinator, NREL has teamed with a number of companies to help improve and accelerate battery design and production. This presentation provides an overview of CAEBAT, including its predictive computer simulation of Li-ion batteries known as the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) model framework. MSMD's modular, flexible architecture connects the physics of battery charge/discharge processes, thermal control, safety and reliability in a computationally efficient manner. This allows independent development of submodels at the cell and pack levels.

  11. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya; Soma, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accompanied with brain atrophy. Structural measurements of brain atrophy in specific brain structures such as hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to detect the development of dementia early in the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for AD using MRI, which is based on the automatic volumetry of segmented brain images and generation of three-dimensional cortical thickness images using the Eulerian partial differential equation (PDE) approach. We investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength and statistical noise on the accuracy of our automatic volumetry and the PDE approach using the simulated MR images generated from BrainWeb. Our automatic volumetry and PDE approach were robust against inhomogeneous magnetic field strength. Although the accuracy of our automatic volumetry decreased with increasing statistical noise, it was mai...

  12. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle, Helene D; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Afri...

  13. Mobilising social support: insights from the development of a web and app based intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Anne Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: This detailed user-centred development process and feasibility testing will lead to an intervention, designed and tested by users, which will have the potential to change weight related behaviours.

  14. Analysis of an intervention directed to the development of balance and gross and fine motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Carrillo Maronesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children’s motor skills evolve according to age and the continuing influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that cause variations from one child to another; this makes the course of development unique in each child. Objective: To develop an intervention for a child with delays in fine motor coordination, gross motor coordination and balance and analyze its impact on the child’s development. Methods: Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was the Motor Development Scale applied to a 4 year old child. An intervention plan was developed based on the results obtained throught the tests. The plan consists of activities designed to stimulate the aforementioned acquisitions. The implementation of the intervention plan lasted two months. The child was tested at the beginning and at the end of the intervention to determine whether there was gain in the stimulated acquisitions. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of occurrence of reliable and clinically relevant positive changes. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that reliable positive changes occurred with respect to the psychomotor items that underwent stimulation. Conclusion: It is possible to infer that this intervention had a positive effect on the child’s development . Hence, this study contributes to improve the care provided to children with delayed psychomotor development, illustrating possibilities of strategies and activities. It also allows the recognition of the action of occupational therapists as one of the professionals who compose the multidisciplinary team focused on early intervention.

  15. HIV/AIDS vaccine development: are we walking out from the dark?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan-min; WANG You-chun; XU Jian-qing

    2010-01-01

    @@ The need for AIDS vaccine has been emphasized by the increase of HIV-1 prevalence in sexual transmission which bridges the spreading of HIV-1 from high-risk population to other populations. After more than two-decade intensive effort on the AIDS vaccine development, it remains elusive whether and how an effective vaccine will be achieved. Recent data released from a phase Ⅲ trial in Thailand showed a partial protection might be accomplishable by(R)the "prime-boost"combination of two vaccines: ALVAC(R) HIV vaccine (the prime), and AIDSVAX(R) B/E vaccine (the boost).1 This unprecedented large clinical trial observed that the prime-boost combination lowered the rate of HIV infection by 31.2% compared to placebo based on the modified intent-to-treat population (n=51 vs. n=74,respectively; P=0.04). However, debating on the efficacy interpretation of this trial arose among field scientists.Furthermore, how to improve the efficacy will become the most important question to be tackled. Here we reviewed the recent publications and summarized the major progress achieved.

  16. Assessment of the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cidral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the risk of pressure ulcer development among hospitalized HIV/Aids. Metod: study quantitative descriptive with 35 patients admitted to an infectious diseases hospital in Curitiba-PR-BR. Characterized clinical and epidemiological of patients using a data collection instrument and the Braden Scale. Data was compiled using Excel® and a simple descriptive analysis. Results: two patients were found to have pressure ulcers and the most common comorbidities associated with HIV/Aids were pneumocystis pneumonia, caused by pneumocisti cariini (16, and pulmonary tuberculosis (13. The lowest scores were obtained in the friction and shear subscale, followed by the activity, nutrition, mobility and moisture subscales. The highest score was obtained in the sensory perception subscale. Two patients were classified as 'very high risk', six as 'high risk', three as 'low risk', and the rest as 'no risk'. Conclusion: risk assessment using scales provides objective information to assist with systemized and targeted nursing decision-making.

  17. Development and validation of a generic questionnaire for the implementation of complex medical interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Lena; Hirsch, Oliver; Becker, Annette; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    [english] Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC), the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In our study we aimed to develop and validate a generic and multifaceted qu...

  18. Development and validation of a generic questionnaire for the implementation of complex medical interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Lena; Hirsch, Oliver; Becker, Annette; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The implementation of complex medical interventions in daily practice is often fraught with difficulties. According to the iterative phase model proposed by the British Medical Research Council (MRC), the development, implementation and evaluation of complex interventions should be theory-driven. A conceptual model that seems to be a promising framework is the Theory of planned behaviour (TPB). In our study we aimed to develop and validate a generic and multifaceted questionnair...

  19. Development of computer-aided software engineering tool for sequential control of JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimono, M.; Akasaka, H.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-12-31

    Discharge sequential control (DSC) is an essential control function for the intermittent and pulse discharge operation of a tokamak device, so that many subsystems may work with each other in correct order and/or synchronously. In the development of the DSC program, block diagrams of logical operation for sequential control are illustrated in its design at first. Then, the logical operators and I/O`s which are involved in the block diagrams are compiled and converted to a certain particular form. Since the block diagrams of the sequential control amounts to about 50 sheets in the case of the JT-60 upgrade tokamak (JT-60U) high power discharge and the above steps of the development have been performed manually so far, a great effort has been required for the program development. In order to remove inefficiency in such development processes, a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool has been developed on a UNIX workstation. This paper reports how the authors design it for the development of the sequential control programs. The tool is composed of the following three tools: (1) Automatic drawing tool, (2) Editing tool, and (3) Trace tool. This CASE tool, an object-oriented programming tool having graphical formalism, can powerfully accelerate the cycle for the development of the sequential control function commonly associated with pulse discharge in a tokamak fusion device.

  20. Development and utilization of low-cost audio-visual aids in population communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    One of the reasons why population information has to a certain degree failed to create demand for family planning services is that the majority of information and communication materials being used have been developed in an urban setting, resulting in their inappropriateness to the target rural audiences. Furthermore, their having been evolved in urban centers has hampered their subsequent replication, distribution, and use in rural areas due to lack of funds, production and distribution resources. For this reason, many developing countries in Asia have begun to demand population materials which are low-cost and simple, more appropriate to rural audiences and within local production resources and capabilities. In the light of this identified need, the Population Communication Unit, with the assistance of the Population Education Mobile Team and Clearing House, Unesco, has collaborated with the Population Center Foundation of the Philippines to undertake a Regional Training Workshop on the Design, Development, and Utilization of Low-Cost Audiovisual Aids in the Philippines from 21-26 July 1980. The Workshop, which will be attended by communications personnel and materials developers from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, will focus on developing the capabilities of midlevel population program personnel in conceptualizing, designing, developing, testing and utilizing simple and low-cost audiovisual materials. It is hoped that with the skills acquired from the Workshop, participants will be able to increase their capability in training their own personnel in the development of low-cost materials.

  1. Toward the Development of Virtual Surgical Tools to Aid Orthopaedic FE Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C. Tadepalli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of joint anatomy and function provide a means for biomechanists, physicians, and physical therapists to understand the effects of repetitive motion, acute injury, and degenerative diseases. Finite element models, for example, may be used to predict the outcome of a surgical intervention or to improve the design of prosthetic implants. Countless models have been developed over the years to address a myriad of orthopaedic procedures. Unfortunately, few studies have incorporated patient-specific models. Historically, baseline anatomic models have been used due to the demands associated with model development. Moreover, surgical simulations impose additional modeling challenges. Current meshing practices do not readily accommodate the inclusion of implants. Our goal is to develop a suite of tools (virtual instruments and guides which enable surgical procedures to be readily simulated and to facilitate the development of all-hexahedral finite element mesh definitions.

  2. Toward the development of virtual surgical tools to aid orthopaedic FE analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadepalli, Srinivas C; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2010-01-01

    Computational models of joint anatomy and function provide a means for biomechanists, physicians, and physical therapists to understand the effects of repetitive motion, acute injury, and degenerative diseases. Finite element models, for example, may be used to predict the outcome of a surgical intervention or to improve the design of prosthetic implants. Countless models have been developed over the years to address a myriad of orthopaedic procedures. Unfortunately, few studies have incorporated patient-specific models. Historically, baseline anatomic models have been used due to the demands associated with model development. Moreover, surgical simulations impose additional modeling challenges. Current meshing practices do not readily accommodate the inclusion of implants. Our goal is to develop a suite of tools (virtual instruments and guides) which enable surgical procedures to be readily simulated and to facilitate the development of all-hexahedral finite element mesh definitions.

  3. Developing an instrument for assessing fidelity to the intervention in the Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS) – preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Conover, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The fidelity of an intervention can be defined as the degree to which a program is implemented following the program model, i.e. a set of well-defined procedures for such intervention. This article aims to describe the steps taken to develop an assessment tool of fidelity to the original protocol of intervention for Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS). Methods. The development of an instrument to assess fidelity includes some key stages, such as definition of the in...

  4. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  5. Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Novel, Structured, Community-Based Support and Education Intervention for Individuals with HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christopher; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Dube, Lungile; Andrasik, Michele; Rao, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    People living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa face significant challenges accessing care. Community-based peer support groups can increase linkage to treatment, though the effectiveness of structured, scalable groups has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to measure the impact of the structured Integrated Access to Care and Treatment intervention on clients' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding HIV/AIDS, including their experiences of stigma, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection involved pre-/post-tests and client interviews. Pre-/post-test data from 66 clients were collected. 17 participants were interviewed. Paired t-tests did not detect significant changes in the main outcomes. Qualitative results suggested a psychosocial benefit as participants connected with their peers, expressed themselves openly, and re-engaged with their communities. Unfortunately, this study did not quantitatively measure psychosocial changes, and the results have limited generalizability to men. I ACT may be an effective complement to clinic-based support services, though further study should quantify the psychosocial benefit. PMID:27553008

  6. Making aid work better for recipients and improving national planning processes for sustainable development in the bargain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Tighe

    2007-03-15

    As DFID's new White Paper on poverty acknowledges, aid relationships are always about power, and despite the emphasis on country ownership in today's international aid system, the deck remains heavily stacked in favour of donors. For example, the Paris Declaration – the defining international statement on aid today – very much reflects prevailing Western ideas about governance, management effectiveness, and economic efficiency that may have little meaning or relevance in many developing country contexts. Despite aid's donor bias, at least some recipient countries, such as Tanzania and Vietnam, have nonetheless successfully introduced structures and mechanisms to help them set their own directions with less donor interference. Through impressive processes of stakeholder consultation that reflect indigenous social, cultural and political contexts rather than homogenised international norms, these two countries have also recently produced national strategies that are well-grounded in the principles of sustainable development. Such experiences offer a strong argument for a new approach to aid relationships, that gives recipients greater autonomy and flexibility and acknowledges the shortcomings in donor expertise and in homogenised approaches to aid.

  7. Developing Internet interventions to target the individual impact of stigma in health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of health problems are associated with significant stigma, a social phenomenon in which individuals become the object of negative stereotypes. In addition to experiencing negative reactions from others, stigmatised individuals and groups can experience harmful consequences when they internalise these negative prevailing attitudes. The objective of this paper was to consider the potential to develop Internet-based health-related interventions explicitly targeting the effects of stigma on the individual. A review of the literature was conducted to synthesise current conceptualisations of stigma and self-stigma across a number of groups, and to identify current intervention developments. Self-stigma reduction strategies developed for in-person services include cognitive reframing, myth busting, contact with other members of the stigmatised group, and disclosure promotion. The development and provision of interventions targeting self-stigma within an online environment is in its infancy. Our review considers there to be particular potential of online interventions for this target, associated with the capacity of the Internet to promote having contact with peers within one’s stigmatised group, and for user interaction and empowerment. We conclude that self-stigma is a domain in which there is significant potential for innovation with health-related interventions, and provide a number of recommendations for online intervention development.

  8. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  9. The Vital@Work Study. The systematic development of a lifestyle intervention to improve older workers' vitality and the design of a randomised controlled trial evaluating this intervention

    OpenAIRE

    van der Beek Allard J; Proper Karin I; Strijk Jorien E; van Mechelen Willem

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A major contributor of early exit from work is a decline in health with increasing age. As healthy lifestyle choices contribute to better health outcomes, an intervention aimed at an improved lifestyle is considered a potentially effective tool to keep older workers healthy and vital, and thereby to prolong labour participation. Methods Using the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, a lifestyle intervention was developed based on information obtained from 1) literature, 2) ...

  10. Development of a workplace intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders: Intervention Mapping as a useful tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, mental health problems and mental workload have been increasingly related to long-term sick leave and disability. However, there is, as yet, no structured protocol available for the identification and application of an intervention for stress-related mental health problems at the workplace. This paper describes the structured development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with stress-related mental disorders (SMDs. The intervention is based on an existing successful return-to-work intervention for sick-listed employees with low back pain. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to combine theory and evidence in the development, implementation and planning for the evaluation of a participatory workplace intervention, aimed at an early return-to-work for sick-listed employees with SMDs. All stakeholders were involved in focus group interviews: i.e. employees recently sick-listed with SMDs, supervisors and occupational health professionals. Results The development of the participatory workplace intervention according to the Intervention Mapping principles resulted in a structured return-to-work intervention, specifically tailored to the needs of sick-listed employees with SMDs. Return-to-work was proposed as a behavioural change, and the Attitude – Social influence – self-Efficacy model was identified as a theoretical framework. Stakeholder involvement in focus group interviews served to enhance the implementation. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Conclusion Intervention Mapping was found to be a promising method to develop interventions tailored to a specific target group in the field of occupational health. Trial registration ISRCTN92307123

  11. Software Infrastructure for Computer-aided Drug Discovery and Development, a Practical Example with Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Loris; Sartori, Luca

    2016-09-01

    In the field of Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Development (CADDD) the proper software infrastructure is essential for everyday investigations. The creation of such an environment should be carefully planned and implemented with certain features in order to be productive and efficient. Here we describe a solution to integrate standard computational services into a functional unit that empowers modelling applications for drug discovery. This system allows users with various level of expertise to run in silico experiments automatically and without the burden of file formatting for different software, managing the actual computation, keeping track of the activities and graphical rendering of the structural outcomes. To showcase the potential of this approach, performances of five different docking programs on an Hiv-1 protease test set are presented. PMID:27546042

  12. Application of machine vision technology to the development of aids for the visually impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Derek; McGowan, T.; Clarke, K.; McCorkell, C.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental system for the combination of three areas of visual cues to aid recognition. The research is aimed at investigating the possibility of using this combination of information for scene description for the visually impaired. The areas identified as providing suitable visual cues are motion, shape and color. The combination of these provide a significant amount of information for recognition and description purposes by machine vision equipment and also allow the possibility of giving the user a more complete description of their environment. Research and development in the application of machine vision technologies to rehabilitative technologies has generally concentrated on utilizing a single visual cue. A novel method for the combination of techniques and technologies successful in machine vision is being explored. Work to date has concentrated on the integration of shape recognition, motion tracking, color extraction, speech synthesis, symbolic programming and auditory imaging of colors.

  13. Development of Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning Software for First Aid Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan TEKEDERE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Today various facilities depending on the technological progresses have been continuing in use in education. The requirements for new applications in education come to the fore due to the factors such as the unavailability of students in the same place at the same time. In this study, web-assisted software was developed for conducting the first aid lessons in Vocational High School of Health Services over the web by the strategy of problem-based learning. This web-assisted software was designed by taking into consideration the teaching processes of problem-based learning strategy. At the same time, this software possesses a property of a frame model that gives students the opportunity of collaboration with different disciplines by its flexible structure.

  14. Computer-aided design and distributed system technology development for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ernest S.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed large space structures have many characteristics that make them difficult to analyze and control. They are highly flexible, with components mathematically modeled by partial differential equations or very large systems of ordinary differential equations. They have many resonant frequencies, typically low and closely spaced. Natural damping may be low and/or improperly modeled. Coupled with stringent operational requirements of orientation, shape control, and vibration suppression, and the inability to perform adequate ground testing, these characteristics present an unconventional identification and control design problem to the systems theorist. Some of the research underway within Langley's Spacecraft Control Branch, Guidance and Control Division aimed at developing theory and algorithms to treat large space structures systems identification and control problems is described. The research areas to be considered are computer-aided design algorithms, and systems identification and control of distributed systems.

  15. Talent Development Middle Grades Program. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Talent Development Middle Grades Program" is a comprehensive reform model that transforms the structure and curriculum of large urban middle schools with the aim of improving student achievement and raising teacher and student expectations. Key features of the "Talent Development Middle Grades Program" include small learning communities, an…

  16. Developing a Suicide Intervention Program in Your School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konet, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Teenage depression and suicide are a growing problem across the nation. A New Jersey high school has developed a crisis management team to deal with such problems. Twelve steps to take in developing such a team are provided, along with guidelines on the referral process, student representation, and community support. (TE)

  17. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Julia H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain.

  18. Response to: Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Khor, Wee Sim; Khwaja, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remedies for burns first aid are rarely compliant with current best practice. Greater Manchester is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the UK. Our burns centre has noted the prevalent use of traditional remedies over recognised first aid prior to presentation. We review traditional burns remedies and highlight the importance of burns first aid education that is accessible to migrant communities. PMID:26428366

  19. Developing an instrument for assessing fidelity to the intervention in the Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva, Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The fidelity of an intervention can be defined as the degree to which a program is implemented following the program model, i.e. a set of well-defined procedures for such intervention. This article aims to describe the steps taken to develop an assessment tool of fidelity to the original protocol of intervention for Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS. Methods. The development of an instrument to assess fidelity includes some key stages, such as definition of the intervention model, definition of the key components of the intervention, preparation of a preliminary scale, development of fidelity assessment sheets, development of a manual on the application of fidelity scale, training fidelity assessor and testing the preliminary scale by carrying out a pilot study. Results. Based on the experts’ opinion, 18 key components of the intervention were defined. From these components, a fidelity scale consisting of 20 items was built, divided into three sections, each evaluating one of the types of fidelity: compliance, context and competence. Conclusion. The CTI-TS had its fidelity assessment method developed in accordance with the recommendations in the current literature. The protocol compliance is essential for the results, whether positive or not, can be credited to the intervention itself.

  20. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention. PMID:22185038

  1. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  2. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.

  3. Integrating nutrition and child development interventions: scientific basis, evidence of impact, and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez

    2015-11-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208

  4. Using the Medical Research Council Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions in a Theory-Based Infant Feeding Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: The Baby Milk Intervention and Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi Lakshman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe our experience of using the Medical Research Council framework on complex interventions to guide the development and evaluation of an intervention to prevent obesity by modifying infant feeding behaviours. Methods. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence on early life risk factors for obesity and interventions to prevent obesity in this age group. The review suggested prevention of excess weight gain in bottle-fed babies and appropriate weaning as intervention targets; hence we undertook systematic reviews to further our understanding of these behaviours. We chose theory and behaviour change techniques that demonstrated evidence of effectiveness in altering dietary behaviours. We subsequently developed intervention materials and evaluation tools and conducted qualitative studies with mothers (intervention recipients and healthcare professionals (intervention deliverers to refine them. We developed a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes and feeding practices to understand the mechanism of any intervention effects. Conclusions. In addition to informing development of our specific intervention and evaluation materials, use of the Medical Research Council framework has helped to build a generalisable evidence base for early life nutritional interventions. However, the process is resource intensive and prolonged, and this should be taken into account by public health research funders. This trial is registered with ISRTCN: 20814693 Baby Milk Trial.

  5. National responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases in developing countries: analysis of strategic parallels and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content.

  6. Development of Detailed Clinical Models for Nursing Assessments and Nursing Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Kim, Younglan; Lee, Myung Kyung; Lee, Youngji

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop and validate Detailed Clinical Models (DCMs) for nursing assessments and interventions. Methods First, we identified the nursing assessment and nursing intervention entities. Second, we identified the attributes and the attribute values in order to describe the entities in more detail. The data type and optionality of the attributes were then defined. Third, the entities, attributes and value sets in the DCMs were mapped to the International Cla...

  7. Diffusion of innovations and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jane T

    2004-01-01

    As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues its relentless spread in many parts of the world, DOI provides a useful framework for analyzing the difficulties in achieving behavior change necessary to reduce HIV rates. The DOI concepts most relevant to this question include communication channels, the innovation-decision process, homophily, the attributes of the innovation, adopter categories, and opinion leaders. The preventive measures needed to halt the transmission of HIV constitute a "preventive innovation." This article describes the attributes of this preventive innovation in terms of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. It reviews studies that incorporated DOI into HIV/AIDS behavior change interventions, both in Western countries and in the developing world. Finally, it discusses possible reasons that the use of DOI has been fairly limited to date in HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in developing countries. PMID:14960407

  8. National Responses to HIV/AIDS and Non-Communicable Diseases in Developing Countries: Analysis of Strategic Parallels and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-03-26

    HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) epidemics may have many important similarities in their aetiology, pathogenesis and management. Evidence about the similarities and differences between the national responses HIV/AIDS and NCDs is essential for an integrated response. The objective of this study was to examine the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in selected developing countries. This study applied a strategic level comparative case study approach as its study design. The main construct was national response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The 4 overarching themes were policy response, institutional mechanism, programmatic response and strategic information. Four countries were purposively selected as cases. Data were collected and triangulated from a multiple sources. The focus of analysis included identifying items for comparison, characteristics to be compared, degrees of similarity, and strategic importance of similarities. Analysis of data was qualitative content analysis with within-case, between-case, and across-case comparisons. While the nature of the disease and the contents of national HIV/AIDS and NCD policies are different, the policy processes involved are largely similar. Functional characteristics of programmatic response to HIV/AIDS and NCDs are similar. But the internal constituents are different. Though both HIV and NCDs require both a multi-sectorial response and a national coordination mechanism, the model and the complexity of the coordination are different. Strategic information frameworks for HIV/AIDS and NCDs use similar models. However, the indicators, targets and priorities are different. In conclusion, the national responses between HIV/AIDS and NCDs are largely similar in approaches and functions but different in content. Significance for public healthThis study explores the parallels and differences between national responses to HIV/AIDS and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The identified

  9. Development of the engineering design integration (EDIN) system: A computer aided design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hirsch, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The EDIN (Engineering Design Integration) System which provides a collection of hardware and software, enabling the engineer to perform man-in-the-loop interactive evaluation of aerospace vehicle concepts, was considered. Study efforts were concentrated in the following areas: (1) integration of hardware with the Univac Exec 8 System; (2) development of interactive software for the EDIN System; (3) upgrading of the EDIN technology module library to an interactive status; (4) verification of the soundness of the developing EDIN System; (5) support of NASA in design analysis studies using the EDIN System; (6) provide training and documentation in the use of the EDIN System; and (7) provide an implementation plan for the next phase of development and recommendations for meeting long range objectives.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of an educational and feedback intervention aimed at improving consideration of sex differences in guideline development

    OpenAIRE

    Keuken, D.G.; Haafkens, J.A.; Mohrs, J; Klazinga, N. S.; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of an educational and feedback intervention to enhance consideration of sex differences in clinical guideline development. Design Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires in intervention and control groups. Content analysis of intervention guidelines and former versions. Setting Guideline consultants, working-group members and guideline documents of two Dutch guideline-developing organisations. Main outcome measures Attitudes of guideline develo...

  11. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention: policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The actions on whi

  12. Talent Development Middle Grades Program. WWC Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Talent Development Middle Grades Program (TDMG) is a whole school reform approach for large middle schools that face serious problems with student attendance, discipline, and academic achievement. The program includes both structural and curriculum reforms. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified 17 studies of TDMG that were published or…

  13. Implementing new health interventions in developing countries: why do we lose a decade or more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Alan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear how long it takes for health interventions to transition from research and development (R&D to being used against diseases prevalent in resource-poor countries. We undertook an analysis of the time required to begin implementation of four vaccines and three malaria interventions. We evaluated five milestones for each intervention, and assessed if the milestones were associated with beginning implementation. Methods The authors screened World Health Organization (WHO databases to determine the number of years between first regulatory approval of interventions, and countries beginning implementation. Descriptive analyses of temporal patterns and statistical analyses using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate associations between five milestones and the beginning of implementation for each intervention. The milestones were: (A presence of a coordinating group focused on the intervention; (B availability of an intervention tailored to developing country health systems; (C international financing commitment, and; (D initial and (E comprehensive WHO recommendations. Countries were categorized by World Bank income criteria. Results Five years after regulatory approval, no low-income countries (LICs had begun implementing any of the vaccines, increasing to an average of only 4% of LICs after 10 years. Each malaria intervention was used by an average of 7% of LICs after five years and 37% after 10 years. Four of the interventions had similar implementation rates to hepatitis B vaccine (HepB, while one was slower and one was faster than HepB. A financing commitment and initial WHO recommendation appeared to be temporally associated with the beginning of implementation. The initial recommendation from WHO was the only milestone associated in all statistical analyses with countries beginning implementation (relative rate = 1.97, P  Conclusions Although possible that four

  14. HIV-1/AIDS vaccine development: are we in the darkness before the dawn?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Chao; XU Jian-qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ The pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been devastating for the last two decades in a number of developing countries and constituting a grand challenge to the public health.WHO/UNAIDS estimates that approximately 33.2million people were living with HIV-1 infection by the end of 2007 and almost 2.5 million new infections occurred in 2007. An unprecedented scientifc challenge for the AIDS vaccine community is how to develop an effective HIV vaccine that can block HIV transmission and consequently stop the continuing spread of HIV-1.The recent failure of Merck Phase Ⅱ B trial alerted the HIV vaccine community that new vaccine strategies need to be more exclusively explored. In this review, we outline the basics of HIV vaccine and retrospect the history of the road to HIV vaccine in last two decades,and highlight the challenges we are currently facing and new strategies to develop HIV vaccines in this field.The Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai

  15. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP progr...

  16. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  17. AIDS/HIV crisis in developing countries: the need for greater understanding and innovative health promotion approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, I L

    1992-09-01

    Epidemiologic data on morbidity and mortality have shown that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV) epidemic is relatively widespread in the developing countries of the world, especially in the already economically deprived regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa is estimated to have approximately 5 million seropositive individuals, and by the year 2000, this number is expected to include 10 million HIV-infected children. Improved control over this epidemic can only come through a greater understanding of the specifics of the disease and, eventually, the introduction of more effective and innovative health promotion campaigns targeted at medical personnel, traditional healers, families, and persons with AIDS. Comprehensive health promotion campaigns, carefully using mass media strategies in addition to more community-based programs, all operating under "decentralized" AIDS control programs, are reasoned to be the most efficacious approach that African and other developing countries can use to successfully contain the AIDS/HIV epidemic. Given the reality of the following factors: Pattern II (ie, transmission of AIDS via heterosexual sexual activity) is the main mode of HIV transmission in Africa, the traditional dominant roles males have in sexual relations, and the positive relationship between sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, health promotion campaigns must focus specifically on addressing at-risk culturally related sexual values and behaviors in African communities. Failure to address these and other related factors will certainly lead to an escalation of the AIDS/HIV epidemic in Africa and, therefore, concomitant devastation in the human and societal realms of the region. PMID:1404473

  18. HIV/AIDS epidemic and the development of comprehensive surveillance system in China with challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ AIDS is the most severe infectious disease that has appeared in the second half of the 20th century.Since the United States Center of Disease Control & Prevention (US CDC) reported the first case of HIV carrier in the men who had sex with men (MSM)population in 1981, HIV/AIDS had spread globally. By the end of December 2008, UNAIDS and WHO estimated that there were 3340 million (3110-3580 million)infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide.1 While the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia began later than the epidemic in Europe, America and Africa, experts predict that countries in Asia, especially in three countries, China,India and Indonesia, which have a population of more than 100 million, will have the world's largest number of HIV/AIDS in the near future.

  19. Using Intervention Mapping to develop a programme to prevent sexually transmittable infections, including HIV, among heterosexual migrant men

    OpenAIRE

    van den Hoek Caty; Wolfers Mireille EG; Brug Johannes; de Zwart Onno

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background There is little experience with carefully developed interventions in the HIV/STI prevention field aimed at adult heterosexual target groups in the Netherlands. The ability to apply intervention development protocols, like Intervention Mapping, in daily practice outside of academia, is a matter of concern. An urgent need also exists for interventions aimed at the prevention of STI in migrant populations in the Netherlands. This article describes the theory and evidence base...

  20. ‘Relieved Working’ study: systematic development and design of an intervention to decrease occupational quartz exposure at construction worksites

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Deurssen, E. van; Meijster, T; Tielemans, E; Heederik, D; Pronk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Occupational quartz exposure continues to be a serious hazard in the construction industry. Until now, evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing quartz exposure are scarce. The aim of this study was to systematically develop an intervention and to describe the study to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/design: The intervention was developed according to the principles of the Intervention Mapping protocol, meaning that evidence from the literature was combined with informati...

  1. Theoretical influences on research on language development and intervention in individuals with mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeduto, Leonard; Boudreau, Donna

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we consider the theoretical debates and frameworks that have shaped research on language development and intervention in persons with mental retardation over the past four decades. Our starting point is the nativist theory, which has been espoused most forcefully by Chomsky. We also consider more recent alternatives to the nativist approach, including the social-interactionist and emergentist approaches, which have been developed largely within the field of child language research. We also consider the implications for language development and intervention of the genetic syndrome-based approach to behavioral research advocated by Dykens and others. We briefly review the impact and status of the debates spurred by the nativist approach in research on the course of language development in individuals with mental retardation. In addition, we characterize some of the achievements in language intervention that have been made possible by the debates spurred by nativism and the various alternatives to it. The evidence we consider provides support for all three alternatives to the nativist approach. Moreover, successful interventions appear to embody elements of several of these approaches as well as other theoretical approaches (e.g., behaviorism). We conclude that language intervention must be theoretically eclectic in its approach, with different strategies appropriate for teaching different features of language, at different points in development, and for children displaying different characteristics or learning histories. PMID:15611986

  2. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  3. Integrated computer-aided design in automotive development development processes, geometric fundamentals, methods of CAD, knowledge-based engineering data management

    CERN Document Server

    Mario, Hirz; Gfrerrer, Anton; Lang, Johann

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry faces constant pressure to reduce development costs and time while still increasing vehicle quality. To meet this challenge, engineers and researchers in both science and industry are developing effective strategies and flexible tools by enhancing and further integrating powerful, computer-aided design technology. This book provides a valuable overview of the development tools and methods of today and tomorrow. It is targeted not only towards professional project and design engineers, but also to students and to anyone who is interested in state-of-the-art computer-aided development. The book begins with an overview of automotive development processes and the principles of virtual product development. Focusing on computer-aided design, a comprehensive outline of the fundamentals of geometry representation provides a deeper insight into the mathematical techniques used to describe and model geometrical elements. The book then explores the link between the demands of integrated design pr...

  4. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success.

  5. Immune-based Therapeutic Intervention and Treating AIDS with TCM%免疫干预疗法与中医药治疗艾滋病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关崇芬

    2004-01-01

    -based intervention is regression of natural medicine, it reevaluates the effect of organic immune system in treating HIV/AIDS. which coincides with holistic approach and syndrome differentiation theory in TCM. As tragalus membanaceus contains many jmmuno-modulatory active substances,which could reverse the immunosuppressor induced immunosuppression, promote the production of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The polysaccharide in Lycium barbarum and Ligusticum lucidum could reproduce the splenic activating cells, displays mitogenoid action. And the polysaccharide of Angelica sinensis, Embellatus polyporus could stimulate lymphocytereproduction. Ginsenoside and polysaccharide could obviously induce IL-2 and its gene expression. Some compound recipes(802,806,809) could increase plaque forming cells(PFC), serum rosette formling cells(SRFC) and delayed-type hypersensitivity(DTH), promote IL-1 and IL-2 production, and increase the CD4 cell count and reverse the CD4/CD8 ratio. Zhongyan-2 could raise CD4 cell count for 50 cells/mm3 , IL-2 and IFN have increasing tendency, Neopterin and β2 microglobulin also showed elevation.

  6. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  7. Task analysis and computer aid development for human reliability analysis in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, W. C.; Kim, H.; Park, H. S.; Choi, H. H.; Moon, J. M.; Heo, J. Y.; Ham, D. H.; Lee, K. K.; Han, B. T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Importance of human reliability analysis (HRA) that predicts the error's occurrence possibility in a quantitative and qualitative manners is gradually increased by human errors' effects on the system's safety. HRA needs a task analysis as a virtue step, but extant task analysis techniques have the problem that a collection of information about the situation, which the human error occurs, depends entirely on HRA analyzers. The problem makes results of the task analysis inconsistent and unreliable. To complement such problem, KAERI developed the structural information analysis (SIA) that helps to analyze task's structure and situations systematically. In this study, the SIA method was evaluated by HRA experts, and a prototype computerized supporting system named CASIA (Computer Aid for SIA) was developed for the purpose of supporting to perform HRA using the SIA method. Additionally, through applying the SIA method to emergency operating procedures, we derived generic task types used in emergency and accumulated the analysis results in the database of the CASIA. The CASIA is expected to help HRA analyzers perform the analysis more easily and consistently. If more analyses will be performed and more data will be accumulated to the CASIA's database, HRA analyzers can share freely and spread smoothly his or her analysis experiences, and there by the quality of the HRA analysis will be improved. 35 refs., 38 figs., 25 tabs. (Author)

  8. Assessing the Career-Development Needs of Student Veterans: A Proposal for Career Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Seth; Ledwith, Kathy; Dong, Shengli; Buzzetta, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Student veterans often encounter unique challenges related to career development. The significant number of student veterans entering postsecondary environments requires career-development professionals addressing the needs of this population to decide upon appropriate career intervention topics. This study utilized a career-needs assessment…

  9. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  10. Translational Neuroscience as a Tool for Intervention Development in the Context of High-Adversity Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Mayes, Linda C.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of theory-driven models to develop and evaluate family-based intervention programs has a long history in psychology. Some of the first evidence-based parenting programs to address child problem behavior, developed in the 1970s, were grounded in causal models derived from longitudinal developmental research. The same translational…

  11. Development, theoretical framework, and evaluation of a parent and teacher-delivered intervention on adolescent vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Herbert, Natasha L; Painter, Julia E; Sales, Jessica M; Vogt, Tara M; Morfaw, Christopher; Jones, LaDawna M; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2014-07-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for adolescents includes three vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis [Tdap]; human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine; and meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) and an annual influenza vaccination. Given the increasing number of recommended vaccines for adolescents and health and economic costs associated with nonvaccination, it is imperative that effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates among adolescents are developed. This article describes the development, theoretical framework, and initial first-year evaluation of an intervention designed to promote vaccine acceptance among a middle and high school-based sample of adolescents and their parents in eastern Georgia. Adolescents, parents, and teachers were active participants in the development of the intervention. The intervention, which consisted of a brochure for parents and a teacher-delivered curriculum for adolescents, was guided by constructs from the health belief model and theory of reasoned action. Evaluation results indicated that our intervention development methods were successful in creating a brochure that met cultural relevance and the literacy needs of parents. We also demonstrated an increase in student knowledge of and positive attitudes toward vaccines. To our knowledge, this study is the first to extensively engage middle and high school students, parents, and teachers in the design and implementation of key theory-based educational components of a school-based, teacher-delivered adolescent vaccination intervention. PMID:24440920

  12. A review of music and movement therapies for children with autism: Embodied interventions for multisystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Narayan Bhat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Evidence suggests that musical training significantly impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, motor, and behavioral development, in children with ASDs, typically developing individuals, and children with other neurological disabilities such as dyslexia and intellectual disabilities. In this review, we first highlight mechanisms and evidence for how music and movement interventions can enhance communication, social-emotional, behavioral, and motor skills in individuals with autism. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies in children with autism that provide neuroanatomical evidence for the effects of music therapies in autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research.

  13. From Millennium Development Goals to post-2015 sustainable development: sexual and reproductive health and rights in an evolving aid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Huntington, Dale; Dodd, Rebecca; Buttsworth, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using research from country case studies, this paper offers insights into the range of institutional and structural changes in development assistance between 2005 and 2011, and their impact on the inclusion of a sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda in national planning environments. At a global level during this period, donors supported more integrative modalities of aid - sector wide approaches, poverty reduction strategy papers, direct budgetary support - with greater use of economic frameworks in decision-making. The Millennium Development Goals brought heightened attention to maternal mortality, but at the expense of a broader sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. Advocacy at the national planning level was not well linked to programme implementation; health officials were disadvantaged in economic arguments, and lacked financial and budgetary controls to ensure a connection between advocacy and action. With increasing competency in higher level planning processes, health officials are now refocusing the post-2015 development goals. If sexual and reproductive health and rights is to claim engagement across all its multiple elements, advocates need to link them to the key themes of sustainable development: inequalities in gender, education, growth and population, but also to urbanisation, migration, women in employment and climate change.

  14. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency.

  15. Researchers See New Patterns in Spread of AIDS Virus; Progress in Development of a Vaccine Sparks Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Reports presented at the Sixth International Conference on Aids are summarized including efforts to develop a vaccine, expansion of the epidemic into new areas, the high rate of infection among Romanian children, the crisis in Africa, and evidence of relapsing behaviors among homosexual men in the United States. (MLW)

  16. 78 FR 5458 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient and Family Member/Friend Experiences With Hospice Care AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Request for...

  17. 78 FR 5459 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey Regarding Patient Experiences With Hospital Outpatient...: Request for information. SUMMARY: This document is a request for information regarding hospital...

  18. Effects of Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction in Developing Knowledge and Critical Thinking in Blended Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Louis; Pear, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess an online version of Keller's personalized system of instruction, called computer-aided personalized system of instruction (CAPSI), as part of a blended learning design with regard to course knowledge and critical thinking development. In Experiment 1, two lecture sections of an introduction to University…

  19. Aid to Education: The Case of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in India and the Role of Development Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This case study of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in India, the largest basic education programme in the world, assesses the significance of foreign aid for achieving increased access to elementary education from 2002 to 2010, particularly for the most disadvantaged. It reviews the practical experience of India and its development partners in jointly…

  20. Cultural encounters of the secular kind : Religious and secular dynamics in the development response to HIV/AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    When religious leaders or organisations dismiss condom or contraceptive use, or speak out against homosexuality this is sometimes seen as a sign of conservatism. Based on research on how Christian development organisations from the Netherlands and Uganda cooperate in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Bren

  1. The Development of an Indoor Mobility Course for the Evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a suitable mobility course for the assessment of mobility performance as part of a user evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids (EMA) aimed at obstacle detection and orientation. Method: A review of the literature led to a list of critical factors for the assessment of mobility performance of persons who are visually impaired.…

  2. Using a Modified Intervention Mapping Approach to Develop and Refine a Single-Session Motivational Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Zule, William A.; Coomes, Curtis M; Karg, Rhonda; Harris, Jennie L; Orr, Alex; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. This paper describes the application of an established systematic approach to the development of a behavioral intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors for HIV among men who have sex with men and who use methamphetamine. The approach includes six steps: (1) a needs assess...

  3. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Bie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if they are shown to be effective when tested, are capable of being widely implemented and can be normalised into routine practice. To date, there is still a problematic gap between research and implementation. The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT addresses the factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into routine work (normalisation. Discussion In this paper, we suggest that the NPT can act as a sensitising tool, enabling researchers to think through issues of implementation while designing a complex intervention and its evaluation. The need to ensure trial procedures that are feasible and compatible with clinical practice is not limited to trials of complex interventions, and NPT may improve trial design by highlighting potential problems with recruitment or data collection, as well as ensuring the intervention has good implementation potential. Summary The NPT is a new theory which offers trialists a consistent framework that can be used to describe, assess and enhance implementation potential. We encourage trialists to consider using it in their next trial.

  4. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Elizabeth

    2010-10-20

    Abstract Background The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if they are shown to be effective when tested, are capable of being widely implemented and can be normalised into routine practice. To date, there is still a problematic gap between research and implementation. The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) addresses the factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into routine work (normalisation). Discussion In this paper, we suggest that the NPT can act as a sensitising tool, enabling researchers to think through issues of implementation while designing a complex intervention and its evaluation. The need to ensure trial procedures that are feasible and compatible with clinical practice is not limited to trials of complex interventions, and NPT may improve trial design by highlighting potential problems with recruitment or data collection, as well as ensuring the intervention has good implementation potential. Summary The NPT is a new theory which offers trialists a consistent framework that can be used to describe, assess and enhance implementation potential. We encourage trialists to consider using it in their next trial.

  5. Translational Neuroscience as a Tool for Intervention Development in the Context of High-Adversity Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A

    2016-09-01

    The use of theory-driven models to develop and evaluate family-based intervention programs has a long history in psychology. Some of the first evidence-based parenting programs to address child problem behavior, developed in the 1970s, were grounded in causal models derived from longitudinal developmental research. The same translational strategies can also be applied to designing programs that leverage emerging scientific knowledge about the effects of early adverse experiences on neurobiological systems to reduce risk and promote well-being. By specifying not only behavioral targets but also affected underlying neural systems, interventions can become more precise and efficient. This chapter describes the development of a program of research focusing on an intervention for young children in foster care. The intervention emerged from social learning theory research and employs a translational neuroscience approach. The conceptual model guiding the research, which incorporates behavioral domains as well as stress-regulatory neural systems, is described. Finally, future directions for translational neuroscience in family-based intervention research are considered. PMID:27589501

  6. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context.

  7. 部队官兵脊柱脊髓损伤急救技能认知调查及干预研究%Survey and intervention on first aid skills for spinal cord injury in army members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁跃彬; 赵京生; 刘国栋; 姚玉川; 易伟国

    2013-01-01

    目的 全面了解并提高部队官兵脊柱脊髓损伤的急救技能. 方法 在全军(海陆空三军)范围内抽样2 200名官兵进行现场急救能力调查及干预研究.干预方法包括调查表考核、多媒体教学及脊髓损伤急救技能演示.总的干预时间为1年,每4个月干预1次. 结果 干预前发放调查表2 200份,收到有效调查表2 118份,总回收率为96.27%.干预后发放调查表2 118份,收到有效调查表2 074份,总回收率为97.92%.干预后部队官兵理论考核和技能考核成绩均显著提高,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01).干预前、后个人一般情况对脊髓损伤急救能力无影响.干预前海军成绩高于陆军和空军,干预后陆海空三军间成绩差异无统计学意义. 结论 官兵脊髓损伤急救技能与实际要求存在较大差距.提高官兵脊髓损伤急救技能,可以挽救自己或战友的生命,对最大限度降低潜在高科技局部战争中战斗力减员具有重要意义.%Objective To comprehensively understand the first aid skills for spinal cord injury of army members and improve their first aid skills through interventions.Methods A total of 2 200 troops members were selected within the army (Navy,Army and Air Forces).Intervention methods included questionnaire assessment,multimedia teaching and demonstration of first aid for spinal injuries.The total intervention time was 1 year,with once every four months.Results There distributed 2 200 copies of questionnaire before intervention and received 2 118 valid copies,with the total reclaim rate of 96.27%.A total of 2 118 copies of questionnaires were distributed after intervention and received 2 074 valid copies,with the total reclaim rate of 97.92%.Theoretical examination and skill test results of the army members were significantly improved after the intervention (all P <0.01).The general individual factors showed no effect on first aid of spinal cord injury before and after intervention

  8. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  9. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control and time (pre and post and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no. Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95 participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006 but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913 between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835. A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406 or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.

  10. Development of diagnostic criteria for serious non-AIDS events in HIV clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lifson, Alan R; Belloso, Waldo H; Davey, Richard T;

    2010-01-01

    (ESPRIT). RESULTS: Final criteria are presented for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease requiring drug treatment, coronary revascularization, decompensated liver disease, deep vein thrombosis, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, non-AIDS cancer...

  11. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system. PMID:12413197

  12. The multimod application framework: a rapid application development tool for computer aided medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Zannoni, Cinzia; Testi, Debora; Petrone, Marco; Perticoni, Stefano; Quadrani, Paolo; Taddei, Fulvia; Imboden, Silvano; Clapworthy, Gordon

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a new application framework (OpenMAF) for rapid development of multimodal applications in computer-aided medicine. MAF applications are multimodal in data, in representation, and in interaction. The framework supports almost any type of biomedical data, including DICOM datasets, motion-capture recordings, or data from computer simulations (e.g. finite element modeling). The interactive visualization approach (multimodal display) helps the user interpret complex datasets, providing multiple representations of the same data. In addition, the framework allows multimodal interaction by supporting the simultaneous use of different input-output devices like 3D trackers, stereoscopic displays, haptics hardware and speech recognition/synthesis systems. The Framework has been designed to run smoothly even on limited power computers, but it can take advantage of all hardware capabilities. The Framework is based on a collection of portable libraries and it can be compiled on any platform that supports OpenGL, including Windows, MacOS X and any flavor of Unix/linux. PMID:17059851

  13. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  14. Development of a nurse home visitation intervention for intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increase in knowledge about the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV, much less is known about interventions to reduce IPV and its associated impairment. One program that holds promise in preventing IPV and improving outcomes for women exposed to violence is the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP, an evidence-based nurse home visitation program for socially disadvantaged first-time mothers. The present study developed an intervention model and modification process to address IPV within the context of the NFP. This included determining the extent to which the NFP curriculum addressed the needs of women at risk for IPV or its recurrence, along with client, nurse and broader stakeholder perspectives on how best to help NFP clients cope with abusive relationships. Methods Following a preliminary needs assessment, an exploratory multiple case study was conducted to identify the core components of the proposed IPV intervention. This included qualitative interviews with purposeful samples of NFP clients and community stakeholders, and focus groups with nurse home visitors recruited from four NFP sites. Conventional content analysis and constant comparison guided data coding and synthesis. A process for developing complex interventions was then implemented. Results Based on data from 69 respondents, an IPV intervention was developed that focused on identifying and responding to IPV; assessing a client's level of safety risk associated with IPV; understanding the process of leaving and resolving an abusive relationship and system navigation. A need was identified for the intervention to include both universal elements of healthy relationships and those tailored to a woman's specific level of readiness to promote change within her life. A clinical pathway guides nurses through the intervention, with a set of facilitators and corresponding instructions for each component. Conclusions NFP clients, nurses and stakeholders

  15. The Process and Pitfalls of Developing a Culturally Relevant Curriculum To Reduce AIDS among Sexually Active Teenagers: The Take 5 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary R.; And Others

    Several studies have shown that adolescents have reasonably high levels of knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) transmission and prevention, yet they still engage in risky sexual activities. In response to this dilemma, a theoretically and empirically grounded intervention which went beyond presenting facts and figures was…

  16. 《朋友通信》——对男男性接触者的艾滋病干预项目%“Friend Communication” Program——an Effective AIDS Intervention Program for MSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张北川; 李秀芳; 胡铁中; 刘殿昌; 曹宁校

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand the effectiveness of “Friend Communication” program ——an AIDS intervention program for men who have sex with men (MSM).  Methods  “Friend Communication”, a restricted publication compiled and published by the Sexual Health Center, Hospital Affiliated to Tsingtao University Medical College is circulated mainly among MSM in China. Two years after the implementation of this program, a questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate its effectiveness.  Results  About 70 thousand MSM have obtained information from the “Friend Communication”. 1/4 of them have shown this publication to heterosexuals 50% of which have become friendlier to MSM. Most of the readers thought that “Friend Communication” helped promote their life quality, concern themselves about AIDS, change their risk behaviors and change their attitudes towards marriage, decrease the number of sex partners, and strengthen their confidence. Conclusion This program has provided a new effective model of AIDS intervention for MSM that is different from the models in developed countries and has not be seen in developing countries.%目的了解《朋友通信》项目——一个对男男性接触者进行艾滋病干预的项目的效果。方法青岛大学医学院附属医院定期编辑出版内部刊物《朋友通信》,在全国的男男性接触者间传播。二年后,对读者进行问卷调查。结果约7万名男男性接触者读过本刊物,其中1/4曾将其给异性朋友看。后者中过半数从此变得对男男性接触者更为友善。大部分读者认为本刊物有助于改善他们的生活质量,使他们更关心艾滋病问题,改变风险行为和对婚姻的态度,减少性伴数,并增强信心。结论《朋友通信》项目提供了一个新的有效的对男男性接触者进行艾滋病干预的模式,此模式与发达国家的模式不同,亦不见于发展中国家。

  17. A systematic review of the existing models of disordered eating: Do they inform the development of effective interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Jamie-Lee; Wade, Tracey D

    2016-02-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders and disordered eating over the last decade, there still remains a pressing need to develop more effective interventions. In line with the 2008 Medical Research Council (MRC) evaluation framework from the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health, the development of sound theory is a necessary precursor to the development of effective interventions. The aim of the current review was to identify the existing models for disordered eating and to identify those models which have helped inform the development of interventions for disordered eating. In addition, we examine the variables that most commonly appear across these models, in terms of future implications for the development of interventions for disordered eating. While an extensive range of theoretical models for the development of disordered eating were identified (N=54), only ten (18.5%) had progressed beyond mere description and to the development of interventions that have been evaluated. It is recommended that future work examines whether interventions in eating disorders increase in efficacy when developed in line with theoretical considerations, that initiation of new models gives way to further development of existing models, and that there be greater utilisation of intervention studies to inform the development of theory. PMID:26781985

  18. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for autism spectrum disorder for scaling up in resource-constrained settings: the development of the PASS intervention in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Divan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based interventions for autism spectrum disorders evaluated in high-income countries typically require highly specialised manpower, which is a scarce resource in most low- and middle-income settings. This resource limitation results in most children not having access to evidence-based interventions. Objective: This paper reports on the systematic adaptation of an evidence-based intervention, the Preschool Autism Communication Therapy (PACT evaluated in a large trial in the United Kingdom for delivery in a low-resource setting through the process of task-shifting. Design: The adaptation process used the Medical Research Council framework for the development and adaptation of complex interventions, focusing on qualitative methods and case series and was conducted simultaneously in India and Pakistan. Results: The original intervention delivered by speech and language therapists in a high-resource setting required adaptation in some aspects of its content and delivery to enhance contextual acceptability and to enable the intervention to be delivered by non-specialists. Conclusions: The resulting intervention, the Parent-mediated intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder in South Asia (PASS, shares the core theoretical foundations of the original PACT but is adapted in several respects to enhance its acceptability, feasibility, and scalability in low-resource settings.

  19. Design and development of a mobile image overlay system for needle interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; King, F; Ungi, T; Lasso, A; Rudan, J; Jayender, J; Fritz, J; Carrino, J A; Jolesz, F A; Fichtinger, G

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a static and adjustable image overlay systems were proposed for aiding needle interventions. The system was either fixed to a scanner or mounted over a large articulated counterbalanced arm. Certain drawbacks associated with these systems limited the clinical translation. In order to minimize these limitations, we present the mobile image overlay system with the objective of reduced system weight, smaller dimension, and increased tracking accuracy. The design study includes optimal workspace definition, selection of display device, mirror, and laser source. The laser plane alignment, phantom design, image overlay plane calibration, and system accuracy validation methods are discussed. The virtual image is generated by a tablet device and projected into the patient by using a beamsplitter mirror. The viewbox weight (1.0 kg) was reduced by 8.2 times and image overlay plane tracking precision (0.21 mm, STD = 0.05) was improved by 5 times compared to previous system. The automatic self-calibration of the image overlay plane was achieved in two simple steps and can be done away from patient table. The fiducial registration error of the physical phantom to scanned image volume registration was 1.35 mm (STD = 0.11). The reduced system weight and increased accuracy of optical tracking should enable the system to be hand held by the physician and explore the image volume over the patient for needle interventions.

  20. Early Childhood Stimulation Interventions in Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Lopez Boo, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the m...

  1. A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Kirsten K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. Methods During year 1 (2009–2010, parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010–2011, parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1 revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI; (2 a communication campaign to raise parents’ awareness of their child’s weight status; (3 the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4 a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents’ communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2–5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Results Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake

  2. Developing the Moti-4 intervention, assessing its feasibility and pilot testing its effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Dupont (Hans B.); P. Lemmens (Paul); G. Adriana (Gerald); H. van de Mheen (Dike); N.K. de Vries (Nanne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Moti-4 intervention was developed to prevent addiction and other health problems among vulnerable adolescent cannabis users. The aims of Moti-4 are to reduce the use of cannabis among adolescents and to encourage their motivation to change their behavior. Methods: Interve

  3. [Developing a tailored intervention: implementing recommendations for polypharmacy in multimorbid patients (PomP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, C.; Szecsenyi, J.; Freund, T.; Reichel, J.K.; Kuhlmey, C.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Steinhauser, J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Implementation research deals with the question of how to ensure that evidence-based knowledge is put into practice. One approach is the development of "tailored interventions (TI)". These are designed to address previously identified barriers and enablers. A common definition or metho

  4. Walking the talk: the need for a trial registry for development interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of randomised control trials to evaluate the effect of development interventions promise to enhance our knowledge of what works and why. A core argument supporting randomised studies is the claim that they have high internal validity. The authors argue that this claim i...... microfinance, they argue that a trial registry would also enhance external validity and foster innovative research....

  5. Development of a theory-guided pan-European computer-assisted safer sex intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Borms, Ruth; Dec-Pietrowska, Joanna; Dias, Sonia; Rojas, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-01-01

    HIV is a growing public health problem in Europe, with men-having-sex-with-men and migrants from endemic regions as the most affected key populations. More evidence on effective behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk is needed. This article describes the systematic development of a theory-gu

  6. Accuracy of Knowledge of Child Development in Mothers of Children Receiving Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…

  7. It's all about career skills: Effectiveness of a career development intervention for young employees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, T.J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program, a career development intervention based on career competencies and the JOBS methodology, which aims to stimulate career self-management and well-being of young employees. In a quasi-randomized control trial, the e

  8. Child Welfare Design Teams: An Intervention to Improve Workforce Retention and Facilitate Organizational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Lawson, Hal A.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; McCarthy, Mary; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Claiborne, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Workforce turnover in public child welfare is a national problem. Individual, supervisory, and organizational factors, individually and in combination, account for some of the turnover. Complex, comprehensive interventions are needed to address these several factors and their interactions. A research and development team is field testing one such…

  9. Development of a Family-School Intervention for Young Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not been an explicit focus on the connection between family and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school…

  10. Irrigating lives : Development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with changes in

  11. An Intervention Framework Designed to Develop the Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…

  12. Designing an Intervention to Promote Child Development among Fathers with Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Jones, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article describes an intervention development focusing on the early design stages of a model to improve psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes among children of fathers with incarceration and antisocial behavioral histories. Method: We use a synthesis of the literature and qualitative interviews with key informants to inform a…

  13. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  14. Effects of a Teacher Professional Development Intervention on Peer Relationships in Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Pianta, Robert C.; Lun, Janetta

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner-Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students' peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers' positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students'…

  15. A Four-Stage Method for Developing Early Interventions for Alcohol among Aboriginal Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; McLeod, Brian D.; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details a four-stage methodology for developing early alcohol interventions for at-risk Aboriginal youth. Stage 1 was an integrative approach to Aboriginal education that upholds Aboriginal traditional wisdom supporting respectful relationships to the Creator, to the land and to each other. Stage 2 used quantitative methods to…

  16. Examining the Use of Structural Analysis to Develop Interventions for Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinski, Mickey Lee

    2013-01-01

    Structural analysis (SA) is an assessment process developed to analyze hypothesized relationships between contextual variables and subsequent behaviors. In the present study, an alternating treatments design investigated the effectiveness of environmentally-based interventions to reduce disruptive behaviors and increase on-task behaviors of…

  17. It's all about CareerSKILLS: Effectiveness of a Career Development Intervention for Young Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of the CareerSKILLS program, a career development intervention based on career competencies and the JOBS methodology, which aims to stimulate career self-management and well-being of young employees. In a quasi-randomized control trial, the e

  18. Utilizing computerized entertainment education in the development of decision aids for lower literate and naïve computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibaja-Weiss, Maria L; Volk, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    Decision aids have been developed by using various delivery methods, including interactive computer programs. Such programs, however, still rely heavily on written information, health and digital literacy, and reading ease. We describe an approach to overcome these potential barriers for low-literate, underserved populations by making design considerations for poor readers and naïve computer users and by using concepts from entertainment education to engage the user and to contextualize the content for the user. The system design goals are to make the program both didactic and entertaining and the navigation and graphical user interface as simple as possible. One entertainment education strategy, the soap opera, is linked seamlessly to interactive learning modules to enhance the content of the soap opera episodes. The edutainment decision aid model (EDAM) guides developers through the design process. Although designing patient decision aids that are educational, entertaining, and targeted toward poor readers and those with limited computer skills is a complex task, it is a promising strategy for aiding this population. Entertainment education may be a highly effective approach to promoting informed decision making for patients with low health literacy.

  19. Poverty, Stress, and Brain Development: New Directions for Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2016-04-01

    We review some of the growing evidence of the costs of poverty to children's neuroendocrine function, early brain development, and cognitive ability. We underscore the importance of addressing the negative consequences of poverty-related adversity early in children's lives, given evidence supporting the plasticity of executive functions and associated physiologic processes in response to early intervention and the importance of higher order cognitive functions for success in school and in life. Finally, we highlight some new directions for prevention and intervention that are rapidly emerging at the intersection of developmental science, pediatrics, child psychology and psychiatry, and public policy. PMID:27044699

  20. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the