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Sample records for aided detection system

  1. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  2. Detection and Ranging System of Flight Aid Lights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-jing; WANG Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic detection based on optics sensors and ranging radars is a new method to detect the luminous intensity of flight aid lights. The optics sensors can get the illumination information of each light, the ranging radar gets the distance information, and then data amalgamation technology is used to compute the luminous intensity of each light. A method to modify the errors of this dynamic detection system is presented. It avoids the accumulation error and measurement carrier's excursion error by using peak value detection based on optics sensors to estimate the accurate position of each light, then to modify the lights' lengthways distance information and transverse position information. The performance of the detection and ranging system is validated by some experiments and shown in pictures.

  3. A Computer-Aided Detection System for Digital Chest Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carrillo-de-Gea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection systems aim at the automatic detection of diseases using different medical imaging modalities. In this paper, a novel approach to detecting normality/pathology in digital chest radiographs is proposed. The problem tackled is complicated since it is not focused on particular diseases but anything that differs from what is considered as normality. First, the areas of interest of the chest are found using template matching on the images. Then, a texture descriptor called local binary patterns (LBP is computed for those areas. After that, LBP histograms are applied in a classifier algorithm, which produces the final normality/pathology decision. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposal, with success rates above 87% in the best cases. Moreover, our technique is able to locate the possible areas of pathology in nonnormal radiographs. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are described in the Conclusions.

  4. Fuzzy Aided Application Layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System - FASIDS

    CERN Document Server

    Sangeetha, S; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2204

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this is to develop a Fuzzy aided Application layer Semantic Intrusion Detection System (FASIDS) which works in the application layer of the network stack. FASIDS consist of semantic IDS and Fuzzy based IDS. Rule based IDS looks for the specific pattern which is defined as malicious. A non-intrusive regular pattern can be malicious if it occurs several times with a short time interval. For detecting such malicious activities, FASIDS is proposed in this paper. At application layer, HTTP traffic's header and payload are analyzed for possible intrusion. In the proposed misuse detection module, the semantic intrusion detection system works on the basis of rules that define various application layer misuses that are found in the network. An attack identified by the IDS is based on a corresponding rule in the rule-base. An event that doesn't make a 'hit' on the rule-base is given to a Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System (FIDS) for further analysis.

  5. Computer-Aided Detection System on Tangled Roller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫贺庆; 牛新文; 王成焘

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical-touched detector was used commonly in textile production limes. It has some defect with high false alarm rate, response delay and high maintenance cost. In order to overcome such defects, a new kind device was developed and used to detect roller tangled in the production lines. It is based on image processing. The core algorithm was composed of Canny edge detection, removing interference, detection of perpendicularity line and detection of broken tow. After the four steps, the broken tow could be recognized quickly and correctly. The algorithm is robust and high efficiency. So, the detection device has characteristic of stable, quickly-response and low maintains cost. It can keep superiority with long lifespan even in more formidable conditions. It guarantees a safe and stable production condition.

  6. Automatic pterygium detection on cornea images to enhance computer-aided cortical cataract grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinting; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Aryaputera, Aloysius Wishnu; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Carol; Wong, Tien Yin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to detect pterygiums using cornea images. Due to the similarity of appearances and spatial locations between pterygiums and cortical cataracts, pterygiums are often falsely detected as cortical cataracts on retroillumination images by a computer-aided grading system. The proposed method can be used to filter out the pterygium which improves the accuracy of cortical cataract grading system. This work has three major contributions. First, we propose a new pupil segmentation method for visible wavelength images. Second, an automatic detection method of pterygiums is proposed. Third, we develop an enhanced compute-aided cortical cataract grading system that excludes pterygiums. The proposed method is tested using clinical data and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the existing automatic cortical cataract grading system.

  7. A Robust and Fast System for CTC Computer-Aided Detection of Colorectal Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We present a complete, end-to-end computer-aided detection (CAD) system for identifying lesions in the colon, imaged with computed tomography (CT). This system includes facilities for colon segmentation, candidate generation, feature analysis, and classification. The algorithms have been designed to offer robust performance to variation in image data and patient preparation. By utilizing efficient 2D and 3D processing, software optimizations, multi-threading, feature selection, and an optimiz...

  8. A Robust and Fast System for CTC Computer-Aided Detection of Colorectal Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Beddoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete, end-to-end computer-aided detection (CAD system for identifying lesions in the colon, imaged with computed tomography (CT. This system includes facilities for colon segmentation, candidate generation, feature analysis, and classification. The algorithms have been designed to offer robust performance to variation in image data and patient preparation. By utilizing efficient 2D and 3D processing, software optimizations, multi-threading, feature selection, and an optimized cascade classifier, the CAD system quickly determines a set of detection marks. The colon CAD system has been validated on the largest set of data to date, and demonstrates excellent performance, in terms of its high sensitivity, low false positive rate, and computational efficiency.

  9. Computer aided diagnosis for breast masses detection on a telemammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Arturo J; Souto, Miguel; Tahoces, Pablo G; Vidal, Juan J

    2003-01-01

    A Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) scheme for breast masses detection has been developed and integrated as a part of a telemammography system. This work derives from the close cooperation between the Laboratory for Radiologic Image Research of the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) and the company Intelsis Sistemas Inteligentes (Santiago de Compostela, Spain). This cooperation has been supported by funds from different projects, mainly from the European Union, the Spanish Health Administration, and the Galician Public Health's Service. As a result, a first prototype is ready to begin a demonstration project.

  10. High-performance computer aided detection system for polyp detection in CT colonography with fluid and fecal tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Wang, Shijun; Kabadi, Suraj; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a feasible and minimally invasive method for the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer screening. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps has improved consistency and sensitivity of virtual colonoscopy interpretation and reduced interpretation burden. A CAD system typically consists of four stages: (1) image preprocessing including colon segmentation; (2) initial detection generation; (3) feature selection; and (4) detection classification. In our experience, three existing problems limit the performance of our current CAD system. First, highdensity orally administered contrast agents in fecal-tagging CTC have scatter effects on neighboring tissues. The scattering manifests itself as an artificial elevation in the observed CT attenuation values of the neighboring tissues. This pseudo-enhancement phenomenon presents a problem for the application of computer-aided polyp detection, especially when polyps are submerged in the contrast agents. Second, general kernel approach for surface curvature computation in the second stage of our CAD system could yield erroneous results for thin structures such as small (6-9 mm) polyps and for touching structures such as polyps that lie on haustral folds. Those erroneous curvatures will reduce the sensitivity of polyp detection. The third problem is that more than 150 features are selected from each polyp candidate in the third stage of our CAD system. These high dimensional features make it difficult to learn a good decision boundary for detection classification and reduce the accuracy of predictions. Therefore, an improved CAD system for polyp detection in CTC data is proposed by introducing three new techniques. First, a scale-based scatter correction algorithm is applied to reduce pseudo-enhancement effects in the image pre-processing stage. Second, a cubic spline interpolation method is utilized to accurately estimate curvatures for initial detection generation. Third, a new dimensionality

  11. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  12. Catheter detection and classification on chest radiographs: an automated prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Chris; Enzmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    Chest radiographs are the quickest and safest method to check placement of man-made medical devices placed in the body like catheters, stents and pacemakers etc out of which catheters are the most commonly used devices. The two most often used catheters especially in the ICU are the Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed and administer drugs. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. Incorrect tube placements can cause serious complications and can even be fatal. The task of identifying these tubes on chest radiographs is difficult for radiologists and ICU personnel given the high volume of cases. This motivates the need for an automatic detection system to aid radiologists in processing these critical cases in a timely fashion while maintaining patient safety. To-date there has been very little research in this area. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detection and classification of catheters on chest radiographs using a combination of template matching, morphological processing and region growing. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 25 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET and NG tubes with sensitivities of 73.7% and 76.5% respectively and with specificities of 91.3% and 84.0% respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both catheters on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  13. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  14. A Computer Aided Detection system for mammographic images implemented on a GRID infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Bottigli, U; Delogu, P; Fantacci, M E; Fauci, F; Forni, G; Golosio, B; Indovina, P L; Lauria, A; Magro, R; Masala, G L; Oliva, P R; Palmiero, R; Raso, G; Retico, A; Stefanini, A; Stumbo, S; Tangaro, S; Torres, E L

    2003-01-01

    The use of an automatic system for the analysis of mammographic images has proven to be very useful to radiologists in the investigation of breast cancer, especially in the framework of mammographic-screening programs. A breast neoplasia is often marked by the presence of microcalcification clusters and massive lesions in the mammogram: hence the need for tools able to recognize such lesions at an early stage. In the framework of the GPCALMA (GRID Platform for Computer Assisted Library for MAmmography) project, the co-working of italian physicists and radiologists built a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images (about 5500 images corresponding to 1650 patients) and developed a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) system, able to make an automatic search of massive lesions and microcalcification clusters. The CAD is implemented in the GPCALMA integrated station, which can be used also for digitization, as archive and to perform statistical analyses. Some GPCALMA integrated stations have already b...

  15. Development of a Computer-aided Diagnosis System for Early Detection of Masses Using Retrospectively Detected Cancers on Prior Mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    O’shaughnessy, K. F., Sick les, E. A. , Tabar, L., Vy borny, C. J. and Castellino , R. A., "Potential contribution of com puter-aided d etection to t...F. O’Shaughnessy, E. A. Sickles, L. Tabar, C. J. Vyborny, and R. A. Castellino , “Potential contribution of computer-aided detection to the...Med. Phys. 31, 2313–2330 2004. 52K. F. O’Shaughnessy, R. A. Castellino , S. L. Muller, and K. Benali, “Computer-aided detection CAD on 90 biopsy

  16. Computer Aided Detection System for Prediction of the Malaise during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Tangaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of dialysis sessions is crucial as different stress factors can yield suffering or critical situations. Specialized personnel is usually required for the administration of this medical treatment; nevertheless, subjects whose clinical status can be considered stable require different monitoring strategies when compared with subjects with critical clinical conditions. In this case domiciliary treatment or monitoring can substantially improve the quality of life of patients undergoing dialysis. In this work, we present a Computer Aided Detection (CAD system for the telemonitoring of patients’ clinical parameters. The CAD was mainly designed to predict the insurgence of critical events; it consisted of two Random Forest (RF classifiers: the first one (RF1 predicting the onset of any malaise one hour after the treatment start and the second one (RF2 again two hours later. The developed system shows an accurate classification performance in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. The specificity in the identification of nonsymptomatic sessions and the sensitivity in the identification of symptomatic sessions for RF2 are equal to 86.60% and 71.40%, respectively, thus suggesting the CAD as an effective tool to support expert nephrologists in telemonitoring the patients.

  17. A computer-aided diagnosis system to detect pathologies in temporal subtraction images of chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Jared; Harrison, Melanie; Armato, Samuel G.

    2016-03-01

    Radiologists often compare sequential radiographs to identify areas of pathologic change; however, this process is prone to error, as human anatomy can obscure the regions of change, causing the radiologists to overlook pathology. Temporal subtraction (TS) images can provide enhanced visualization of regions of change in sequential radiographs and allow radiologists to better detect areas of change in radiographs. Not all areas of change shown in TS images, however, are actual pathology. The purpose of this study was to create a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that identifies which regions of change are caused by pathology and which are caused by misregistration of the radiographs used to create the TS image. The dataset used in this study contained 120 images with 74 pathologic regions on 54 images outlined by an experienced radiologist. High and low ("light" and "dark") gray-level candidate regions were extracted from the images using gray-level thresholding. Then, sampling techniques were used to address the class imbalance problem between "true" and "false" candidate regions. Next, the datasets of light candidate regions, dark candidate regions, and the combined set of light and dark candidate regions were used as training and testing data for classifiers by using five-fold cross validation. Of the classifiers tested (support vector machines, discriminant analyses, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbors), the support vector machine on the combined candidates using synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) performed best with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.85, a sensitivity of 85%, and a specificity of 84%.

  18. Computer-aided detection system applied to full-field digital mammograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolivar, Alfonso; Sanchez Gomez, Sonia; Merino, Paula; Alonso-Bartolome, Pilar; Ortega Garcia, Estrella (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)), e-mail: avegab@telefonica.net; Munoz Cacho, Pedro (Dept. of Statistics, Univ. Marques of Valdecilla Hospital, Santander (Spain)); Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W. (iCAD, Inc., Nashua, NH (United States))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Although mammography remains the mainstay for breast cancer screening, it is an imperfect examination with a sensitivity of 75-92% for breast cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) has been developed to improve mammographic detection of breast cancer. Purpose: To retrospectively estimate CAD sensitivity and false-positive rate with full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs). Material and Methods: CAD was used to evaluate 151 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=48) and invasive breast cancer (n=103) detected with FFDM. Retrospectively, CAD sensitivity was estimated based on breast density, mammographic presentation, histopathology type, and lesion size. CAD false-positive rate was estimated with screening FFDMs from 200 women. Results: CAD detected 93% (141/151) of cancer cases: 97% (28/29) in fatty breasts, 94% (81/86) in breasts containing scattered fibroglandular densities, 90% (28/31) in heterogeneously dense breasts, and 80% (4/5) in extremely dense breasts. CAD detected 98% (54/55) of cancers manifesting as calcifications, 89% (74/83) as masses, and 100% (13/13) as mixed masses and calcifications. CAD detected 92% (73/79) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 89% (8/9) of invasive lobular carcinomas, 93% (14/15) of other invasive carcinomas, and 96% (46/48) of DCIS. CAD sensitivity for cancers 1-10 mm was 87% (47/54); 11-20 mm, 99% (70/71); 21-30 mm, 86% (12/14); and larger than 30 mm, 100% (12/12). The CAD false-positive rate was 2.5 marks per case. Conclusion: CAD with FFDM showed a high sensitivity in identifying cancers manifesting as calcifications or masses. CAD sensitivity was maintained in small lesions (1-20 mm) and invasive lobular carcinomas, which have lower mammographic sensitivity

  19. Development of a computer-aided detection system for lung cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Inaoka, Noriko; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Sasaoka, Soichi; Natori, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes a modified system for automatic detection of lung nodules by means of chest x ray image processing techniques. The objective of the system is to help radiologists to improve their accuracy in cancer detection. It is known from retrospective studies of chest x- ray images that radiologists fail to detect about 30 percent of lung cancer cases. A computerized method for detecting lung nodules would be very useful for decreasing the proportion of such oversights. Our proposed system consists of five sub-systems, for image input, lung region determination, nodule detection, rule-based false-positive elimination, and statistical false-positive elimination. In an experiment with the modified system, using 30 lung cancer cases and 78 normal control cases, we obtained figures of 73.3 percent and 89.7 percent for the sensitivity and specificity of the system, respectively. The system has been developed to run on the IBM* PS/55* and IBM RISC System/6000* (RS/6000), and we give the processing time for each platform.

  20. Ischemic Stroke Detection System with a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Ability Using an Unsupervised Feature Perception Enhancement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeu-Sheng Tyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain’s inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  1. Ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using an unsupervised feature perception enhancement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Wu, Ming-Chi; Chin, Chiun-Li; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Ming-Sian; Chang, Hao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ischemic stroke detection system with a computer-aided diagnostic ability using a four-step unsupervised feature perception enhancement method. In the first step, known as preprocessing, we use a cubic curve contrast enhancement method to enhance image contrast. In the second step, we use a series of methods to extract the brain tissue image area identified during preprocessing. To detect abnormal regions in the brain images, we propose using an unsupervised region growing algorithm to segment the brain tissue area. The brain is centered on a horizontal line and the white matter of the brain's inner ring is split into eight regions. In the third step, we use a coinciding regional location method to find the hybrid area of locations where a stroke may have occurred in each cerebral hemisphere. Finally, we make corrections and mark the stroke area with red color. In the experiment, we tested the system on 90 computed tomography (CT) images from 26 patients, and, with the assistance of two radiologists, we proved that our proposed system has computer-aided diagnostic capabilities. Our results show an increased stroke diagnosis sensitivity of 83% in comparison to 31% when radiologists use conventional diagnostic images.

  2. The Role of Computer-aided Detection and Diagnosis System in the Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions in Ultrasonography

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    Tien-Chun Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To avoid abuse of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and to save the time of a learning curve, a computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD system to detect suspicious lesions for FNAC from thyroid ultrasonography has been developed by the Department of Industrial Engineering, cooperative with the Department of Surgery at the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. The purposes of this article are to introduce how to utilize the CAD system in thyroid ultrasonography, and to outline the real role of the CAD system. After marking the apparently transverse (extending across axis and longitudinal axis of the nodule appearing by ultrasonography, four parameters are calculated and displayed by the computer system automatically, which include microcalcifications, hypoechoic lesion, heterogeneity, and indistinct margin. The results are displayed by the pointers in the semilunar figures. The necessity of FNAC is dependent on the size and numbers of positive findings (pointers displayed in the right side. This CAD system is objective and easy to use. It may supply an easy method to determine the necessity for FNAC, but what we must keep in mind is that this method can reduce the necessity of FNAC, not replace FNAC for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  3. An Improved Location aided Cluster Based Routing Protocol with Intrusion Detection System in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

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    S. Mangai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Routing and security are the main challenges for ad hoc networks due to dynamic topology as well as resource constraints. A designed protocol must provide scalable routing with better security. Lack of any central coordination and shared wireless medium makes them more vulnerable to attacks than wired networks. And also resource constraints such as limited energy and size also play an important role in the protocols designed for security. Approach: In this study, Improved Location aided Cluster based Routing Protocol (ILCRP for GPS enabled MANETs was analysed in MANETs with malicious nodes and an Intrusion Detection System was used to increase the packet delivery ratio. ILCRP makes use of location aided routing in the presence of cluster based routing Protocol. Results: Use of location information with security against attacks results in high packet delivery ratio for the cluster based routing protocol. Simulations are performed using NS2 by varying the number of nodes. Conclusion: The results illustrate ILCRP provides higher delivery ratio with IDS.

  4. Computer-aided polyp detection on CT colonography: Comparison of three systems in a high-risk human population

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    Park, Hee Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim@radcom.snu.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Goo [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the detection performances of two commercial and one academic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for polyp detection on CT colonography (CTC) in a high-risk human population and to assess their detection characteristics. Materials and methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval, but informed consent was waived. Sixty-eight patients who were suspected of having colonic polyps and scheduled for colonoscopic polyp removal were included. After CTC was performed using a 64-row MDCT, two commercial (PEV, CAR) and one academic (Hessian matrix-based) CAD systems were applied to each CTC dataset. Colonoscopy using the segmental unblinded technique was performed as a standard of reference. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were calculated and compared for each CAD system. The mean number of false-positives (FPs) and false-negatives (FNs) was computed and the causes of all FPs and FNs were analyzed. Results: A total of 151 polyps in 61 patients were detected (77 polyps <6 mm, 48 6-9.9 mm, 26 {>=} 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity for PEV, CAR, and Hessian matrix-based CAD were: 71.6%, 78.4%, and 83.8% for polyps {>=}6 mm, and 88.5%, 96.2%, and 96.2% for polyps {>=}10 mm. Per-patient sensitivity for polyps {>=}6 mm was 80.4%, 89.1%, and 93.5%, and 87%, 95.7%, and 95.7% for polyps {>=}10 mm, respectively. Per-polyp and per-patient sensitivities were not significantly different among the three CAD systems regardless of size threshold. Mean number of FPs was 6.9 for PEV, 7.3 for CAR, and 14 for Hessian matrix-based CAD. The most common cause of FPs were feces, followed by extracolonic findings, prominent folds and ileocecal valve, and rectal tube. The distribution of the causes of FPs was significantly different among the three systems. Conclusion: Sensitivity of the three CAD systems for polyp detection was comparable regardless of the polyp size threshold; however, the number of FPs was higher in the Hessian matrix

  5. SVD-Aided Power Allocation and Iterative Detection Scheme for Turbo-BLAST System with Imperfect Channel State Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technique that combines adaptive power allocation and iterative detection based on singular value decomposition (SVD is introduced for the modified Turbo-BLAST system with imperfect channel state information (I-CSI. At the transmitter, in order to maximize the capacity performance, the MIMO channel is decomposed into several parallel eigen subchannels by SVD, and then proper power based on the water-filling principle is allocated to every subchannel subject to the total transmit power constraint. At the receiver, the modified MMSE detector taking the CSI imperfection into account is used to remove the coantenna interference, and then the turbo idea is employed for iterative detection to lower the system BER. As a result, the BER performance is effectively enhanced. Numerical results show that the introduced SVD-aided adaptive power allocation method is valid to improve not only the capacity but also the BER performance in the presence of channel state information imperfection, while the iterative detector can further lower the BER results.

  6. Performance enhancement of MC-CDMA system through novel sensitive bit algorithm aided turbo multi user detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, Rasadurai; Narayanaswamy, Kumaratharan

    2015-01-01

    Multi carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is a promising multi carrier modulation (MCM) technique for high data rate wireless communication over frequency selective fading channels. MC-CDMA system is a combination of code division multiple access (CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The OFDM parts reduce multipath fading and inter symbol interference (ISI) and the CDMA part increases spectrum utilization. Advantages of this technique are its robustness in case of multipath propagation and improve security with the minimize ISI. Nevertheless, due to the loss of orthogonality at the receiver in a mobile environment, the multiple access interference (MAI) appears. The MAI is one of the factors that degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA system. The multiuser detection (MUD) and turbo coding are the two dominant techniques for enhancing the performance of the MC-CDMA systems in terms of BER as a solution of overcome to MAI effects. In this paper a low complexity iterative soft sensitive bits algorithm (SBA) aided logarithmic-Maximum a-Posteriori algorithm (Log MAP) based turbo MUD is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides better BER performance with low complexity decoding, by mitigating the detrimental effects of MAI.

  7. EVALUATION OF A COMPUTER-AIDED SEMEN ANALYSIS SYSTEM WITH SPERM TAIL DETECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJCHMAN, JG; DEWOLF, BTHM; JAGER, S

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Stroemberg-Mika cell motion analyser (SM-CMA) which uses tail detection in order to discriminate between immotile spermatozoa and other particles. Analysis of the spermatozoa by the SM-CMA can easily be checked on a video monitor. The semen samples were from

  8. Optimization of Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging Systems for Computer-Aided Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    digital mammography have been used for over 30 years in the early detection of cancer . The combination of screening and adjuvant therapies have led to...a decrease in the mortality rate from breast cancer [1]. Because mammography projects a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional surface...Update from 2009 [25]. A.3. Angle-dependent detector response: Two different detectors were modeled: gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S) and cesium iodide

  9. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  10. An Ultrasonic and Air Pressure Sensing System for Detection of Behavior before Getting out of Bed Aided by Fuzzy Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hayato; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Kobashi, Syoji; Hata, Yutaka

    This paper proposes a sensing system for a behavior detection system using an ultrasonic oscillosensor and an air pressure sensor. The ultrasonic oscillosensor sensor has a cylindrical tank filled with water. It detects the vibration of the target object from the signal reflected from the water surface. This sensor can detect a biological vibration by setting to the bottom bed frame. The air pressure sensor consists of a polypropylene sheet and an air pressure sensor, and detects the pressure information by setting under the bed's mattress. An increase (decrease) in the load placed on the bed is detected by the increase (decrease) in the pressure of the air held in the tube attached to the sheet. We propose a behavior detection system using both sensors, complementally. The system recognizes three states (nobody in bed, keeping quiet in bed, moving in bed) using both sensors, and we detect the behavior before getting out of bed by recognized these states. Fuzzy logic plays a primary role in the system. As the fundamental experiment, we applied the system to five healthy volunteers, the system successfully recognized three states, and detected the behavior before getting out of bed. As the clinical experiment, we applied the system to four elderly patients with dementia, the system exactly detected the behavior before getting out of the bed with enough time for medical care support.

  11. Social Network Aided Plagiarism Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of different kinds of electronic devices and the volume of content on the Web have increased the amount of plagiarism, which is considered an unethical act. If we want to be efficient in the detection and prevention of these acts, we have to improve today's methods of discovering plagiarism. The paper presents a research study where…

  12. System identification aided design of observer-based fault detection systems; Prozessidentifikations-basierter Entwurf beobachtergestuetzter Fehlerdetektionssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S.X. [Fachgebiet Automatisierungstechnik und komplexe Systeme, Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Zhang Ping; Heyden, D. [Fakultaet Ingenieurwissenschaften an der Univ. Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Huang Biao [Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Univ. of Alberta (Canada); Ding, E.L. [Fachbereich Technische Physik, Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with problems of observer-based fault detection. An approach is presented, which enables the design of observer-based residual generators based on the process measurement or test data. The basic idea behind this approach is integrating the identification of the so-called fault detection model into the design of observer-based residual generators. (orig.)

  13. Expert system aids reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.T. [Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Quality and Reliability are key requirements in the energy transmission industry. Tennessee Gas Co. a division of El Paso Energy, has applied Gensym`s G2, object-oriented Expert System programming language as a standard tool for maintaining and improving quality and reliability in pipeline operation. Tennessee created a small team of gas controllers and engineers to develop a Proactive Controller`s Assistant (ProCA) that provides recommendations for operating the pipeline more efficiently, reliably and safely. The controller`s pipeline operating knowledge is recreated in G2 in the form of Rules and Procedures in ProCA. Two G2 programmers supporting the Gas Control Room add information to the ProCA knowledge base daily. The result is a dynamic, constantly improving system that not only supports the pipeline controllers in their operations, but also the measurement and communications departments` requests for special studies. The Proactive Controller`s Assistant development focus is in the following areas: Alarm Management; Pipeline Efficiency; Reliability; Fuel Efficiency; and Controller Development.

  14. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  15. Detection of cyst using image segmentation and building knowledge-based intelligent decision support system as an aid to telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet, J.; Natesan, T. R.; Santhosh, Ramamurthy; Ibramsha, Mohideen

    2005-02-01

    An intelligent decision support tool to the Radiologist in telemedicine is described. Medical prescriptions are given based on the images of cyst that has been transmitted over computer networks to the remote medical center. The digital image, acquired by sonography, is converted into an intensity image. This image is then subjected to image preprocessing which involves correction methods to eliminate specific artifacts. The image is resized into a 256 x 256 matrix by using bilinear interpolation method. The background area is detected using distinct block operation. The area of the cyst is calculated by removing the background area from the original image. Boundary enhancement and morphological operations are done to remove unrelated pixels. This gives us the cyst volume. This segmented image of the cyst is sent to the remote medical center for analysis by Knowledge based artificial Intelligent Decision Support System (KIDSS). The type of cyst is detected and reported to the control mechanism of KIDSS. Then the inference engine compares this with the knowledge base and gives appropriate medical prescriptions or treatment recommendations by applying reasoning mechanisms at the remote medical center.

  16. The adaptive computer-aided diagnosis system based on tumor sizes for the classification of breast tumors detected at screening ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chen, I-Ling; Chang, Jung Min; Shin, Sung Ui; Lo, Chung-Ming; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Screening ultrasound (US) is increasingly used as a supplement to mammography in women with dense breasts, and more than 80% of cancers detected by US alone are 1cm or smaller. An adaptive computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on tumor size was proposed to classify breast tumors detected at screening US images using quantitative morphological and textural features. In the present study, a database containing 156 tumors (78 benign and 78 malignant) was separated into two subsets of different tumor sizes (<1cm and ⩾1cm) to explore the improvement in the performance of the CAD system. After adaptation, the accuracies, sensitivities, specificities and Az values of the CAD for the entire database increased from 73.1% (114/156), 73.1% (57/78), 73.1% (57/78), and 0.790 to 81.4% (127/156), 83.3% (65/78), 79.5% (62/78), and 0.852, respectively. In the data subset of tumors larger than 1cm, the performance improved from 66.2% (51/77), 68.3% (28/41), 63.9% (23/36), and 0.703 to 81.8% (63/77), 85.4% (35/41), 77.8% (28/36), and 0.855, respectively. The proposed CAD system can be helpful to classify breast tumors detected at screening US.

  17. Using Expert System Job Aids: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Clay

    1989-01-01

    Explains how current commercial expert system technology can be used to create useful job aids. Expert systems are defined, situations in which an expert system job aid will be most effective are described, expert system shells are discussed, and three commercial expert system products are described. (LRW)

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  19. Computer-aided system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  20. A computer-aided detection system for rheumatoid arthritis MRI data interpretation and quantification of synovial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubassove, Olga; Boesen, Mikael; Cimmino, Marco A;

    2009-01-01

    RATIONAL AND OBJECTIVE: Disease assessment and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients require objective evaluation and quantification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a large potential to supplement such information for the clinician, however, time spent on data reading...... and interpretation slow down development in this area. Existing scoring systems of especially synovitis are too rigid and insensitive to measure early treatment response and quantify inflammation. This study tested a novel automated, computer system for analysis of dynamic MRI data acquired from patients with RA...

  1. Airports and Navigation Aids Database System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Airport and Navigation Aids Database System is the repository of aeronautical data related to airports, runways, lighting, NAVAID and their components, obstacles, no...

  2. A computer-aided detection system for rheumatoid arthritis MRI data interpretation and quantification of synovial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubassova, Olga, E-mail: olga@imageanalysis.org.u [Image Analysis Ltd., The Waterfront, Old Mill Lane, Saltaire BD17 7EZ (United Kingdom); Boesen, Mikael, E-mail: parker@frh.regionh.d [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cimmino, Marco A., E-mail: cimmino@unige.i [Clinica Reumatologica, DI.M.I., Universita di Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 6, 16129 Genova (Italy); Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Rational and objective: Disease assessment and follow-up of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients require objective evaluation and quantification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a large potential to supplement such information for the clinician, however, time spent on data reading and interpretation slow down development in this area. Existing scoring systems of especially synovitis are too rigid and insensitive to measure early treatment response and quantify inflammation. This study tested a novel automated, computer system for analysis of dynamic MRI data acquired from patients with RA, Dynamika-RA, which incorporates efficient data processing and analysis techniques. Materials and methods: 140 MRI scans from hands and wrists of 135 active RA patients and 5 healthy controls were processed using Dynamika-RA and evaluated with RAMRIS. To reduce patient motion artefacts, MRI data were processed using Dynamika-RA, which removed motion in 2D and 3D planes. Then synovial enhancement was visualised and qualified using a novel fully automated voxel-by-voxel analysis based algorithm. This algorithm was used to replace traditional region-of-interest (ROI) and subtraction methods, yielding observer independent quantitative results. Results: Conventional scoring performed by an observer took 30-45 min per dataset. Dynamika-RA reduced motion artefacts, visualised inflammation and quantified disease activity in less than 3 min. Data processing allowed increasing signal to noise ratio by a factor 3. Due to fully automated procedure of data processing, there was no intertest variation in the results. Conclusions: Algorithms incorporated into Dynamika-RA allow for the significant enhancement of data quality through eliminating motion artefacts and reduction of time for evaluation of synovial inflammation.

  3. COMPUTER-AIDED DETECTION OF ACINAR SHADOWS IN CHEST RADIOGRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technological advances in medical diagnosis, accurate detection of infectious tuberculosis (TB still poses challenges due to complex image features and thus infectious TB continues to be a public health problem of global proportions. Currently, the detection of TB is mainly conducted visually by radiologists examining chest radiographs (CXRs. To reduce the backlog of CXR examination and provide more precise quantitative assessment, computer-aided detection (CAD systems for potential lung lesions have been increasingly adopted and commercialized for clinical practice. CADs work as supporting tools to alert radiologists on suspected features that could have easily been neglected. In this paper, an effective CAD system aimed for acinar shadow regions detection in CXRs is proposed. This system exploits textural and photometric features analysis techniques which include local binary pattern (LBP, grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG to analyze target regions in CXRs. Classification of acinar shadows using Adaboost is then deployed to verify the performance of a combination of these techniques. Comparative study in different image databases shows that the proposed CAD system delivers consistent high accuracy in detecting acinar shadows.

  4. Computer-Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography Using Logistic Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.; Van Wijk, C.; Vos, F.M.; Truyen, R.; Peters, J.F.; Stoker, J.; Van Vliet, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for computed tomography colonography that orders the polyps according to clinical relevance. TheCADsystem consists of two steps: candidate detection and supervised classification. The characteristics of the detection step lead to specific choices fo

  5. Computer Aided Detection of SARS Based on Radiographs Data Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyang, Xie; Yuchang, Gong; Shouhong, Wan; Xi, Li

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces our work on how to use image mining techniques to detect SARS, the severe acute respiratory syndrome, automatically as the prototype of computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) system. Data used in this paper are digitalized PA(posterior anterior) X-ray images stored in the real-life picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of the 2nd Affiliation Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College. Association rule mining was applied first but results showed there was no significant difference between the locations of the lesions or infiltrate. Classification based on image textures was performed. A sample set contains both the pneumonia and SARS X-ray images was built in the first place. After modeling each sample by a feature vector, the sample set was partitioned to match the detection purpose: classification. Three methods were used: C4.5, neural network (NN) and CART. Final result shows that 70.94% SARS cases can be detected by CART. Data preparation, segmentation, feature extraction and data mining steps, with corresponding techniques are included in this paper. ROC charts and confusion matrix by all three methods are given and analyzed.

  6. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  7. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  8. New methods for using computer-aided detection information for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, S.; Ginneken, B. van; Heggelman, B.; Imhof-Tas, M.W.; Somers, I.; Brink, M.; Spee, M.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate two new methods of using computer-aided detection (CAD) system information for the detection of lung nodules on chest radiographs. We evaluated an interactive CAD application and an independent combination of radiologists and CAD scores. Methods: 300 posteroanterior and lat

  9. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  10. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses in mammography: combined detection and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Hoe; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Ro, Yong Man

    2014-07-01

    We propose a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) framework of breast masses in mammography. To increase detection sensitivity for various types of mammographic masses, we propose the combined use of different detection algorithms. In particular, we develop a region-of-interest combination mechanism that integrates detection information gained from unsupervised and supervised detection algorithms. Also, to significantly reduce the number of false-positive (FP) detections, the new ensemble classification algorithm is developed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on a benchmark mammogram database. Results show that our combined detection approach can considerably improve the detection sensitivity with a small loss of FP rate, compared to representative detection algorithms previously developed for mammographic CAD systems. The proposed ensemble classification solution also has a dramatic impact on the reduction of FP detections; as much as 70% (from 15 to 4.5 per image) at only cost of 4.6% sensitivity loss (from 90.0% to 85.4%). Moreover, our proposed CAD method performs as well or better (70.7% and 80.0% per 1.5 and 3.5 FPs per image respectively) than the results of mammography CAD algorithms previously reported in the literature.

  11. Computer-aided forensics: metal object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, Timothy; Leue, Bill; Lorensen, Bill; Lauric, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Recently, forensic investigators1 have started using diagnostic radiology devices (MRI, CT) to acquire image data from cadavers. This new technology, called the virtual autopsy, has the potential to provide a low cost, non-invasive alternative or supplement to conventional autopsies. New image processing techniques are being developed to highlight forensically relevant information in the images. One such technique is the detection and characterization of metal objects embedded in the cadaver. Analysis of this information across a population with similar causes of death can lead to developing improved safety and protection devices with a corresponding reduction in deaths.

  12. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Møllersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC. As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND’s ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME, a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity.

  13. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  14. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images

    CERN Document Server

    Møllersen, Kajsa; Zortea, Maciel; Schopf, Thomas R; Hindberg, Kristian; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND's ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95 percent melanoma sensitivity, ...

  15. Experimental demonstration of half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM direct-detection optical communication system with data-aided estimation and overlap frequency-domain equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyu; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2014-12-01

    A half cycle 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) Nyquist subcarrier modulation (SCM) polarization division multiplexing (PDM) intensity modulation direct detection optical communication system is experimentally demonstrated. At the receiver, training sequences-based channel estimation and an overlap frequency domain equalization method are proposed to enhance the system performance. The experimental results show that the half cycle 64-QAM Nyquist-SCM PDM signal can be transmitted over 43-km standard single-mode fibers with a bit error rate below the forward error coding threshold of 2.4×10-2.

  16. True detection versus "accidental" detection of small lung cancer by a computer-aided detection (CAD) program on chest radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Engelmann, Roger; Doi, Kunio; Macmahon, Heber

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the number of actual detections versus "accidental" detections by a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for small nodular lung cancers (circle criterion were considered as nodules detected by chance. The number of false-positive (FP) marks was also analyzed. For the 34 radiologist-missed cancers, the nodule-in-circle criterion caused eight more cancers (24%) to be detected by chance, as compared to the nodule-in-center criterion, when using the version 1.0 results. For the 36 radiologist-mentioned nodules, the nodule-in-circle criterion caused seven more lesions (19%) to be detected by chance, as compared to the nodule-in-center criterion, when using the version 1.0 results, and three more lesions (8%) to be detected by chance when using the version 3.0 results. Version 1.0 yielded a mean of six FP marks per image, while version 3.0 yielded only three FP marks per image. The specific criteria used to define true- and false-positive CAD detections can substantially influence the apparent accuracy of a CAD system.

  17. Diagnostic aids for detection of oral precancerous conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diana V Messadi

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates. Early detection of oral cancer is therefore important to reduce the burden of this devastating disease. In this review article, the most common oral precancerous lesions are discussed and the importance of early diagnosis is emphasized. In addition, the most common non-invasive oral cancer devices that can aid the general practitioners in early diagnosis are also discussed.

  18. Computer-Aided Detection in Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrius, M. D.; Van Ooijen, P.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview on the accuracy of the discrimination between benign and malignant breast lesions on MRI with and without the use of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system. One investigator selected relevant articles based on title and abstract. Ten articles were select

  19. PLAID- A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    PLAID is a three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (CAD) system which enables the user to interactively construct, manipulate, and display sets of highly complex geometric models. PLAID was initially developed by NASA to assist in the design of Space Shuttle crewstation panels, and the detection of payload object collisions. It has evolved into a more general program for convenient use in many engineering applications. Special effort was made to incorporate CAD techniques and features which minimize the users workload in designing and managing PLAID models. PLAID consists of three major modules: the Primitive Object Generator (BUILD), the Composite Object Generator (COG), and the DISPLAY Processor. The BUILD module provides a means of constructing simple geometric objects called primitives. The primitives are created from polygons which are defined either explicitly by vertex coordinates, or graphically by use of terminal crosshairs or a digitizer. Solid objects are constructed by combining, rotating, or translating the polygons. Corner rounding, hole punching, milling, and contouring are special features available in BUILD. The COG module hierarchically organizes and manipulates primitives and other previously defined COG objects to form complex assemblies. The composite object is constructed by applying transformations to simpler objects. The transformations which can be applied are scalings, rotations, and translations. These transformations may be defined explicitly or defined graphically using the interactive COG commands. The DISPLAY module enables the user to view COG assemblies from arbitrary viewpoints (inside or outside the object) both in wireframe and hidden line renderings. The PLAID projection of a three-dimensional object can be either orthographic or with perspective. A conflict analysis option enables detection of spatial conflicts or collisions. DISPLAY provides camera functions to simulate a view of the model through different lenses. Other

  20. Development and Challenge of HIV/AIDS Testing Laboratory Network and Quality Assurance System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development and challenge of HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network and quality assurance system in China. At present, the HIV/AIDS testing laboratories includes three classes, the National AIDS Reference Laboratory, HIV/AIDS confirmatory laboratories and HIV/AIDS screening laboratories. All of them are accredited by the health authorities, and each class of laboratories take charge of their function strictly according to the "National Management of HIV/AIDS Detection (2006)". A complete quality assurance and quality control system for HIV/AIDS testing has been developed, which includes technical training, strict laboratory monitoring and approval,examination or proficiency testing on HIV/AIDS detection, and quality evaluation and supervision of HIV/AIDS diagnostic kits. Besides conduct the routine anti-HIV antibody test, more and more laboratories began to conduct other tests, such as CD4+ T lymphocyte cell counting, HIV viral load, HIV DNA PCR, genotyping, drug resistance, and HIV-1 recent infection test. The primary challenges faced by the HIV/AIDS testing laboratory network are in the areas of laboratory management and quality control. For example, the provincial PT program is inefficient, the internal quality control is conducted perfunctorily, personnel training can not met the needs of the workplace, which need to be improved.

  1. Visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management%Visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yuan; Nie Miaojing; Yan Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of realizing the information visualization of hydropower engineering management, we construeted three kinds of graphics models sorted by hierarchy for system modelling, employed the construction simulation system to simulate the real-time construction behaviours, introduced the graphics rendering system to organize and update the virtual scene, and designed the interaction system to respond to the user-initiated and simulation-initiated events. So, the real-time, interactive visualization aided system of hydropower engineering management is developed. Eventually, the effectiveness and capabilities of the system are showed through the application examples in China.

  2. Computer-aided Analysis of Phisiological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Benyó

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the recent biomedical engineering research activity of theMedical Informatics Laboratory at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.The research projects are carried out in the fields as follows: Computer aidedidentification of physiological systems; Diabetic management and blood glucose control;Remote patient monitoring and diagnostic system; Automated system for analyzing cardiacultrasound images; Single-channel hybrid ECG segmentation; Event recognition and stateclassification to detect brain ischemia by means of EEG signal processing; Detection ofbreathing disorders like apnea and hypopnea; Molecular biology studies with DNA-chips;Evaluation of the cry of normal hearing and hard of hearing infants.

  3. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  4. Deterministic Aided STAP for Target Detection in Heterogeneous Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Degurse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical space-time adaptive processing (STAP detectors are strongly limited when facing highly heterogeneous environments. Indeed, in this case, representative target free data are no longer available. Single dataset algorithms, such as the MLED algorithm, have proved their efficiency in overcoming this problem by only working on primary data. These methods are based on the APES algorithm which removes the useful signal from the covariance matrix. However, a small part of the clutter signal is also removed from the covariance matrix in this operation. Consequently, a degradation of clutter rejection performance is observed. We propose two algorithms that use deterministic aided STAP to overcome this issue of the single dataset APES method. The results on realistic simulated data and real data show that these methods outperform traditional single dataset methods in detection and in clutter rejection.

  5. A computer-aided continuous assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C.H. Turton

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Universities within the United Kingdom have had to cope with a massive expansion in undergraduate student numbers over the last five years (Committee of Scottish University Principals, 1993; CVCP Briefing Note, 1994. In addition, there has been a move towards modularization and a closer monitoring of a student's progress throughout the year. Since the price/performance ratio of computer systems has continued to improve, Computer- Assisted Learning (CAL has become an attractive option. (Fry, 1990; Benford et al, 1994; Laurillard et al, 1994. To this end, the Universities Funding Council (UFQ has funded the Teaching and Learning Technology Programme (TLTP. However universities also have a duty to assess as well as to teach. This paper describes a Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA system capable of assisting in grading students and providing feedback. In this particular case, a continuously assessed course (Low-Level Languages of over 100 students is considered. Typically, three man-days are required to mark one assessed piece of coursework from the students in this class. Any feedback on how the questions were dealt with by the student are of necessity brief. Most of the feedback is provided in a tutorial session that covers the pitfalls encountered by the majority of the students.

  6. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  8. 21 CFR 874.3310 - Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hearing aid calibrator and analysis system. 874... aid calibrator and analysis system. (a) Identification. A hearing aid calibrator and analysis system... sound intensity characteristics emanating from a hearing aid, master hearing aid, group hearing aid...

  9. Target Impact Detection Algorithm Using Computer-aided Design (CAD) Model Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 558 Technical Report ARMET-TR-13024 TARGET IMPACT DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ...DETECTION ALGORITHM USING COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN ( CAD ) MODEL GEOMETRY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...This report documents a method and algorithm to export geometry from a three-dimensional, computer-aided design ( CAD ) model in a format that can be

  10. The promise of computer aided detection in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrig, Jimmy E-mail: jimmy@enrico.r2tech.com; Castellino, Ronald A. E-mail: castellr@mskcc.org

    1999-07-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a new technology now being implemented in many clinics to reduce the false negative rate in mammography screening. A large clinical study has been completed which shows that a substantial false negative (miss) rate exists in screening mammography, a significant fraction of the missed cancers are not subtle, and CAD has high sensitivity to these missed cancers. Full field digital mammography is now coming on the scene, but has not yet been proven in clinical practice. The authors believe that full acceptance of the new digital technology depends not merely on demonstrations of 'substantial equivalence' to film-screen technology, but rather on more complete exploitation of the unique advantages of digital technology, and that CAD can play a key role. These advantages derive from CAD's ability to quickly (in near real-time) perform analytical computations on digital information that is not readily available to the radiologist until after the cost of film-processing has occurred.

  11. Computer-aided detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a multichannel signal detection approach on projection views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Zhou, Chuan; Lu, Yao

    2012-03-01

    DBT is one of the promising imaging modalities that may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer detection. We are developing a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications (MC) in DBT. A data set of two-view DBTs from 42 breasts was collected with a GE prototype system. We investigated a 2D approach to MC detection using projection view (PV) images rather than reconstructed 3D DBT volume. Our 2D approach consisted of two major stages: 1) detecting individual MC candidates on each PV, and 2) correlating the MC candidates from the different PVs and detecting clusters in the breast volume. With the MC candidates detected by prescreening on PVs, a trained multi-channel (MCH) filter bank was used to extract signal response from each MC candidate. A ray-tracing process was performed to fuse the MCH responses and localize the MC candidates in 3D using the geometrical information of the DBT system. Potential MC clusters were then identified by dynamic clustering of the MCs in 3D. A two-fold cross-validation method was used to train and test the CADe system. The detection performance of clustered MCs was assessed by free receiver operating characteristic (FROC) analysis. It was found that the CADe system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 90% at an average false positive rate of 2.1 clusters per DBT volume. Our study demonstrated that the CADe system using 2D MCH filter bank is promising for detection of clustered MCs in DBT.

  12. Computer-aided tumor detection stemmed from the fuzzification of the Dempster-Shafer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udobata, Obioma; Revol-Muller, Chantal; Lartizien, Carole

    2011-03-01

    In decision making processes where we have to deal with epistemic uncertainties, the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence and fuzzy logic have gained prominence as the methods of choice over traditional probabilistic methods. The DST is unfortunately known to give wrong results in situations of high conflict. While some methods have been proposed in the literature for improving the DST, such as the weighted DST which assumes that we have some information about the relative reliabilities of the classifiers, we opted to incorporate fuzzy concepts in the DST framework. This work was motivated by the desire to improve detection performance of a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system under development for the detection of tumors in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images by fusing the outputs of multiple classifiers such as the SVM and LDA classifiers. A first implement based on a simple binary fusion scheme gave a result of 69% true detections with an average of 2.5 false positive detections per 3D image (FPI). These results prompted the use of the DST which resulted in 92% detection sensitivity and 25 FPI. As a way of further reducing the false detections, we chose to tackle the limitations inherent to the DST by principally applying fuzzy techniques in defining the hypotheses and experimenting with new combination rules. The best result of this modified DST approach has been a 92% true tumor detection with 12 FPI; indicating a reduction by a factor of 2 of the false detections while maintaining high sensitivity.

  13. Computer-aided Detection of Prostate Cancer with MRI: Technology and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Fei, Baowei

    2016-08-01

    One in six men will develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Early detection and accurate diagnosis of the disease can improve cancer survival and reduce treatment costs. Recently, imaging of prostate cancer has greatly advanced since the introduction of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Mp-MRI consists of T2-weighted sequences combined with functional sequences including dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. Because of the big data and variations in imaging sequences, detection can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. To improve quantitative assessment of the disease, various computer-aided detection systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. This review paper presents an overview of literatures on computer-aided detection of prostate cancer with mp-MRI, which include the technology and its applications. The aim of the survey is threefold: an introduction for those new to the field, an overview for those working in the field, and a reference for those searching for literature on a specific application.

  14. Test Sensitivity in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Clinical Mammographic Screening: a Meta-analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levman, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess evaluative methodologies for comparative measurements of test sensitivity in clinical mammographic screening trials of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was performed by analytically reviewing the relevant literature on the clinical application of computer-aided detection (CAD) technologies as part of a breast cancer screening program based on x-ray mammography. Each clinical study's method for measuring the CAD system's improvement in test sensitivity is examined in this meta-analysis. The impact of the chosen sensitivity measurement on the study's conclusions are analyzed. Results: This meta-analysis demonstrates that some studies have inappropriately compared sensitivity measurements between control groups and CAD enabled groups. The inappropriate comparison of control groups and CAD enabled groups can lead to an underestimation of the benefits of the clinical application of computer-aided detection technologies. Conclusions: The po...

  15. Wireless communication for hearing aid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer

    This thesis focuses on the wireless coupling between hearing aids close to a human head. Hearing aids constitute devices withadvanced technology and the wireless communication enables the introduction of a range of completely new functionalities. Such devices are small and the available power...... the ear-to-ear wireless communication channel by understanding the mechanisms that control the propagations of the signals and the losses. The second objective isto investigate the properties of magneto-dielectric materials and their potential in antenna miniaturization. There are three approaches...... understanding of the ear-to-ear wireless communication channel. A circular patch antenna was used to study the properties of the magneto-dielectric materials. In the thesis, we focused on three properties; efficiency, quality factor and bandwidth of the antenna. An analytical method is used to calculatethe...

  16. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  17. A handheld computer-aided diagnosis system and simulated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingjian; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Brent; Su, Kening; Louie, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on cellphone and distributed cluster. One of the bottlenecks in building a CAD system for clinical practice is the storage and process of mass pathology samples freely among different devices, and normal pattern matching algorithm on large scale image set is very time consuming. Distributed computation on cluster has demonstrated the ability to relieve this bottleneck. We develop a system enabling the user to compare the mass image to a dataset with feature table by sending datasets to Generic Data Handler Module in Hadoop, where the pattern recognition is undertaken for the detection of skin diseases. A single and combination retrieval algorithm to data pipeline base on Map Reduce framework is used in our system in order to make optimal choice between recognition accuracy and system cost. The profile of lesion area is drawn by doctors manually on the screen, and then uploads this pattern to the server. In our evaluation experiment, an accuracy of 75% diagnosis hit rate is obtained by testing 100 patients with skin illness. Our system has the potential help in building a novel medical image dataset by collecting large amounts of gold standard during medical diagnosis. Once the project is online, the participants are free to join and eventually an abundant sample dataset will soon be gathered enough for learning. These results demonstrate our technology is very promising and expected to be used in clinical practice.

  18. Multiple-instance learning for computer-aided detection of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, J.; Sánchez, C. I.; Philipsen, R. H. H. M.; Maduskar, P.; van Ginneken, B.

    2014-03-01

    Detection of tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiographs (CXRs) is a hard problem. Therefore, to help radiologists or even take their place when they are not available, computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being developed. In order to reach a performance comparable to that of human experts, the pattern recognition algorithms of these systems are typically trained on large CXR databases that have been manually annotated to indicate the abnormal lung regions. However, manually outlining those regions constitutes a time-consuming process that, besides, is prone to inconsistencies and errors introduced by interobserver variability and the absence of an external reference standard. In this paper, we investigate an alternative pattern classi cation method, namely multiple-instance learning (MIL), that does not require such detailed information for a CAD system to be trained. We have applied this alternative approach to a CAD system aimed at detecting textural lesions associated with TB. Only the case (or image) condition (normal or abnormal) was provided in the training stage. We compared the resulting performance with those achieved by several variations of a conventional system trained with detailed annotations. A database of 917 CXRs was constructed for experimentation. It was divided into two roughly equal parts that were used as training and test sets. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was utilized as a performance measure. Our experiments show that, by applying the investigated MIL approach, comparable results as with the aforementioned conventional systems are obtained in most cases, without requiring condition information at the lesion level.

  19. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources.

  20. Automatic computer-aided detection of prostate cancer based on multiparametric magnetic resonance image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.; Barentsz, J.O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fully automatic computer-aided detection (CAD) method is proposed for the detection of prostate cancer. The CAD method consists of multiple sequential steps in order to detect locations that are suspicious for prostate cancer. In the initial stage, a voxel classification is performe

  1. Detection of longitudinal ulcer using roughness value for computer aided diagnosis of Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new method to detect ulcers, which is one of the symptoms of Crohn's disease, from CT images. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease commonly affects the small intestine. An optical or a capsule endoscope is used for small intestine examinations. However, these endoscopes cannot pass through intestinal stenosis parts in some cases. A CT image based diagnosis allows a physician to observe whole intestine even if intestinal stenosis exists. However, because of the complicated shape of the small and large intestines, understanding of shapes of the intestines and lesion positions are difficult in the CT image based diagnosis. Computer-aided diagnosis system for Crohn's disease having automated lesion detection is required for efficient diagnosis. We propose an automated method to detect ulcers from CT images. Longitudinal ulcers make rough surface of the small and large intestinal wall. The rough surface consists of combination of convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall. We detect convex and concave parts on the intestinal wall by a blob and an inverse-blob structure enhancement filters. A lot of convex and concave parts concentrate on roughed parts. We introduce a roughness value to differentiate convex and concave parts concentrated on the roughed parts from the other on the intestinal wall. The roughness value effectively reduces false positives of ulcer detection. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can detect convex and concave parts on the ulcers.

  2. A Visual-aided Inertial Navigation and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State estimation is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomous robots. This paper describes a visual-aided inertial navigation and mapping system for application to autonomous robots. The system, which relies on Kalman filtering, is designed to fuse the measurements obtained from a monocular camera, an inertial measurement unit (IMU and a position sensor (GPS. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: the position, orientation, their first derivatives and the parameter errors of the inertial sensors (i.e., the bias of gyroscopes and accelerometers. The system also provides the spatial locations of the visual features observed by the camera. The proposed scheme was designed by considering the limited resources commonly available in small mobile robots, while it is intended to be applied to cluttered environments in order to perform fully vision-based navigation in periods where the position sensor is not available. Moreover, the estimated map of visual features would be suitable for multiple tasks: i terrain analysis; ii three dimensional (3D scene reconstruction; iii localization, detection or perception of obstacles and generating trajectories to navigate around these obstacles; and iv autonomous exploration. In this work, simulations and experiments with real data are presented in order to validate and demonstrate the performance of the proposal.

  3. Analog Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) information can be more effective than binary marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2017-02-01

    In socially important visual search tasks, such as baggage screening and diagnostic radiology, experts miss more targets than is desirable. Computer-aided detection (CAD) programs have been developed specifically to improve performance in these professional search tasks. For example, in breast cancer screening, many CAD systems are capable of detecting approximately 90% of breast cancer, with approximately 0.5 false-positive detections per image. Nevertheless, benefits of CAD in clinical settings tend to be small (Birdwell, 2009) or even absent (Meziane et al., 2011; Philpotts, 2009). The marks made by a CAD system can be "binary," giving the same signal to any location where the signal is above some threshold. Alternatively, a CAD system presents an analog signal that reflects strength of the signal at a location. In the experiments reported, we compare analog and binary CAD presentations using nonexpert observers and artificial stimuli defined by two noisy signals: a visible color signal and an "invisible" signal that informed our simulated CAD system. We found that analog CAD generally yielded better overall performance than binary CAD. The analog benefit is similar at high and low target prevalence. Our data suggest that the form of the CAD signal can directly influence performance. Analog CAD may allow the computer to be more helpful to the searcher.

  4. Waveguide model of the hearing aid earmold system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostek Bozena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The earmold system of the Behind-The-Ear hearing aid is an acoustic system that modifies the spectrum of the propagated sound waves. Improper selection of the earmold system may result in deterioration of sound quality and speech intelligibility. Computer modeling methods may be useful in the process of hearing aid fitting, allowing physician to examine various earmold system configurations and choose the optimum one for the hearing aid user. Methods In this paper, a computer model adequate for this task is proposed. This model is based on the waveguide modeling method. The waveguide model simulates the propagation of sound waves in the system of cylindrical tubes. Frequency response of the hearing aid receiver is simulated in the model and the influence of the ear canal and the eardrum on the earmold system is taken into account. The model parameters are easily calculated from parameters of a physical hearing aid system. Transfer function of the model is calculated and frequency response plots are obtained using the Matlab system. Results The frequency response plots of the earmold model were compared to the measurement plots of the corresponding physical earmold systems. The same changes in frequency responses caused by modification of length or diameter of a selected waveguide section, are observed in both measurement data of a real earmold system and in computed model responses. Conclusion Comparison of model responses obtained for various sets of parameters with measurement data proved that the proposed model accurately simulates the real earmold system and the developed model may be used to construct a computer system assisting the physician who performs earmold system fitting.

  5. The Influence of a Crosshair Visual Aid on Observer Detection of Simulated Fetal Heart Rate Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebecca A; Scerbo, Mark W; Anderson-Montoya, Brittany L; Belfore, Lee A; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Davis, Stephen S

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine whether a visual aid overlaid on fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings increases detection of critical signals relative to images with no visual aid. Study Design In an experimental study, 21 undergraduate students viewed 240 images of simulated FHR tracings twice, once with the visual aids and once without aids. Performance was examined for images containing three different types of FHR signals (early deceleration, late deceleration, and acceleration) and four different FHR signal-to-noise ratios corresponding to FHR variability types (absent, minimal, moderate, and marked) identified by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2008). Performance was analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Results The presence of the visual aid significantly improved correct detections of signals overall and decreased false alarms for the marked variability condition. Conclusion The results of the study provide evidence that the presence of a visual aid was useful in helping novices identify FHR signals in simulated maternal-fetal heart rate images. Further, the visual aid was most useful for conditions in which the signal is most difficult to detect (when FHR variability is highest).

  6. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hoo-Chang; Roth, Holger R; Gao, Mingchen; Lu, Le; Xu, Ziyue; Nogues, Isabella; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks.

  7. MEMOS: a mobile extensible memory aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Memory disturbances are a frequent outcome of brain damages. Maintenance or enhancement of the patients' quality of life requires enormous effort on the part of caregivers. To support patients with brain injuries, the mobile distributed care system named MEMOS (Mobile Extensible Memory System) was designed, implemented, and tested in the day-care clinic for cognitive neurology at Leipzig University. MEMOS is implemented as a distributed system, using CORBA technologies and Enterprise Java Beans. A special palmtop computer, the Personal Memory Assistant (PMA), reminds the patient of important tasks and supervises the patient's actions. The PMA communicates with the stationary care system via a bi-directional cellular radio connection. The stationary care system was developed to be dependable and scalable. This paper describes the design and function of the MEMOS system.

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis and lipidomics analysis to detect and treat breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Retter, Felix; Steinbrücker, Frank; Görke, Robert; Burgeth, Bernhard; Schlossbauer, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Multi-modality diagnosis techniques are more and more replacing traditional medical imaging for breast cancer detection. Newly emerging advances in both intelligent cancer detection systems and lipidomics technologies offer an excellent opportunity to detect tumors and to understand regulation at the molecular level in many diseases such as cancer. In this paper, we present a detailed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems combining motion artefact reduction and automated feature extraction and classification, and a novel data mining approach for visualization of gene therapy leading to apoptosis in U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a secondary tumor of breast cancer. The achieved results show that the CAD system represents a robust and integrative tool for reliable small contrast enhancing lesions. Graph-clustering methods are introduced as powerful correlation networks which enable a simultaneous exploration and visualization of co-regulation in glioblastoma data. These new paradigms are providing unique "fingerprints" by revealing how the intricate interactions at the lipidome level can be employed to induce apoptosis (cell death) and are thus opening a new window to biomedical frontiers.

  9. A Computer Aided Consultant System for Mammogram Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A computer-aided consultant system for mammogram diagnosis is proposed in this paper based on mam-mogram segmentation as an image mining technique, to aid radiologistis in X-ray film interpretation. The generalarchitecture of the system is introduced first, followed by a discussion of mammogram segmentation using logic fil-ter, an analysis of the statistical data to the diagnostics with respect to different clinical information, and a brief in-troduction to a fuzzy decision making subsystem. Finally some experimental results are given.

  10. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D......) and an amplitude panning audio system (panning) in a virtual environment. We present a performance study involving 33 participants locating aurally-aided visual targets placed at fixed positions, under different audio conditions. A varying amount of visual distractors were present, represented as black circles...

  11. Audio Sensing Aid based Wireless Microphone Emulation Attacks Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shan-shan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The wireless microphone network is an important PU network for CRN, but there is no effective technology to solve the problem of microphone evaluation attacks. Therefore, this paper propose ASA algorithm, which utilizes three devices to detect MUs, and they are loudspeaker audio sensor (LAS, environment audio sensor (EAS, and radio frequency fingerprint detector (RFFD. LASs are installed near loudspeakers, which have two main effects: One is to sense loudspeakers’ output, and the other is to broadcast warning information to all SUs through the common control channel when detecting valid output. EASs are pocket voice captures provided to SU, and utilized to sense loudspeaker sound at SU’s location. Utilizing EASs and energy detections in SU can detect primary user emulation attack (PUEA fast. But to acquire the information of attacked channels, we need explore RFFDs to analyze the features of PU transmitters. The results show that the proposed algorithm can detect PUEA well.    

  12. Increasing computer-aided detection specificity by projection features for CT colonography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongbin; Liang, Zhengrong; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Barish, Matthew A.; You, Jiangsheng; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Posniak, Erica J.; Richards, Robert J.; Cohen, Harris L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A large number of false positives (FPs) generated by computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes is likely to distract radiologists’ attention and decrease their interpretation efficiency. This study aims to develop projection-based features which characterize true and false positives to increase the specificity while maintaining high sensitivity in detecting colonic polyps.

  13. Computer-aided detection of mammographic masses based on content-based image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Renchao; Meng, Bo; Song, Enmin; Xu, Xiangyang; Jiang, Luan

    2007-03-01

    A method for computer-aided detection (CAD) of mammographic masses is proposed and a prototype CAD system is presented. The method is based on content-based image retrieval (CBIR). A mammogram database containing 2000 mammographic regions is built in our prototype CBIR-CAD system. Every region of interested (ROI) in the database has known pathology. Specifically, there are 583 ROIs depicting biopsy-proven masses, and the rest 1417 ROIs are normal. Whenever a suspicious ROI is detected in a mammogram by a radiologist, it can be submitted as a query to this CBIRCAD system. As the query results, a series of similar ROI images together with their known pathology knowledge will be retrieved from the database and displayed in the screen in descending order of their similarities to the query ROI to help the radiologist to make the diagnosis decision. Furthermore, our CBIR-CAD system will output a decision index (DI) to quantitatively indicate the probability that the query ROI contains a mass. The DI is calculated by the query matches. In the querying process, 24 features are extracted from each ROI to form a 24-dimensional vector. Euclidean distance in the 24-dimensional feature vector space is applied to measure the similarities between ROIs. The prototype CBIR-CAD system is evaluated based on the leave-one-out sampling scheme. The experiment results showed that the system can achieve a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area index A Z =0.84 for detection of mammographic masses, which is better than the best results achieved by the other known mass CAD systems.

  14. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Masses in Digital Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    other peer-reviewed papers in Medical Physics (reportable outcomes #4 and 5) in conjunction with Duke collaborators in 2007. Task 3. Evaluate...Lo, “Automated Breast Mass Detection in 3D Reconstructed Tomosynthesis Volumes: A Featureless Approach,” Accepted in Medical Physics in June 2008...Evaluation of Information- Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Retrieval and Detection of Masses in Mammograms,” Medical Physics , January 2007

  15. Integrated computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Jerath, Maya R.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1996-05-01

    Successful retinal tracking subsystem testing results in vivo on rhesus monkeys using an argon continuous wave laser and an ultra-short pulse laser are presented. Progress on developing an integrated robotic retinal laser surgery system is also presented. Several interesting areas of study have developed: (1) 'doughnut' shaped lesions that occur under certain combinations of laser power, spot size, and irradiation time complicating measurements of central lesion reflectance, (2) the optimal retinal field of view to achieve simultaneous tracking and lesion parameter control, and (3) a fully digital versus a hybrid analog/digital tracker using confocal reflectometry integrated system implementation. These areas are investigated in detail in this paper. The hybrid system warrants a separate presentation and appears in another paper at this conference.

  16. Standalone computer-aided detection compared to radiologists' performance for the detection of mammographic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupse, Rianne; Samulski, Maurice; Imhof-Tas, Mechli W.; Karssemeijer, Nico [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lobbes, Marc; Boetes, Carla [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Heeten, Ard den [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beijerinck, David [Screening Program Early Detection of Breast Cancer in the Centre/Mid-West Part of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pijnappel, Ruud [National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    We developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system aimed at decision support for detection of malignant masses and architectural distortions in mammograms. The effect of this system on radiologists' performance depends strongly on its standalone performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the standalone performance of this CAD system to that of radiologists. In a retrospective study, nine certified screening radiologists and three residents read 200 digital screening mammograms without the use of CAD. Performances of the individual readers and of CAD were computed as the true-positive fraction (TPF) at a false-positive fraction of 0.05 and 0.2. Differences were analysed using an independent one-sample t-test. At a false-positive fraction of 0.05, the performance of CAD (TPF = 0.487) was similar to that of the certified screening radiologists (TPF = 0.518, P = 0.17). At a false-positive fraction of 0.2, CAD performance (TPF = 0.620) was significantly lower than the radiologist performance (TPF = 0.736, P <0.001). Compared to the residents, CAD performance was similar for all false-positive fractions. The sensitivity of CAD at a high specificity was comparable to that of human readers. These results show potential for CAD to be used as an independent reader in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  17. A decision support system for AIDS intervention and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L D

    1994-08-01

    In recent years, the importance of information systems has been identified as a vital issue to continuing success in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). The advances in information technology have resulted in integrative information systems including decision support systems (DSS). The concept of DSS for AIP was created at the intersection of two trends. The first trend was a growing belief that AIP information systems are successful in automating operations in AIP programs. The second was a continuing improvement in modeling and software development in the AIP area. This paper presents an integrated DSS for AIP. The system is integrated with a database and achieves its efficiency by incorporating various algorithms and models to support AIP decision processes. The application examples include screening AIDS-risky behaviors, evaluating educational interventions, and scheduling AIP sessions. The implementation results present evidence of the usefulness of the system in AIP.

  18. Technology transfer of the Computer-Aided Prototyping System (CAPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    The inability of the Department of Defense (DOD) to accurately and completely specify requirements for hard real-time software systems has resulted in poor productivity, schedule overruns, and software that is unmaintainable and unreliable. The Computer-Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) provides a capability to quickly develop functional prototypes to verify feasibility of system requirements early in the software development process. It was built to help program managers and software engineers...

  19. A Computer Aided System for Simulating Weld Metal Solidification Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A computer-aided system for simulating weld solidification crack has been developed by which a welding engineer can carry out the welding solidification crack simulation on the basis of a commercial finite element analysis software package. Its main functions include calculating the heat generations of the moving arc, mesh generation, calculating stress-strain distributions with element rebirth technique.

  20. Information technology aided exploration of system design spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Kiper, James D.; Kalafat, Selcuk

    2004-01-01

    We report on a practical application of information technology techniques to aid system engineers effectively explore large design spaces. We make use of heuristic search, visualization and data mining, the combination of which we have implemented wtihin a risk management tool in use at JPL and NASA.

  1. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  2. An Aid for Mechanisation of Flight Control Systems on Micro-Computers

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Rama Murthy; Seshadri, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated aid to translate the block diagram of flight control system (FCS) to assembly level code. By defining a suitable syntax and by building a matrix of inputs and outputs of the blocks, it becomes easy to translate the block diagram. It is also shown how the process of fault detection can be automated. The results obtained through the automated aid have been validated by ORACLE library using the block diagram of Cstar controller of F8 a...

  3. An Aid for Mechanisation of Flight Control Systems on Micro-Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Rama Murthy

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of an automated aid to translate the block diagram of flight control system (FCS to assembly level code. By defining a suitable syntax and by building a matrix of inputs and outputs of the blocks, it becomes easy to translate the block diagram. It is also shown how the process of fault detection can be automated. The results obtained through the automated aid have been validated by ORACLE library using the block diagram of Cstar controller of F8 aircraft.

  4. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  5. Defect Detection in Composite Coatings by Computational Simulation Aided Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, R. M.; Souza, M. P. V.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thermography is based on the measurement of superficial temperature distribution of an object inspected subjected to tension, normally thermal heat. This measurement is performed with a thermographic camera that detects the infrared radiation emitted by every object. In this work thermograph was simulated by COMSOL software for optimize experimental parameters in composite material coatings inspection.

  6. Computer Aided Detection of Polyps in CT Colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ravesteijn, V.F.

    2013-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive method for detection of colorectal polyps and colon cancer. Limitations of CTC related to the efficiency as well as the sensitivity of radiologists. Additionally, the patient's preparation was considered burdensome and the X-ray radiation that is inheren

  7. 21 CFR 874.3950 - Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system... Transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid system. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous air conduction hearing aid... occluding the ear canal. The device consists of an air conduction hearing aid attached to a...

  8. Computer Aided Design System for Developing Musical Fountain Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹; 张乃尧; 朱汉城

    2003-01-01

    A computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs was developed with multiple functions such as intelligent design, 3-D animation, manual modification and synchronized motion to make the development process more efficient. The system first analyzed the music form and sentiment using many basic features of the music to select a basic fountain program. Then, this program is simulated with 3-D animation and modified manually to achieve the desired results. Finally, the program is transformed to a computer control program to control the musical fountain in time with the music. A prototype system for the musical fountain was also developed. It was tested with many styles of music and users were quite satisfied with its performance. By integrating various functions, the proposed computer aided design system for developing musical fountain programs greatly simplified the design of the musical fountain programs.

  9. Effects of Response Bias and Judgment Framing on Operator Use of an Automated Aid in a Target Detection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; McCarley, Jason S.

    2011-01-01

    Automated diagnostic aids prone to false alarms often produce poorer human performance in signal detection tasks than equally reliable miss-prone aids. However, it is not yet clear whether this is attributable to differences in the perceptual salience of the automated aids' misses and false alarms or is the result of inherent differences in…

  10. Detection of HIV and AIDS by Advance Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Joglekar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many serious diseases which causes harm on human body like cancer, HIV, H1N1 and so on. These Viruses entered in human body and start replicating automatically which disturbs the general activity of a human being. These viruses may give lots of symptoms which doctors need to identify and accordingly a treatment can be provided. Therefore early detection of such diseases is needed so that a person can live a normal life. Using data mining algorithms we can able to discover the type of disease and cure it

  11. the Diagnostic Value of Brain Magnetic Resonance imaging in Detecting CNS Diseases Among Advanced AiDS Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of brain magnetic resonance imaging in detecting central nervous system diseases among AIDS patients of different levels of T cells. Methods Total of 164 AIDS patients who did not receive antiviral treatment were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline CD4+T cell counts. Group A had CD4+T cell below or equal to 50 cells/μl (n=81) and group B had CD4+T cells over 50 cells/μl (n=83). All patients underwent brain MRI scan. Imaging analysis and the prevalence of the central nervous system disorders were compared between two groups. Results Among them 48 cases were found of abnormal brain MRI, group A was higher than group B (35.8%vs. 22.9%) although without statistical significance (P = 0.065). Altogether 48 cases were diagnosed as AIDS related central nervous system disorders based on clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory findings. The prevalence of CNS disorders was higher in group A than in group B (41.9%vs. 16.8%) with statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusions The patients with CD4+T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/μl had high prevalence of CNS diseases. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis and differentiation of CNS diseases in advanced AIDS patients. This study suggests patients with low CD4+T cell count (≤ 50/μl) should routinely undergo MRI examination.

  12. Computer-Aided Detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Guillaume; Martí, Robert; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C; Walker, Paul M; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer of men all over the world. In the last few decades, new imaging techniques based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been developed to improve diagnosis. In practise, diagnosis can be affected by multiple factors such as observer variability and visibility and complexity of the lesions. In this regard, computer-aided detection and computer-aided diagnosis systems have been designed to help radiologists in their clinical practice. Research on computer-aided systems specifically focused for prostate cancer is a young technology and has been part of a dynamic field of research for the last 10 years. This survey aims to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in this lapse of time, focusing on the different stages composing the work-flow of a computer-aided system. We also provide a comparison between studies and a discussion about the potential avenues for future research. In addition, this paper presents a new public online dataset which is made available to the research community with the aim of providing a common evaluation framework to overcome some of the current limitations identified in this survey.

  13. Method of Computer-aided Instruction in Situation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy O. Kargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of computer-aided instruction in context-chain motivated situation control system of the complex technical system behavior. The conceptual and formal models of situation control with practical instruction are considered. Acquisition of new behavior knowledge is presented as structural changes in system memory in the form of situational agent set. Model and method of computer-aided instruction represent formalization, based on the nondistinct theories by physiologists and cognitive psychologists.The formal instruction model describes situation and reaction formation and dependence on different parameters, effecting education, such as the reinforcement value, time between the stimulus, action and the reinforcement. The change of the contextual link between situational elements when using is formalized.The examples and results of computer instruction experiments of the robot device “LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT”, equipped with ultrasonic distance, touch, light sensors.

  14. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  15. Improving Computer-Aided Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Random View Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Holger R; Lu, Le; Liu, Jiamin; Yao, Jianhua; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin; Kim, Lauren; Summers, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Automated computer-aided detection (CADe) has been an important tool in clinical practice and research. State-of-the-art methods often show high sensitivities at the cost of high false-positives (FP) per patient rates. We design a two-tiered coarse-to-fine cascade framework that first operates a candidate generation system at sensitivities  ∼ 100% of but at high FP levels. By leveraging existing CADe systems, coordinates of regions or volumes of interest (ROI or VOI) are generated and function as input for a second tier, which is our focus in this study. In this second stage, we generate 2D (two-dimensional) or 2.5D views via sampling through scale transformations, random translations and rotations. These random views are used to train deep convolutional neural network (ConvNet) classifiers. In testing, the ConvNets assign class (e.g., lesion, pathology) probabilities for a new set of random views that are then averaged to compute a final per-candidate classification probability. This second tier behaves as a highly selective process to reject difficult false positives while preserving high sensitivities. The methods are evaluated on three data sets: 59 patients for sclerotic metastasis detection, 176 patients for lymph node detection, and 1,186 patients for colonic polyp detection. Experimental results show the ability of ConvNets to generalize well to different medical imaging CADe applications and scale elegantly to various data sets. Our proposed methods improve performance markedly in all cases. Sensitivities improved from 57% to 70%, 43% to 77%, and 58% to 75% at 3 FPs per patient for sclerotic metastases, lymph nodes and colonic polyps, respectively.

  16. Comparison of computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has the potential to replace digital mammography (DM) for breast cancer screening. An effective computer-aided detection (CAD) system for microcalcification clusters (MCs) on DBT will facilitate the transition. In this study, we collected a data set with corresponding DBT and DM for the same breasts. DBT was acquired with IRB approval and informed consent using a GE GEN2 DBT prototype system. The DM acquired with a GE Essential system for the patient's clinical care was collected retrospectively from patient files. DM-based CAD (CADDM) and DBT-based CAD (CADDBT) were previously developed by our group. The major differences between the CAD systems include: (a) CADDBT uses two parallel processes whereas CADDM uses a single process for enhancing MCs and removing the structured background, (b) CADDBT has additional processing steps to reduce the false positives (FPs), including ranking of candidates of cluster seeds and cluster members and the use of adaptive CNR and size thresholds at clustering and FP reduction, (c) CADDM uses convolution neural network (CNN) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate true microcalcifications from FPs based on their morphological and CNN features. The performance difference is assessed by FROC analysis using test set (100 views with MCs and 74 views without MCs) independent of their respective training sets. At sensitivities of 70% and 80%, CADDBT achieved FP rates of 0.78 and 1.57 per view compared to 0.66 and 2.10 per image for the CADDM. JAFROC showed no significant difference between MC detection on DM and DBT by the two CAD systems.

  17. Comparative evaluation of support vector machine classification for computer aided detection of breast masses in mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesniak, J.M.; Hupse, R.; Blanc, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Sz\\'ekely, G.

    2012-01-01

    False positive (FP) marks represent an obstacle for effective use of computer-aided detection (CADe) of breast masses in mammography. Typically, the problem can be approached either by developing more discriminative features or by employing different classifier designs. In this paper, the usage of s

  18. Knowledge aided display design (KADD) system - An evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ruston M.; Frey, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the Knowledge Aided Display Design (KADD) system is described. Developed to investigate several designer support concepts in the context of the design of computer-generated displays, KADD's implementation uses technology from several disciplines of computer science including data base design and management, graphics, expert systems, and real-time simulation. This paper discusses KADD's goals and concepts, the implementation of the system, and the results of a two-part evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the KADD concepts.

  19. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2008-03-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The function to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and security improvement of medical information.

  1. CATIA - A computer aided design and manufacturing tridimensional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F.

    A properietary computer graphics-aided, three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) design system is described. CATIA employs approximately 100 graphics displays, which are used by some 500 persons engaged in the definition of aircraft structures, structural strength analyses, the kinematic analysis of mobile elements, aerodynamic calculations, the choice of tooling in the machining of aircraft elements, and the programming of robotics. CATIA covers these diverse fields with a single data base. After a description of salient aspects of the system's hardware and software, graphics examples are given of the definition of curves, surfaces, complex volumes, and analytical tasks.

  2. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  3. Code-Aided Estimation and Detection on Time-Varying Correlated Mimo Channels: A Factor Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Frederik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns channel tracking in a multiantenna context for correlated flat-fading channels obeying a Gauss-Markov model. It is known that data-aided tracking of fast-fading channels requires a lot of pilot symbols in order to achieve sufficient accuracy, and hence decreases the spectral efficiency. To overcome this problem, we design a code-aided estimation scheme which exploits information from both the pilot symbols and the unknown coded data symbols. The algorithm is derived based on a factor graph representation of the system and application of the sum-product algorithm. The sum-product algorithm reveals how soft information from the decoder should be exploited for the purpose of estimation and how the information bits can be detected. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Automatic computer-aided system of simulating solder joint formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Guanqun; Wang, Gouzhong; Yang, Shiqin

    1999-08-01

    One critical aspect in electronic packaging is the fatigue/creep-induced failure in solder interconnections, which is found to be highly dependent on the shape of solder joints. Thus predicting and analyzing the solder joint shape is warranted. In this paper, an automatic computer-aided system is developed to simulate the formation of solder joint and analyze the influence of the different process parameters on the solder joint shape. The developed system is capable of visually designing the process parameters and calculating the solder joint shape automatically without any intervention from the user. The automation achieved will enable fast shape estimation with the variation of process parameters without time consuming experiments, and the simulating system provides the design and manufacturing engineers an efficient software tools to design soldering process in design environment. Moreover, a program developed from the system can serve as the preprocessor for subsequent finite element joint analysis program.

  5. Computer-aided detection in breast MRI: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorrius, Monique D.; Weide, Marijke C.J. der; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Center for Medical Imaging, Hanzeplein 1, PO box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the additional value of computer-aided detection (CAD) in breast MRI by assessing radiologists' accuracy in discriminating benign from malignant breast lesions. A literature search was performed with inclusion of relevant studies using a commercially available CAD system with automatic colour mapping. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies. The accuracy of the radiologists' performance with and without CAD was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity. Of 587 articles, 10 met the inclusion criteria, all of good methodological quality. Experienced radiologists reached comparable pooled sensitivity and specificity before and after using CAD (sensitivity: without CAD: 89%; 95% CI: 78-94%, with CAD: 89%; 95%CI: 81-94%) (specificity: without CAD: 86%; 95% CI: 79-91%, with CAD: 82%; 95% CI: 76-87%). For residents the pooled sensitivity increased from 72% (95% CI: 62-81%) without CAD to 89% (95% CI: 80-94%) with CAD, however, not significantly. Concerning specificity, the results were similar (without CAD: 79%; 95% CI: 69-86%, with CAD: 78%; 95% CI: 69-84%). CAD in breast MRI has little influence on the sensitivity and specificity of experienced radiologists and therefore their interpretation remains essential. However, residents or inexperienced radiologists seem to benefit from CAD concerning breast MRI evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations....

  7. Observability analysis of feature aided terminal guidance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Hongqi Fan; Huaitie Xiao; Jianpeng Fan; Qiang Fu

    2015-01-01

    Feature aided design of estimators and guidance laws can significantly improve the interception performance of the ter-minal guidance system. The achieved enhancement can be ef-fectively assessed by observability analysis methods. This paper first analyzes and discusses the existing assessment methods in a typical endgame scenario with target orientation observations. To get over their deficiencies, a novel singular value decomposition (SVD) method is proposed. Employing both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, the proposed method can represent the degree of state observability which is enhanced by integrating tar-get features more completely and quantitatively.

  8. Oral health of patients with HIV-AIDS: influence of local and systemic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Anne Margareth

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The research entitled "Oral Health of HIV-AIDS patients: influence of local and systemic factors" was held during the year 2012 in Diamantina, Minas Gerais. The aim of this research was to evaluate the oral and systemic conditions of patients with HIV / AIDS attended by Municipal DST-AIDS of Diamantina, from 24 cities of Jequitinhonha Valley. To do this, 118 patients with HIV-AIDS were evaluated. The patients were observed about their conditions of oral and general health, socioecono...

  9. Large-scale validation of a computer-aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Ingmar; Brown, John E.; Brickman, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M.

    2004-04-01

    The presented method significantly reduces the time necessary to validate a computed tomographic colonography (CTC) computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm of colonic polyps applied to a large patient database. As the algorithm is being developed on Windows PCs and our target, a Beowulf cluster, is running on Linux PCs, we made the application dual platform compatible using a single source code tree. To maintain, share, and deploy source code, we used CVS (concurrent versions system) software. We built the libraries from their sources for each operating system. Next, we made the CTC CAD algorithm dual-platform compatible and validate that both Windows and Linux produced the same results. Eliminating system dependencies was mostly achieved using the Qt programming library, which encapsulates most of the system dependent functionality in order to present the same interface on either platform. Finally, we wrote scripts to execute the CTC CAD algorithm in parallel. Running hundreds of simultaneous copies of the CTC CAD algorithm on a Beowulf cluster computing network enables execution in less than four hours on our entire collection of over 2400 CT scans, as compared to a month a single PC. As a consequence, our complete patient database can be processed daily, boosting research productivity. Large scale validation of a computer aided polyp detection algorithm for CT colonography using cluster computing significantly improves the round trip time of algorithm improvement and revalidation.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multihelical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2004-04-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause, accounting for about 20% of all cancer deaths for males in Japan. Myocardial infarction is also known as a most fearful adult disease. Recently, multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for screening examination. This screening examination requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of multi-helical CT for mass screening. To overcome this problem, our group has developed a computer-aided diagnosis algorithm to automatically detect suspicious regions of lung cancer and coronary calcifications in chest CT images, so far. And in this time, our group has developed a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database. These consist in three. First, it is an image processing system to automatically detect suspicious bronchial regions, pulmonary artery regions, plumonary vein regions and myocardial infarction regions at high speed. Second, they are two 1600 x 1200 matrix black and white liquid crystal monitor. Third, it is a terminal of image storage. These are connected mutually on the network. This makes it much easier to read images, since the 3D image of suspicious regions and shadow of suspicious regions can be displayed simultaneously on two 1600 x 1200 matrix liquid crystal monitor. The experimental results indicate that a newly computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system can be effectively used in clinical practice to increase the speed and accuracy of routine diagnosis.

  11. Computer aided detection of transient inflation events at Alaskan volcanoes using GPS measurements from 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin D.; Rude, Cody M.; Blair, David M.; Gowanlock, Michael G.; Herring, Thomas A.; Pankratius, Victor

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of transient deformation events in time series data observed via networks of continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) ground stations provide insight into the magmatic and tectonic processes that drive volcanic activity. Typical analyses of spatial positions originating from each station require careful tuning of algorithmic parameters and selection of time and spatial regions of interest to observe possible transient events. This iterative, manual process is tedious when attempting to make new discoveries and does not easily scale with the number of stations. Addressing this challenge, we introduce a novel approach based on a computer-aided discovery system that facilitates the discovery of such potential transient events. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by actual detections of transient deformation events at volcanoes selected from the Alaska Volcano Observatory database using data recorded by GPS stations from the Plate Boundary Observatory network. Our technique successfully reproduces the analysis of a transient signal detected in the first half of 2008 at Akutan volcano and is also directly applicable to 3 additional volcanoes in Alaska, with the new detection of 2 previously unnoticed inflation events: in early 2011 at Westdahl and in early 2013 at Shishaldin. This study also discusses the benefits of our computer-aided discovery approach for volcanology in general. Advantages include the rapid analysis on multi-scale resolutions of transient deformation events at a large number of sites of interest and the capability to enhance reusability and reproducibility in volcano studies.

  12. The interplay of attention economics and computer-aided detection marks in screening mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tayler M.; Sridharan, Radhika; Wei, Wei; Lukyanchenko, Olga; Geiser, William; Whitman, Gary J.; Haygood, Tamara Miner

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: According to attention economists, overabundant information leads to decreased attention for individual pieces of information. Computer-aided detection (CAD) alerts radiologists to findings potentially associated with breast cancer but is notorious for creating an abundance of false-positive marks. We suspected that increased CAD marks do not lengthen mammogram interpretation time, as radiologists will selectively disregard these marks when present in larger numbers. We explore the relevance of attention economics in mammography by examining how the number of CAD marks affects interpretation time. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of bilateral digital screening mammograms obtained between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2014, using only weekend interpretations to decrease distractions and the likelihood of trainee participation. We stratified data according to reader and used ANOVA to assess the relationship between number of CAD marks and interpretation time. Results: Ten radiologists, with median experience after residency of 12.5 years (range 6 to 24,) interpreted 1849 mammograms. When accounting for number of images, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category, and breast density, increasing numbers of CAD marks was correlated with longer interpretation time only for the three radiologists with the fewest years of experience (median 7 years.) Conclusion: For the 7 most experienced readers, increasing CAD marks did not lengthen interpretation time. We surmise that as CAD marks increase, the attention given to individual marks decreases. Experienced radiologists may rapidly dismiss larger numbers of CAD marks as false-positive, having learned that devoting extra attention to such marks does not improve clinical detection.

  13. Computer aided systems human engineering: A hypermedia tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R.; Monk, Donald L.; Cody, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The Computer Aided Systems Human Engineering (CASHE) system, Version 1.0, is a multimedia ergonomics database on CD-ROM for the Apple Macintosh II computer, being developed for use by human system designers, educators, and researchers. It will initially be available on CD-ROM and will allow users to access ergonomics data and models stored electronically as text, graphics, and audio. The CASHE CD-ROM, Version 1.0 will contain the Boff and Lincoln (1988) Engineering Data Compendium, MIL-STD-1472D and a unique, interactive simulation capability, the Perception and Performance Prototyper. Its features also include a specialized data retrieval, scaling, and analysis capability and the state of the art in information retrieval, browsing, and navigation.

  14. ARCHITECTURE OF WEB BASED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Filyukov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with design of a web-based system for Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM. Remote applications and databases located in the "private cloud" are proposed to be the basis of such system. The suggested approach contains: service - oriented architecture, using web applications and web services as modules, multi-agent technologies for implementation of information exchange functions between the components of the system and the usage of PDM - system for managing technology projects within the CAM. The proposed architecture involves CAM conversion into the corporate information system that will provide coordinated functioning of subsystems based on a common information space, as well as parallelize collective work on technology projects and be able to provide effective control of production planning. A system has been developed within this architecture which gives the possibility for a rather simple technological subsystems connect to the system and implementation of their interaction. The system makes it possible to produce CAM configuration for a particular company on the set of developed subsystems and databases specifying appropriate access rights for employees of the company. The proposed approach simplifies maintenance of software and information support for CAM subsystems due to their central location in the data center. The results can be used as a basis for CAM design and testing within the learning process for development and modernization of the system algorithms, and then can be tested in the extended enterprise.

  15. Automated dental identification system: An aid to forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated dental identification system is computer-aided software for the postmortem identification of deceased individuals based on dental characteristics specifically radiographs. This system is receiving increased attention because of the large number of victims encountered in the mass disasters and it is 90% more time saving and accurate than the conventional radiographic methods. This technique is based on the intensity of the overall region of tooth image and therefore it does not necessitate the presence of sharp boundary between the teeth. It provides automated search and matching capabilities for digitized radiographs and photographic dental images and compares the teeth present in multiple digitized dental records in order to access their similarity. This paper highlights the functionality of its components and techniques used in realizing these components.

  16. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  17. The Modern Hearing Aid – an Extreme System Integration Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    by the development in modern IC technology. This has resulted in the modern hearing aid being highly advanced devices where the demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a huge challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design......People with reduced hearing generally want to hide this disability and thus the size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing in the effort to make them virtually invisible. However, as for all other modern electrical devices more and more features are constantly added to hearing aids driven...... by showing how a modern hearing is constructed identifying amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid. The size of the amplifier is critical for the size of the final hearing aid and a study of the size of these for different manufactures will be presented. Designing the ICs for hearing aids...

  18. 基于三维CT影像的计算机辅助肺结节检测原型系统的临床应用%The clinical application of computer aided pulmonary nodule detecting system on account of three-dimentional CT.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳世雄; 曾建业; 金人超; 黄启良; 许向阳; 韦涌初; 黄思光; 卢苇; 王斌强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application effect of computer aided pulmonary nodule(PN)detecting system on account of three-dimentional CT(3DCT)imaging.Methods 68 cases with PN wereincluded in this study in our hospital from Jun.2009 to Jun.201 1.All cases underwent simple spiral CT scan andcomputer aided PN detecting system on account of 3DCT scan.Postoperative pathological resuh wa.s considered as the“gold standard”.The two checking methods were calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of benign andmalignant PN.Results The accuracy of distinguishing benign fl'om maligant PN through simple spiral CT scan was0.75,the kappa value was 0.504,pathological resuh after operation had conlnlon con'espondence,the accuracy ofdistinguishing benign from maligant PN through computer aided PN detecting system on account of 3DCT imaging was0.916,the kappa value was 0.805,pathological result after operation had better con'espondence.Conclusions Computer aided PN detecting system on account of 3 DCT imaging has better clinical applicationvalue,and can help doctor carry out early diagnosis of lung disease(such cancer etc.)through CT image.%目的 探讨基于三维CT影像的计算机辅助肺结节检测原型系统在临床应用的效果.方法 分析2009年6月至2011年6月68例肺结节病例,分别采用单纯螺旋CT检查和应用基于三维CT影像的计算机辅助肺结节检测原型系统检测,以术后病理学检查结果 为"金标准",计算两种检查方法 判断肺结节良恶性的准确度.结果 单纯CT检查判断肺结节良恶性的准确度为75%,Kappa值0.504,术后病理检查结果 一致性一般;基于三维CT影像的计算机辅助肺结节检测原型系统检测,判断肺结节良恶性的准确度为91.6%,Kappa值0.805,术后病理检查结果 一致性较好.结论 基于三维CT影像的计算机辅助肺结节检测原型系统具有较好的临床应用价值,可以用于辅助医师进行CT图像中肺癌等肺部疾病的早期诊断.

  19. A computer-aided diagnostic system for kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahantigh, Farzad Firouzi; Malmir, Behnam; Avilaq, Behzad Aslani

    2017-01-01

    Background Disease diagnosis is complicated since patients may demonstrate similar symptoms but physician may diagnose different diseases. There are a few number of investigations aimed to create a fuzzy expert system, as a computer aided system for disease diagnosis. Methods In this research, a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a kidney clinic in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Medical diagnosis fuzzy rules applied, and a set of symptoms related to the set of considered diseases defined. The input case to be diagnosed defined by assigning a fuzzy value to each symptom and then three physicians asked about each suspected diseases. Then comments of those three physicians summarized for each disease. The fuzzy inference applied to obtain a decision fuzzy set for each disease, and crisp decision values attained to determine the certainty of existence for each disease. Results Results indicated that, in the diagnosis of seven cases of kidney disease by examining 21 indicators using fuzzy expert system, kidney stone disease with 63% certainty was the most probable, renal tubular was at the lowest level with 15%, and other kidney diseases were at the other levels. The most remarkable finding of this study was that results of kidney disease diagnosis (e.g., kidney stone) via fuzzy expert system were fully compatible with those of kidney physicians. Conclusion The proposed fuzzy expert system is a valid, reliable, and flexible instrument to diagnose several typical input cases. The developed system decreases the effort of initial physical checking and manual feeding of input symptoms.

  20. Remote Voice Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-25

    back to the laser Doppler vibrometer and the digital camera, respectively. Mechanical beam steering mirror modules, such as galvanometer steering...mirror module 43 in accordance with this invention. An appropriate galvanometer -based tracker system has been used for tracking eye motion during laser

  1. XPLANE, a Generative Computer Aided Process Planning System for Part Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erve, van 't A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of XPLANE, a generative computer aided process planning system for part manufacturing. Described is its position and functioning as a part of a more extended computer aided manufacturing system that includes a link to CAD systems, as well as systems for computer

  2. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  3. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  4. Computer-aided detection of small bowel strictures in CT enterography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainani, Nisha I.; Näppi, Janne J.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    The workflow of CT enterography in an emergency setting could be improved significantly by computer-aided detection (CAD) of small bowel strictures to enable even non-expert radiologists to detect sites of obstruction rapidly. We developed a CAD scheme to detect strictures automatically from abdominal multi-detector CT enterography image data by use of multi-scale template matching and a blob detector method. A pilot study was performed on 15 patients with 22 surgically confirmed strictures to study the effect of the CAD scheme on observer performance. The 77% sensitivity of an inexperienced radiologist assisted by CAD was comparable with the 81% sensitivity of an unaided expert radiologist (p=0.07). The use of CAD reduced the reading time to identify strictures significantly (pmuscles, or vessels, and they were easy to dismiss. The results indicate that CAD could provide radiologists with a rapid and accurate interpretation of strictures to improve workflow in an emergency setting.

  5. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  6. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  7. Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules using dynamic self-adaptive template matching and a FLDA classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Liu, Ji-Yu; Wang, Li-Jia; Zheng, Bin; Nie, Sheng-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Improving the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) system for pulmonary nodules is still an important issue for its future clinical applications. This study aims to develop a new CAD scheme for pulmonary nodule detection based on dynamic self-adaptive template matching and Fisher linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) classifier. We first segment and repair lung volume by using OTSU algorithm and three-dimensional (3D) region growing. Next, the suspicious regions of interest (ROIs) are extracted and filtered by applying 3D dot filtering and thresholding method. Then, pulmonary nodule candidates are roughly detected with 3D dynamic self-adaptive template matching. Finally, we optimally select 11 image features and apply FLDA classifier to reduce false positive detections. The performance of the new method is validated by comparing with other methods through experiments using two groups of public datasets from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and ANODE09. By a 10-fold cross-validation experiment, the new CAD scheme finally has achieved a sensitivity of 90.24% and a false-positive (FP) of 4.54 FP/scan on average for the former dataset, and a sensitivity of 84.1% with 5.59 FP/scan for the latter. By comparing with other previously reported CAD schemes tested on the same datasets, the study proves that this new scheme can yield higher and more robust results in detecting pulmonary nodules.

  8. Vision-aided inertial navigation system for robotic mobile mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoud, Fadi; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-04-01

    A mapping system by vision-aided inertial navigation was developed for areas where GNSS signals are unreachable. In this framework, a methodology on the integration of vision and inertial sensors is presented, analysed and tested. The system employs the method of “SLAM: Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping” where the only external input available to the system at the beginning of the mapping mission is a number of features with known coordinates. SLAM is a term used in the robotics community to describe the problem of mapping the environment and at the same time using this map to determine the location of the mapping device. Differing from the robotics approach, the presented development stems from the frameworks of photogrammetry and kinematic geodesy that are merged in two filters that run in parallel: the Least-Squares Adjustment (LSA) for features coordinates determination and the Kalman filter (KF) for navigation correction. To test this approach, a mapping system-prototype comprising two CCD cameras and one Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is introduced. Conceptually, the outputs of the LSA photogrammetric resection are used as the external measurements for the KF that corrects the inertial navigation. The filtered position and orientation are subsequently employed in the photogrammetric intersection to map the surrounding features that are used as control points for the resection in the next epoch. We confirm empirically the dependency of navigation performance on the quality of the images and the number of tracked features, as well as on the geometry of the stereo-pair. Due to its autonomous nature, the SLAM's performance is further affected by the quality of IMU initialisation and the a-priory assumptions on error distribution. Using the example of the presented system we show that centimetre accuracy can be achieved in both navigation and mapping when the image geometry is optimal.

  9. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  10. Search and rescue satellite-aided tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudell, B.; Gutwein, J. M.; Vollmers, R.; Wammer, D.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of Sarsat is to demonstrate that satellites can greatly facilitate the monitoring, detection, and location of distress incidents alerted by Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) and Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) carried on commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft and some marine vessels. The detection and location will be accomplished by relaying, via satellite, ELT/EPIRB distress information to ground stations, which will complete the data processing and forward alert and position location data to rescue coordination services. This paper presents a Sarsat system description and a summary of Coast Guard and USAF objectives for the initial demonstration and evaluation tests of Sarsat.

  11. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShabnamNoorani,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  12. Satellite-aided mobile radio concepts study: Concept definition of a satellite-aided mobile and personal radio communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The satellite system requires the use of a large satellite antenna and spacecraft array power of about 12 kW or more depending on the operating frequency. Technology developments needed include large offset reflector multibeam antennas, satellite electrical power sybsystems providing greater than 12 kW of power, signal switching hardware, and linearized efficient solid state amplifiers for the satellite-aided mobile band. Presently there is no frequency assignment for this service, and it is recommended that an allocation be pursued. The satellite system appears to be within reasonable extrapolation of the state of the art. It is further recommended that the satellite-aided system spacecraft definition studies and supporting technology development be initiated.

  13. Mine Safety Detection System (MSDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    BLANK xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Acronym Term ALMDS Airborne Laser -Mine Detection System AMCM Airborne Mine Countermeasure AoA...Streak Tube Imaging Laser ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier USN United States Navy UWIED Under Water Improvised Explosive Devices VLCC Very Large Crude...active sonar, passive sonar, infra-red (IR) thermal imaging, LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), and the use of marine mammals ( dolphins and porpoises

  14. An expert system application for network intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Dubois, D.H.; Stallings, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a prototype intrusion detection system for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). The Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR) differs in one respect from most intrusion detection systems. It tries to address the intrusion detection problem on a network, as opposed to a single operating system. NADIR design intent was to copy and improve the audit record review activities normally done by security auditors. We wished to replace the manual review of audit logs with a near realtime expert system. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in user profiles, against expert rules that define network security policy, improper or suspicious network activities, and normal network and user activity. When it detects deviant (anomalous) behavior, NADIR alerts operators in near realtime, and provides tools to aid in the investigation of the anomalous event. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Development of a new automatic incident detection system for freeways using a bi-classifier approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, A.

    1998-12-31

    The development and assessment of a new automatic incident detection (AID) system for traffic management authorities was presented. The AID is designed to provide early response to traffic delays caused by traffic incidents. This newly proposed AID system makes effective use of information obtained from people travelling in the opposite direction of the traffic jam. The method was tested on a stretch of the Trans-Canada Highway and was used to develop a simulation model. A comparison of the new method with two other in-use systems showed that it is possible to reduce the detection time by about 40 per cent.

  16. [Design and implementation of GpsOne remote heart disease first-aid system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua

    2008-09-01

    This paper introduces how to develop a novel remote heart disease first-aid system with N-tier architecture. The system applies GpsOne communication technology and professional ECG signal collection technology to the embedded SCM. It can provide an accurate location of the patient and his essential ECG details for remote heart disease first-aid.

  17. Intelligent System for Worm Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Sobh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms are on the top of malware threats attacking computer system although of the evolution of worms detectiontechniques. Early detection of unknown worms is still a problem. This paper produce a method for detecting unknown wormsbased on local victim information. The proposed system uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN for classifying worm/ nonwormtraffic and predicting the percentage of infection in the infected network. This prediction can be used to support decisionmaking process for network administrator to respond quickly to worm propagation in an accurate procedure.

  18. United Nations system efforts to support the response to AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Lin; HE; Joel; REHNSTROM

    2005-01-01

    In the last two years, we have seen a remarkable intensification in the response to AIDS in China. A number of organizations have joined and contributed to the efforts of the Chinese government in responding the AIDS epidemic in China. This article specifically describes the role of the United Nations in supporting and strengthening those responses.Achievements of the United Nations (UN) highlighted in the article include: strengthened leadership and political commitment to respond to AIDS; improved HIV/AIDS surveillance and information; expanded prevention efforts; improved treatment, care and support to people living with HIV and increased resources for AIDS programs. Additional roles of e., one national plan on AIDS; one national coordinating authority for AIDS; and one monitoring and evaluation system for AIDS. In addition, the UN system is expected to strengthen alignment and harmonization of activities of all international organizations and improved accountability and oversight. Remaining challenges identified include increasing awareness of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination; reducing vulnerability and risk behaviour among specific groups;providing improved treatment, care and support for people living with HIV; promoting stronger engagement by civil society, and; addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS.

  19. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  20. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  1. Analysis of computer-aided detection techniques and signal characteristics for clustered microcalcifications on digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark A.

    2016-10-01

    With IRB approval, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images of human subjects were collected using a GE GEN2 DBT prototype system. Corresponding digital mammograms (DMs) of the same subjects were collected retrospectively from patient files. The data set contained a total of 237 views of DBT and equal number of DM views from 120 human subjects, each included 163 views with microcalcification clusters (MCs) and 74 views without MCs. The data set was separated into training and independent test sets. The pre-processing, object prescreening and segmentation, false positive reduction and clustering strategies for MC detection by three computer-aided detection (CADe) systems designed for DM, DBT, and a planar projection image generated from DBT were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves based on features extracted from microcalcifications and free-response ROC (FROC) curves based on scores from MCs were used to quantify the performance of the systems. Jackknife FROC (JAFROC) and non-parametric analysis methods were used to determine the statistical difference between the FROC curves. The difference between the CADDM and CADDBT systems when the false positive rate was estimated from cases without MCs did not reach statistical significance. The study indicates that the large search space in DBT may not be a limiting factor for CADe to achieve similar performance as that observed in DM.

  2. Detection of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa as a pharmacological ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2002-01-01

    The use of DNA-recombinant human epoetin-alfa (rhEPO) as a pharmacological ergogenic aid for the enhancement of aerobic performance is estimated to be practised by at least 3 to 7% of elite endurance sport athletes. rhEPO is synthesised from Chinese hamster ovary cells, and is nearly identical biochemically and immunologically to endogenous epoetin-alfa (EPO). In a clinical setting, rhEPO is used to stimulate erythrocyte production in patients with end-stage renal disease and anaemia. A limited number of human studies have suggested that rhEPO provides a significant erythropoietic and ergogenic benefit in trained individuals as evidenced by increments in haemoglobin, haematocrit, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and exercise endurance time. The purpose of this review is to summarise the various technologies and methodologies currently available for the detection of illicit use of rhEPO in athletes. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned the use of rhEPO as an ergogenic aid in 1990. Since then a number of methods have been proposed as potential techniques for detecting the illegal use of rhEPO. Most of these techniques use indirect markers to detect rhEPO in blood samples. These indirect markers include macrocytic hypochromatic erythrocytes and serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentration. Another indirect technique uses a combination of 5 markers of enhanced erythropoiesis (haematocrit, reticulocyte haematocrit, percentage of macrocytic red blood cells, serum EPO, sTfr) to detect rhEPO. The electrophoretic mobility technique provides a direct measurement of urine and serum levels of rhEPO, and is based on the principle that the rhEPO molecule is less negatively charged versus the endogenous EPO molecule. Isoelectric patterning/focusing has emerged recently as a potential method for the direct analysis of rhEPO in urine. Among these various methodologies, the indirect technique that utilises multiple markers of enhanced erythropoiesis appears to

  3. Quickest detection in coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiliadis, Olympia; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This work considers the problem of quickest detection of signals in a coupled system of N sensors, which receive continuous sequential observations from the environment. It is assumed that the signals, which are modeled a general Ito processes, are coupled across sensors, but that their onset times may differ from sensor to sensor. The objective is the optimal detection of the first time at which any sensor in the system receives a signal. The problem is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem in which an extended average Kullback- Leibler divergence criterion is used as a measure of detection delay, with a constraint on the mean time between false alarms. The case in which the sensors employ cumulative sum (CUSUM) strategies is considered, and it is proved that the minimum of N CUSUMs is asymptotically optimal as the mean time between false alarms increases without bound.

  4. System for detecting microbial contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, J.; Groenestijn, J.W.; Zegers, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting microbial contamination of a liquid specimen comprising a device for concentrating micro-organisms from a liquid specimen, having (i) a hypobaric chamber, (ii) a filter housing comprising a liquid-permeable bed of an adsorbent material and adap

  5. Computer-aided Detection Fidelity of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest Radiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellios, Nikolaos; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Chelaru, Robert; Malich, Ansgar; Papageorgiou, Ismini E

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The most ubiquitous chest diagnostic method is the chest radiograph. A common radiographic finding, quite often incidental, is the nodular pulmonary lesion. The detection of small lesions out of complex parenchymal structure is a daily clinical challenge. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of the computer-aided detection (CAD) software package SoftView™ 2.4A for bone suppression and OnGuard™ 5.2 (Riverain Technologies, Miamisburg, OH, USA) for automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a dataset of 100 posteroanterior chest radiographs with pulmonary nodular lesions ranging from 5 to 85 mm. All nodules were confirmed with a consecutive computed tomography scan and histologically classified as 75% malignant. The number of detected lesions by observation in unprocessed images was compared to the number and dignity of CAD-detected lesions in bone-suppressed images (BSIs). Results: SoftView™ BSI does not affect the objective lesion-to-background contrast. OnGuard™ has a stand-alone sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 58% for nodular lesion detection in chest radiographs. The false positive rate is 0.88/image and the false negative (FN) rate is 0.35/image. From the true positive lesions, 20% were proven benign and 80% were malignant. FN lesions were 47% benign and 53% malignant. Conclusion: We conclude that CAD does not qualify for a stand-alone standard of diagnosis. The use of CAD accompanied with a critical radiological assessment of the software suggested pattern appears more realistic. Accordingly, it is essential to focus on studies assessing the quality-time-cost profile of real-time (as opposed to retrospective) CAD implementation in clinical diagnostics.

  6. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  7. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  8. Optical tomographic detection of rheumatoid arthritis with computer-aided classification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.; Klose, Alexander D.; Netz, Uwe; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2009-02-01

    A recent research study has shown that combining multiple parameters, drawn from optical tomographic images, leads to better classification results to identifying human finger joints that are affected or not affected by rheumatic arthritis RA. Building up on the research findings of the previous study, this article presents an advanced computer-aided classification approach for interpreting optical image data to detect RA in finger joints. Additional data are used including, for example, maximum and minimum values of the absorption coefficient as well as their ratios and image variances. Classification performances obtained by the proposed method were evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and area under the curve AUC. Results were compared to different benchmarks ("gold standard"): magnet resonance, ultrasound and clinical evaluation. Maximum accuracies (AUC=0.88) were reached when combining minimum/maximum-ratios and image variances and using ultrasound as gold standard.

  9. Computer-aided stenosis detection at coronary CT angiography: effect on performance of readers with different experience levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thilo, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herzzentrum Augsburg-Schwaben, Department of Cardiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Gebregziabher, Mulugeta [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Arnoldi, Elisabeth M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Goldenberg, Roman [Rcadia Medical Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Nance, John W.; Soma, Lashonda D.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Blanke, Philip; Coursey, Richard L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Rosenblum, Michael A.; Zwerner, Peter L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm for coronary CT angiography (cCTA) on the performance of readers with different experience levels. We studied 50 patients (18 women, 58 ± 11 years) who had undergone cCTA and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Eight observers with varying experience levels evaluated all studies for ≥50 % coronary artery stenosis. After 3 months, the same observers re-evaluated all studies, this time guided by a CAD system. Their performance with and without the CAD system (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value) was assessed using the Likelihood Ratio Χ{sup 2} test both at the per-patient and per-vessel levels. The sensitivity of the CAD system alone for stenosis detection was 71 % per-vessel and 100 % per-patient. There were 54 false positive (FP) findings within 199 analyzed vessels, most of them associated with non-obstructive (<50 %) lesions. With CAD, one (out of three, 33 %) inexperienced reader's per-patient sensitivity and negative predictive value significantly improved from 79 % to 100 % (P = 0.046) and from 90 % to 100 % (P = 0.034), respectively. Other readers' performance indices showed no statistically significant change. Our results suggest that CAD can improve some inexperienced readers' sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery stenosis at cCTA. (orig.)

  10. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  11. Role of computer aided detection (CAD) integration: case study with meniscal and articular cartilage CAD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nabile; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    Knee-related injuries involving the meniscal or articular cartilage are common and require accurate diagnosis and surgical intervention when appropriate. With proper techniques and experience, confidence in detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage abnormalities can be quite high. However, for radiologists without musculoskeletal training, diagnosis of such abnormalities can be challenging. In this paper, the potential of improving diagnosis through integration of computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms for automatic detection of meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries of the knees is studied. An integrated approach in which the results of algorithms evaluating either meniscal tears or articular cartilage injuries provide feedback to each other is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the individual CAD algorithms due to the known association between abnormalities in these distinct anatomic structures. The correlation between meniscal tears and articular cartilage injuries is exploited to improve the final diagnostic results of the individual algorithms. Preliminary results from the integrated application are encouraging and more comprehensive tests are being planned.

  12. Trajectory-based ball detection and tracking with aid of homography in broadcast tennis video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinguo; Jiang, Nianjuan; Ang, Ee Luang

    2007-01-01

    Ball-detection-and-tracking in broadcast tennis video (BTV) is a crucial but challenging task in tennis video semantics analysis. Informally, the challenges are due to camera motion and the other causes such as the presence of many ball-like objects and the small size of the tennis ball. The trajectory-based approach proposed by us in our previous papers mainly counteracted the challenges imposed by causes other than camera motion and achieves a good performance. This paper proposes an improved trajectory-based ball detection and tracking algorithm in BTV with the aid of homography, which counteracts the challenges caused by camera motion and bring us multiple new merits. Firstly, it acquires an accurate homography, which transforms each frame into the "standard" frame. Secondly, it achieved higher accuracy of ball identification. Thirdly, it obtains the ball projection position in the real world, instead of ball location in the image. Lastly, it also identifies landing frames and positions of the ball. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm can obtain not only higher accuracy in ball identification and in ball position alike, but also ball landing frames and positions. With the intent of using homography to improve the video-based event detection for smart home we also do some experiments on acquiring the homography for home surveillance video.

  13. Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Detection of Microcalcification Clusters in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-wook Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose computer-aided detection (CADe algorithm for microcalcification (MC clusters in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT images. The algorithm consists of prescreening, MC detection, clustering, and false-positive (FP reduction steps. The DBT images containing the MC-like objects were enhanced by a multiscale Hessian-based three-dimensional (3D objectness response function and a connected-component segmentation method was applied to extract the cluster seed objects as potential clustering centers of MCs. Secondly, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR enhanced image was also generated to detect the individual MC candidates and prescreen the MC-like objects. Each cluster seed candidate was prescreened by counting neighboring individual MC candidates nearby the cluster seed object according to several microcalcification clustering criteria. As a second step, we introduced bounding boxes for the accepted seed candidate, clustered all the overlapping cubes, and examined. After the FP reduction step, the average number of FPs per case was estimated to be 2.47 per DBT volume with a sensitivity of 83.3%.

  14. An automated computer misuse detection system for UNICOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.A.; Neuman, M.C.; Simmonds, D.D.; Stallings, C.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Christoph, G.G.

    1994-09-27

    An effective method for detecting computer misuse is the automatic monitoring and analysis of on-line user activity. This activity is reflected in the system audit record, in the system vulnerability posture, and in other evidence found through active testing of the system. During the last several years we have implemented an automatic misuse detection system at Los Alamos. This is the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR). We are currently expanding NADIR to include processing of the Cray UNICOS operating system. This new component is called the UNICOS Realtime NADIR, or UNICORN. UNICORN summarizes user activity and system configuration in statistical profiles. It compares these profiles to expert rules that define security policy and improper or suspicious behavior. It reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. The first phase of UNICORN development is nearing completion, and will be operational in late 1994.

  15. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini; Adelmo Gian Martino Mazzocchi

    2011-01-01

    Aids are only one of the instruments with which the disabled person can often reach a good level of autonomy,he can improve his conditions of life and prevent the aggravating of his situation.Aids serve also to facilitate care on the part of the family.The rights confirmed by Law 104 can also be achieved through the use of aids.The Italian state has planned a system of care with regards to aids so that some of them can be purchased with different tax concessions but essential aids,those necessary for the reaching of autonomy goals and prevention defined by an individual rehabilitative project,are supplied free of charge.In Italy essential aids are part therefore of a rehabilitation plan that is identified for each person with disabilities by a team made up of different professionals.

  16. Socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS in the family system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taraphdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS can lead to poverty affecting particularly women and young people and can halt or reverse socioeconomic development of a country. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the socioeconomic consequences of HIV/AIDS within the family. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among patients admitted in in-patient department and those attending integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC of School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata. Data were gathered by interviewing the patients by using a predesigned questionnaire. Results: For prolonged duration and severity of disease, higher proportion of indoor patients reported loss of job, decreased family income, increased expenditure for care seeking, and faced greater economic consequences, reflected by selling assets. Loss of job was mainly due to illness (86.8%, disclosure of sero-status (13.2%, and predominantly among skilled workers. Assets were sold mainly to meet the cost of own illness for indoor patients, but more to meet the expenditure for husband′s illness, in the case of ICTC patients. High school dropout seen in both groups was mainly due to economic reasons. HIV/AIDS status was known to other members of family for 84.8% of indoor patients out of which 15.4% experienced rejection by family members. Out of 72 ever married women indoor patients whose in-laws were aware of their HIV/AIDS status, 41.7%, 40.9%, and 33.33% reportedly were blamed for spouse′s illness, and had strained relation with in-laws and spouse, respectively. Conclusion: Intensive behavior change communication and provision of care and support are required to curb AIDS-related stigma, discrimination, and to maintain physical, mental, and social wellbeing of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Using System Dynamics to model the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, R.; Wesselink, O.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Uganda and Botswana present two interesting and contrasting cases in the AIDS epidemic. System dynamics models of the AIDS epidemic in Botswana and Uganda were created to examine the future development of the virus in both countries and evaluate existing and future policy measures. The effect of exi

  18. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  19. An interactive system for computer-aided diagnosis of breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weidong; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Although mammography is the only clinically accepted imaging modality for screening the general population to detect breast cancer, interpreting mammograms is difficult with lower sensitivity and specificity. To provide radiologists "a visual aid" in interpreting mammograms, we developed and tested an interactive system for computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) of mass-like cancers. Using this system, an observer can view CAD-cued mass regions depicted on one image and then query any suspicious regions (either cued or not cued by CAD). CAD scheme automatically segments the suspicious region or accepts manually defined region and computes a set of image features. Using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) algorithm, CAD searches for a set of reference images depicting "abnormalities" similar to the queried region. Based on image retrieval results and a decision algorithm, a classification score is assigned to the queried region. In this study, a reference database with 1,800 malignant mass regions and 1,800 benign and CAD-generated false-positive regions was used. A modified CBIR algorithm with a new function of stretching the attributes in the multi-dimensional space and decision scheme was optimized using a genetic algorithm. Using a leave-one-out testing method to classify suspicious mass regions, we compared the classification performance using two CBIR algorithms with either equally weighted or optimally stretched attributes. Using the modified CBIR algorithm, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was significantly increased from 0.865 ± 0.006 to 0.897 ± 0.005 (p interactive CAD system with a large reference database and achieving improved performance.

  20. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  1. Deep-learning convolution neural network for computer-aided detection of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Cha, Kenny; Helvie, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    A deep learning convolution neural network (DLCNN) was designed to differentiate microcalcification candidates detected during the prescreening stage as true calcifications or false positives in a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for clustered microcalcifications. The microcalcification candidates were extracted from the planar projection image generated from the digital breast tomosynthesis volume reconstructed by a multiscale bilateral filtering regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique. For training and testing of the DLCNN, true microcalcifications are manually labeled for the data sets and false positives were obtained from the candidate objects identified by the CAD system at prescreening after exclusion of the true microcalcifications. The DLCNN architecture was selected by varying the number of filters, filter kernel sizes and gradient computation parameter in the convolution layers, resulting in a parameter space of 216 combinations. The exhaustive grid search method was used to select an optimal architecture within the parameter space studied, guided by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a figure-of-merit. The effects of varying different categories of the parameter space were analyzed. The selected DLCNN was compared with our previously designed CNN architecture for the test set. The AUCs of the CNN and DLCNN was 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. The improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  4. MA- IDS: A Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-hua; JIN Hai; CHEN Hao; HAN Zong-fen

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings in intrusion detection systems (IDSs) used in commercial and research fields,we propose the MA-IDS system, a distributed intrusion detection system based on data mining. In this model, misuse intrusion detection system (MIDS) and anomaly intrusion detection system (AIDS) are combined. Data mining is applied to raise detection performance, and distributed mechanism is employed to increase the scalability and efficiency. Host- and network-based mining algorithms employ an improved Bayesian decision theorem that suits for real security environment to minimize the risks incurred by false decisions. We describe the overall architecture of the MA-IDS system, and discuss specific design and implementation issue.

  5. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for Alzheimer's disease using magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya; Soma, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accompanied with brain atrophy. Structural measurements of brain atrophy in specific brain structures such as hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been reported to detect the development of dementia early in the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for AD using MRI, which is based on the automatic volumetry of segmented brain images and generation of three-dimensional cortical thickness images using the Eulerian partial differential equation (PDE) approach. We investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength and statistical noise on the accuracy of our automatic volumetry and the PDE approach using the simulated MR images generated from BrainWeb. Our automatic volumetry and PDE approach were robust against inhomogeneous magnetic field strength. Although the accuracy of our automatic volumetry decreased with increasing statistical noise, it was mai...

  6. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  7. Computer-aided detection of bladder mass within non-contrast-enhanced region of CT Urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon; Zhou, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced region of the bladder. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the non-contrast enhanced region. The bladder was first segmented using a newly developed deep-learning convolutional neural network in combination with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensityprojection- based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and a gray level threshold was employed to segment the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates as a prescreening step. The lesion candidates were segmented using our autoinitialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method, and 27 morphological features were extracted for each candidate. Stepwise feature selection with simplex optimization and leave-one-case-out resampling were used for training and validation of a false positive (FP) classifier. In each leave-one-case-out cycle, features were selected from the training cases and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features into a single score for classification of the left-out test case. A data set of 33 cases with 42 biopsy-proven lesions in the noncontrast enhanced region was collected. During prescreening, the system obtained 83.3% sensitivity at an average of 2.4 FPs/case. After feature extraction and FP reduction by LDA, the system achieved 81.0% sensitivity at 2.0 FPs/case, and 73.8% sensitivity at 1.5 FPs/case.

  8. Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix 2000 Project. Volume 1. Development and Application of an Aids to Navigation Service Force Mix Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Hours: 0.00 LT ANT ?: DBN ANT ?: (Database: Survey.db Report#: 6) Appendix H Page H-21 12/02/91 BUOY TENDER SUMMARY Page 22 Primary Unit: ACACIA District...2-5 2.2.4 ATON Tug Barges ........................ 2-5 2.2.5 Aids to Navigation Teams ( ANTs ) ................. 2-6 2.3 ATON SERVICES...navigation boat ANT aids to navigation team AOPS abstract of operations ATON aids to navigation ATONIS aids to navigation information system BRIDGE

  9. A Profiling System for the Assessment of Individual Needs for Rehabilitation With Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter A. Dreschler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of a profiling system to specify the needs of hearing-aid candidates. As a basis for the profile of compensation needs, we used a slightly modified version of the Amsterdam Inventory of Disability and Handicap, combined with the well-known Client-Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI. The first questionnaire results in scores for six audiological dimensions: detection, speech in quiet, speech in noise, localization, focus or discrimination, and noise tolerance. The goal of this study was to determine whether the six dimensions derived from the disability questionnaire are appropriate to also categorize individual COSI targets. The results show a good agreement between eight audiologists in the categorization of COSI goals along the six dimensions. The results per dimension show that the dimension focus or discrimination can be regarded as superfluous. Possible additional dimensions were tinnitus and listening effort. The results indicate that it is possible to translate individual user needs (administered using COSI into more general dimensions derived from a disability questionnaire. This allows to summarize the compensation needs for individual patients in a profile of general dimensions, based on the degree of disability and the individual user needs. This profile can be used as a starting point in hearing aid selection. This approach also offers a well-structured method for the evaluation of the postfitting results.

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  11. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  12. MacCAD (Macintosh Computer Aided Design), Computer Aided Design Tool for System Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    8217 . - -. ;. . : • . , . . . . . ., . ... ..- ... . -. .... , , .. .. , ..: Change from System Group Cancel Forward Path Feedback Path (stmMotor Circuit I (elocity ’: Lstm Loa~d Type of feedback - N simplification form ,Geq [I Add

  13. Computer-Aided Prototyping Systems (CAPS) within the software acquisition process: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Mary Kay

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis provides a case study which examines the benefits derived from the practice of computer-aided prototyping within the software acquisition process. An experimental prototyping systems currently in research is the Computer Aided Prototyping System (CAPS) managed under the Computer Science department of the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. This thesis determines the qualitative value which may be realized by ...

  14. Mobile Phone Based Falling Detection Sensor and Computer-Aided Algorithm for Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are dangerous for the elderly population; therefore many fall detection systems have been developed. However, previous methods are bulky for elderly people or only use a single sensor to isolate falls from daily living activities, which makes a fall difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present a cost-effective and easy-to-use portable fall-detection sensor and algorithm. Specifically, to detect human falls, we used a three-axis accelerator and a three-axis gyroscope in a mobile phone. We used the Fourier descriptor-based frequency analysis method to classify both normal and falling status. From the experimental results, the proposed method detects falling status with 96.14% accuracy.

  15. Learning-based image preprocessing for robust computer-aided detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Laks; Devarakota, Pandu R.; Wolf, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that low dose computed tomography (LDCT) can be an effective screening tool to reduce lung cancer mortality. Computer-aided detection (CAD) would be a beneficial second reader for radiologists in such cases. Studies demonstrate that while iterative reconstructions (IR) improve LDCT diagnostic quality, it however degrades CAD performance significantly (increased false positives) when applied directly. For improving CAD performance, solutions such as retraining with newer data or applying a standard preprocessing technique may not be suffice due to high prevalence of CT scanners and non-uniform acquisition protocols. Here, we present a learning-based framework that can adaptively transform a wide variety of input data to boost an existing CAD performance. This not only enhances their robustness but also their applicability in clinical workflows. Our solution consists of applying a suitable pre-processing filter automatically on the given image based on its characteristics. This requires the preparation of ground truth (GT) of choosing an appropriate filter resulting in improved CAD performance. Accordingly, we propose an efficient consolidation process with a novel metric. Using key anatomical landmarks, we then derive consistent feature descriptors for the classification scheme that then uses a priority mechanism to automatically choose an optimal preprocessing filter. We demonstrate CAD prototype∗ performance improvement using hospital-scale datasets acquired from North America, Europe and Asia. Though we demonstrated our results for a lung nodule CAD, this scheme is straightforward to extend to other post-processing tools dedicated to other organs and modalities.

  16. Computer-aided detection of prostate cancer in T2-weighted MRI within the peripheral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampun, Andrik; Zheng, Ling; Malcolm, Paul; Tiddeman, Bernie; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we propose a prostate cancer computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system and suggest a set of discriminant texture descriptors extracted from T2-weighted MRI data which can be used as a good basis for a multimodality system. For this purpose, 215 texture descriptors were extracted and eleven different classifiers were employed to achieve the best possible results. The proposed method was tested based on 418 T2-weighted MR images taken from 45 patients and evaluated using 9-fold cross validation with five patients in each fold. The results demonstrated comparable results to existing CAD systems using multimodality MRI. We achieved an area under the receiver operating curve (A z ) values equal to 90.0%+/- 7.6% , 89.5%+/- 8.9% , 87.9%+/- 9.3% and 87.4%+/- 9.2% for Bayesian networks, ADTree, random forest and multilayer perceptron classifiers, respectively, while a meta-voting classifier using average probability as a combination rule achieved 92.7%+/- 7.4% .

  17. MULTI-AGENT COMPUTER AIDED ASSEMBLY PROCESS PLANNING SYSTEM FOR SHIP HULL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-agent computer aided assembly process planning system (MCAAPP) for ship hull is presented. The system includes system framework, global facilitator, the macro agent structure, agent communication language, agent-oriented programming language, knowledge representation and reasoning strategy. The system can produce the technological file and technological quota, which can satisfy the production needs of factory.

  18. A new 2D segmentation method based on dynamic programming applied to computer aided detection in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timp, Sheila; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2004-05-01

    Mass segmentation plays a crucial role in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for classification of suspicious regions as normal, benign, or malignant. In this article we present a robust and automated segmentation technique--based on dynamic programming--to segment mass lesions from surrounding tissue. In addition, we propose an efficient algorithm to guarantee resulting contours to be closed. The segmentation method based on dynamic programming was quantitatively compared with two other automated segmentation methods (region growing and the discrete contour model) on a dataset of 1210 masses. For each mass an overlap criterion was calculated to determine the similarity with manual segmentation. The mean overlap percentage for dynamic programming was 0.69, for the other two methods 0.60 and 0.59, respectively. The difference in overlap percentage was statistically significant. To study the influence of the segmentation method on the performance of a CAD system two additional experiments were carried out. The first experiment studied the detection performance of the CAD system for the different segmentation methods. Free-response receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that the detection performance was nearly identical for the three segmentation methods. In the second experiment the ability of the classifier to discriminate between malignant and benign lesions was studied. For region based evaluation the area Az under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.74 for dynamic programming, 0.72 for the discrete contour model, and 0.67 for region growing. The difference in Az values obtained by the dynamic programming method and region growing was statistically significant. The differences between other methods were not significant.

  19. Computer-aided detection of clustered microcalcifications in multiscale bilateral filtering regularized reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samala, Ravi K., E-mail: rsamala@umich.edu; Chan, Heang-Ping; Lu, Yao; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Wei, Jun; Helvie, Mark A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Sahiner, Berkman [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection (CADe) system for clustered microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume enhanced with multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent, two-view DBT of 154 breasts, of which 116 had biopsy-proven microcalcification (MC) clusters and 38 were free of MCs, was imaged with a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system. The DBT volumes were reconstructed with MSBF-regularized simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) that was designed to enhance MCs and reduce background noise while preserving the quality of other tissue structures. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MCs was further improved with enhancement-modulated calcification response (EMCR) preprocessing, which combined multiscale Hessian response to enhance MCs by shape and bandpass filtering to remove the low-frequency structured background. MC candidates were then located in the EMCR volume using iterative thresholding and segmented by adaptive region growing. Two sets of potential MC objects, cluster centroid objects and MC seed objects, were generated and the CNR of each object was calculated. The number of candidates in each set was controlled based on the breast volume. Dynamic clustering around the centroid objects grouped the MC candidates to form clusters. Adaptive criteria were designed to reduce false positive (FP) clusters based on the size, CNR values and the number of MCs in the cluster, cluster shape, and cluster based maximum intensity projection. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and jackknife alternative FROC (JAFROC) analyses were used to assess the performance and compare with that of a previous study. Results: Unpaired two-tailedt-test showed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the ratio of CNRs for MCs with and without MSBF regularization compared to similar ratios for FPs. For view-based detection, a

  20. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOP A COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FOR AUTOMATIC EXUDATES DETECTION FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. SATHIYAMOORTHY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease which can lead to blindness. One of the main symptoms for vision loss is Exudates and it could be prevented by applying an early screening process. In the Existing systems, a Fuzzy C-Means Clustering technique is used for detecting the exudates for analyzation. The main objective of this paper is, to improve the efficiency of the Exudates detection in diabetic retinopathy images. To do this, a three Stage – [TS] approach is introduced for detecting and extracting the exudates automatically from the retinal images for screening the Diabetic retinopathy. TS functions on the image in three levels such as Pre-processing the image, enhancing the image and detecting the Exudates accurately. After successful detection, the detected exudates are classified using GLCM method for finding the accuracy. The TS approach is experimented using MATLAB software and the performance evaluation can be proved by comparing the results with the existing approach’s result and with the hand-drawn ground truths images from the expert ophthalmologist.

  2. Newcastle disease virus passage in MDBK cells as an aid in detection of a virulent subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D J

    1993-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) La Sota, Texas GB (GB), and mixtures of the two strains were serially passaged in embryonated chicken eggs or the MDBK cell line, a more restrictive culture system than eggs for NDV. The two culture systems were compared by evaluating culture harvests for pathogenicity in inoculated chickens; the harvests were identified by hemagglutination-inhibition tests against monoclonal antibodies that can differentiate La Sota and GB cultures. Both viruses, inoculated alone or as mixtures, were propagated by passage in chicken eggs. La Sota strain failed to propagate by continuous passage in MDBK cells, and only GB was identified in culture harvests propagated in MDBK cells that had been inoculated with GB or mixtures of GB and La Sota. The results indicate that the MDBK cell line is a more selective substrate than chicken eggs and suggest that passage in MDBK cells may aid in selecting for more virulent subpopulations of NDV in a mixed culture. Other reference NDV strains, pigeon NDV isolates, and recent lentogenic NDV isolates from chickens were also passaged in MDBK cells; all strains except those that are classified as lentogens like La Sota could be serially propagated in MDBK cells.

  3. Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-06-01

    To improve the outage performance of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system under the frequency offset between the sampling clocks in the transmitter and receiver, a pilot-aided sampling frequency offset (SFO) estimation and compensation scheme for the optical OFDM system with intensity-modulation and direct-detection (DD-OOFDM) is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental and simulated results show that the scheme can work effectively even with large sampling frequency offsets. In addition, it can achieve a good bit error rate (BER) performance without the sampling clock frequency synchronization in the receiver.

  4. Thermal animal detection system (TADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desholm, M.

    2003-03-01

    This report presents data from equipment tests and software development for the Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) development project: 'Development of a method for estimating collision frequency between migrating birds and offshore wind turbines'. The technical tests were performed to investigate the performance of remote controlling, video file compression tool and physical stress of the thermal camera when operating outdoors and under the real time vibration conditions at a 2 MW turbine. Furthermore, experimental tests on birds were performed to describe the decreasing detectability with distance on free flying birds, the performance of the thermal camera during poor visibility, and finally, the performance of the thermal sensor software developed for securing high -quality data. In general, it can be concluded that the thermal camera and its related hardware and software, the TADS, are capable of recording migrating birds approaching the rotating blades of a turbine, even under conditions with poor visibility. If the TADS is used in a vertical viewing scenario it would comply with the requirements for a setup used for estimating the avian collision frequency at offshore wind turbines. (au)

  5. Investment in HIV/AIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Joan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing debate about whether the scaled-up investment in HIV/AIDS programs is strengthening or weakening the fragile health systems of many developing countries. This article examines and assesses the evidence and proposes ways forward. Discussion Considerably increased resources have been brought into countries for HIV/AIDS programs by major Global Health Initiatives. Among the positive impacts are the increased awareness of and priority given to public health by governments. In addition, services to people living with HIV/AIDS have rapidly expanded. In many countries infrastructure and laboratories have been strengthened, and in some, primary health care services have been improved. The effect of AIDS on the health work force has been lessened by the provision of antiretroviral treatment to HIV-infected health care workers, by training, and, to an extent, by task-shifting. However, there are reports of concerns, too – among them, a temporal association between increasing AIDS funding and stagnant reproductive health funding, and accusations that scarce personnel are siphoned off from other health care services by offers of better-paying jobs in HIV/AIDS programs. Unfortunately, there is limited hard evidence of these health system impacts. Because service delivery for AIDS has not yet reached a level that could conceivably be considered "as close to Universal Access as possible," countries and development partners must maintain the momentum of investment in HIV/AIDS programs. At the same time, it should be recognized that global action for health is even more underfunded than is the response to the HIV epidemic. The real issue is therefore not whether to fund AIDS or health systems, but how to increase funding for both. Summary The evidence is mixed – mostly positive but some negative – as to the impact on health systems of the scaled-up responses to HIV/AIDS driven primarily by global health partnerships

  6. Combination of real-value smell and metaphor expression aids yeast detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smell provides important information about the quality of food and drink. Most well-known for their expertise in wine tasting, sommeliers sniff out the aroma of wine and describe them using beautiful metaphors. In contrast, electronic noses, devices that mimic our olfactory recognition system, also detect smells using their sensors but describe them using electronic signals. These devices have been used to judge the freshness of food or detect the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. However, unlike information from gas chromatography, it is difficult to compare odour information collected by these devices because they are made for smelling specific smells and their data are relative intensities. METHODOLOGY: Here, we demonstrate the use of an absolute-value description method using known smell metaphors, and early detection of yeast using the method. CONCLUSIONS: This technique may help distinguishing microbial-contamination of food products earlier, or improvement of the food-product qualities.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and database system for chest diagnosis based on multi-helical CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru; Sasagawa, Michizou

    2006-03-01

    Multi-helical CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system. The results of this study indicate that our computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and safety of medical information.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  9. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  10. An Architecture of Computer Aided Process Planning System Integrated with Scheduling Using Decision Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish; Kumar; Sunil; Rajotia

    2002-01-01

    Process planning and scheduling are two major plann in g and control activities that consume significant part of the lead-time, theref ore all attempts are being made to reduce lead-time by automating them. Compute r Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is a step in this direction. Most of the existin g CAPP systems do not consider scheduling while generating a process plan. Sched uling is done separately after the process plan has been generated and therefore , it is possible that a process plan so generated is e...

  11. Distributed Impact Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  13. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...

  14. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  15. Mobile Robot Aided Silhouette Imaging and Robust Body Pose Recognition for Elderly-fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a mobile infrared silhouette imaging and sparse representation-based pose recognition for building an elderly-fall detection system. The proposed imaging paradigm exploits the novel use of the pyroelectric infrared (PIR sensor in pursuit of body silhouette imaging. A mobile robot carrying a vertical column of multi-PIR detectors is organized for the silhouette acquisition. Then we express the fall detection problem in silhouette image-based pose recognition. For the pose recognition, we use a robust sparse representation-based method for fall detection. The normal and fall poses are sparsely represented in the basis space spanned by the combinations of a pose training template and an error template. The l1 norm minimizations with linear programming (LP and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP are used for finding the sparsest solution, and the entity with the largest amplitude encodes the class of the testing sample. The application of the proposed sensing paradigm to fall detection is addressed in the context of three scenarios, including: ideal non-obstruction, simulated random pixel obstruction and simulated random block obstruction. Experimental studies are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method for nursing and homeland healthcare.

  16. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  17. Case Based Reasoning Intelligent System for Network Computer Aided Process Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunhua; WU Zhengjia; ZHOU Chengjun; ZHU Dalin; LI Haoping

    2006-01-01

    Computer aided process planning system played a key role for integrating design and manufacturing or assembly systems properly considering available resources and design constraints. To take advantage of the enterprise resource, the web CAPP framework was established. Case based reasoning and multi agent system were integrated in the system. The multi agent mechanism was discussed in the paper. And an instance of case base was introduced. They made the system run independently and continuously in the network environment of process planning problems.

  18. GPS-Aided Gyroscope-Free Inertial Navigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo

    2002-01-01

    A gyroscope-free inertial navigation system uses only accelerometers to compute navigation trajectories. It is a low-cost navigation system, but its output error diverges at a rate that is an order faster than that of a conventional gyroscope-based system. So integration with an external reference system, such as the Global Positioning System, is necessary for long-term navigation applications. In this pa-per, an integrated GPS and gyroscope-free INS system is designed to achieve stable long-...

  19. Actuator Fault Detection for Sampled-Data Systems in H∞ Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-jun; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua

    2005-01-01

    Actuator fault detection for sampled-data systems was investigated from the viewpoint of jump systems.With the aid of a prior frequency information on fault, such a problem is converted to an augmented H∞ filtering problem. A simple state-space approach is then proposed todeal with sampled-data actuator fault detection problem. Compared with the existed approaches, the proposed approach allows parameters of the sampled-data system being time-varying with consideration of measurement noise.

  20. Persons with Alzheimer's Disease Make Phone Calls Independently Using a Computer-Aided Telephone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Cassano, Germana; Cordiano, Noemi; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.; Oliva, Doretta

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether four patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could make independent phone calls via a computer-aided telephone system. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. All participants started with baseline during which the telephone system was not available,…

  1. [Comparison of two computer-aided recording systems: MT 1602 and Compugnath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbster, L; Benzing, U

    1990-07-01

    Two computer-aided jaw movement recording systems were compared with each other. The results showed that both systems work satisfactorily for use in reconstructive dentistry and TMJ diagnosis. It is, however, emphasized, that there are a number of shortcomings which may have a negative effect on the recordings.

  2. The Shifting Financial Aid System in Spanish University: Grant-Recipients' Experiences and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río-Ruiz, Manuel Ángel; Jiménez-Rodrigo, María Luisa; Caro-Cabrera, Manuel Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Spain inaugurated a reform of its higher education financial aid system inspired by three principles: cost-sharing, increasing academic performance and school efficiency. This reform has shifted the aim of the system from equality of access to a type of meritocracy that can be defined as class-biased, as it is only applied to low-income…

  3. Study on computer-aided alignment method of reflective zoom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jide; Chang, Jun; Xie, Guijuan; Zhang, Ke

    2015-08-01

    Computer-aided alignment is an effective method to improve the imaging quality of high-precision, complex, and off-axis optical systems. However, how to determine the misalignment quickly, exactly and constantly is essential to the technology of computer-aided alignment. Owing to the varying optical characteristics of a zoom system, sensitivity matrices are used in the alignment rather than a single matrix. Thus, the processing of sensitivity matrices is important for the computer-aided alignment of the reflective zoom system. So, the total least squares is proposed in order to solve the problems of the numerical instability and the result inaccuracy which result from the solution of the least squares method directly. Finally, the simulant calculation is processed using the numerical analysis model established in the essay. The results demonstrate that the computation method is rational and effective.

  4. CAMRAD - COMPUTER AIDED MATERIAL REVIEW AUTOMATED DISPOSITION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The basic function of a manufacturer's production support engineering unit is to identify, document, and dispose of hardware that does not conform to drawing requirements. CAMRAD, a program designed for rapid input and retrieval of all data used in engineering-to-manufacturing support operations, aids the engineer by automating the material review disposition process. Before CAMRAD, material review record searches were manual. The time spent searching through old documents precluded the timely disposition of new material reviews. CAMRAD facilitates the research of material review histories and provides for the efficient processing of material review documents. Three SmartWare project files control the operation of CAMRAD. The project file CAMRAD initializes variables for the other project files and specifies the pathing of the CAMRAD program, database files, and document files. The project file DATARAD controls all data management functions. The database consists of individual files containing all records of specific hardware discrepancies for a given part number. There are four basic avenues for records searches: part serial number, feature, Material Review (MR) number, and non-conformance. WORDRAD is the project file which controls the management of document files created when processing a material review disposition. Given a material review report identifying a defective hardware item, the production support engineer can use CAMRAD to quickly search the database for any history of the same problem, find out how well the problem has been documented, and create appropriate documentation for this latest occurrence. CAMRAD is written in the Smart Programming Language and is designed to run on IBM PC compatibles with the SmartWare v. 3.1 software package available from Informix Software. CAMRAD was developed in 1987. SmartWare is a registered trademark of Informix Software, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.

  5. Intelligent Detection System framework using Mobile agents

    CERN Document Server

    Jaisankar, N; Swamy, K Durai

    2010-01-01

    An intrusion detection system framework using mobile agents is a layered framework mechanism designed to support heterogeneous network environments to identify intruders at its best. Traditional computer misuse detection techniques can identify known attacks efficiently, but perform very poorly in other cases. Anomaly detection has the potential to detect unknown attacks; however, it is a very challenging task since its aim is to detect unknown attacks without any priori knowledge about specific intrusions. This technology is still at its early stage. The objective of this paper is that the system can detect anomalous user activity. Existing research in this area focuses either on user activity or on program operation but not on both simultaneously. In this paper, an attempt to look at both concurrently is presented. Based on an intrusion detection framework [1], a novel user anomaly detection system has been implemented and conducted several intrusion detection experiments in a simulated environment by analy...

  6. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  7. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  8. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  9. Environmental information systems - practicable decision aids. Umweltinformationssysteme - praktikable Entscheidungshilfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Environmental information systems are classified in documentation systems and environmental planning systems. In environmental information systems emphasis is laid on scientific documentation. Environmental planning systems, on the other hand, involve facts on the state of the environment with respect to the air, noise, water, soil, waste management, the ecology and nature conservation. They can be used as instruments for documenting trends in enviromental pollution and the state of the art in environmental engineering. The relation polluter-environment-enforcement plays a central role for the protection of the environment (integration in terms of the KMSYS). The 'trade and process-specific emissions' system already represents an instrument for the transfer of knowledge in the field of air pollution abatement (see, e.g., Clean Air Technical Code, and the backfitting of existing plants). (DG).

  10. Research of Vision Detection System on PCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Songlin; ZHOU Zude; HU Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Machine vision is applied in defect detection system on PCB. The whole system structure and the principle of vision detection are introduced, while the detection method including image processing, detection and recognition algorithms are detailed. The simulation results demonstrate that through this method, four types of defects including short circuit, open circuit, protuberance and concavity on PCB circuit can be effectively inspected, located and recognized.

  11. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part "creates" the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies....

  12. Computer aided production planning - SWZ system of order verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.

    2015-11-01

    SWZ (System of order verification) is a computer implementation of the methodology that support fast decision making on the acceptability of a production order, which allows to determine not the best possible solution, but admissible solution that is possible to find in an acceptable time (feasible solution) and acceptable due to the existing constraints. The methodology uses the propagation of constraints techniques and reduced to test a sequence of arbitrarily selected conditions. Fulfilment of all the conditions (the conjunction) provides the ability to perform production orders. In the paper examples of the application of SWZ system comprising the steps of planning and control is presented. The obtained results allowing the determination of acceptable production flow in the system - determination of the manufacturing system parameters those that ensure execution of orders in time under the resource constraints. SWZ also allows to generate the dispatching rules as a sequence of processing operations for each production resource, performed periodically during the production flow in the system. Furthermore the example of SWZ and simulation system integration is shown. SWZ has been enhanced with a module generating files containing the script code of the system model using the internal language of simulation and visualization system.

  13. Computer-Aided Detection of Rapid, Overt, Airborne, Reconnaissance Data with the Capability of Removing Oceanic Noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ABBREVIATIONS ABS assault breaching system ADCP acoustic Doppler current profiler ALMDS airborne laser mine detection system AMCM air mine...detects and classifies all types of seam mines in the water column.(PEO LMW 2009) • Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS): allows MILCO’s to be... dolphins and sea lions excel in mine detection and neutralization, swimmer defense, and recovery of mines, torpedoes, and 27 other objects

  14. Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.

  15. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  16. A new Wellsite Information System to aid the drilling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenadier, J.A.; McCann, D.; Koch, S.; Schlumberger, A.

    1994-12-31

    The IDEAL Wellsite Information System acquires data to monitor the drilling process. It interprets the realtime data flow from both surface and downhole and displays useful information on high resolution color screens to the key decision makers on and off the wellsite. The IDEAL Wellsite Information System can support four classes of users simultaneously: The driller, the directional driller on the rig floor, logging specialists in the unit and the company representative in the customer`s office. Color displays have been customized to the specialized needs of each class of user. In particular, the IDEAL Driller`s Display is a pressurized unit located on the rig floor. The driller can select from a number of screens with a minimum number of keystrokes. This information network improves drilling efficiency, geological evaluation and subsequent production through enhanced geological steering. Data is continually stored in both the time and depth domains. These databases can be exported into a variety of formats. Data can also be transmitted in realtime to the customer`s office offsite. Backup system components allow for redundancy so that system downtime is virtually eliminated. By having system developers concentrate on making the workstation easy to operate, the users can focus on the drilling process and not on the computer system. Custom graphic displays were designed by drillers for drillers. {open_quotes}Smart Alarms{close_quotes} have been designed to alert the user of potential problems such as kicks, sticking pipe and drillpipe washout.

  17. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  18. Is computer aided detection (CAD cost effective in screening mammography? A model based on the CADET II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallis Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single reading with computer aided detection (CAD is an alternative to double reading for detecting cancer in screening mammograms. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the use of a single reader with CAD is more cost-effective than double reading. Methods Based on data from the CADET II study, the cost-effectiveness of single reading with CAD versus double reading was measured in terms of cost per cancer detected. Cost (Pound (£, year 2007/08 of single reading with CAD versus double reading was estimated assuming a health and social service perspective and a 7 year time horizon. As the equipment cost varies according to the unit size a separate analysis was conducted for high, average and low volume screening units. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed by varying the reading time, equipment and assessment cost, recall rate and reader qualification. Results CAD is cost increasing for all sizes of screening unit. The introduction of CAD is cost-increasing compared to double reading because the cost of CAD equipment, staff training and the higher assessment cost associated with CAD are greater than the saving in reading costs. The introduction of single reading with CAD, in place of double reading, would produce an additional cost of £227 and £253 per 1,000 women screened in high and average volume units respectively. In low volume screening units, the high cost of purchasing the equipment will results in an additional cost of £590 per 1,000 women screened. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the factors having the greatest effect on the cost-effectiveness of CAD with single reading compared with double reading were the reading time and the reader's professional qualification (radiologist versus advanced practitioner. Conclusions Without improvements in CAD effectiveness (e.g. a decrease in the recall rate CAD is unlikely to be a cost effective alternative to double reading for mammography screening

  19. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  20. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations; meet national defense requirements; and serve interstate and interregional travel. All routes on the Interstate System are a part of the... consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and the States. The STRAHNET includes highways which...

  1. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4 st...

  2. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collected and processed electronically through the FARES. The Web-Based Supply Chain Management system... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request... individuals and organizations on an extension of a currently approved information collection for the Food...

  3. A Computer-Aided Self-Testing System for Biological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiblum, M. D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the production of a computer-aided, self-testing system for university students enrolled in a first-year course in biological psychology. Project aspects described include selection, acquisition and description of software; question banks and test structures; modes of use (computer or printed version); evaluation; and future plans. (11…

  4. Computer-aided decision support systems for endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedlgruber, Michael; Uhl, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Today, medical endoscopy is a widely used procedure to inspect the inner cavities of the human body. The advent of endoscopic imaging techniques-allowing the acquisition of images or videos-created the possibility for the development of the whole new branch of computer-aided decision support systems. Such systems aim at helping physicians to identify possibly malignant abnormalities more accurately. At the beginning of this paper, we give a brief introduction to the history of endoscopy, followed by introducing the main types of endoscopes which emerged so far (flexible endoscope, wireless capsule endoscope, and confocal laser endomicroscope). We then give a brief introduction to computer-aided decision support systems specifically targeted at endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract. Then we present general facts and figures concerning computer-aided decision support systems and summarize work specifically targeted at computer-aided decision support in the gastrointestinal tract. This summary is followed by a discussion of some common issues concerning the approaches reviewed and suggestions of possible ways to resolve them.

  5. The computer-aided design of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper treats the selection of controller gains of a servo system as a multiple-criteria decision problem. In contrast to the usual optimization-based approaches to computer-aided design, inequality constraints are included in the problem as unconstrained objectives. This considerably simplifies

  6. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  7. A computer-aided drug discovery system for chemistry teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Robert; Kent, Sarah; Hudson, Brian; Richards, W Graham; Essex, Jonathan W; Frey, Jeremy G

    2006-01-01

    The Schools Malaria Project (http://emalaria.soton.ac.uk/) brings together school students with university researchers in the hunt for a new antimalaria drug. The design challenge being offered to students is to use a distributed drug search and selection system to design potential antimalaria drugs. The system is accessed via a Web interface. This e-science project displays the results of the trials in an accessible manner, giving students an opportunity for discussion and debate both with peers and with the university contacts. The project has been implemented by using distributed computing techniques, spreading computer load over a network of machines that cross institutional boundaries, forming a grid. This provides access to greater computing power and allows a much more complex and detailed formulation of the drug design problem to be tackled for research, teaching, and learning.

  8. Variant Computer Aided Process Planning System for Rotational Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AHMED Hassan; YAO Zhen-qiang; CAI Jian-guo

    2005-01-01

    The amount of material must be removed away to produce the final product should minimize, excess stock will increase not only the material cost, but also processing cost, fixture cost, tooling cost, and increases machine cycle times.Noticing in recent years that the world is running out of mineral resources, and the price of engineering materials will continually rise in the future, the percentage of the cost of manufactured part that is due to the cost of materials is also rising. This paper proposed a variant CAPP system for rotational parts based on the concept of group technology,this system accepts part features characteristics code number as an input and provides operation details for manufacturing route with the suitable primary processes required to produce the blank work piece as an output.

  9. IMPROVED MARKING AND CHARACTERIZING OF PULMONARY NODULES ON DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHS USING A COMPUTER-AIDED DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and reduce inter-observer variations in the detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules on digital radiograph (DR) chest images.Methods Two hundreds and thirty-two new posterior-anterior DR chest images were collected from out-patient screening patients. Consensus was reached by two experienced radiologists on the marking, rating, and segmentation of small actionable nodules ranged from 5 to 15 mm in diameter using a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. Both their own nodule findings and the computer's automatic nodule detection results were analyzed to make the consensus.Nodules identified together with corresponding likelihood rating and segmentation results were referred as "Gold Standard". Two un-experienced radiologists were asked to first mark and characterize suspicious nodules independently, then were allowed to consult the computer nodule detection results and change their decisions.Results Large inter-observer variations in pulmonary nodule identification and characterization on DR chest images were observed between un-experienced radiologists. Un-experienced radiologists could greatly benefit from the CAD system, including substantial decrease of inter-observer variation and improvement of nodule detection rates. Moreover,radiologists with different levels of skillfulness could achieve similar high level performance after using the CAD system.Conclusion The CAD system shows a high potential for providing a valuable assistance to the examination of DR chest images.

  10. Computer-aided synthesis and design of plant utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroulas, T.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1984-01-01

    A design synthesis procedure is developed for preliminary design of utility systems. Given known steam sources (waste heat and auxiliary boilers) and sinks (heating, process injection, and driver horsepower needs), the algorithm determines the optimal header pressure levels, the distribution of steam turbines in the network, and the steam flows between all devices so as to maximize the real work recovered from the sources. Any number of pressure levels can be accommodated at only modest increase in computational effort.

  11. A Language Translator for a Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    TESI (’He, NAI JN~ l TANUAPD*L’ 9 so NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0) jp STATs 4, To’ IIA. DTIC I%7. JUL 14 1988 C H THlESIS A...created using an automated translator generator callcd KODIYAK. KODIYAK was developed by Robert Herndon at the University of Minnesota as a doctoral ...temperature control, hyperther;ia, braintumors DESCRIPTION After the doctor turns on the treatment switch, the hyperthermia system reads the patient’s

  12. Computer-aided intelligent system for diagnosing pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnoori, Maryam; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Moin, Mostafa; Heidarnezhad, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-04-01

    Asthma is a lung chronic inflammatory disorder estimated between 1.4% and 27.1% in different area of the world. Result of various studies show that asthma is usually underdiagnosed especially in developing countries, because of limitations on access to medical specialists and laboratory facilities. In this paper, we report on the development and evaluation of a novel patient-based fuzzy system that promotes the diagnosis method of asthma. The design of this application addresses five critical issues included: 1) modular representation of asthma diagnostic variables regard to patients' perception of the disease, 2) algorithmic approaches conducting inference of diagnosing based on patient's response to questions, 4) front-end mechanism for capturing data from patient, 5) output for both patient and physician regard to asthma possibility. for the system output score (0-10) the efficacy of this system calculated in the study sample included 139 asthmatic patients and 139 non-asthmatic patients (age range 6-18) reinforce the sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 100% for cut off value 0.7.

  13. The Italian System of Free Aids Provision for People with Disability:Future Developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Teresa Agati; Alessandro Giustini

    2011-01-01

    The Italian care situation with regards to prostheses and aids is satisfying.The norm which establishes the ways in which aids can be supplied to disabled people goes back to 1999 and,even though it is based on correct principles and even though it has produced positive effects in the improvement of the life of disabled people,it must be updated in the light of the more recent technological and scientific innovations and of the new information instruments such as the diffusion of information and communication systems.

  14. Digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation for coherent optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Donghe; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenbo; Qiao, Yaojun; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-21

    We present a digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation (FOE) method for coherent optical transmission systems. Unlike the conventional pilot tone insertion scheme, the pilot of the proposed method is generated in a digital manner and can serve as a good FOE indicator. Aided by this kind of digital pilot, the FOE is implemented by determining the location of the digital pilot in the spectrum. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the proposed method has the advantages in wide range, high accuracy, modulation formats independent, no need to remove the modulation, and high tolerance to the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD).

  15. Energy-aware memory management for embedded multimedia systems a computer-aided design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balasa, Florin

    2011-01-01

    Energy-Aware Memory Management for Embedded Multimedia Systems: A Computer-Aided Design Approach presents recent computer-aided design (CAD) ideas that address memory management tasks, particularly the optimization of energy consumption in the memory subsystem. It explains how to efficiently implement CAD solutions, including theoretical methods and novel algorithms. The book covers various energy-aware design techniques, including data-dependence analysis techniques, memory size estimation methods, extensions of mapping approaches, and memory banking approaches. It shows how these techniques

  16. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  17. Dry arthroscopy with a retraction system for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlik, Boguslaw; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Several commercially available cartilage repair techniques use a natural or synthetic matrix to aid cartilage regeneration (e.g., autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis or matrix-induced cartilage implantation). However, the use of matrix-aided techniques during conventional knee joint arthroscopy under continuous irrigation is challenging. Insertion and fixation of the matrix can be complicated by the presence of fluid and the confined patellofemoral joint space with limited access to the lesion. To overcome these issues, we developed a novel arthroscopic approach for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions. This technical note describes the use of dry arthroscopy assisted by a minimally invasive retraction system. An autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis procedure is used to illustrate this novel approach.

  18. Vision Aided Inertial Navigation System Augmented with a Coded Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    to the lens to allow only green light to pass through the lens system, thereby reducing any chromatic aberration . The apertures consist of chrome...coded aperture configurations. Also, a green P01 filter is added to the front of the lens to prevent chromatic aberration . To measure the ( )psf aI s...pointing vector to pixel plane coordinates n/a T C pIX Translation matrix from pixel plane coordinates to pointing vector n/a W (7] , ’ ,sJ Aberration

  19. [PIV: a computer-aided portal image verification system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weihua; Zhang, Hongzhi; Wu, Jing

    2002-12-01

    Portal image verification (PIV) is one of the key actions in QA procedure for sophisticated accurate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a PIV software as a tool for improving the accuracy and visualization of portal field verification and computing field placement errors. PIV was developed in the visual C++ integrated environment under Windows 95 operating system. It can improve visualization by providing tools for image processing and multimode images display. Semi-automatic register methods make verification more accurate than view-box method. It can provide useful quantitative errors for regular fields. PIV is flexible and accurate. It is an effective tool for portal field verification.

  20. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  1. Improved Optimization Study of Integration Strategies in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power generation system (SACFPGS combines solar energy and traditional coal-fired units in a particular way. This study mainly improves the solar thermal storage system. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the SACFPGS. The best integration approach of the system, the collector area, and the corresponding thermal storage capacity to replace each high-pressure extraction are obtained when the amount of coal saving in unit solar investment per hour is at its largest. System performance before and after the improvement is compared. Results show that the improvement of the thermal storage system effectively increases the economic benefit of the integrated system.

  2. Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimization of the selection, adaptation, and benefit of hearing aids is necessary to characterize and manage hearing loss, user expectations, otolaryngologic symptoms, and systemic comorbidities. Objective To compare the occurrence of otologic complaints, systemic diseases, and effective use of hearing aids in men and women with deafness. Methods Patients from a Unified Health System–accredited hearing health service, who reported problems in adapting to their hearing aids, were evaluated by a physician and audiologist. An anamnesis, ENT evaluation, and audiological evaluation were performed. Results During the data collection period, 278 subjects came in for follow-up visits; of these, 61 (21% reported otologic or operational problems with their equipment. The most prevalent type of hearing loss was basocochlear, a characteristic of presbycusis, in both men and women; the most frequently reported comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (more significant in women and hypertension (more significant in men. Fourteen subjects reported using their device discontinuously, with no significant difference between genders; the reasons for discontinuation of use were itching and ringing, with more complaints from women. Conclusion The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting.

  3. Wireless Secrecy in Cellular Systems with Infrastructure--Aided Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Popovski, Petar

    2008-01-01

    In cellular systems, confidentiality of uplink transmission with respect to eavesdropping terminals can be ensured by creating intentional inteference via scheduling of concurrent downlink transmissions. In this paper, this basic idea is explored from an information-theoretic standpoint by focusing on a two-cell scenario where the involved base stations are connected via a finite-capacity backbone link. A number of transmission strategies are considered that aim at improving uplink confidentiality under constraints on the downlink rate that acts as an interfering signal. The strategies differ mainly in the way the backbone link is exploited by the cooperating downlink- to the uplink-operated base stations. Achievable rates are derived for both the Gaussian (unfaded) and the fading cases, under different assumptions on the channel state information available at different nodes. Numerical results are also provided to corroborate the analysis. Overall, the analysis reveals that a combination of scheduling and ba...

  4. Practical considerations for a second-order directional hearing aid microphone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C.

    2003-04-01

    First-order directional microphone systems for hearing aids have been available for several years. Such a system uses two microphones and has a theoretical maximum free-field directivity index (DI) of 6.0 dB. A second-order microphone system using three microphones could provide a theoretical increase in free-field DI to 9.5 dB. These theoretical maximum DI values assume that the microphones have exactly matched sensitivities at all frequencies of interest. In practice, the individual microphones in the hearing aid always have slightly different sensitivities. For the small microphone separation necessary to fit in a hearing aid, these sensitivity matching errors degrade the directivity from the theoretical values, especially at low frequencies. This paper shows that, for first-order systems the directivity degradation due to sensitivity errors is relatively small. However, for second-order systems with practical microphone sensitivity matching specifications, the directivity degradation below 1 kHz is not tolerable. A hybrid order directive system is proposed that uses first-order processing at low frequencies and second-order directive processing at higher frequencies. This hybrid system is suggested as an alternative that could provide improved directivity index in the frequency regions that are important to speech intelligibility.

  5. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  6. SVD-Aided Beamforming and Power Allocation Algorithm for Multiuser Turbo-BLAST System Uplink with Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The SVD-aided joint transmitter and receiver design for the uplink of CDMA-based synchronous multiuser Turbo-BLAST systems is proposed in the presence of channel state information (CSI imperfection. At the transmitter, the beamforming and power allocation schemes are developed to maximize the capacity of the desired user. At the receiver, a suboptimal decorrelating scheme is first proposed to mitigate the multiuser interference (MUI and decouple the detection of different users with imperfect CSI, and then the iterative detecting algorithm that takes the channel estimation error into account is designed to cancel the coantenna interference (CAI and enhance the bit error rate (BER results further. Simulation results show that the proposed uplink CDMA-based multiuser Turbo-BLAST model is effective, the detection from every user is completely independent to each other after decorrelating, and the system performance can be enhanced by the proposed beamforming and power allocation schemes. Furthermore, BER performance can be enhanced by the modified iterative detection. The effect of CSI imperfection is evaluated, which is proved to be a useful tool to assess the system performance with imperfect CSI.

  7. Intrusion Detection Approach Using Connectionist Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Yu-shu; DU Yan-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the detection efficiency of rule-based expert systems, an intrusion detection approach using connectionist expert system is proposed. The approach converts the AND/OR nodes into the corresponding neurons, adopts the three-layered feed forward network with full interconnection between layers,translates the feature values into the continuous values belong to the interval [0, 1 ], shows the confidence degree about intrusion detection rules using the weight values of the neural networks and makes uncertain inference with sigmoid function. Compared with the rule-based expert system, the neural network expert system improves the inference efficiency.

  8. Development of the environmental neutron detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Kume, K

    2002-01-01

    Environmental neutron detection system was proposed and developed. The main goal of this system was set to detect fast and thermal neutrons with the identical detectors setup without degraders. This system consists of a sup 1 sup 0 B doped liquid scintillator for n detection and CsI scintillators for simultaneous gamma emission from sup 1 sup 0 B doped in the liquid scintillator after the n capture reaction. The first setup was optimized for the thermal n detection, while the second setup was for the fast n detection. It was shown that the thermal n flux was obtained in the first setup by using the method of the gamma coincidence method with the help of the Monte Carlo calculation. The second setup was designed to improve the detection efficiency for the fast n, and was shown qualitatively that both the pulse shape discrimination and the coincidence methods are efficient. There will be more improvements, particularly for the quantitative discussion.

  9. Deep Water Munitions Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    signal to noise ratios which are shown in Figure 5. The signal to noise was calculated using an algorithm that is part of the Oasis montaj software...using an algorithm that is part of the Oasis montaj software suite. The signal strength of an anomaly is calculated as the sum of the squares of...Process Software extension for Geosoft Oasis Montaj , version 6.4, May 28, 2007 8. DeProspo,D. and R. DiMarco, “Automatic Detection and

  10. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  11. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey B. Manbeck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess: (1 how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2 from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3 whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated.

  12. ADAPTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM FOR CALCULATION OF REAL EAR INSERTION GAIN FOR DIGITAL HEARING AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadagopan Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The various gain calculating formulae for digital hearing aids is analyzed for different subjects to find out suitable adaptive gain formula for most successful gain recommendations. The object of the work is to design and develop an adaptive expert system, which could be effectively used to perform screening tests to identify the level of hearing impairment and recommend suitable gain suggestions for frequency bands of digital hearing aid. Initially, the design requirements for a digital hearing aid are being arrived by using the standard gain formulae followed such as National Acoustic Laboratory Revised (NAL-R and Prescription of Gain Output (POGO II. The test is carried with 272 subjects aging from 25 to 72 and 221 male and 51 female. Of which gain is recommended for 127 subjects with the standard gain formula. When the recommendations are verified for satisfaction among the hearing aid users only 28 received satisfaction with NAL-R and 25 received satisfactions with POGO II. Remaining subjects received satisfaction only after fine tuning the gain value and recommended gains are stored in adaptive expert system. Subsequently, based on the suggested value of gains and additional data from expert audiologists, gain formula could be made distinct for every language.

  13. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions about...

  14. AQCESS (Automated Quality of Care Evaluation Support System) Training Aids: Quality Assurance, System Management, Appointment and Scheduling, Admission and Disposition, Clinical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    group. See the front of this Traininq Aid for the phone number and address. 1-4 QA058 2.0 AUG 1986 SYSTEM MANAGEMENI TRAINING AID USER ID PASSWORD TYPE...QA058 2.0 16AUG 1986 SYSTEM MANAGEMENI TRAINING AID 2. S - SYSTEM STATUS ACCESS Enter S at the OPTION prompt and press Return. PURPOSE The System...Database will be used to accomplish these tasks. 7-1 QAO5 2.0 AUG 1986 SYSTEM MANAGEMENI TRAINING AID 7.1 10 SAVE THE TRAINING DATABASE " Load a tape on

  15. Design of Secure Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) have received a great deal of attention because of their excellent ability of preventing network incidents. Recently, many efficient approaches have been proposed to improve detection ability of IDS. While the self-protection ability of IDS is relatively worse and easy to be exploited by attackers, this paper gives a scheme of Securely Distributed Intrusion Detection System (SDIDS). This system adopts special measurements to enforce the security of IDS components. A new secure mechanism combining role-based access control and attribute certificate is used to resist attack to communication.

  16. NADIR: A prototype system for detecting network and file system abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; McClary, J.F.; DuBois, D.H.; Ford, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype computer misuse detection system for the Los Alamos Notional Laboratory's Integrated Computing Network (ICN). This automated expert system, the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR), streamlines and supplements the manual audit record review traditionally performed by security auditors. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in weekly profiles of individual users and the ICN as a whole, against expert rules that define security policy, improper or suspicious behavior, and normal user activity. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes analysis by NADIR of two types of ICN activity: user authentication and access control, and mass file storage. It highlights system design issues of data handling, exploiting existing auditing systems, and performing audit analysis at the network level.

  17. NADIR: A prototype system for detecting network and file system abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; Stallings, C.A.; McClary, J.F.; DuBois, D.H.; Ford, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype computer misuse detection system for the Los Alamos Notional Laboratory`s Integrated Computing Network (ICN). This automated expert system, the Network Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Reporter (NADIR), streamlines and supplements the manual audit record review traditionally performed by security auditors. NADIR compares network activity, as summarized in weekly profiles of individual users and the ICN as a whole, against expert rules that define security policy, improper or suspicious behavior, and normal user activity. NADIR reports suspicious behavior to security auditors and provides tools to aid in follow-up investigations. This paper describes analysis by NADIR of two types of ICN activity: user authentication and access control, and mass file storage. It highlights system design issues of data handling, exploiting existing auditing systems, and performing audit analysis at the network level.

  18. Magnetic viscosity of tropical soils: classification and prediction as an aid for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, J.; Preetz, H.; Altfelder, S.

    2012-08-01

    assessing the impact of the subsurface on EMI sensors for landmine detection. In general, intermediate, felsic and sedimentary rocks have no influence on the detectors and only a weak influence in the most extreme cases. Soils derived from these rocks typically have no influence; however, they can have a very severe influence in a few cases. In contrast, ultramafic and mafic rocks typically have a moderate influence and a very severe influence in extreme cases, with the associated soils resulting in a severe influence in general. The deduced prognosis system can be used by demining organizations to help them predict metal detector performance in tropical regions on the basis of geologic and/or soil maps, which do not supply information on electromagnetic properties. In this way, such a system may eventually help with the planning of demining campaigns and selection of appropriate sensors.

  19. Computer-Aided Design System for CP Single-Screw Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jing-feng; YAO Fu-sheng

    2006-01-01

    To design various optimum parameters and simulate the working process of CP single-screw compressor,the Computer-Aided Design(CAD)system for the CP singlescrew compressor has been established.A new method based on computer graphics technology,database technology,object-oriented programming technology,and visual simulation technology has been adopted in this CAD system.The system has integrated solid modeling function with parameterization design function and animator simulation function based on analyzing the working principle of the CP single-screw compressor.The experimental results show fhat the CAD system for the CP single-screw compressor is practical and feasible.

  20. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  1. A Toolbox of Aiding Techniques for the HUGIN AUV Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern AUV designs must handle submerged autonomous operation for long periods of time. The state of the art solution embedded in the HUGIN AUVs is a Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided Inertial Navigation System (INS that can integrate various forms of position measurement updates. In autonomous operations, position updates are only available in limited periods of time or space, thus the core velocity aided inertial navigation system must exhibit high accuracy However, position uncertainty of a DVL aided inertial navigation system will eventually drift off, compromising either mission operation or requirements for accurate positioning of payload data. To meet the requirements for a range of military and civilian AUV applications, the HUGIN vehicles come with a flexible and powerful set of navigation techniques. Methods for position updates include GPS surface fix, DGPS-USBL, Underwater Transponder Positioning (UTP and bathymetric terrain navigation. Based on synthetic aperture sonar technology, a potentially revolutionary accurate velocity measurement is under development. HUGIN also comes with a navigation post-processing system (NavLab, which can be applied to increase navigational integrity and maximize position accuracy.

  2. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  3. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  4. Research of Telescope Space Particle Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Yu-min; LAN; Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of space environment detection of high-energy particles,we developed a prototype of space electron-proton flux detector,used in measurements of electronics and proton flux inside and outside the spacecraft.This detection system has the following advantages:

  5. Coaxial direct-detection lidar-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a coaxial direct-detection LIDAR system for measuring velocity, temperature and/or particulate density. The system comprises a laser source for emitting a laser light beam having a lasing center frequency along an emission path. The system further comprises an optical...

  6. Fuzzy logic based Adaptive Modulation Using Non Data Aided SNR Estimation for OFDM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.SESHADRI SASTRY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As demand for high quality transmission increases increase of spectrum efficiency and an improvement of error performance in wireless communication systems are important . One of the promising approaches to 4G is adaptive OFDM (AOFDM . Fixed modulation systems uses only one type of modulation scheme (or order, so that either performance or capacity should be compromised Adaptive modulated systems are superior to fixed modulated systems, since they change modulation order depending on present SNR. In an adaptive modulation system SNR estimation is important since performance of adaptive modulated system depends of estimated SNR. Non-data-Aided (NDA SNR estimation systems are gaining importance in recent days since they estimate SNR range and requires less data as input .In this paper we propose an adaptive modulated OFDM system which uses NDA(Non-data Aided SNR estimation using fuzzy logic interface.The proposed system is simulated in Matlab 7.4 and The results of computer simulation show the improvement in system capacity .

  7. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  8. NQR Stimulation Technique for Explosives Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A method of customization stimulation signal based on direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) for Nuclear Quadrapole Resonance Explosives Detection System is presented. DDS has many advantages, such as high frequency resolution, high convert speed,

  9. Computer-aided system for hazard zone identification in ship power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PODSIADLO A; TARELKO W

    2005-01-01

    The most dangerous places in ships are their power plants. Particularly, they are very unsafe for operators carrying out various necessary operation and maintenance activities. For this reason, ship machinery should be designed to ensure the maximum safety for its operators. It is a very difficult task. Therefore, it could not be solved by means of conventional design methods, which are used for design of uncomplicated technical equipment. One of the possible ways of solving this problem is to provide appropriate tools, which allow us to take the operator's safety into account during a design process, especially at its early stages. A computer-aided system supporting design of safe ship power plants could be such a tool. This paper deals with developing process of a prototype of the computer-aided system for hazard zone identification in ship power plants.

  10. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part "creates" the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies....

  11. Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Separation Processes with Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Kiyoteru; Gani, Rafiqul; Kolar, P.;

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for computer aided design and analysis of separation processes involving electrolyte systems is presented. The methodology consists of three main parts. The thermodynamic part 'creates' the problem specific property model package, which is a collection of pure component and mixture...... property models. The design and analysis part generates process (flowsheet) alternatives, evaluates/analyses feasibility of separation and provides a visual operation path for the desired separation. The simulation part consists of a simulation/calculation engine that allows the screening and validation...... of process alternatives. For the simulation part, a general multi-purpose, multi-phase separation model has been developed and integrated to an existing computer aided system. Application of the design and analysis methodology is highlighted through two illustrative case studies, (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  12. Heartbeat detection system using piezoelectric transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonangan, Yosua; Purnamaningsih, Wigajatri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simple piezoelectric based heartbeat detection system. The signal produced by the piezoelectric will undergo signal conditioning and then converted into digital data by Arduino Nano. Using serial communication, the data will be sent to a computer for display and further analysis. The detection of heartbeat is carried out on three locations; wrist, chest, and diaphragm. From the measurement results, it is shown that the system work best when the piezoelectric is placed on wrist.

  13. Detection and intelligent systems for homeland security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Detection and Intelligent Systems for Homeland Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering advanced technology for image and video interpretation systems used for surveillance, which help in solving such problems as identifying faces from live streaming or stored videos. Biometrics for human identification, including eye retinas and irises, and facial patterns are also presented. The book then provides information on sensors for detection of explosive and radioactive materials and methods for sensing chemical

  14. MeditAid:a wearable adaptive neurofeedback-based system for training mindfulness state

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A recent interest in interaction design is towards the development of novel technologies emphasizing the value of mindfulness, monitoring, awareness, and self-regulation for both health and wellbeing. Whereas existing systems have focused mostly on relaxation and awareness of feelings, there has been little exploration on tools supporting the self-regulation of attention during mindfulness sitting meditation. This paper describes the design and initial evaluation of MeditAid, a wearable syste...

  15. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J.

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interve...

  16. Real-time Risk Assessment for Aids to Navigation Using Fuzzy-FSA on Three-Dimensional Simulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk level of the Aids to Navigation (AtoNs can reflect the ship navigation safety level in the channel to some extent. In order to appreciate the risk level of the aids to navigation (AtoNs in a navigation channel and to provide some decision-making suggestions for the AtoNs Maintenance and Management Department, the risk assessment index system of the AtoNs was built considering the advanced experience of IALA. Under the Formal Safety Assessment frame, taking the advantages of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the fuzzy-FSA model of risk assessment for aids to navigation was established. The model was implemented for the assessment of aids to navigation in Shanghai area based on the aids to navigation three-dimensional simulation system. The real-time data were extracted from the existing information system of aids to navigation, and the real-time risk assessment for aids to navigation of the chosen channel was performed on platform of the three-dimensional simulation system, with the risk assessment software. Specifically, the deep-water channel of the Yangtze River estuary was taken as an example to illustrate the general assessment procedure. The method proposed presents practical significance and application prospect on the maintenance and management of the aids to navigation.

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and teleradiology network system for chest diagnosis using the web medical image conference system with a new information security solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-03-01

    Diagnostic MDCT imaging requires a considerable number of images to be read. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. Because of such a background, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis. We also have developed the teleradiology network system by using web medical image conference system. In the teleradiology network system, the security of information network is very important subjects. Our teleradiology network system can perform Web medical image conference in the medical institutions of a remote place using the web medical image conference system. We completed the basic proof experiment of the web medical image conference system with information security solution. We can share the screen of web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with the workstation that builds in some diagnostic assistance methods. Biometric face authentication used on site of teleradiology makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. Our Privacy and information security technology of information security solution ensures compliance with Japanese regulations. As a result, patients' private information is protected. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new teleradiology network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis

  18. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  19. Clinical analysis of neurological system complications in AIDS and HIV positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To report the clinical manifestations of AIDS with nervous system complications. Methods:We collected the clinical material of AIDS and HIV positive patients who were admitted to our hospital from January 1998 to July 2006, and retrospectively analyzed the 39 cases having nervous system complications, among 146 cases in total. Results:Among 39 cases, there were 3 cases of HIV dementia, 1 case of vacuolar myelopathy, 3 cases of Gullain-barre syndrome, 3 cases of myopathy and 26 cases of secondary opportunistic infection of CNS,including 9 cases of tuberculosis, 6 cases of cryptococcus, 5 cases of toxoplasma, 3 cases of herpes zoster virus, 2 cases of herpes simples virus, 1 case of cytomegalovirus, 1 case of progressive multifocal leukoencencephalitis. 2 cases with central nervous system lymphoma.Among them 12 patients gave up treatment, other patients received anti-HIV treatment and antimicroorganism treatment. 5 patients died of respiratory failure, 2 patients died of multiple organs failure. Conclusion:Up to now, AIDS still has not very good management. So prevention is very important.

  20. Immunodiagnosis as an aid for early detection of Fasciola gigantica by glutathione S-transferase (GST)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, S.; Mukhopadhayay, S. K.; Ganguly, S.; Jana, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, effort to isolate purified GST from Fasciola gigantica homogenate and its early detection for confirmation of infection has been successful. In this study, immunoprotection studies with GST and antibody titer post-infection has revealed GST to be an immunogenic protein with high sensitivity to detect anti-Fasciola antibody as early as two weeks post-infection in large ruminants.

  1. Cluster based Intrusion Detection System for Manets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Dang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manets are the ad hoc networks that are build on demand or instantly when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other and decide to cooperate for data transfer and communication. Therefore there is no defined topology for Manets. They communicate in dynamic topology which continuously changes as nodes are not stable. Due to this lack of infrastructure and distributed nature they are more vulnerable for attacks and provide a good scope to malicious users to become part of the network. To prevent the security of mobile ad hoc networks many security measures are designed such as encryption algorithms, firewalls etc. But still there is some scope of malicious actions. So, Intrusion detection systems are proposed to detect any intruder in the network and its malicious activities. Cluster based intrusion detection system is also designed to restrict the intruders activities in clusters of mobile nodes. In clusters each node run some intrusion detection code to detect local as well as global intrusion. In this paper we have taken insight of intrusion detection systems and different attacks on Manet security. Then we proposed how overhead involved in cluster based intrusion detection system can be reduced.

  2. Multiple instance learning for computer aided detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Cen; Zhang, Huan; Chen, Yazhu; Zhang, Su

    2015-10-01

    Multiple instance learning algorithms have been increasingly utilized in computer aided detection and diagnosis field. In this study, we propose a novel multiple instance learning method for the identification of tumor invasion depth of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging. In the proposed scheme, two level features, bag-level features and instance-level features are extracted for subsequent processing and classification work. For instance-level features, there is some ambiguity in assigning labels to selected patches. An improved Citation-KNN method is presented to solve this problem. Compared with benchmarking state-of-the-art multiple instance learning algorithms using the same clinical dataset, the proposed algorithm can achieve improved results. The experimental evaluation is performed using leave-one-out cross validation with the total accuracy of 0.7692. The proposed multiple instance learning algorithm serves as an alternative method for computer aided diagnosis and identification of tumor invasion depth of gastric cancer with dual-energy CT imaging techniques.

  3. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  4. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  5. A system for distributed intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapp, S.R.; Brentano, J.; Dias, G.V.; Goan, T.L.; Heberlein, L.T.; Ho, Che-Lin; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Div. of Computer Science); Grance, T. (Air Force Cryptologic Support Center, San Antonio, TX (USA)); Mansur, D.L.; Pon, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Smaha, S.E. (Haystack Labs., Inc., Austin, TX (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The study of providing security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because the network is the medium over which most attacks or intrusions on computer systems are launched. One approach to solving this problem is the intrusion-detection concept, whose basic premise is that not only abandoning the existing and huge infrastructure of possibly-insecure computer and network systems is impossible, but also replacing them by totally-secure systems may not be feasible or cost effective. Previous work on intrusion-detection systems were performed on stand-alone hosts and on a broadcast local area network (LAN) environment. The focus of our present research is to extend our network intrusion-detection concept from the LAN environment to arbitarily wider areas with the network topology being arbitrary as well. The generalized distributed environment is heterogeneous, i.e., the network nodes can be hosts or servers from different vendors, or some of them could be LAN managers, like our previous work, a network security monitor (NSM), as well. The proposed architecture for this distributed intrusion-detection system consists of the following components: a host manager in each host; a LAN manager for monitoring each LAN in the system; and a central manager which is placed at a single secure location and which receives reports from various host and LAN managers to process these reports, correlate them, and detect intrusions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Analysis of Beamformer Directed Single-Channel Noise Reduction System for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2015-01-01

    We study multi-microphone noise reduction systems consisting of a beamformer and a single-channel (SC) noise reduction stage. In particular, we present and analyse a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating the target and noise power spectral densities (psd's) entering the SC filter....... We show that the estimators are minimum variance and unbiased, and provide closed-form expressions for their mean-square error (MSE). Furthermore, we show that the MSE of the noise psd estimator is particularly simple: it is independent of target signal characteristics, frequency, and microphone...... locations. In a hearing aid context, we analyze the performance of the estimators as a function of target angle-of-arrival and frequency. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method in a hearing aid situation with a target speaker in large-crowd noise....

  7. Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Hoang, Minh Thang; Zhang, Fangyuan; Li, Rui; Plant, David V

    2014-11-03

    We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission.

  8. Estimation Of Demand System In An Aids Model:The Opportunity For Exporting Thai Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the estimation of Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS model is developed to estimate quantity respond based on price. Five major export agricultural products data from the office of Agricultural Economics, Thailand and Biofuel policy from the office of the National Economic and Social Development Broad were used. The AIDS model estimatesdemand of palm, cassava, and sugar are highly response to changed price. Rubber and rice has less response to the changed price. All of major agricultural products are affect expenditure of Thailand export. This result suggest that the opportunity for increasing supply of energy plants, which benefits to Thai farmer communities for expanding market share in energy plants in domestic and global market.

  9. AICPA standard aids in detecting risk factors for fraud. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, A; Dery, R J

    1999-10-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 82, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, requires independent auditors to obtain reasonable assurance that financial statements are free of material mis-statements caused by error or fraud. SAS No. 82 provides guidance for independent auditors to use to help detect and document risk factors related to potential fraud. But while SAS No. 82 suggests how auditors should assess the potential for fraud, it does not expand their detection responsibility. Accordingly, financial managers should discuss thoroughly with auditors the scope and focus of an audit as a means to further their compliance efforts.

  10. Smartphone-Based System for Learning and Inferring Hearing Aid Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Gabriel; Puria, Sunil; Leifer, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that hearing aid wearers can successfully self-train their instruments’ gain-frequency response and compression parameters in everyday situations. Combining hearing aids with a smartphone introduces additional computing power, memory, and a graphical user interface that may enable greater setting personalization. To explore the benefits of self-training with a smartphone-based hearing system, a parameter space was chosen with four possible combinations of microphone mode (omnidirectional and directional) and noise reduction state (active and off). The baseline for comparison was the “untrained system,” that is, the manufacturer’s algorithm for automatically selecting microphone mode and noise reduction state based on acoustic environment. The “trained system” first learned each individual’s preferences, self-entered via a smartphone in real-world situations, to build a trained model. The system then predicted the optimal setting (among available choices) using an inference engine, which considered the trained model and current context (e.g., sound environment, location, and time). Purpose To develop a smartphone-based prototype hearing system that can be trained to learn preferred user settings. Determine whether user study participants showed a preference for trained over untrained system settings. Research Design An experimental within-participants study. Participants used a prototype hearing system—comprising two hearing aids, Android smartphone, and body-worn gateway device—for ~6 weeks. Study Sample Sixteen adults with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (HL) (ten males, six females; mean age = 55.5 yr). Fifteen had ≥6 mo of experience wearing hearing aids, and 14 had previous experience using smartphones. Intervention Participants were fitted and instructed to perform daily comparisons of settings (“listening evaluations”) through a smartphone-based software application called Hearing Aid

  11. Bolidozor - Distributed radio meteor detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Kakona, Jakub; Kakona, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Most of the meteor radioastronomical radars are backscatter radars which cover only a small area of the atmosphere. Therefore a daytime meteor flux models are based on sparse data collected by only a few radar systems. To solve this issue, a radar system with a wide coverage is required. We present a new approach of open-source multi-static radio meteor detection system which could be distributed over a large area. This feature allows us to detect meteor events taking place over a larger area as well and gather more uniform data about meteor flux and possibly about meteor trajectories.

  12. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  13. Intrusion Detection System Using Advanced Honeypots

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ram Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The exponential growth of Internet traffic has made public servers increasingly vulnerable to unauthorized accesses and intrusions. In addition to maintaining low latency for the client, filtering unauthorized accesses has become one of the major concerns of a server maintainer. This implementation of an Intrusion Detection System distinguishes between the traffic coming from clients and the traffic originated from the attackers, in an attempt to simultaneously mitigate the problems of both latency and security. We then present the results of a series of stress and scalability tests, and suggest a number of potential uses for such a system. As computer attacks are becoming more and more difficult to identify the need for better and more efficient intrusion detection systems increases. The main problem with current intrusion detection systems is high rate of false alarms. Using honeypots provides effective solution to increase the security.

  14. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer on chest radiographs: effect of machine CAD true positive/false negative detections on radiologists' confidence level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Osicka, Teresa; Lo, Shih-Chung Benedict; Lure, Fleming; Xu, Xin-Wei; Lin, Jesse; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Ron

    2004-05-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of Computer-Aided Detection prompts on the confidence and detection of cancer on chest radiographs. Expected findings included an increase in confidence rating and a decrease in variance in confidence when radiologists interacted with a computer prompt that confirmed their initial decision or induced them to switch from an incorrect to a correct decision. Their confidence rating decreased and the variance of confidence rating increased when the computer failed to confirm a correct or incorrect decision. A population of cases was identified that changed among reading modalities. This unstable group of cases differed between the Independent and Sequential without CAD modalities in cancer detection by radiologists and cancer detection by machine. CAD prompts induced the radiologists to make two types of changes in cases: changes on the sequential modality with CAD that restored an initial diagnosis made in the Independent read and new changes that were not present in the Independent or Sequential reads without CAD. This has implications for double reading of cases. The effects of intra-observer variability and inter-observer variability are suggested as potential causes for differences in statistical significance of the Independent and Sequential Design approaches to ROC studies.

  15. Caries detection methods : Can they aid decision making for invasive sealant treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, AC; Verdonschot, EH; Huysmans, MCDNJM

    2001-01-01

    The decision to place sealants is a difficult one, and it has been suggested that in a low risk population it may be efficient to wait until caries is detected in the fissure. An invasive sealant technique with fissure preparation may then be indicated. The diagnostic method used in the indication o

  16. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan,; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Part 21: Electronics: Applications; International audience; This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savin...

  17. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongPing; CUI YingHong; HOU HongJuan; GUO XiYan; YANG ZhiPing; WANG NinLing

    2008-01-01

    Integrationg rating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha-nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a of SEGS, 0.14 S/kW. h.

  18. Design and implementation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system for a helicopter UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelan, David R.

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) benefit from vertical takeoff and landing, hover, low-speed, and cruising flight capabilities. This versatility has the expense of nonlinear, unstable, and underactuated system dynamics. These challenges and numerous potential applications make the helicopter UAV an interesting testbed for nonlinear control. A platform for such development has been established in the Applied Nonlinear Controls Lab (ANCL). A miniature helicopter was augmented with a manual/autonomous takeover system and the ANCL Avionics. This payload contains a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, inertial sensors, and communications and computing hardware. Allan variance analysis of inertial sensor data enabled the derivation of a GPS-aided inertial navigation system that was implemented on the ANCL Avionics. This extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based algorithm estimates vehicle position, velocity, and attitude necessary for system identification tasks and control system feedback. Performance validation of this algorithm was demonstrated in simulation and in experimental ground and flight tests.

  19. Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng

    2013-01-01

    application that whereas the traditional and stateof- the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems fail with significant sound distortions and howling as consequences, the new probe noise approach is able to remove feedback artifacts caused by the feedback path change in no more than a few hundred......Acoustic feedback problems occur when the output loudspeaker signal of an audio system is partly returned to the input microphone via an acoustic coupling through the air. This problem often causes significant performance degradations in applications such as public address systems and hearing aids....... In the worst case, the audio system becomes unstable and howling occurs. In this work, first we analyze a general multiple microphone audio processing system, where a cancellation system using adaptive filters is used to cancel the effect of acoustic feedback. We introduce and derive an accurate approximation...

  20. Signature Based Intrusion Detection System Using SNORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s Intrusion Detection systems plays very important role in Network security. As the use of internet is growing rapidly the possibility of attack is also increasing in that ratio. People are using signature based IDS’s. Snort is mostly used signature based IDS because of it is open source software. World widely it is used in intrusion detection and prevention domain. Basic analysis and security engine (BASE is also used to see the alerts generated by Snort. In the paper we have implementation the signature based intrusion detection using Snort. Our work will help to novel user to understand the concept of Snort based IDS.

  1. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  2. Benefits of texture analysis of dual energy CT for Computer-Aided pulmonary embolism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Jiménez del Toro, Óscar Alfonso; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning; Depeursinge, Adrien

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is an avoidable cause of death if treated immediately but delays in diagnosis and treatment lead to an increased risk. Computer-assisted image analysis of both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) have proven useful for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Dual energy CT provides additional information over the standard single energy scan by generating four-dimensional (4D) data, in our case with 11 energy levels in 3D. In this paper a 4D texture analysis method capable of detecting pulmonary embolism in dual energy CT is presented. The method uses wavelet-based visual words together with an automatic geodesic-based region of interest detection algorithm to characterize the texture properties of each lung lobe. Results show an increase in performance with respect to the single energy CT analysis, as well as an accuracy gain compared to preliminary work on a small dataset.

  3. Computer-Aided Interval Change Analysis of Microcalcifications on Mammograms for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    34Classification of malignant and benign microcalcifications by texture analysis," Medical Physics 22, 938, 1995. 6. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, D...34 Medical Physics 25, 2007-2019, 1998. 9. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, and J. Papaioannou, "Dependence of computer classification of clustered...microcalcifications on the correct detection of microcalcifications " Medical Physics 28, 1949-1957, 2001. 10. M. F. Salfity, R. M. Nishikawa, Y. Jiang

  4. Computer Aided Engineering of Cyber-Physical Information Gathering and Utilizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred P. Defonzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering Cyber-physical information gathering and utilizing systems(CIGUS presents the systems engineer with a difficult, multi-criterion, multi-objective decision problem. Research, development and design is done over many disciplines, across many domains, each with their specific models. Systems engineers are expected to provide a common level of communication amongst the domains to promote convergence to a design. We present novel information measures that enable combination of the underlying domain specific subsystems parameters in a way that makes the information yield of the system intelligible to decision makers and domain experts. These measures enable, for the first time, the application of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms and end-to-end computer aided engineering of CIGUS. Our novel approach is validated and verified through the application and direct comparison of simulated and experimental results of state-ofthe- art weather radar network test bed designs. The approach resulted in Pareto optimal point within an average of 10% of the actual case study design parameters and within 25% of the Pareto ideal point. No additional parameters beyond the underlying domain parameters were introduced. This demonstrates that the computationally aided engineering approach presented in this work facilitates engineering feasibility decisions and the subsequent evolution of the engineered systems in way that reduces cost and effort.

  5. DeepCAD: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Mammographic Masses Using Deep Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system for differentiation between benign and malignant mammographic masses is a challenging task due to the use of extensive pre- and post-processing steps and ineffective features set. In this paper, a novel CAD system is proposed called DeepCAD, which uses four phases to overcome these problems. The speed-up robust features (SURF and local binary pattern variance (LBPV descriptors are extracted from each mass. These descriptors are then transformed into invariant features. Afterwards, the deep invariant features (DIFs are constructed in supervised and unsupervised fashion through multilayer deep-learning architecture. A fine-tuning step is integrated to determine the features, and the final decision is performed via softmax linear classifier. To evaluate this DeepCAD system, a dataset of 600 region-of-interest (ROI masses including 300 benign and 300 malignant masses was obtained from two publicly available data sources. The performance of DeepCAD system is compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC curve. The difference between AUC of DeepCAD and other methods is statistically significant, as it demonstrates a sensitivity (SN of 92%, specificity (SP of 84.2%, accuracy (ACC of 91.5% and AUC of 0.91. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DeepCAD system is reliable for providing aid to radiologists without the need for explicit design.

  6. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  7. Model-based Computer Aided Framework for Design of Process Monitoring and Analysis Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2009-01-01

    . The knowledge base provides the necessary information/data during the design of the PAT system while the model library generates additional or missing data needed for design and analysis. Optimization of the PAT system design is achieved in terms of product data analysis time and/or cost of monitoring equipment......In the manufacturing industry, for example, the pharmaceutical industry, a thorough understanding of the process is necessary in addition to a properly designed monitoring and analysis system (PAT system) to consistently obtain the desired end-product properties. A model-based computer......-aided framework including the methods and tools through which the design of monitoring and analysis systems for product quality control can be generated, analyzed and/or validated, has been developed. Two important supporting tools developed as part of the framework are a knowledge base and a model library...

  8. Second Asia-Pacific Conference on the Computer Aided System Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chaczko, Zenon; Jacak, Witold; Łuba, Tadeusz; Computational Intelligence and Efficiency in Engineering Systems

    2015-01-01

    This carefully edited and reviewed volume addresses the increasingly popular demand for seeking more clarity in the data that we are immersed in. It offers excellent examples of the intelligent ubiquitous computation, as well as recent advances in systems engineering and informatics. The content represents state-of-the-art foundations for researchers in the domain of modern computation, computer science, system engineering and networking, with many examples that are set in industrial application context. The book includes the carefully selected best contributions to APCASE 2014, the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on  Computer Aided System Engineering, held February 10-12, 2014 in South Kuta, Bali, Indonesia. The book consists of four main parts that cover data-oriented engineering science research in a wide range of applications: computational models and knowledge discovery; communications networks and cloud computing; computer-based systems; and data-oriented and software-intensive systems.

  9. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornn, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  10. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  11. Computer-aided teniae coli detection using height maps from computed tomographic colonography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for colonic polyps and cancer screening. Teniae coli are three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle on the colon surface. They are parallel, equally distributed on the colon wall, and form a triple helix structure from the appendix to the sigmoid colon. Because of their characteristics, teniae coli are important anatomical meaningful landmarks on human colon. This paper proposes a novel method for teniae coli detection on CT colonography. We first unfold the three-dimensional (3D) colon using a reversible projection technique and compute the two-dimensional (2D) height map of the unfolded colon. The height map records the elevation of colon surface relative to the unfolding plane, where haustral folds corresponding to high elevation points and teniae to low elevation points. The teniae coli are detected on the height map and then projected back to the 3D colon. Since teniae are located where the haustral folds meet, we break down the problem by first detecting haustral folds. We apply 2D Gabor filter banks to extract fold features. The maximum response of the filter banks is then selected as the feature image. The fold centers are then identified based on piecewise thresholding on the feature image. Connecting the fold centers yields a path of the folds. Teniae coli are finally extracted as lines running between the fold paths. Experiments were carried out on 7 cases. The proposed method yielded a promising result with an average normalized RMSE of 5.66% and standard deviation of 4.79% of the circumference of the colon.

  12. Computer aided detection of tumor and edema in brain FLAIR magnetic resonance image using ANN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nandita; Sinha, A. K.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents an efficient region based segmentation technique for detecting pathological tissues (Tumor & Edema) of brain using fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images. This work segments FLAIR brain images for normal and pathological tissues based on statistical features and wavelet transform coefficients using k-means algorithm. The image is divided into small blocks of 4×4 pixels. The k-means algorithm is used to cluster the image based on the feature vectors of blocks forming different classes representing different regions in the whole image. With the knowledge of the feature vectors of different segmented regions, supervised technique is used to train Artificial Neural Network using fuzzy back propagation algorithm (FBPA). Segmentation for detecting healthy tissues and tumors has been reported by several researchers by using conventional MRI sequences like T1, T2 and PD weighted sequences. This work successfully presents segmentation of healthy and pathological tissues (both Tumors and Edema) using FLAIR images. At the end pseudo coloring of segmented and classified regions are done for better human visualization.

  13. Computer-aided design of microvasculature systems for use in vascular scaffold production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, William Lafayette [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Cameron, Don [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, FL (United States); Timmermans, Jean-Pierre [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp (Belgium); De Clerck, Nora [Department of Biomedical Sciences University of Antwerp (Belgium); Sasov, Alexander [Skyscan (Belgium); Casteleyn, Christophe [College of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium); Piegl, Les A [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida, FL (United States)

    2009-09-15

    In vitro biomedical engineering of intact, functional vascular networks, which include capillary structures, is a prerequisite for adequate vascular scaffold production. Capillary structures are necessary since they provide the elements and compounds for the growth, function and maintenance of 3D tissue structures. Computer-aided modeling of stereolithographic (STL) micro-computer tomographic (micro-CT) 3D models is a technique that enables us to mimic the design of vascular tree systems containing capillary beds, found in tissues. In our first paper (Mondy et al 2009 Tissue Eng. at press), using micro-CT, we studied the possibility of using vascular tissues to produce data capable of aiding the design of vascular tree scaffolding, which would help in the reverse engineering of a complete vascular tree system including capillary bed structures. In this paper, we used STL models of large datasets of computer-aided design (CAD) data of vascular structures which contained capillary structures that mimic those in the dermal layers of rabbit skin. Using CAD software we created from 3D STL models a bio-CAD design for the development of capillary-containing vascular tree scaffolding for skin. This method is designed to enhance a variety of therapeutic protocols including, but not limited to, organ and tissue repair, systemic disease mediation and cell/tissue transplantation therapy. Our successful approach to in vitro vasculogenesis will allow the bioengineering of various other types of 3D tissue structures, and as such greatly expands the potential applications of biomedical engineering technology into the fields of biomedical research and medicine.

  14. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  15. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  16. Error analysis for relay type satellite-aided search and rescue systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is made of the errors in the determination of the position of an emergency transmitter in a satellite-aided search and rescue system. The satellite is assumed to be at a height of 820 km in a near-circular near polar orbit. Short data spans of four minutes or less are used. The error sources considered are measurement noise, transmitter frequency drift, ionospheric effects, and error in the assumed height of the transmitter. The errors are calculated for several different transmitter positions, data rates, and data spans. The only transmitter frequency used was 406 MHz, but the result can be scaled to different frequencies.

  17. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    non-crisis conditions, to engage stakeholders and to develop local and regional plans. The handbooks can also be applied as part of the decision-aiding process to develop a recovery strategy following an incident. In addition, the handbooks are useful for training purposes and during emergency......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... exercises. To realise their full potential, the handbooks should be customised at national, regional and local levels. © EDP Sciences, 2010...

  18. Detection of compatibility between baclofen and excipients with aid of infrared spectroscopy and chemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Barbara; Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    In the paper infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate exploration techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied as supportive methods for the detection of physicochemical incompatibilities between baclofen and excipients. In the course of research, the most useful rotational strategy in PCA proved to be varimax normalized, while in CA Ward's hierarchical agglomeration with Euclidean distance measure enabled to yield the most interpretable results. Chemometrical calculations confirmed the suitability of PCA and CA as the auxiliary methods for interpretation of infrared spectra in order to recognize whether compatibilities or incompatibilities between active substance and excipients occur. On the basis of IR spectra and the results of PCA and CA it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of lactose, β-cyclodextrin and meglumine in binary mixtures produce interactions with baclofen. The results were verified using differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses.

  19. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  20. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  1. Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Intrusion Detection System Visualization of Network Alerts Dolores M. Zage and Wayne M. Zage Ball State University Final Report July 2010...contracts. Staff Wayne Zage, Director of the S2ERC and Professor, Department of Computer Science, Ball State University Dolores Zage, Research

  2. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  3. Landmine detection by 3D GPR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Yokota, Yuya; Takahashi, Kazunori; Grasmueck, Mark

    2012-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detection of small buried objects such as landmine and UXO, conducted demonstration tests by using the 3DGPR system, which is a GPR system combined with high accuracy positing system using a commercial laser positioning system (iGPS). iGPS can provide absolute and better than centimetre precise x,y,z coordinates to multiple mine sensors at the same time. The developed " 3DGPR" system is efficient and capable of high-resolution 3D shallow subsurface scanning of larger areas (25 m2 to thousands of square meters) with irregular topography . Field test by using a 500MHz GPR system equipped with 3DGPR system was conducted. PMN-2 and Type-72 mine models have been buried at the depth of 5-20cm in sand. We could demonstrate that the 3DGPR can visualize each of these buried land mines very clearly.

  4. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  5. Single reading with computer-aided detection performed by selected radiologists in a breast cancer screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.cat [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ríos, José [Biostatistics and Data Management Core Facility, IDIBAPS, (Hospital Clinic) C/ Mallorca, 183. Floor -1. Office #60. 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Grau, Jaume [Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta; Cores, Enrique; Velasco, Martín [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/ Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • 1-The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD. • 2-The cancer detection rate improved at the cost of increasing recall rate. • 3-CAD, used by breast radiologists, did not help to detect more cancers. - Abstract: Objectives: To assess the impact of shifting from a standard double reading plus arbitration protocol to a single reading by experienced radiologists assisted by computer-aided detection (CAD) in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: This was a prospective study approved by the ethics committee. Data from 21,321 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2010–2012) were read following a single reading plus CAD protocol and compared with data from 47,462 consecutive screening mammograms in incident rounds (2004–2010) that were interpreted following a double reading plus arbitration protocol. For the single reading, radiologists were selected on the basis of the appraisement of their previous performance. Results: Period 2010–2012 vs. period 2004–2010: Cancer detection rate (CDR): 6.1‰ (95% confidence interval: 5.1–7.2) vs. 5.25‰; Recall rate (RR): 7.02% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.4) vs. 7.24% (selected readers before arbitration) and vs. 3.94 (all readers after arbitration); Predictive positive value of recall: 8.69% vs. 13.32%. Average size of invasive cancers: 14.6 ± 9.5 mm vs. 14.3 ± 9.5 mm. Stage: 0 (22.3/26.1%); I (59.2/50.8%); II (19.2/17.1%); III (3.1/3.3%); IV (0/1.9%). Specialized breast radiologists performed better than general radiologists. Conclusions: The cancer detection rate of the screening program improved using a single reading protocol by experienced radiologists assisted by CAD, at the cost of a moderate increase of the recall rate mainly related to the lack of arbitration.

  6. Detection of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with HIV/AIDS by using a simplified iron hematoxylin technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Garcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies strongly indicate Dientamoeba fragilis as one of the causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. METHODS: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of D. fragilis associated with the causes of diarrhea in 82 HIV/ AIDS patients hospitalized at the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas from September 2006 to November 2008. RESULTS: In total, 105 samples were collected from 82 patients. Unprotected sex was the most frequent cause of HIV infection (46.3%, followed by the use of injectable or non-injectable drugs (14.6%. Patients presented with viral loads of 49-750,000 copies/ mL (average: 73,849 ± 124,850 copies/mL and CD4 counts ranging of 2-1,306 cells/mm³ (average: 159 ± 250 cells/mm³. On an average, the odds of obtaining a positive result by using the other techniques (Hoffman, Pons and Janer or Lutz; Ritchie were 2.7 times higher than the chance of obtaining a positive result by using the simplified iron hematoxylin method. Significant differences were found between the methods (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: The other techniques can detect a significantly greater amount of parasites than the simplified iron hematoxylin method, especially with respect to Isospora belli, Cryptosporidium sp., Schistosoma mansoni, and Strongyloides stercoralis, which were not detected using hematoxylin. Endolimax nana and D. fragilis were detected more frequently on using hematoxylin, and the only parasite not found by the other methods was D. fragilis.

  7. Security Clearances: Additional Mechanisms May Aid Federal Tax-Debt Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    GAO’s recommendation, but efforts to develop an automated system to perform federal tax - compliance checks are in the initial planning stages. As such...Page 7 GAO-15-467T In September 2013, we reported that federal agencies may obtain information on federal tax compliance directly from...extent of his or her tax debt. 26 U.S.C. § 6103. Actions to Improve Federal Tax - Compliance Checks for Clearance Holders and Applicants Are in the

  8. Computer-Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems (CAMAPPS), phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The large-signal behaviors of a regulator depend largely on the type of power circuit topology and control. Thus, for maximum flexibility, it is best to develop models for each functional block a independent modules. A regulator can then be configured by collecting appropriate pre-defined modules for each functional block. In order to complete the component model generation for a comprehensive spacecraft power system, the following modules were developed: solar array switching unit and control; shunt regulators; and battery discharger. The capability of each module is demonstrated using a simplified Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system. Large-signal behaviors of solar array power systems were analyzed. Stability of the solar array system operating points with a nonlinear load is analyzed. The state-plane analysis illustrates trajectories of the system operating point under various conditions. Stability and transient responses of the system operating near the solar array's maximum power point are also analyzed. The solar array system mode of operation is described using the DET spacecraft power system. The DET system is simulated for various operating conditions. Transfer of the software program CAMAPPS (Computer Aided Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems) to NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) was accomplished.

  9. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  10. Role of the ubiquitin system and tumor viruses in AIDS-related cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagano Joseph S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor viruses are linked to approximately 20% of human malignancies worldwide. This review focuses on examples of human oncogenic viruses that manipulate the ubiquitin system in a subset of viral malignancies; those associated with AIDS. The viruses include Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus, which are causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma, certain B-cell lymphomas and cervical cancer, respectively. We discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these viruses subvert the ubiquitin system and potential viral targets for anti-cancer therapy from the perspective of this system. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com.

  11. Using Computer Aided Assessment System to Assess College Students Writing Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua He

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available College students are facing challenges to present their ideas by writing a paper because they rely more on information from computer and web. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel computer aided assessment system, to assess college students’ writing ability. The CAAS system comprises of an expert team, a set of achievement standard for assessment, and software systems to conduct data analysis and store related information. It has been used by institute in U.S. It yields face validity and consistency reliability. Objective evaluation results will be provided by randomly-assigned multiple reviewers. CAAS can assist college students improve writing skills, can describ a brief picture and detailed information for both school administrators and policy makers as well.

  12. A FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATED CHANGE DETECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To enhance the ability of remote sensing system to provide accurate,timely,and c omplete geo_spatial information at regional or global scale,an automated change detection system has been and will continue to be one of the important and chall enging problems in remote sensing.In this paper,the authors propose a framework for auto mated change detection system at landscape level using various geo_spatial data sources including multi_sensor remotely sensed imagery and ancillary data layers .In this framework,database is the central part and some associated techniques a re discussed.These techniques includes five subsystems:automated feature_based i mage registration,automated change finding,automated change feature extraction a nd identification,intelligent change recognition,change accuracy assessment and database updating and visualization.

  13. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  14. Operator function modeling: Cognitive task analysis, modeling and intelligent aiding in supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, implementation, and empirical evaluation of task-analytic models and intelligent aids for operators in the control of complex dynamic systems, specifically aerospace systems, are studied. Three related activities are included: (1) the models of operator decision making in complex and predominantly automated space systems were used and developed; (2) the Operator Function Model (OFM) was used to represent operator activities; and (3) Operator Function Model Expert System (OFMspert), a stand-alone knowledge-based system was developed, that interacts with a human operator in a manner similar to a human assistant in the control of aerospace systems. OFMspert is an architecture for an operator's assistant that uses the OFM as its system and operator knowledge base and a blackboard paradigm of problem solving to dynamically generate expectations about upcoming operator activities and interpreting actual operator actions. An experiment validated the OFMspert's intent inferencing capability and showed that it inferred the intentions of operators in ways comparable to both a human expert and operators themselves. OFMspert was also augmented with control capabilities. An interface allowed the operator to interact with OFMspert, delegating as much or as little control responsibility as the operator chose. With its design based on the OFM, OFMspert's control capabilities were available at multiple levels of abstraction and allowed the operator a great deal of discretion over the amount and level of delegated control. An experiment showed that overall system performance was comparable for teams consisting of two human operators versus a human operator and OFMspert team.

  15. Enhanced Intrusion Detection System for Input Validation Attacks in Web Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet continues to expand exponentially and access to the Internet become more prevalent in our daily life but at the same time web application are becoming most attractive targets for hacker and cyber criminals. This paper presents an enhanced intrusion detection system approach for detecting input validation attacks in the web application. The existing IDS for Input validation attacks are language dependent. The proposed IDS is language independent i.e. it works for any web application developed with the aid of java, php, dot net etc. In addition the proposed system detects directory traversal attacks, command injection attacks, cross site scripting attacks and SQL injection attacks, those were not detected in the existing IDS. This is an automatic technique for detection vulnerabilities over the internet. Our technique is based on the web application parameter which is in form of POST and GET which has generalized structure and values. This technique reduces analysis time of input validation attacks.

  16. Detecting Triple Systems with Gravitational Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by merging black hole binaries. We examine whether future GW detections may identify triple companions of merging binaries. Such a triple companion causes variations in the GW signal due to: (1) the varying path length along the line of sight during the orbit around the center of mass; (2) relativistic beaming, Doppler, and gravitational redshift; (3) the variation of the “light”-travel time in the gravitational field of the triple companion; and (4) secular variations of the orbital elements. We find that the prospects for detecting a triple companion are the highest for low-mass compact object binaries which spend the longest time in the LIGO frequency band. In particular, for merging neutron star binaries, LIGO may detect a white dwarf or M-dwarf perturber at a signal-to-noise ratio of 8, if it is within 0.4 {R}ȯ distance from the binary and the system is within a distance of 100 Mpc. Stellar mass (supermassive) black hole perturbers may be detected at a factor 5 × (103×) larger separations. Such pertubers in orbit around a merging binary emit GWs at frequencies above 1 mHz detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna in coincidence.

  17. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  18. The effect of computer-aided detection markers on visual search and reader performance during concurrent reading of CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbren, Emma; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Fanshawe, Thomas R.; Mallett, Susan [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Phillips, Peter [University of Cumbria, Health and Medical Sciences Group, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Boone, Darren [Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust and Anglia University, Colchester (United Kingdom); Gale, Alastair [Loughborough University, Applied Vision Research Centre, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Altman, Douglas G. [University of Oxford, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Manning, David [Lancaster University, Lancaster Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Gastrointestinal Radiology, University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, Podium Level 2, London, NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to identify the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on visual search and performance in CT Colonography (CTC) of inexperienced and experienced readers. Fifteen endoluminal CTC examinations were recorded, each with one polyp, and two videos were generated, one with and one without a CAD mark. Forty-two readers (17 experienced, 25 inexperienced) interpreted the videos during infrared visual search recording. CAD markers and polyps were treated as regions of interest in data processing. This multi-reader, multi-case study was analysed using multilevel modelling. CAD drew readers' attention to polyps faster, accelerating identification times: median 'time to first pursuit' was 0.48 s (IQR 0.27 to 0.87 s) with CAD, versus 0.58 s (IQR 0.35 to 1.06 s) without. For inexperienced readers, CAD also held visual attention for longer. All visual search metrics used to assess visual gaze behaviour demonstrated statistically significant differences when ''with'' and ''without'' CAD were compared. A significant increase in the number of correct polyp identifications across all readers was seen with CAD (74 % without CAD, 87 % with CAD; p < 0.001). CAD significantly alters visual search and polyp identification in readers viewing three-dimensional endoluminal CTC. For polyp and CAD marker pursuit times, CAD generally exerted a larger effect on inexperienced readers. (orig.)

  19. An automated tuberculosis screening strategy combining X-ray-based computer-aided detection and clinical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I.; Philipsen, Rick H. H. M.; Maduskar, Pragnya; Dawson, Rodney; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-04-01

    Lack of human resources and radiological interpretation expertise impair tuberculosis (TB) screening programmes in TB-endemic countries. Computer-aided detection (CAD) constitutes a viable alternative for chest radiograph (CXR) reading. However, no automated techniques that exploit the additional clinical information typically available during screening exist. To address this issue and optimally exploit this information, a machine learning-based combination framework is introduced. We have evaluated this framework on a database containing 392 patient records from suspected TB subjects prospectively recruited in Cape Town, South Africa. Each record comprised a CAD score, automatically computed from a CXR, and 12 clinical features. Comparisons with strategies relying on either CAD scores or clinical information alone were performed. Our results indicate that the combination framework outperforms the individual strategies in terms of the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (0.84 versus 0.78 and 0.72), specificity at 95% sensitivity (49% versus 24% and 31%) and negative predictive value (98% versus 95% and 96%). Thus, it is believed that combining CAD and clinical information to estimate the risk of active disease is a promising tool for TB screening.

  20. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Raja Majid; Lee, Hyo Jong

    2017-02-08

    Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  1. Interactive Image Processing As An Aid To Designing Robot Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, B. G.; Cotter, S. M.; Page, G. J.; Hopkins, S. H.

    1983-10-01

    Interactive image processing has proved to be a valuable aid to prototype development for industrial inspection systems. This paper advocates extending its use to exploratory analysis of robot vision applications. Preliminary studies have shown that it is equally effective in this role, although it is not usually possible to achieve the computational speeds needed for real-time control of the robot using a software-based image processor. Its use, as in inspection research, is likely to be limited to algorithm design/selection. The Autoview image processor (British Robotic Systems Ltd.) has recently been interfaced to a Placemate 5 robot (Pendar Robotics Ltd.) and further programmable manipulation devices, including an xy-coordinate table and a stepping turntable are currently being connected. Using these and similar devices, research will be conducted into such tasks as assembly, Dalletisinq and robot-assisted inspection.

  2. Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Majid Mehmood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.

  3. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  4. A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C T; Jason, J

    1991-01-01

    The National AIDS Information and Education Program (NAIEP) commissioned the National Academy of Sciences to design a prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the agency's media campaign. It consists of four types of evaluation: formative, efficacy, process, and outcome. These types of evaluations are used to answer such questions as the following: What message strategies will work best? Can a campaign under optimal conditions be expected to make a difference? What interventions are actually delivered during the campaign? Has the campaign actually had an impact? How NAIEP has used the system and adapted it during 1 year of research activities is outlined, and examples from a variety of other social marketing programs are described.

  5. Data Mining and Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibusiso Dewa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology and the increased connectivity among its components, imposes new cyber-security challenges. To tackle this growing trend in computer attacks and respond threats, industry professionals and academics are joining forces in order to build Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS that combine high accuracy with low complexity and time efficiency. The present article gives an overview of existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS along with their main principles. Also this article argues whether data mining and its core feature which is knowledge discovery can help in creating Data mining based IDSs that can achieve higher accuracy to novel types of intrusion and demonstrate more robust behaviour compared to traditional IDSs.

  6. Fabrication of Microfluidic Fiber Chip Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Su; Da-fu Cui; Chang-chun Liu; Xing Chen

    2006-01-01

    The diameter of the excitation beam was decreased greatly by integrating the fiber on the microfluidic chip as light propagation medium. The coupling efficiency of the fiber was improved with optical fiber collimation device coupling beam.The chip was placed in the darkroom to avoid the interference of the external light. The cost of the instrument was decreased with a high brightness blue LED as excitation source; the performance of the system was valuated by the determination of FITC fluorescein with a minimum detectable concentration of 2.2×10-8 mol/L, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) S/N=5. The correlation coefficient of the detection system within the range of 1.8 × 10-7 mol/L~ 4 × 10-5mol/L was 0.9972.

  7. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  8. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, Nourdine; Fernandez, Javier; Mata, Mario; Bemposta, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR) for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations. PMID:25421737

  9. Reconfigurable Hardware Architecture for Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kaleel Rahuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion rule processing in reconfigurable hardware enables intrusion detection and prevention. The use of reconfigurable hardware for network security applications has great strides as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA devices have provided larger and faster resources. This proposes architecture called “BV-TCAM” is presented, which is implemented for an FPGA-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS. The BV-TCAM architecture combines the Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM and Bit Vector (BV algorithm to effectively compress the data representation and throughput. A tree bitmap implementation of the BV algorithm is used for source and destination port lookup while a TCAM performs lookup for other header fields, which can be represented as a prefix or exact value. With the aid of small embedded TCAM, packet classification can be implemented in relatively small part of the available logic of an FPGA. The BV-TCAM architecture has been modelled by VHDL. Simulations were performed by MODELSIM. This architecture have to be synthesized and implement our design using Xilinx FPGA device."

  10. Research on solar aided coal-fired power generation system and performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Integrating solar power utilization systems with coal-fired power units, the solar aided coal-fired power generation (SACPG) shows a significant prospect for the large-scale utilization of solar energy and energy saving of thermal power units. The methods and mechanism of system integration were studied. The parabolic trough solar collectors were used to collect solar energy and the integration scheme of SACPG system was determined considering the matching of working fluid flows and energy flows. The thermodynamic characteristics of solar thermal power generation and their effects on the performance of thermal power units were studied, and based on this the integration and optimization model of system structure and parameters were built up. The integration rules and coupling mecha- nism of SACPG systems were summarized in accordance with simulation results. The economic analysis of this SACPG system showed that the solar LEC of a typical SACPG system, considering CO2 avoidance, is 0.098 $/kW·h, lower than that of SEGS, 0.14 $/kW·h.

  11. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS. It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

  12. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  13. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  14. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists’ Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists’ confidence rating. PMID:28158235

  15. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  16. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  17. Automating Vendor Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraud is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to grow annually. Many organisations are poorly prepared to prevent and detect fraud. Fraud detection strategies are intended to quickly and efficiently identify fraudulent activities that circumvent preventative measures. In this paper we adopt a Design-Science methodological framework to develop a model for detection of vendor fraud based on analysis of patterns or signatures identified in enterprise system audit trails. The concept is demonstrated be developing prototype software. Verification of the prototype is achieved by performing a series of experiments. Validation is achieved by independent reviews from auditing practitioners. Key findings of this study are: i automating routine data analytics improves auditor productivity and reduces time taken to identify potential fraud, and ii visualisations assist in promptly identifying potentially fraudulent user activities. The study makes the following contributions: i a model for proactive fraud detection, ii methods for visualising user activities in transaction data, iii a stand-alone MCL-based prototype.

  18. A multiattribute utility evaluation of different methods for the detection of enteric protozoa causing diarrhea in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric protozoa and sporozoa have emerged as important opportunistic parasites and can cause fatal infections in AIDS patients. The line of treatment being different for them necessitates an accurate and prompt identification of these to avoid empirical treatment. In this study which is the first of its kind from India we did a comprehensive evaluation of different techniques, comparing them on the basis of the attributes like yield, cost, time taken, expertise and infrastructure. For the first time combination of Calcoflour White and DAPI, a nuclear stain, were used to identify Microsporidia spp. Thus, a diagnostic protocol was devised for rapid, sensitive and cost effective identification of the opportunistic enteric protozoa. Results The organisms isolated from the stool samples of the cases (450 HIV patients were predominantly Cryptosporidium spp., Microsporidia spp. and Cyclospora spp. Interestingly, the control group (200 relatives of the patients who were HIV negative showed a high incidence (21% of Cryptosporidium spp. We found a significant increase in the sensitivity of microscopy in detecting Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora spp. after formol ether concentration. Kinyoun's staining was better compared to Modified safranin staining for Cryptosporidium spp. identification. Although ELISA had a sensitivity of 93.25% and specificity of 97% for Cryptosporidium spp. detection, we ranked Kinyoun's staining better than ELISA because it is not affordable to most of our patients. For detecting Cyclospora cayetanensis, autoflourescence was the easiest and most cost effective method followed by Safranin technique. Combination of Calcoflour White stain and DAPI gave good results for the identification of Microsporidia spp. We assessed the above techniques and graded the attributes in the following descending order: cost effectiveness, sensitivity, ease of use and interpretation, time taken for the procedure and batch

  19. The ITER Radial Neutron Camera Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, D.; Belli, F.; Bonheure, G.; Esposito, B.; Kaschuck, Y.; Petrizzi, L.; Riva, M.

    2008-03-01

    A multichannel neutron detection system (Radial Neutron Camera, RNC) will be installed on the ITER equatorial port plug 1 for total neutron source strength, neutron emissivity/ion temperature profiles and nt/nd ratio measurements [1]. The system is composed by two fan shaped collimating structures: an ex-vessel structure, looking at the plasma core, containing tree sets of 12 collimators (each set lying on a different toroidal plane), and an in-vessel structure, containing 9 collimators, for plasma edge coverage. The RNC detecting system will work in a harsh environment (neutron fiux up to 108-109 n/cm2 s, magnetic field >0.5 T or in-vessel detectors), should provide both counting and spectrometric information and should be flexible enough to cover the high neutron flux dynamic range expected during the different ITER operation phases. ENEA has been involved in several activities related to RNC design and optimization [2,3]. In the present paper the up-to-date design and the neutron emissivity reconstruction capabilities of the RNC will be described. Different options for detectors suitable for spectrometry and counting (e.g. scintillators and diamonds) focusing on the implications in terms of overall RNC performance will be discussed. The increase of the RNC capabilities offered by the use of new digital data acquisition systems will be also addressed.

  20. Developing a new case based computer-aided detection scheme and an adaptive cueing method to improve performance in detecting mammographic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Wang, Yunzhi; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new method to improve performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes of screening mammograms with two approaches. In the first approach, we developed a new case based CAD scheme using a set of optimally selected global mammographic density, texture, spiculation, and structural similarity features computed from all four full-field digital mammography images of the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views by using a modified fast and accurate sequential floating forward selection feature selection algorithm. Selected features were then applied to a ‘scoring fusion’ artificial neural network classification scheme to produce a final case based risk score. In the second approach, we combined the case based risk score with the conventional lesion based scores of a conventional lesion based CAD scheme using a new adaptive cueing method that is integrated with the case based risk scores. We evaluated our methods using a ten-fold cross-validation scheme on 924 cases (476 cancer and 448 recalled or negative), whereby each case had all four images from the CC and MLO views. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was AUC  =  0.793  ±  0.015 and the odds ratio monotonically increased from 1 to 37.21 as CAD-generated case based detection scores increased. Using the new adaptive cueing method, the region based and case based sensitivities of the conventional CAD scheme at a false positive rate of 0.71 per image increased by 2.4% and 0.8%, respectively. The study demonstrated that supplementary information can be derived by computing global mammographic density image features to improve CAD-cueing performance on the suspicious mammographic lesions.

  1. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...

  2. Computer aided process planning system based on workflow technology and integrated bill of material tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chun-guang; MENG Li-li

    2006-01-01

    It is extremely important for procedure of process design and management of process data for product life cycle in Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) system,but there are many shortcomings with traditional CAPP system in these respects.To solve these questions,application of workflow technology in CAPP system based on web-integrated Bill of Material (BOM) tree is discussed,and a concept of integrated BOM tree was brought forward.Taking integrated BOM as the thread,CAPP systematic technological process is analyzed.The function,system architecture,and implementation mechanism of CAPP system based on Browser/Server and Customer/Server model are expatiated.Based on it,the key technologies of workflow management device were analyzed.Eventually,the implementation mechanism of integrated BOM tree was analyzed from viewpoints of material information encoding,organization node design of integrated BOM tree,transformation from Engineering BOM (EBOM)to Process BOM (PBOM),and the programming implementation technology.

  3. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  4. Stakeholder Analysis as a Medium to Aid Change in Information System Reengineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davison

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving stakeholders within a change process is well recognised, and successfully managed change is equally important. Information systems development and redesign is a form of change activity involving people and social issues and therefore resistance to change may occur. A stakeholder identification and analysis (SIA technique has been developed as an enhancement to PISO® (Process Improvement for Strategic Objectives, a method that engages the users of a system in the problem solving and reengineering of their own work-based problem areas. The SIA technique aids the identification and analysis of system stakeholders, and helps view the projected outcome of system changes and their effect on relevant stakeholders with attention being given to change resistance to ensure smooth negotiation and achieve consensus. A case study is presented here describing the successful implementation of a direct appointment booking system for patients within the National Health Service in the UK, utilising the SIA technique, which resulted in a feeling of empowerment and ownership of the change of those involved.

  5. Neural Network Aided Kalman Filtering For Integrated GPS/INS Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong GUO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kalman filter (KF uses measurement updates to correct system states error and to limit the errors in navigation solutions. However, only when the system dynamic and measurement models are correctly defined, and the noise statistics for the process are completely known, KF can optimally estimate a system’s states. Without measurement updates, Kalman filter’s prediction diverges; therefore the performance of an integrated GPS/INS navigation system may degrade rapidly when GPS signals are unavailable. This paper presents a neural network (NN aided Kalman filtering method to improve navigation solutions of integrated GPS/INS navigation system. In the proposed loosely coupled GPS/INS navigation system, extended KF (EKF estimates the INS measurement errors, plus position, velocity and attitude errors, and provides precise navigation solutions while GPS signals are available. At the same time, multi-layer NN is trained to map the vehicle manoeuvre with INS prediction errors during each GPS epoch, which is the input of the EKF. During GPS signal blockages, the NN can be used to predict the INS errors for EKF measurement updates, and in this way to improve navigation solutions. The principle of this hybrid method and the NN design are presented. Land vehicle based field test data are processed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.

  6. Computer Aided Design of Transformer Station Grounding System Using CDEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nikolovski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer-aided design of a transformer station grounding system. Fault conditions in a transformer station can produce huge damage to transformer station equipment if the grounding system is not designed properly. A well designed grounding system is a very important part of the project for transformer station design as a whole. This paper analyses a procedure for transformer grounding system design and spatial distribution of touch and step voltage on the ground surface level, using the CDEGS (Current Distribution Electromagnetic Interference Grounding and Soil Structure Analysis software. Spatial distribution is needed for checking and finding dangerous step and touch voltages above and around the transformer station. Apparent earth resistivity data is measured and analyzed using the RESAP module of the CDEGS software. Because of the very high current flow into the grounding system during a single line to ground fault or a three phase fault in the transformer station, very high and dangerous potentials can be induced on the metallic structures including the fence, which can cause dangerous situations for people and animals near the station and for the personnel inside the station. The PLOT module of CDEGS is used to view the results of the scalar potential, step and touch voltage on the surface. Graphic displays include equipotent contour lines and potential profiles (gradients in 3D and 2D perspective and apparent soil resistivity (Wm versus inter electrode spacing (m. The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for the purpose of comparison.

  7. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  8. A Computer Aided System for Correlation and Prediction of Phase Equilibrium Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.L.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2001-01-01

    based on mathematical programming. This paper describes the development of a computer aided system for the systematic derivation of appropriate property models to be used in the service role for a specified problem. As a first step, a library of well-known property models ha's been developed...... procedures employed in simulation and design, the property models are required to have well-behaved and continuous derivatives for these problems to converge a solution. Furthermore, in process optimisation, the second and third order derivatives of the property models must exist for solution approaches......Modelling, simulation and design of chemical processes need accurate and reliable estimation of the properties of the mixtures present in the process. In these situations, the property models are in a 'service' role where they supply the needed properties only when requested. Due to the solution...

  9. Computer aided system for segmentation and visualization of microcalcifications in digital mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Stojić

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for segmentation and visualization of microcalcifications in digital or digitized mammograms are described. First method is based on modern mathematical morphology, while the second one uses the multifractal approach. In the first method, by using an appropriate combination of some morphological operations, high local contrast enhancement, followed by significant suppression of background tissue, irrespective of its radiology density, is obtained. By iterative procedure, this method highly emphasizes only small bright details, possible microcalcifications. In a multifractal approach, from initial mammogram image, a corresponding multifractal "images" are created, from which a radiologist has a freedom to change the level of segmentation. An appropriate user friendly computer aided visualization (CAV system with embedded two methods is realized. The interactive approach enables the physician to control the level and the quality of segmentation. Suggested methods were tested through mammograms from MIAS database as a gold standard, and from clinical praxis, using digitized films and digital images from full field digital mammograph.

  10. DVL Velocity Aiding in the HUGIN 1000 Integrated Inertial Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Jalving

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The RDI WHN-600 Doppler Velocity Log (DVL is a key navigation sensor for the HUG1N 1000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV. HUGIN 1000 is designed for autonomous submerged operation for long periods of time. This is facilitated by a low drift velocity aided Inertial Navigation System (INS. Major factors determining the position error growth are the IMU and DVL error characteristics and the mission plan pattern_ For instance, low frequency DVL errors cause an approximately linear drift in a straight-line trajectory, while these errors tend to be cancelled out by a lawn mower pattern_ The paper focuses on the accuracy offered by the DVL. HUGIN 1000 is a permanent organic mine countermeasure (MCM capacity on the Royal Norwegian Navy MCM vessel KNM Karmoy. HUGIN 1000 will be part of the NATO force MCMFORNORTH in fall 2004.

  11. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-01-01

    High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigrams from Japanese patients: importance of training database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa

    2012-01-01

    Japanese patients. The two CAD softwares were evaluated using the same group of 257 Japanese patients, who underwent bone scintigraphy because of suspected metastases of malignant tumors in 2009. The final diagnostic results made by clinicians were used as gold standard.The Japanese CAD software showed......Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...... scans from Japanese patients.The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from...

  13. An integrated computer aided system for integrated design of chemical processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hytoft, Glen; Jaksland, Cecilia;

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an Integrated Computer Aided System (ICAS), which is particularly suitable for solving problems related to integrated design of chemical processes; is presented. ICAS features include a model generator (generation of problem specific models including model simplification and model...... reduction), a simulator (use of problem specific simulation strategies for steady state and dynamic simulation), toolboxes (thermodynamic toolbox, synthesis toolbox, control toolbox, design toolbox and analysis toolbox), and an interface for problem defintion. Each toolbox solves aspecific set of problems...... and communicates with all other computational tools available in ICAS. A large range of thermodynamic models for estimation of the necessary thermo-physical properties, a large range of computational algorithms for determination of various types of phase diagrams, algorithms for process synthesis, design, control...

  14. Transponder-aided joint calibration and synchronization compensation for distributed radar systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Wang

    Full Text Available High-precision radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation must be provided for distributed radar system due to separate transmitters and receivers. This paper proposes a transponder-aided joint radiometric calibration, motion compensation and synchronization for distributed radar remote sensing. As the transponder signal can be separated from the normal radar returns, it is used to calibrate the distributed radar for radiometry. Meanwhile, the distributed radar motion compensation and synchronization compensation algorithms are presented by utilizing the transponder signals. This method requires no hardware modifications to both the normal radar transmitter and receiver and no change to the operating pulse repetition frequency (PRF. The distributed radar radiometric calibration and synchronization compensation require only one transponder, but the motion compensation requires six transponders because there are six independent variables in the distributed radar geometry. Furthermore, a maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the transponder signal parameters. The proposed methods are verified by simulation results.

  15. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  16. A Survey on VANET Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ERRITALI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the security issues on Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have become one of the primary concerns. The VANET is inherently very vulnerable to attacks than wired network because it is characterized by high mobility, shared wireless medium and the absence of centralized security services offered by dedicated equipment such as firewalls and authentication servers. Attackcountermeasures such as digital signature and encryption, can be used as the first line of defense for reducing the possibilities of attacks. However, these techniques have limited prevention in general, and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to avoid most recent attacks that are designed to circumvent existing security measures. For this reason, there is a need of second technique to “detect and notify” these newer attacks, i.e. “intrusion detection”. This article aims to present and classifycurrent techniques of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware VANETs.

  17. Intrusion Detection Systems Based On Packet Sniffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushus Maria Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era of networks, security of network systems is becoming increasingly important, as more and more sensitive information is being stored and manipulated online. The paper entitled ’Packet Sniffing’ is a IDS where it monitors packets on the network wire and attempts to the discovery of hacker/cracker who is attempting to break into system. Packet Sniffing also finds the contents and tracks the data packet in the network system. This sniffing is being performed by comparing the captured packet with the intruder details stored in the database .If the packet is found to be an intruder it is then forwarded to the firewall with the respective message for blocking. The Emotional Ants module contains the sender and receiver .The sender will inform all the other Ants running in other machines about the detection of intruder through his pheromone (Messages. The receiver in Ants will listen for the messages from other Ants

  18. Detection of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者精子中病毒核酸的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 李练兵; 侯志伟; 谢庆东; 康祥锦; 黄天华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence of HIV - 1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients.Methods Spermatozoon samples of 33 HIV/AIDS patients were prepared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) ,in which biotinylated HIV gag and HIV pol were used as probes, was performed to detect HIV nucleic acid in spermatozoa. Results HIV nucleic acid was detected in spermatozoa of 9 patients( 27. 3% ). Conclusion These results further confirm the presence of HIV nucleic acid in sperm of HIV/AIDS patients and indicates that FISH is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the nucleic acid in sperm.%目的 检测HIV/AIDS患者精子中HIV核酸.方法 制备33例HIV/AIDS患者精子样本,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH),以生物素标记的HIV gag及 HIV pol作为双探针对这些患者精子进行HIV核酸检测.结果 在9例(27.3%)患者中检测到阳性荧光信号.结论 HIV/AIDS患者精子存有HIV核酸;FISH是一种检测HIV/AIDS患者精子病毒核酸灵敏而可靠的方法.

  19. Intelligent Flamefinder Detection and Alert System (IFDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current hydrogen flame detection systems exhibit shortcomings ranging from limited detection range, to localization inaccuracy, limited sensitivity, false alarms,...

  20. Computer Aided Detection of Breast Density and Mass, and Visualization of Other Breast Anatomical Regions on Mammograms Using Graph Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiza Saidin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mostly arises from the glandular (dense region of the breast. Consequently, breast density has been found to be a strong indicator for breast cancer risk. Therefore, there is a need to develop a system which can segment or classify dense breast areas. In a dense breast, the sensitivity of mammography for the early detection of breast cancer is reduced. It is difficult to detect a mass in a breast that is dense. Therefore, a computerized method to separate the existence of a mass from the glandular tissues becomes an important task. Moreover, if the segmentation results provide more precise demarcation enabling the visualization of the breast anatomical regions, it could also assist in the detection of architectural distortion or asymmetry. This study attempts to segment the dense areas of the breast and the existence of a mass and to visualize other breast regions (skin-air interface, uncompressed fat, compressed fat, and glandular in a system. The graph cuts (GC segmentation technique is proposed. Multiselection of seed labels has been chosen to provide the hard constraint for segmentation of the different parts. The results are promising. A strong correlation ( was observed between the segmented dense breast areas detected and radiological ground truth.

  1. On Optimal Fault Detection for Discrete-time Markovian Jump Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-Yang; ZHONG Mai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of fault detection for discrete-time Markovian jump linear systems (MJLS).Using an observer-based fault detection filter (FDF) as a residual generator,the design of the FDF is formulated as an optimization problem for maximizing stochastic H_/H∞ or H∞/H∞ performance index.With the aid of an operator optimization method,it is shown that a unified optimal solution can be derived by solving a coupled Riccati equation.Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A CAD System for Lesion Detection in Cervigram Based on Laws Textural Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RamaPraba P.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among the women worldwide. A computer aided diagnosis system can help colposcopist to analyze cervical images more accurately. This work aims to detect lesion in cervical images based on Laws textural feature and nearest neighbor classifier and it can be used as a diagnostic tool. The images used for the detection of cervical cancer are taken by using colposcope which magnifies the cells of cervix. The Laws textural features are extracted from the cervical images and input to nearest neighbor classifier. A totally 240 images are used for the evaluation and an overall accuracy of 96% is obtained.

  3. Comparison of standard reading and computer aided detection (CAD) on a national proficiency test of screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, Stefano E-mail: s.ciatto@cspo.it; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Risso, Gabriella; Catarzi, Sandra; Bonardi, Rita; Viterbo, Valeria; Gnutti, Pierangela; Guglielmoni, Barbara; Pinelli, Lelio; Pandiscia, Anna; Navarra, Francesco; Lauria, Adele; Palmiero, Rosa; Indovina, Pietro Luigi

    2003-02-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of computer aided detection (CAD) in improving the interpretation of screening mammograms Material and methods: Ten radiologists underwent a proficiency test of screening mammography first by conventional reading and then with the help of CAD. Radiologists were blinded to test results for the whole study duration. Results of conventional and CAD reading were compared in terms of sensitivity and recall rate. Double reading was simulated combining conventional readings of four expert radiologists and compared with CAD reading. Results: Considering all ten readings, cancer was identified in 146 or 153 of 170 cases (85.8 vs. 90.0%; {chi}{sup 2}=0.99, df=1, P=0.31) and recalls were 106 or 152 of 1330 cases (7.9 vs. 11.4%; {chi}{sup 2}=8.69, df=1, P=0.003) at conventional or CAD reading, respectively. CAD reading was essentially the same (sensitivity 97.0 vs. 96.0%; {chi}{sup 2}=7.1, df=1, P=0.93; recall rate 10.7 vs. 10.6%; {chi}{sup 2}=1.5, df=1, P=0.96) as compared with simulated conventional double reading. Conclusion: CAD reading seems to improve the sensitivity of conventional reading while reducing specificity, both effects being of limited size. CAD reading had almost the same performance of simulated conventional double reading, suggesting a possible use of CAD which needs to be confirmed by further studies inclusive of cost-effective analysis.

  4. Development of the environmental neutron detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Kume, K

    2003-01-01

    Environmental neutron detection system is proposed. The main goal of this system was set to detect fast and thermal neutrons with the identical detector setup without degraders. A detector setup for the system with a sup 1 sup 0 B doped liquid scintillator, which had been optimized for thermal neutron counting in last year, was developed first. For optimization of for fast neutron counting, density of sup 1 sup 0 B and the size of the detector were fixed by measurement of fast neutrons, with help of the Monte Carlo calculation. In the meantime, possibility of the use of inorganic scintillators in neutron counting were verified, to solve the problem occurring at the long term use of the organic liquid scintillators. The detectors checked were LSO, BaF sub 2 , BGO and GSO. LSO and BaF sub 2 have much more difficulties in neutron counting such as background counting rates and BGO has some unclear signals at neutron measurements. GSO was shown to be the most probable candidate among them at the measurement of neu...

  5. Magnetoresistive performance and comparison of supermagnetic nanoparticles on giant magnetoresistive sensor-based detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Tu, Liang; Feng, Yinglong; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for ultrasensitive, multiplexed, real-time electrical readout, and rapid biological/chemical detection while combining with magnetic particles. Finding appropriate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and its influences on the detection signal is a vital aspect to the GMR bio-sensing technology. Here, we report a GMR sensor based detection system capable of stable and convenient connection, and real-time measurement. Five different types of MNPs with sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm were investigated for GMR biosensing. The experiments were accomplished with the aid of DNA hybridization and detection architecture on GMR sensor surface. We found that different MNPs markedly affected the final detection signal, depending on their characteristics of magnetic moment, size, and surface-based binding ability, etc. This work may provide a useful guidance in selecting or preparing MNPs to enhance the sensitivity of GMR biosensors, and eventually lead to a versatile and portable device for molecular diagnostics.

  6. Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, M. Agumbe

    2014-05-01

    Leak and backflow detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak/backflow detection in WDSs focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located strategically. In contrast to these, we propose a solution whereby mobile sensors (i.e., their movement aided only by the inherent water flow in the system) detect leaks/backflow. Information about the leaks/backflow is collected from the sensors either by physically capturing them, or through wireless communication. Specifically, we propose models to maximize leak/backflow detection given a cost constraint (a limit on the number of sensors). Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed solution when compared with the state of the art solutions (e.g., algorithms/protocols and analysis).

  7. Computer-aided design of control systems to meet many requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schy, A. A.; Adams, W. M., Jr.; Johnson, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for using nonlinear programing in the computer-aided design of airplane control systems. It is assumed that the quality of such systems depends on many criteria. These criteria are included in the constraints vector (instead of attempting to combine them into a single scalar criterion, as is usually done), and the design proceeds through a sequence of nonlinear programing solutions in which the designer varies the specification of sets of requirements levels. The method is applied to design of a lateral stability augmentation system (SAS) for a fighter airplane, in which the requirements vector is chosen from the official handling qualities specifications. Results are shown for several simple SAS configurations designed to obtain desirable handling qualities over all design flight conditions with minimum feedback gains. The choice of the final design for each case is not unique but depends on the designer's decision as to which achievable set of requirements levels represents the best for that system. Results indicate that it may be possible to design constant parameter SAS which can satisfy the most stringent handling qualities requirements for fighter airplanes in all flight conditions. The role of the designer as a decision maker, interacting with the computer program, is discussed. Advantages of this type of designer-computer interaction are emphasized. Desirable extensions of the method are indicated.

  8. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  9. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system...

  10. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  11. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  12. The use of a spatial information system in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busgeeth Karishma

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is experiencing an HIV/AIDS pandemic of shattering dimensions. The availability and provision of antiretroviral (ARV drugs could bring relief to the situation, but the treatment is unfortunately complex with each patient being assigned a different antiretroviral therapy varying in diet-medication regiment. The context of South Africa, its variety of urban and rural settings adds to the challenge of administering and monitoring the HIV+ person throughout the treatment, which will last for the rest of their lives. The lack of physical infrastructure, reliable statistics and adequate resources hinder the efficient management of HIV/AIDS. Results The collection of reliable data will be a first step to assess the status of HIV/AIDS in communities. A number of hospitals have started this process using the conventional approach to collect information about their patients using a paper-based system. Since time is of essence in the fight against the pandemic, data exchange between various hospitals, municipalities and decision-making bodies is becoming more and more important. The logical response to such a need is a computerised system, which will collect and administer HIV/AIDS related information within the local context and allow a monitored access to the data from a number of stakeholders. Conclusions The purpose of this study was to design and develop an HIV/AIDS database, which is embedded in a Spatial Information Management System. The pilot study area is the Gugulethu township in Cape Town where more than 27% of the 325 000 residents are HIV+. It is shown that the implementation of the HIV/AIDS database and the Spatial Information Management System can play a critical role in determining where and when to intervene, improving the quality of care for HIV+ patients, increasing accessibility of service and delivering a cost-effective mode of information.

  13. The Personal Hearing System—A Software Hearing Aid for a Personal Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giso Grimm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept and architecture of a personal communication system (PCS is introduced that integrates audio communication and hearing support for the elderly and hearing-impaired through a personal hearing system (PHS. The concept envisions a central processor connected to audio headsets via a wireless body area network (WBAN. To demonstrate the concept, a prototype PCS is presented that is implemented on a netbook computer with a dedicated audio interface in combination with a mobile phone. The prototype can be used for field-testing possible applications and to reveal possibilities and limitations of the concept of integrating hearing support in consumer audio communication devices. It is shown that the prototype PCS can integrate hearing aid functionality, telephony, public announcement systems, and home entertainment. An exemplary binaural speech enhancement scheme that represents a large class of possible PHS processing schemes is shown to be compatible with the general concept. However, an analysis of hardware and software architectures shows that the implementation of a PCS on future advanced cell phone-like devices is challenging. Because of limitations in processing power, recoding of prototype implementations into fixed point arithmetic will be required and WBAN performance is still a limiting factor in terms of data rate and delay.

  14. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Steven A; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  15. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreilly, D.

    1992-07-01

    This task specified developing the hardware and software necessary to implement the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm, developed under Technology Test Bed (TTB) Task 21, on the TTB engine stand. This effort involved building two units; one unit to be installed in the Block II Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Hardware Simulation Lab (HSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and one unit to be installed at the TTB engine stand. Rocketdyne personnel from the HSL performed the task. The SAFD algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failure as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient condition.

  16. Detection and Analysis of Electro-acoustic Performance of Hearing Aids%助听器电声性能的检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清

    2014-01-01

    对助听器检测通常采用的国家标准为GB/T 14199-2010电声学助听器通用规范和GB/T 25102.100-2010电声学助听器第0部分:电声特性的测量,检测中需要关注的量值有频率范围、频率点、声压级、最大声压级、声压级均值、声压增益均值、谐波失真值、电流值,本文对此进行了分析总结,理顺了检测中相关量值的关系。%National standards for the detection of hearing aids commonly used to GB / T 14199-2010 General speciifcation electric acoustic hearing aids and GB / T 25102.100-2010 electric acoustic hearing aids - Part 0: Measurement, Detection need to focus on the magnitude of the electro-acoustic characteristics have frequency range, frequency, SPL, maximum SPL, SPL mean, mean sound pressure gain, harmonic distortion value, the current value of this were analyzed and summarized in this article, to rationalize the magnitude of the correlation detection relationships.

  17. An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems provide proactive defense against security threats by detecting and blocking attack-related traffic. This task can be highly complex, and therefore, software based network intrusion detection systems have difficulty in handling high speed links. This paper reviews of many type of software architecture in intrusion detection systems and describes the design and implementation of a high-performance network intrusion detection system that combines the use of software-based network intrusion detection sensors and a network processor board. The network processor acts as a customized load balancing splitter that cooperates with a set of modified content-based network intrusion detection sensors in processing network traffic.

  18. A novel computer-aided diagnosis system for breast MRI based on feature selection and ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Li, Zhe; Chu, Jinghui

    2017-03-06

    Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. With the development of modern medical science and information technology, medical imaging techniques have an increasingly important role in the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we propose an automated computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) framework for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The scheme consists of an ensemble of several machine learning-based techniques, including ensemble under-sampling (EUS) for imbalanced data processing, the Relief algorithm for feature selection, the subspace method for providing data diversity, and Adaboost for improving the performance of base classifiers. We extracted morphological, various texture, and Gabor features. To clarify the feature subsets' physical meaning, subspaces are built by combining morphological features with each kind of texture or Gabor feature. We tested our proposal using a manually segmented Region of Interest (ROI) data set, which contains 438 images of malignant tumors and 1898 images of normal tissues or benign tumors. Our proposal achieves an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.9617, which outperforms most other state-of-the-art breast MRI CADx systems. Compared with other methods, our proposal significantly reduces the false-positive classification rate.

  19. Central Asian Post-Soviet health systems in transition: has different aid engagement produced different outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Ulikpan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 resulted in a transition from centrally planned socialist systems to largely free-market systems for post-Soviet states. The health systems of Central Asian Post-Soviet (CAPS countries (Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have undergone a profound revolution. External development partners have been crucial to this reorientation through financial and technical support, though both relationships and outcomes have varied. This research provides a comparative review of the development assistance provided in the health systems of CAPS countries and proposes future policy options to improve the effectiveness of development. Design: Extensive documentary review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline/Ovid, Scopus, and Google scholar search engines, local websites, donor reports, and grey literature. The review was supplemented by key informant interviews and participant observation. Findings: The collapse of the Soviet dominance of the region brought many health system challenges. Donors have played an essential role in the reform of health systems. However, as new aid beneficiaries, neither CAPS countries’ governments nor the donors had the experience of development collaboration in this context.The scale of development assistance for health in CAPS countries has been limited compared to other countries with similar income, partly due to their limited history with the donor community, lack of experience in managing donors, and a limited history of transparency in international dealings. Despite commonalities at the start, two distinctive trajectories formed in CAPS countries, due to their differing politics and governance context. Conclusions: The influence of donors, both financially and technically, remains crucial to health sector reform, despite their relatively small contribution to overall health budgets. Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have demonstrated more

  20. Detective quantum efficiency of the LODOX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Mattieu; de Jager, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of a digital x-ray imaging system describes how much of the signal to noise ratio of the incident radiation is sustained in the resultant digital image. This measure of dose efficiency is suitable for the comparison of detectors produced by different manufacturers. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) stipulates standard methods and conditions for the measurement of the DQE for single exposure imaging systems such as flat panel detectors. This paper shows how the calculation is adapted for DQE measurements of scanning systems. In this paper it is described how to measure the presampled Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) using an edge test method and how to extract the horizontal and vertical components of the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) in a way that is insensitive to structured noise patterns often found in scanned images. The calculation of the total number of incident photons from the radiation dose measurement is explained and results are provided for the Lodox low dose full body digital x-ray scanning system which is developed in South Africa.

  1. HIV/AIDS epidemic and the development of comprehensive surveillance system in China with challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; WANG Ning

    2010-01-01

    @@ AIDS is the most severe infectious disease that has appeared in the second half of the 20th century.Since the United States Center of Disease Control & Prevention (US CDC) reported the first case of HIV carrier in the men who had sex with men (MSM)population in 1981, HIV/AIDS had spread globally. By the end of December 2008, UNAIDS and WHO estimated that there were 3340 million (3110-3580 million)infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide.1 While the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Asia began later than the epidemic in Europe, America and Africa, experts predict that countries in Asia, especially in three countries, China,India and Indonesia, which have a population of more than 100 million, will have the world's largest number of HIV/AIDS in the near future.

  2. LAN attack detection using Discrete Event Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubballi, Neminath; Biswas, Santosh; Roopa, S; Ratti, Ritesh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2011-01-01

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used for determining the link layer or Medium Access Control (MAC) address of a network host, given its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address. ARP is a stateless protocol and any IP-MAC pairing sent by a host is accepted without verification. This weakness in the ARP may be exploited by malicious hosts in a Local Area Network (LAN) by spoofing IP-MAC pairs. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to circumvent these attacks; however, these techniques either make IP-MAC pairing static, modify the existing ARP, patch operating systems of all the hosts etc. In this paper we propose a Discrete Event System (DES) approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for LAN specific attacks which do not require any extra constraint like static IP-MAC, changing the ARP etc. A DES model is built for the LAN under both a normal and compromised (i.e., spoofed request/response) situation based on the sequences of ARP related packets. Sequences of ARP events in normal and spoofed scenarios are similar thereby rendering the same DES models for both the cases. To create different ARP events under normal and spoofed conditions the proposed technique uses active ARP probing. However, this probing adds extra ARP traffic in the LAN. Following that a DES detector is built to determine from observed ARP related events, whether the LAN is operating under a normal or compromised situation. The scheme also minimizes extra ARP traffic by probing the source IP-MAC pair of only those ARP packets which are yet to be determined as genuine/spoofed by the detector. Also, spoofed IP-MAC pairs determined by the detector are stored in tables to detect other LAN attacks triggered by spoofing namely, man-in-the-middle (MiTM), denial of service etc. The scheme is successfully validated in a test bed.

  3. A Computer-Aided Telephone System to Enable Five Persons with Alzheimer's Disease to Make Phone Calls Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, Viviana; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Laporta, Dominga; Paparella, Adele; Caffo, Alessandro O.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a computer-aided telephone system to enable five patients with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease to make phone calls independently. The patients were divided into two groups and exposed to intervention according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across groups. All patients started with baseline in…

  4. Two Adults with Multiple Disabilities Use a Computer-Aided Telephone System to Make Phone Calls Independently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This study extended the assessment of a newly developed computer-aided telephone system with two participants (adults) who presented with blindness or severe visual impairment and motor or motor and intellectual disabilities. For each participant, the study was carried out according to an ABAB design, in which the A represented baseline phases and…

  5. Computer-aided planning and surgical guiding system fabrication in premolar autotransplantation : a 12-month follow up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Jansma, Johan; Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the autotransplantation of maxillary right second premolar into the contralateral position in a 14-year-old female using computerized tomographic data and a customized guiding system produced by computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology. Using innovati

  6. 78 FR 16481 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...: What is the impact of school access to individual FAFSA completion data on students' applications for... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) Completion Study... Internet, use the following address: comments@ed.gov . You must include the term ``FAFSA Completion...

  7. Comparison of pp65 antigenemia, quantitative PCR and DNA hybrid capture for detection of cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients and AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhiri, Leila; Kaabi, Belhassen; Houimel, Mehdi; Arrouji, Zakia; Slim, Amine

    2007-07-01

    The cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay has been used frequently for rapid diagnosis of CMV infection, and antigenemia threshold values are recommended for triggering preemptive therapy. Hybrid capture of CMV's DNA and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) are increasingly being adopted for early detection of CMV. The performance of the antigenemia assay, qPCR in plasma and hybrid capture in leukocytes were compared in 110 immunocompromised patients (38 bone-marrow transplants, 50 renal transplants and 22 AIDS patients). The most sensitive test was hybrid capture for transplants, while antigenemia and the qPCR showed similar performance for patients with AIDS. QPCR and hybrid capture thresholds requiring antiviral therapy were calculated using a receiver-operating-characteristic curve for antigenemia values corresponding to 2 positive cells for bone-marrow transplants and to 10 positive cells for renal transplants and AIDS patients. These threshold values varied with the group of patients considered, with corresponding sensitivities higher than 86% and specificities higher than 76% for hybrid capture, and sensitivities higher than 61% and specificities higher than 75% for qPCR in plasma. Hybrid capture in leukocytes can substitute for antigenemia in the case of transplants, and qPCR in plasma can substitute for it in the case of AIDS patients.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization system as an aid for facial surgical planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Sebastien; Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Paume, Patricia; Subrenat, Gilles

    2001-05-01

    We present an aid for facial deformities treatment. We designed a system for surgical planning and prediction of human facial aspect after maxillo-facial surgery. We study the 3D reconstruction process of the tissues involved in the simulation, starting from CT acquisitions. 3D iso-surfaces meshes of soft tissues and bone structures are built. A sparse set of still photographs is used to reconstruct a 360 degree(s) texture of the facial surface and increase its visual realism. Reconstructed objects are inserted into an object-oriented, portable and scriptable visualization software allowing the practitioner to manipulate and visualize them interactively. Several LODs (Level-Of- Details) techniques are used to ensure usability. Bone structures are separated and moved by means of cut planes matching orthognatic surgery procedures. We simulate soft tissue deformations by creating a physically-based springs model between both tissues. The new static state of the facial model is computed by minimizing the energy of the springs system to achieve equilibrium. This process is optimized by transferring informations like participation hints at vertex-level between a warped generic model and the facial mesh.

  9. Mixed-Initiative Tutorial System to Aid Users of the On-Line System (NLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignetti, Mario C.; And Others

    NLS-SCHOLAR is a prototype system that uses artificial intelligence techniques to teach computer-naive people how to use a powerful and complex text editor. It represents a new type of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system that integrates systematic teaching with actual practice; i.e., one which can keep the user under tutorial supervision…

  10. Autonomous system for pathogen detection and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belgrader, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benett, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langlois, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mariella, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Milanovich, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miles, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Venkateswaran, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-09-24

    This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world' s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity and specificity of the assay must be combined with no false alarms. Today, we have assays that can, in under 30 minutes, detect and identify simulants for BW agents at concentrations of a few hundred colony-forming units per ml of solution. If the bio-aerosol sampler of this system collects 1000 Ymin and concentrates the respirable particles into 1 ml of solution with 70% processing efficiency over a period of 5 minutes, then this translates to a detection/ID capability of under 0.1 agent-containing particle/liter of air.

  11. HIV infection and AIDS in the public health and health care systems: the role of law and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O; Webber, D W

    1998-04-08

    The AIDS Litigation Project has reviewed nearly 600 reported cases involving individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the federal and state courts in the United States between 1991 and 1997. Cases were identified through a federal and 50-state computer and library search. An important subset of litigation relates to HIV/AIDS in the public health and health care systems, since the law affects health care institutions and professionals, patients, and public health policy in America. This subset of HIV/AIDS litigation includes testing and reporting; privacy, the duty to warn, and the right to know; physician standards of care in prevention and treatment; and discrimination and access to health care. In broad terms, the review demonstrates a reliance on voluntary testing and protection of patient privacy through HIV-specific statutes and the common law. Negligence with potential civil and criminal liability has been alleged in cases of erroneous or missed diagnosis of HIV infection. In the first AIDS case to be considered by the Supreme Court, the Court will decide whether patients with asymptomatic HIV infection are protected under the Americans With Disabilities Act. Considerable progress has been made, both socially and legally, during the first 2 decades of the epidemic, but much still needs to be accomplished to protect privacy, prevent discrimination, and promote tolerance.

  12. Presence detection under optimum fusion in an ultrasonic sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Pandharipande, Ashish

    2012-04-01

    Reliable presence detection is a requirement in energy-efficient occupancy-adaptive indoor lighting systems. A system of multiple ultrasonic sensors is considered for presence detection, and the performance gain from optimum fusion is studied. Two cases are considered wherein an individual sensor determines presence based on (i) local detection by processing echoes at its receiver, and (ii) the optimum Chair-Varshney fusion rule using multiple sensor detection results. The performance gains of using optimum fusion over local detection are characterized under different sensor system configurations and it is shown that improved detection sensitivity is obtained over a larger detection coverage region.

  13. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  14. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  15. 46 CFR 76.05-1 - Fire detecting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fitted with an automatic sprinkling system, except in relatively incombustible spaces. 2 Sprinkler heads... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detecting systems. 76.05-1 Section 76.05-1 Shipping... Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where Required § 76.05-1 Fire detecting systems....

  16. Exploration of available feature detection and identification systems and their performance on radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantuch, Andrew C.; Vita, Joshua A.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Bray, Iliana E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite object detection, recognition, and identification being very active areas of computer vision research, many of the available tools to aid in these processes are designed with only photographs in mind. Although some algorithms used specifically for feature detection and identification may not take explicit advantage of the colors available in the image, they still under-perform on radiographs, which are grayscale images. We are especially interested in the robustness of these algorithms, specifically their performance on a preexisting database of X-ray radiographs in compressed JPEG form, with multiple ways of describing pixel information. We will review various aspects of the performance of available feature detection and identification systems, including MATLABs Computer Vision toolbox, VLFeat, and OpenCV on our non-ideal database. In the process, we will explore possible reasons for the algorithms' lessened ability to detect and identify features from the X-ray radiographs.

  17. Evaluation of 3M Molecular Detection System and ANSR Pathogen Detection System for rapid detection of Salmonella from egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Ma, L M; Zheng, S; He, X; Wang, H; Brown, E W; Hammack, T S; Zhang, G

    2016-11-02

    Isothermal amplification assay is a novel simple detection technology that amplifies DNA with high speed, efficiency, and specificity under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3M Molecular Detection System (MDS) and ANSR Pathogen Detection System (PDS) for the detection of Salmonella in egg products as compared to the Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) culture method and a modified culture method (3M MDS and ANSR PDS preferred method). Two Salmonella ser. Enteritidis (18579, PT4; CDC_2010K_1441, PT8), one Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (607310-1), and one Salmonella ser. Typhimurium (0723) isolates were used in this study. Seven wet egg products and 13 dry egg products were inoculated with these strains individually at 1 to 5 CFU/25 g. One set of test portions was prepared following FDA BAM procedures [with lactose broth (LB) as pre-enrichment broth]. Another set of test portions was prepared using buffered peptone water (BPW) as pre-enrichment broth, as instructed by the 2 detection systems. Results from 3M MDS and ANSR PDS were 100% in agreement with their BPW-based culture method results. When LB was used as pre-enrichment broth, the number of Salmonella positive test portions (80 tested), identified with the BAM, 3M MDS, and ANSR PDS, were 63, 61, and 60, respectively. In conclusion, both 3M MDS and ANSR PDS Salmonella assays were as effective as their BPW based culture methods and were equivalent to the BAM culture method for the detection of Salmonella in egg products. These sensitive isothermal assays can be used as rapid detection tools for Salmonella in egg products provided that BPW is used as pre-enrichment broth.

  18. Empirical evaluation of bias field correction algorithms for computer-aided detection of prostate cancer on T2w MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Satish; Palumbo, Daniel; Chappelow, Jonathan; Patel, Pratik; Bloch, B. Nicholas; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intensity inhomogeneity refers to an acquisition artifact which introduces a non-linear variation in the signal intensities within the image. Intensity inhomogeneity is known to significantly affect computerized analysis of MRI data (such as automated segmentation or classification procedures), hence requiring the application of bias field correction (BFC) algorithms to account for this artifact. Quantitative evaluation of BFC schemes is typically performed using generalized intensity-based measures (percent coefficient of variation, %CV ) or information-theoretic measures (entropy). While some investigators have previously empirically compared BFC schemes in the context of different domains (using changes in %CV and entropy to quantify improvements), no consensus has emerged as to the best BFC scheme for any given application. The motivation for this work is that the choice of a BFC scheme for a given application should be dictated by application-specific measures rather than ad hoc measures such as entropy and %CV. In this paper, we have attempted to address the problem of determining an optimal BFC algorithm in the context of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for prostate cancer (CaP) detection from T2-weighted (T2w) MRI. One goal of this work is to identify a BFC algorithm that will maximize the CaP classification accuracy (measured in terms of the area under the ROC curve or AUC). A secondary aim of our work is to determine whether measures such as %CV and entropy are correlated with a classifier-based objective measure (AUC). Determining the presence or absence of these correlations is important to understand whether domain independent BFC performance measures such as %CV , entropy should be used to identify the optimal BFC scheme for any given application. In order to answer these questions, we quantitatively compared 3 different popular BFC algorithms on a cohort of 10 clinical 3 Tesla prostate T2w MRI datasets

  19. Implementation of a tolerance model in a computer aided design and inspection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hunter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a detailed framework to integrate the Computer Aided Design (CAD and Inspection (CAI systems through the integration of the Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T with the inspection process in coordinate measuring machines (CMMs.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop a prototype of a Knowledge Based System (KBS applied to inspection process establishes a new methodology for integrate the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T. The integration is achieved through the definition of the knowledge units for functional properties of GD&T, inspection resources and inspection operations in a common knowledge model. The manufacturing and processing applications are the main topics approach of this paper.Findings: The findings are focused in modeling the features and interactions between knowledge units associated to topology, geometry and tolerances with the inspection process activities. The implementation of the product knowledge model is presented in a computer platform that extracts and represents the GD&T information in a CAI system.Research limitations/implications: The implications are focused on the automation of the inspection process in a KBS application. The future research is focused on the use of artificial intelligent technique, such as genetic algorithms and neural networks, to optimize the time to execute the inspection process.Practical implications: The main outcomes and implication of the KBS prototype application are focused on the reduction of the time spend to develop the inspection process. This KBS application provides the needed information to elaborate this process without the human interface.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is the integration of the design and inspection specification in a unique prototype application. The knowledge model has been defined in a common modeling language (UML and can be implemented in different

  20. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  1. Development of a simple reliable radiographic scoring system to aid the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancelot M Pinto

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Chest radiography is sometimes the only method available for investigating patients with possible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB with negative sputum smears. However, interpretation of chest radiographs in this context lacks specificity for PTB, is subjective and is neither standardized nor reproducible. Efforts to improve the interpretation of chest radiography are warranted. OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring system to aid the diagnosis of PTB, using features recorded with the Chest Radiograph Reading and Recording System (CRRS. METHODS: Chest radiographs of outpatients with possible PTB, recruited over 3 years at clinics in South Africa were read by two independent readers using the CRRS method. Multivariate analysis was used to identify features significantly associated with culture-positive PTB. These were weighted and used to generate a score. RESULTS: 473 patients were included in the analysis. Large upper lobe opacities, cavities, unilateral pleural effusion and adenopathy were significantly associated with PTB, had high inter-reader reliability, and received 2, 2, 1 and 2 points, respectively in the final score. Using a cut-off of 2, scores below this threshold had a high negative predictive value (91.5%, 95%CI 87.1,94.7, but low positive predictive value (49.4%, 95%CI 42.9,55.9. Among the 382 TB suspects with negative sputum smears, 229 patients had scores <2; the score correctly ruled out active PTB in 214 of these patients (NPV 93.4%; 95%CI 89.4,96.3. The score had a suboptimal negative predictive value in HIV-infected patients (NPV 86.4, 95% CI 75,94. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed scoring system is simple, and reliably ruled out active PTB in smear-negative HIV-uninfected patients, thus potentially reducing the need for further tests in high burden settings. Validation studies are now required.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for determining cancer aggressiveness in prostate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litjens, Geert J.S.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Karssemeijer, Nico; Huisman, Henkjan J. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the added value of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) on the diagnostic accuracy of PIRADS reporting and the assessment of cancer aggressiveness. Multi-parametric MRI and histopathological outcome of MR-guided biopsies of a consecutive set of 130 patients were included. All cases were prospectively PIRADS reported and the reported lesions underwent CAD analysis. Logistic regression combined the CAD prediction and radiologist PIRADS score into a combination score. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess the diagnostic accuracy and correlation to cancer grade. Evaluation was performed for discriminating benign lesions from cancer and for discriminating indolent from aggressive lesions. In total 141 lesions (107 patients) were included for final analysis. The area-under-the-ROC-curve of the combination score was higher than for the PIRADS score of the radiologist (benign vs. cancer, 0.88 vs. 0.81, p = 0.013 and indolent vs. aggressive, 0.88 vs. 0.78, p < 0.01). The combination score correlated significantly stronger with cancer grade (0.69, p = 0.0014) than the individual CAD system or radiologist (0.54 and 0.58). Combining CAD prediction and PIRADS into a combination score has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, such a combination score has a strong correlation with cancer grade. (orig.)

  3. High-frequency chest compression system to aid in clearance of mucus from the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L G; Warwick, W J

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a high-frequency chest compression (HFCC) device to aid in mucous clearance for patients with obstructive lung disease. The device, designed for self-therapy, consists of a large-volume variable-frequency air-pulse delivery system and a nonstretchable inflatable vest worn by the patient. Pressure pulses are controlled by the patient and applied during expiration. Pulse frequency is tunable from 5 to 25 Hz. Maximum vest pressure is 39 mmHg (5.2 kPa), with patient-controlled vest inflation and deflation time constants of 0.5 s. Vest pressure increases from 28 mmHg (3.7 kPa) at 5 Hz to 39 mmHg (5.2 kPa) at 25 Hz. Preliminary clinical trials have shown the HFCC device to be more effective than standard chest physical therapy. The HFCC device yielded a mean volume of cleared mucus of 3.3 cc per session, compared with 1.8 cc for a conventional therapy session.

  4. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  5. Review of Multi-Criteria Decision Aid for Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Urban Water Systems - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated sustainability assessment is part of a new paradigm for urban water decision making. Multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) is an integrative framework used in urban water sustainability assessment, which has a particular focus on utilising stakeholder participation. Here ...

  6. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  7. Dry Arthroscopy With a Retraction System for Matrix-Aided Cartilage Repair of Patellar Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sadlik, Boguslaw; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several commercially available cartilage repair techniques use a natural or synthetic matrix to aid cartilage regeneration (e.g., autologous matrix–induced chondrogenesis or matrix-induced cartilage implantation). However, the use of matrix-aided techniques during conventional knee joint arthroscopy under continuous irrigation is challenging. Insertion and fixation of the matrix can be complicated by the presence of fluid and the confined patellofemoral joint space with limited access to the ...

  8. Predicting Mobility Performance of a Small, Lightweight Track System Using the Computer-Aided Method NTVPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    This paper describes the results of a study of applying the physics-based, computer-aided method — the Nepean Tracked Vehicle Performance Model ...computer-aided method NTVPM 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...Lamb, D., Jayakumar, P., Letherwood, M., 2013. Investigating through simulation the mobility of light tracked vehicles operating on discrete granular

  9. Autonomous Gait Event Detection with Portable Single-Camera Gait Kinematics Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based nonwearable motion analysis systems have significantly advanced with robust objective measurement of the limb motion, resulting in quantified, standardized, and reliable outcome measures compared with traditional, semisubjective, observational gait analysis. However, the requirement for large laboratory space and operational expertise makes these systems impractical for gait analysis at local clinics and homes. In this paper, we focus on autonomous gait event detection with our bespoke, relatively inexpensive, and portable, single-camera gait kinematics analysis system. Our proposed system includes video acquisition with camera calibration, Kalman filter + Structural-Similarity-based marker tracking, autonomous knee angle calculation, video-frame-identification-based autonomous gait event detection, and result visualization. The only operational effort required is the marker-template selection for tracking initialization, aided by an easy-to-use graphic user interface. The knee angle validation on 10 stroke patients and 5 healthy volunteers against a gold standard optical motion analysis system indicates very good agreement. The autonomous gait event detection shows high detection rates for all gait events. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can automatically measure the knee angle and detect gait events with good accuracy and thus offer an alternative, cost-effective, and convenient solution for clinical gait kinematics analysis.

  10. Usefulness of the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens in AIDS patients Utilidad de la detección de antígenos de Toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fachado

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE is a mayor cause of central nervous system infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 56 of 79 patients with AIDS (71%, in the present study. Fourteen out of 57 seropositive patients developed TF (25% and had Toxoplasma gondii antigen detected in their urine. For this, most of them received an effective therapy, with the subsequent disappearance of the symptoms and discontinuity of excretion of the T. gondii antigens. Our results suggest that the monitoring of T. gondii antigen in the urine of AIDS patients may be useful to decide on the proper time for therapy, as well as to avoid the beginning of neurologic signs in these patients.La Encefalitis Toxoplásmica (ET es la más importante complicación infecciosa del Sistema Nervioso Central en pacientes de SIDA. Anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii fueron detectados en 57 de 79 pacientes de SIDA (71%. De estos seropositivos, desarrollaron la enfermedad (ET 14 (25%, en los que coincidentemente se detectó la presencia de antígeno del parásito en orina y por tanto fueron objeto de una terapia efectiva, con la subsecuente desaparición de los sintomas y de los antígenos excretados. Por los resultados del presente trabajo, consideramos lo útil de monitorear en estos pacientes la presencia de antígenos de T. gondii con el objetivo de aplicar oportunamente métodos quimoprofilácticos que eviten el surgimiento de manifestaciones neurológicas en estos pacientes.

  11. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  12. Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva could offer an attractive opportunity for the diagnosis of different systemic conditions specifically in epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to investigate if certain salivary biomarkers could be used for detection of common systemic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1000 adults living in Skåne, a county in the southern part of Sweden, was invited to participate in a clinical study of oral health. 451 individuals were enrolled in this investigation, 51% women. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire, history was taken, a clinical examination was made and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary concentrations of IL-1β, -6, -8, TNF-α, lysozyme, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were determined using ELISA, IFMA or Luminex assays. RESULTS: Salivary IL-8 concentration was found to be twice as high in subjects who had experience of tumour diseases. In addition, IL-8 levels were also elevated in patients with bowel disease. MMP-8 levels were elevated in saliva from patients after cardiac surgery or suffering from diabetes, and muscle and joint diseases. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MMP-8, as well as the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in subjects with muscle and joint diseases. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers in saliva have the potential to be used for screening purposes in epidemiological studies. The relatively unspecific inflammatory markers used in this study can not be used for diagnosis of specific diseases but can be seen as markers for increased systemic inflammation.

  13. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  14. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  15. Analyzing and Detecting Problems in Systems of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Christopher; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is mission-critical. Evidence indicates that transmission failures and performance issues are not uncommon occurrences. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we are presenting an approach for analyzing inter-system communications with the goal to uncover both transmission errors and performance problems. Our approach consists of a visualization and an evaluation component. While the visualization of the observed communication aims to facilitate understanding, the evaluation component automatically checks the conformance of an observed communication (actual) to a desired one (planned). The actual and the planned are represented as sequence diagrams. The evaluation algorithm checks the conformance of the actual to the planned diagram. We have applied our approach to the communication of aerospace systems and were successful in detecting and resolving even subtle and long existing transmission problems.

  16. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  17. Filter-based feature selection and support vector machine for false positive reduction in computer-aided mass detection in mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. D.; Nguyen, D. T.; Nguyen, T. D.; Phan, V. A.; Truong, Q. D.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a method for reducing false positive in computer-aided mass detection in screening mammograms is proposed. A set of 32 features, including First Order Statistics (FOS) features, Gray-Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, Block Difference Inverse Probability (BDIP) features, and Block Variation of Local Correlation coefficients (BVLC) are extracted from detected Regions-Of-Interest (ROIs). An optimal subset of 8 features is selected from the full feature set by mean of a filter-based Sequential Backward Selection (SBS). Then, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized to classify the ROIs into massive regions or normal regions. The method's performance is evaluated using the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC or AZ). On a dataset consisting about 2700 ROIs detected from mini-MIAS database of mammograms, the proposed method achieves AZ=0.938.

  18. Frequent detection of ‘azole’ resistant Candida species among late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chronic use of antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal infection in general and oropharyngeal candidiasis mainly in AIDS patient’s leads to the selection of strain resistant to these therapies and a shift in the spectrum of Candida species. This study determines the species diversity and in vitro susceptibility of Candida isolates from late presenting AIDS patients in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Two hundred and twenty one HIV/AIDS patients were assessed with a standardized evaluation form at enrolment. Oral rinses were cultured on CHROMagar plates at 37°C for 48 hours and Candida species identification were made following standard microbiological techniques. In vitro drug susceptibility tests were made using broth microdilution method. Results The colonization rate of Candida species was found to be 82.3% (177/215. C. albicans was the predominant species isolated from 139 (81% patients but there was a diversity of other species. C. glabrata was the most frequent non-albicans species isolated in 22.5% (40/177 of the patients followed by C. tropicalis 14.1% (27/177, C. krusei 5.6% (10 and other unidentifiable Candida species 4% (7/177. Recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous exposure to antifungal drugs were found to be predisposing factors for colonization by non-albicans species. Irrespective of the Candida species identified 12.2% (11/90, 7.7% (7/90 and 4.7% (4 of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, resistance to micafungin, amphotericin B and 5-Fluorocytosine was infrequent. Conclusion HIV/AIDS patients are orally colonized by single or multiple albicans and non- albicans Candida species that are frequently resistant to azoles and occasionally to amphotericin B, 5-Fluorocytosine and micafungin. These highlight the need for national surveillance for examining Candida epidemiology and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  19. Using digital subtraction in computer simulated images as a tool to aid the visual detection of masked lesions in dense breasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiabel, Homero; Guimarães, Luciana T.; Sousa, Maria A. Z.

    2015-03-01

    This work proposes a simulation model involving subtraction of digital mammography images obtained at different X-ray beam levels of energy to aid the detection of breast malignant lesions. Absorption coefficients behavior of 3 main structures of clinical interest - adipose tissue, fiber glandular tissue and the typical carcinoma - as a function of the beam energy from a Mo X-ray tube was the basis to develop a computer simulation of the possible acquired images. The simulation has considered a typical compressed breast with 4.5cm in thickness, and variations of the carcinoma and glandular tissues thicknesses - 0.4 up to 2.0cm and 4.1 to 2.5cm, respectively - were evaluated as a function of the photons mean energy - 14 up to 25 keV, in the typical mammography energy range. Results have shown that: (a) if the carcinoma thickness is over 0.4cm, its detection may be feasible even masked by fiber tissue with exposures in the range of 19 to 25 keV; (b) for masked carcinoma with thickness in the range of 0.4-2.0cm, the proposed procedure can enhance it in the image resulting from the digital subtraction between images obtained at 14 and at 22 keV. Therefore such results indicate that this simulation procedure can be a useful tool in aiding the identification of possible missed malignant lesions which could not be detected in the typical exam, mainly considering dense breasts.

  20. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  1. Enhancement of islanding-detection of distributed generation systems via wavelet transform-based approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Tao [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 70101 (China); Lin, Jeu-Min [Department of Electrical Engineering, Far Eat University, Tainan 70101 (China); Huang, Shyh-Jier [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a wavelet transform-based approach is proposed to detect the occurrence of islanding events in distributed generation systems. Thanks to time-frequency localization capabilities exhibited by wavelet transform, the approach embedded with this transform technique has grasped the appearance of the islanding event in a highly effective manner. Moreover, for those regions which are in need of a better visualization, the proposed approach would serve as an efficient aid such that the mains power disconnection can be better distinguished. To validate the feasibility of this approach, the method has been validated through several scenarios. Test results supported the effectiveness of the method for the application considered. (author)

  2. A Secure & Hybrid Authentication Protocol of Intrusion Detection System for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.CHARLES AROCKIARAJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In MANET, security is the toughest and very challenging area, because nodes are without any predefined framework. This is due to the high mobility of outstanding vulnerabilities and attacks of the malicious nodes in the intrusion detection system of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET. A secure & hybrid protocol design has been proposed, in order to improve the detection efficiency and also to improvise the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems for MANET. Based on the hybrid techniques with the aid of key management authentication and combining with a fuzzy based decision model for detecting the misbehaving attacks. Identifying group of physical attacker and finding its probabilities and its side effects are evaluated. To discover the misbehaving attackers and predicting it effects by using Fuzzy based model. In the proposed hybrid authentication protocol for malicious node detection system and for avoiding problems related to missing packet, delay in the nodes and false misbehavior reports. Secure hybrid authentication protocol is used to detect various attacks in MANETs by incorporating hybrid techniques such as fuzzy schemes and key organization method. Hence the different ratio of all the parameter were experimented and analyzed, in terms of the attack prediction rate, attack precision, packet drop ratio and end to end delivery ratio. The schemes were compared with the existing mechanisms and results show that proposed hybrid authentication has superior improvement in the performance.

  3. A Subset Feature Elimination Mechanism for Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Herve Nkiama; Syed Zainudeen Mohd Said; Muhammad Saidu

    2016-01-01

    several studies have suggested that by selecting relevant features for intrusion detection system, it is possible to considerably improve the detection accuracy and performance of the detection engine. Nowadays with the emergence of new technologies such as Cloud Computing or Big Data, large amount of network traffic are generated and the intrusion detection system must dynamically collected and analyzed the data produce by the incoming traffic. However in a large dataset not all features con...

  4. Development of a novel remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual-aided interactive system for immobilizing claustrophobic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Harang; Kim, Siyong; Read, Paul; Trifiletti, Daniel; Harrell, Andrew; Libby, Bruce; Kim, Taeho

    2015-05-08

    In radiotherapy, only a few immobilization systems, such as open-face mask and head mold with a bite plate, are available for claustrophobic patients with a certain degree of discomfort. The purpose of this study was to develop a remote-controlled and self-contained audiovisual (AV)-aided interactive system with the iPad mini with Retina display for intrafractional motion management in brain/H&N (head and neck) radiotherapy for claustrophobic patients. The self-contained, AV-aided interactive system utilized two tablet computers: one for AV-aided interactive guidance for the subject and the other for remote control by an operator. The tablet for audiovisual guidance traced the motion of a colored marker using the built-in front-facing camera, and the remote control tablet at the control room used infrastructure Wi-Fi networks for real-time communication with the other tablet. In the evaluation, a programmed QUASAR motion phantom was used to test the temporal and positional accuracy and resolution. Position data were also obtained from ten healthy volunteers with and without guidance to evaluate the reduction of intrafractional head motion in simulations of a claustrophobic brain or H&N case. In the phantom study, the temporal and positional resolution was 24 Hz and 0.2 mm. In the volunteer study, the average superior-inferior and right-left displacement was reduced from 1.9 mm to 0.3 mm and from 2.2 mm to 0.2 mm with AV-aided interactive guidance, respectively. The superior-inferior and right-left positional drift was reduced from 0.5 mm/min to 0.1 mm/min and from 0.4 mm/min to 0.04 mm/min with audiovisual-aided interactive guidance. This study demonstrated a reduction in intrafractional head motion using a remote-controlled and self-contained AV-aided interactive system of iPad minis with Retina display, easily obtainable and cost-effective tablet computers. This approach can potentially streamline clinical flow for claustrophobic patients without a head mask and

  5. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Marc D. (Ames, IA); Lipert, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Doyle, Robert T. (Ames, IA); Grubisha, Desiree S. (Corona, CA); Rahman, Salma (Ames, IA)

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  6. 女性性服务者STD/AIDS检测及安全套使用调查%STD/AIDS Detection and Comdom Use of Female Sex Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵周平; 张正勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide evidence for the intervention and control of sexually transmitted diseases/AIDS (STD/AIDS) by understanding the STD/AIDS infection and condom use status among female sex workers (FSW) in Kaixian county. Methods From May to June in 2011, totally 318 sex workers in the entertainments of the county were conducted STD/AIDS testing and survey on condom use situation. Results Among 318 sex workers investigated, the detection rate of STD was 22. 96% , the detection rate of HIV positive was 0. 31% , and the genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection took the first place in the detected diseases, accounting for 46. 58% ; STD infection was mainly in the people performed sex service for more than three years, accounting for 70. 59% ; the 318 sex workers were mainly unmarried and young, with low educational level. Conclusion Sex workers is high rist population of STD infection, and the condom use rate is low. Education on prevention of STD and AIDS knowledge should be carried out in the public entertainments, with the promotion of condom use, to control STD/AIDS transmission.%目的 了解开县女性性服务者性传播疾病/艾滋病(STD/AIDS)感染及安全套使用情况,为干预和控制性病、艾滋病的蔓延提供依据.方法 于2011-05/06,对本县城区娱乐场所318名性服务人员进行STD/AIDS检测及安全套使用情况进行调查.结果 318名性服务者中,STD检出率为22.96%,检出HIV阳性率为0.31%,检出病种以生殖道沙眼衣原体感染居首位,占阳性病例数的46.58%;STD感染率以从事性服务工作3年以上为主,占70.59%;318名性服务者以未婚低龄为主,文化程度较低.结论 性服务人群是STD患病率极高的人群且安全套使用率低,在公共娱乐场所开展性病艾滋病基本预防知识的宣传教育,推广安全套的使用,对控制STD/AIDS的传播蔓延有十分重要的意义.

  7. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  8. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  9. Validation of a Virtual Sound Environment System for Testing Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubick, Jens; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    reverberation, background noise, and multiple interfering talkers. Loudspeaker-based sound field reproduction techniques, such as higher-order Ambisonics, allow for the simulation of such complex sound environments and can be used for realistic listening experiments with hearing aids. However, to successfully...... of that room auralized via a spherical array of 29 loudspeakers, using either Ambisonics or a nearest loudspeaker method. The benefit from a static beamforming algorithm was considered in comparison to a hearing aid setting with omnidirectional microphones. The measured SRTs were about 2-4 dB higher...

  10. Does a computer-aided detection algorithm in a second read paradigm enhance the performance of experienced computed tomography colonography readers in a population of increased risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Ayso H. de; Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Florie, Jasper; Nio, Chung Y.; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Truyen, Roel [Philips Medical Systems, Department of Healthcare Informatics, Best (Netherlands); Dekker, Evelien; Fockens, Paul [University of Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baak, Lubbertus C. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    We prospectively determined whether computer-aided detection (CAD) could improve the performance characteristics of computed tomography colonography (CTC) in a population of increased risk for colorectal cancer. Therefore, we included 170 consecutive patients that underwent both CTC and colonoscopy. All findings {>=}6 mm were evaluated at colonoscopy by segmental unblinding. We determined per-patient sensitivity and specificity for polyps {>=}6 mm and {>=}10 mm without and with computer-aided detection (CAD). The McNemar test was used for comparison the results without and with CAD. Unblinded colonoscopy detected 50 patients with lesions {>=}6 mm and 25 patients with lesions {>=}10 mm. Sensitivity of CTC without CAD for these size categories was 80% (40/50, 95% CI: 69-81%) and 64% (16/25, 95% CI: 45-83%), respectively. CTC with CAD detected one additional patient with a lesion {>=}6 mm and two with a lesion {>=}10 mm, resulting in a sensitivity of 82% (41/50, 95% CI: 71-93%) (p = 0.50) and 72% (18/25, 95% CI: 54-90%) (p = 1.0), respectively. Specificity without CAD for polyps {>=}6 mm and {>=}10 mm was 84% (101/120, 95% CI: 78-91%) and 94% (136/145, 95% CI: 90-98%), respectively. With CAD, the specificity remained (nearly) unchanged: 83% (99/120, 95% CI: 76-89%) and 94% (136/145, 95% CI: 90-98%), respectively. Thus, although CTC with CAD detected a few more patients than CTC without CAD, it had no statistically significant positive influence on CTC performance. (orig.)

  11. A reconfigurable digital filterbank for hearing-aid systems with a variety of sound wave decomposition plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Liu, Debao

    2013-06-01

    Current hearing-aid systems have fixed sound wave decomposition plans due to the use of fixed filterbanks, thus cannot provide enough flexibility for the compensation of different hearing impairment cases. In this paper, a reconfigurable filterbank that consists of a multiband-generation block and a subband-selection block is proposed. Different subbands can be produced according to the control parameters without changing the structure of the filterbank system. The use of interpolation, decimation, and frequency-response masking enables us to reduce the computational complexity by realizing the entire system with only three prototype filters. Reconfigurability of the proposed filterbank enables hearing-impaired people to customize hearing aids based on their own specific conditions to improve their hearing ability. We show, by means of examples, that the proposed filterbank can achieve a better matching to the audiogram and has smaller complexity compared with the fixed filterbank. The drawback of the proposed method is that the throughput delay is relatively long (>20 ms), which needs to be further reduced before it can be used in a real hearing-aid application.

  12. 46 CFR 108.411 - Smoke detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke detection system. 108.411 Section 108.411 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.411 Smoke detection system. Each smoke accumulator in a...

  13. 46 CFR 108.404 - Selection of fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection of fire detection system. 108.404 Section 108.404 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.404 Selection of fire detection system. (a) If...

  14. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  15. Development of Mine Detection Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Satsumi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mine Detection Robot supports the mine removal work in countries where mines are buried, such as Afghanistan. The development started from September, 2003. Considering running on rough terrains, the robot has four crawlers, and hydraulic motors in front and rear were serially connected by piping so that they could rotate synchronously. Two work arms were mounted on the robot, one was a horizontal multi-joint SCARA type with motorized 2-link arm, while the other was a vertical multi-joint manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom. Also, domestic evaluation tests were carried out from February to March, 2005, followed by overseas validation tests in Croatia from February to March, 2006. These tests were conducted with a mine detecting senor mounted on the Robot, and the detection performance was evaluated by its mine detection rate.

  16. A Magnetic Sensor System for Biological Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect biological targets through sensing the stray field of magnetic beads which label the targets. Commonly, magnetic biosensors employ the “sandwich” method to immobilize biological targets, i.e., the targets are sandwiched between a bio-functionalized sensor surface and bio-functionalized magnetic beads. This method has been used very successfully in different application, but its execution requires a rather elaborate procedure including several washing and incubation steps. This dissertation investigates a new magnetic biosensor concept, which enables a simple and effective detection of biological targets. The biosensor takes advantage of the size difference between bare magnetic beads and compounds of magnetic beads and biological targets. First, the detection of super-paramagnetic beads via magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors is implemented. Frequency modulation is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of a single magnetic bead. Second, the concept of the magnetic biosensor is investigated theoretically. The biosensor consists of an MTJ sensor, which detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside of a trap on top of the MTJ. A microwire between the trap and the MTJ is used to attract magnetic beads to the trapping well by applying a current to it. The MTJ sensor’s output depends on the number of beads inside the trap. If biological targets are in the sample solution, the beads will form bead compounds consisting of beads linked to the biological targets. Since bead compounds are larger than bare beads, the number of beads inside the trapping well will depend on the presence of biological targets. Hence, the output of the MTJ sensor will depend on the biological targets. The dependences of sensor signals on the sizes of the MTJ sensor, magnetic beads and biological targets are studied to find the optimum constellations for the detection of specific biological targets. The optimization is demonstrated

  17. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  18. Lecturers' Perspectives on the Use of a Mathematics-Based Computer-Aided Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Stephen J.; Robinson, Carol L.; Hernandez-Martinez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided assessment (CAA) has been used at a university with one of the largest mathematics and engineering undergraduate cohorts in the UK for more than ten years. Lecturers teaching mathematics to first year students were asked about their current use of CAA in a questionnaire and in interviews. This article presents the issues that these…

  19. Education for Social Transformation: Soviet University Education Aid in the Cold War Capitalist World-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Charon Cardona, Euridice

    2015-01-01

    International education is seen as an effective form of soft power. This article reviews one of history's largest and most ambitious attempts to achieve global influence through university education, and to reshape the world--the Soviet university aid program, 1956-91. Drawing on existing research and Soviet archival materials, we lay out and…

  20. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  1. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  2. NOVEL DECODING OF SQUARE QAM MODULATED MIMO SYSTEMS BASED ON TURBO MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianping; Bai Baoming; Wang Xinmei

    2008-01-01

    By introducing the bit-level multi-stream coded Layered Space-Time (LST) transmitter along with a novel iterative MultiStage Decoding (MSD) at the receiver, the paper shows how to achieve the near-capacity performance of the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). In the proposed iterative MSD scheme, the detection at each stage is equivalent to multiuser detection of synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) multiuser systems with the aid of the binary representation of the transmitted symbols. Therefore, the optimal Soft-Input Soft-Output (SISO) multiuser detection and low-complexity SISO multiuser detection can be utilized herein. And the proposed scheme with low-complexity SISO multiuser detection has polynomial complexity in the number of transmit antennas M, the number of receive antennas N, and the number of bits per constellation point Mc. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has similar Bit Error Rate (BER) performance to that of the known Iterative Tree Search (ITS) detection.

  3. Does computer-aided detection have a role in the arbitration of discordant double-reading opinions in a breast-screening programme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jonathan.james@nuh.nhs.uk; Cornford, E.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Aims: To investigate whether a computer-aided detection (CAD) system could act as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions, replacing the need for an independent third film reader. Methods: The mammograms of the 240 women that underwent arbitration by an independent third reader were identified from the 16,629 women attending our screening centre between July 2003 and April 2004. Mammograms of the arbitration cases were digitized and analysed by a CAD system. To assess the ability of CAD to act as the arbitrator, the site of the CAD prompts was retrospectively compared to the site of any abnormality noted by the original film readers. If a CAD prompt was placed on a region marked by one of the film readers then the decision of CAD as the arbitrator was that the women should be recalled for further assessment. If no mark was placed then the region was considered low risk and the decision was not to recall. The decision of CAD as the arbitrator was retrospectively compared with the original recall decision of the independent third reader. Results: There were 21 cancer cases in the group of women undergoing arbitration, diagnosed both at the original screening episode and subsequently. The independent third reader recalled 15/18 (83%) of the cancers that corresponded with the arbitrated lesion. CAD as the arbitrator would have recalled 16/18 (89%) of the cancers that corresponded to the arbitrated lesion. CAD acting as the arbitrator would have resulted in a significant increase in normal women being recalled to assessment in the arbitration group (P < 0.001). The extra 50 recalls would have potentially increased the overall recall rate to assessment from 3.1 to 3.4%; a relative increase of 10%. Conclusions: The main effect of CAD acting as an arbitrator of discordant double-reading opinions is to increase the recall rate, significantly above what is found when arbitration is performed by an independent third reader. Using CAD as an arbitrator may be an

  4. Intrusion detection based on system calls and homogeneous Markov chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xinguang; Duan Miyi; Sun Chunlai; Li Wenfa

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for detecting anomalous program behavior is presented, which is applicable to hostbased intrusion detection systems that monitor system call activities. The method constructs a homogeneous Markov chain model to characterize the normal behavior of a privileged program, and associates the states of the Markov chain with the unique system calls in the training data. At the detection stage, the probabilities that the Markov chain model supports the system call sequences generated by the program are computed. A low probability indicates an anomalous sequence that may result from intrusive activities. Then a decision rule based on the number of anomalous sequences in a locality frame is adopted to classify the program's behavior. The method gives attention to both computational efficiency and detection accuracy, and is especially suitable for on-line detection. It has been applied to practical host-based intrusion detection systems.

  5. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  6. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  7. Real-time DNA Amplification and Detection System Based on a CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Lee, Do Young; Kim, Sanghyo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed a polypropylene well-integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to perform the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for real-time DNA amplification and detection simultaneously. An amplification-coupled detection system directly measures the photon number changes based on the generation of magnesium pyrophosphate and color changes. The photon number decreases during the amplification process. The CMOS image sensor observes the photons and converts into digital units with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In addition, UV-spectral studies, optical color intensity detection, pH analysis, and electrophoresis detection were carried out to prove the efficiency of the CMOS sensor based the LAMP system. Moreover, Clostridium perfringens was utilized as proof-of-concept detection for the new system. We anticipate that this CMOS image sensor-based LAMP method will enable the creation of cost-effective, label-free, optical, real-time and portable molecular diagnostic devices.

  8. Ideological schisms about HIV/AIDS helping systems in the African American community, with an emphasis on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Colita Nichols

    2010-10-01

    This article is an initial exploration about the impact of ideological beliefs on helping services in the African American community. Newly infected HIV/AIDS cases place African Americans at 45% of such new cases, with African American women becoming infected at a rate 18 times that of Whites. Yet, helping services that are organic to African American women should be stronger through a discussion of cultural beliefs held in the community, where the genesis of helping services exists. Values and beliefs should be at the center of community partnerships, public media strategies, generalist-practice curricula in macro-level systems, and creating more space for relationship dialogue between African American men and women, which includes gender and racial distortions. Given the exponentially high numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in the African American community, a more earnest examination of values and beliefs is warranted.

  9. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  10. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  11. Musculoskeletal system pathology in aids patients; Patologia del sistema musculosqueletico en pacientes con sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, R.; Oleaga, L.; Garcia Bolado, A.; Grande, D.; Gorrino, O.; Lecumberri, I. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    We studied 22 AIDS patients who presented musculoskeletal system pathology. The affected area underwent simple X-ray and MR. The MR study was performed using a 1 Tesla magnet. T1 and T2 weighted echo spin sequences, as well as sequences of short T1 inversion recovery (STIR). In nine cases, intravenous gadolinium was used at a dose of 0.2cc/kg. The study plane was selected depending on the location of the lesion and surface coils were used when appropriate. In those patients showing pathology which was removed from the appendicular skeleton, the principal magnet was used as both transmitter and receiver. In one case, an On-Tine Tomography (CT) was also carried out. The evaluated ata were: a) localization; b) bony erosion; c) soft-tissue mass; d) articular effusion; e) cartilaginous changes; f) and T2 signals, and g) gadolinium enhancement. A diagnosis was made on the basis of biopsy or clinical culture, and evolution. Spinal cord alterations were the most frequent, being found in 13 cases. Twelve were caused by spondylodiscitis, 10 by tuberculosis, one by staphylococcal infection and one by candidiasis. In all cases, there appeared disk damage, as well as bone marrow signal alterations in the affected area and disks soft-tissue. In the mine cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and cases in which gadolinium was used, the disk, vertebral plates and soft-tissue mass heterogeneously enhanced, demonstrating an abscess with ring enhancement, and a central necrotic area in one case. In one patient, a spinal cord alteration due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was observed. In six cases,there was observed and infectious arthritis two in coxofemoral joints, three in knees and one in a glenohumeral joint. Isolated germs were staphylococcal in three cases one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another being M. kansasii and the third identified as. Candida. In all cases, there was observed joint effusion, synovial thickening, joint cartilage damage and

  12. PERIODIC SIGNAL DETECTION WITH USING DUFFING SYSTEM POINCARE MAP ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Martynyuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the periodic signal detection method on the base of Duffing system chaotic oscillations analysis is presented. This work is a development of the chaos-based signal detection technique. Generally, chaos-based signal detection is the detection of chaotic-to-periodic state transition under input periodic component influence. If the input periodic component reaches certain threshold value, the system transforms from chaotic state to periodic state. The Duffing-type chaotic systems are often used for such a signal detection purpose because of their ability to work in chaotic state for a long time and relatively simple realization. The main advantage of chaos-based signal detection methods is the utilization of chaotic system sensitivity to weak signals. But such methods are not used in practice because of the chaotic system state control problems. The method presented does not require an exact system state control. The Duffing system works continuously in chaotic state and the periodic signal detection process is based on the analysis of Duffing system Poincare map fractal structure. This structure does not depend on noise, and therefore the minimum input signal-to-noise ratio required for periodic signal detection is not limited by chaotic system state control tolerance.

  13. Effective analysis of cloud based intrusion detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Ram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of IDS is to analyze events on the network and identify attacks. The increasing number of network security related incidents makes it necessary for organizations to actively protect their sensitive data with the installation of intrusion detection systems (IDS. People are paid more attention on intrusion detection which as an important computer network security technology. According to the development trend of intrusion detection, detecting all kinds of intrusions effectively requires a global view of the monitored network, Here, discuss about new intrusion detection mechanism based on cloud computing, which can make up for the deficiency of traditional intrusion detection, and proved to be great scalable.

  14. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  15. Assessment and Prognosis Aid Brought on by the Mensurable International Systems for the Attention of Patients Suffering from Neuroictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bembibre Taboada

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment and prognosis aid brought on by the mensurable international systems recongized in the attention of patients suffering from neuroictus has its success and mistakes. The emission of a prognosis which establishes a strategy for discapacity seems to be not to proceed with such instruments. In our country was created a system that compiles the above mentioned ratings which make viable to do a research which define the above postulates. Objective: To determine the advantages and disadvantages of the mensurable international systems. Methods: The international instrument system was implemented compiled in one system with 202 cases in a five-month period of time. A characterization of the serie was carried out and tests were applied to determine the correlation coefficient as well as significant statistics results when correlating the instruments wth the state of the patient at the moment of discharging according to Rankin scale. Results: A predominium of ischemic neuroictus of atherothrombosis type was verified in elderly. The discapacity generated by neuroictus was evident. The value in the assessment and the prognosis inference of some international instruments was shown. But there was evidence that they do not give the prognosis of the disability in a sub stratified way. Conclusions: The international measuring instruments in the nueroictus are not effective for the assessment and follow up of the patient. The contributed aid of these instruments in the prognosis emission is inferred and has limitations, so it will be commendable to create a more simple and unique predictable mensurable system.

  16. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Lundgren, B

    2000-01-01

    are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  17. Online Real-Time Tribology Failure Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA Phase I funding, we have developed a system for the ball bearing fault detection and identification. Our system can effectively identify multiple fault...

  18. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  19. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  20. All row, planar fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.