WorldWideScience

Sample records for aid regional accountability

  1. Democracy Aid and Electoral Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt......Although foreign policies often fail to successfully promote democracy, over a decade of empirical research indicates that foreign aid specifically for democracy promotion is remarkably successful at improving the survival and institutional strength of fragile democracies. However, these measures...... cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...

  2. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Ming; Kang, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance - control of corruption and democratic accountability - on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001-2010 datasets. Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below -2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  3. Control of corruption, democratic accountability, and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa-Young Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued global efforts, HIV/AIDS outcomes in developing countries have not made much progress. Poor governance in recipient countries is often seen as one of the reasons for ineffectiveness of aid efforts to achieve stated objectives and desired outcomes. Objective: This study examines the impact of two important dimensions of governance – control of corruption and democratic accountability – on the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS official development assistance. Design: An empirical analysis using dynamic panel Generalized Method of Moments estimation was conducted on 2001–2010 datasets. Results: Control of corruption and democratic accountability revealed an independent effect and interaction with the amount of HIV/AIDS aid on incidence of HIV/AIDS, respectively, while none of the two governance variables had a significant effect on HIV/AIDS prevalence. Specifically, in countries with accountability level below −2.269, aid has a detrimental effect on incidence of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that aid programs need to be preceded or at least accompanied by serious efforts to improve governance in recipient countries and that democratic accountability ought to receive more critical attention.

  4. Bayesian projection of life expectancy accounting for the HIV/AIDS epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godwin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While probabilistic projection methods for projecting life expectancy exist, few account for covariates related to life expectancy. Generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics have a large, immediate negative impact on the life expectancy in a country, but this impact can be mitigated by widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Thus, projection methods for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics could be improved by accounting for HIV prevalence, the future course of the epidemic, and ART coverage. Methods: We extend the current Bayesian probabilistic life expectancy projection methods of Raftery et al. (2013 to account for HIV prevalence and adult ART coverage in countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics. Results: We evaluate our method using out-of-sample validation. We find that the proposed method performs better than the method that does not account for HIV prevalence or ART coverage for projections of life expectancy in countries with a generalized epidemic, while projections for countries without an epidemic remain essentially unchanged. Conclusions: In general, our projections show rapid recovery to pre-epidemic life expectancy levels in the presence of widespread ART coverage. After the initial life expectancy recovery, we project a steady rise in life expectancy until the end of the century. Contribution: We develop a simple Bayesian hierarchical model for long-term projections of life expectancy while accounting for HIV/AIDS prevalence and coverage of ART. The method produces well-calibrated projections for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics up to 2100 while having limited data demands.

  5. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.

  6. Regional changes in the distribution of foreign aid: An entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Foreign aid contributes significantly to the income levels and economic viability of many developing countries. This paper investigates the dispersion in the distribution of foreign aid using the Theil entropy measure of inequality. Results show that the inequality (dispersion) of foreign aid has increased substantially in recent years. The increased inequality in the total distribution of aid has been due to both increases in the regional inequality of aid and increases in the average inequality of aid within each region. As a result, the distribution of aid is becoming less alike between regions and between countries within regions.

  7. Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Launched in 2001, the Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food Security (RENEWAL) is a growing network of networks made up of national food and nutrition organizations (public, private and nongovernmental) and partners in AIDS and public health. RENEWAL aims to understand and facilitate a ...

  8. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  9. Technical papers 1: regional energy accounting; Cahiers techniques 1: bilan energetique regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The regional energy accounting is an appropriate tool to the elaboration energy conservation programs. It allows to identify the regional stakes and understand the impacts of the energy policies. In this accounting the consumptions are presented by energy products (petroleum products, mineral solid fuels, renewable energies, electric power, natural gas) and by consumption sectors (steel metallurgy, accommodation, ternary industry, agricultural, transport). (A.L.B.)

  10. Answerability versus Enforceability: A Study of Accountability in the Relationships Between Donors and Recipients of Foreign Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Evan Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accountability is an indispensable element of any democratic political system. Yet, few empirical studies have gone about systematically measuring the concept. This study aims to measure accountability in the relationships between donors and recipients of foreign aid grants. In doing so, accountability is operationalized into two dimensions; answerability and enforceability. Each dimension was measured along seven indicators based on data gathered from four recipient organizations in Kenya an...

  11. Regional differences, socio-demographics, and hidden population of HIV/AIDS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Suar, Damodar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in different regions of India, their socio-demographic indicators, and the presence of hidden population infected with HIV. Secondary data analyzed were obtained from national and international agencies. Considering the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in India, the low-prevalence regions in the last decade have shown a steady increase in recent years. Productive age, urbanization, male gender, lower level of education, minority religions, low income, and mobile occupations are associated with HIV pandemic. The hidden population vulnerable to HIV/AIDS are: street children, homeless population, and refugees. These observations can help map the high-risk behavior groups and formulate targeted strategies to curb the HIV menace.

  12. CONSTRUCTING A MULTI-REGIONAL SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Piskin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional impacts of public policies in Turkey have led to Regional Development Agencies and related institutions having responsibility for setting and achieving sustainability policies at the regional level. As a result, there is a significant interest in developing empirical models that can deal with the macro, micro and regional impacts of economic policies and interregional spillover effects. Spatial or Multi-Regional Computable General Equilibrium models are the most capable models to handle a wide range of policy relevant regional questions and the effects of policies on a comprehensive set of regional and national economic variables. However, an important ingredient in meeting the Multi-Regional CGE analysis is Multi-Regional Social Accounting Matrices. This study is focusing on the building the first Multi-Regional Social Accounting Matrix for Turkey with 11 regions and 8 sectors. We utilize from the most updated available datasets and implement the most conveninent non-survey methods which fit to data availability in Turkey.

  13. Accounting Students' Reflections on a Regional Internship Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Cord

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity to gain professional industry experience for accounting students while undertaking theirundergraduate degree provides them with both a competitive edge in the marketplace and an opportunity toexperience the activities undertaken in their chosen profession. Structured experiential learning programsprovide students with the practical opportunity to apply their knowledge in an industry context and also toreflect on their personal learning journey. This paper explores the learning contribution of students’reflection-based assessments in an innovative and flexible internship program based on an e-learningframework. Through a preliminary investigation, it has been identified that after undertaking this internshipprogram, accounting students from an Australian regional university have advanced their learning pertainingto workplace preparedness, understanding and application of accounting principles, generic skillenhancement, and consolidation of accounting as their chosen professional career. The paper suggests that aninternship program such as the one examined contributes to the professional accountancy bodies’ andcommunity’s expectations of accounting graduates possessing key cognitive and behavioural skills.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND FISCAL POLICY ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, stimulating private sector investment and it contributes to reducing unemployment and improving living standards. To achieve these goals accounting and tax policies are necessary to allow private operators to realize taxable income, to create jobs for people and to pay taxes and contributions due to the State budget. The State must reinvest a part of the resources collected to the community in order to improve infrastructure, education and health, thus contributing to regional development. Changes in tax law and accounting adopted in Romania during 2009-2014 are regarded as tax breaks for companies created to ensure economic growth, dynamic and sustainable through efficient use of regional and local potential. In this paper we analyze the influence of the accounting and fiscal system on the regional development given that these measures do not always achieve their objectives established companies having benefit from the application of various tax measures. The paper will present the main changes of the tax and accounting systems and their impact on the regional development in Romania and the consequences resulting in implementing these measures.

  15. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  16. The end of AIDS: Possibility or pipe dream? A tale of transitions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, in the last 20 years health has improved. In this generally optimistic setting HIV and AIDS accounts for the fastest growing burden of disease. The data show the bulk of this is experienced in Southern Africa. In this region, HIV and AIDS (and tuberculosis [TB]) peaks among young adults. Women carry the greater ...

  17. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  18. Advanced training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials. Volume II. Visual aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Schneider, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose of the course was to train in the accounting and control of nuclear materials in a bulk processing facility, for international safeguards. The Exxon low enriched uranium fabrication plant is used as an example. This volume contains visual aids used for the presentation

  19. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  20. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  1. The Blue Book: Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This book provides guidance to school business office personnel who handle fiscal recordkeeping, accounting, and reporting functions for federal Title IV student financial aid programs authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. It provides a technical resource for Title IV management responsibilities that are shared among various…

  2. HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Current status, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nweze Justus Amuche

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of HIV/AIDS was sort of a fairy tale and mere information till the immunological disorder was scientifically confirmed. Today, HIV/AIDS has continued to be a serious international health concern, and sub-Saharan Africa remains the most affected region. Over 25.6 million persons are currently living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. This accounts for two-thirds of the recent overall world HIV infections and more than 70 percent of all AIDSrelated deaths. In 2015, Eastern and Southern Africa had about 7.1% adult HIV prevalence rate (about 19 million HIV patients, while Western and Central Africa accounted for about 2.2% (about 6.5 million HIV patients. Few countries now boast of numerous signs of gradual to moderate declines in HIV occurrence. However, HIV prevalence rate has continued to increase in countries like Lesotho (22.7%, Botswana (22.2% and South Africa (19.2%. The nature, procedure and result of the scourge in this region have been fashioned by a mind-boggling interaction of traditional, behavioural, social and material factors. Even if there are notably strong prevention, treatment and care programmes, too many sexual partners are engaging in risky sexual practices. The aim of this article is to discuss the current trends of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, the factors that might have contributed to high prevalence of the virus in the region, the effect of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the prevention programmes and the way forward.

  3. Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement: An Assessment of Experience in Africa and Elements of Good Donor Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; del Castillo, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Synthesis is a summary of a longer report that discusses the procurement of food aid within the country or region where it is needed. Referred to as local and regional procurement – LRP – this practice has become a major element in multilateral food aid response over the past decade1. The paper examines the relevance and the rationale for using LRP, reviews the efficiency of World Food Program (WFP) LRP activities in Africa relative to inkind food aid and to prices in the markets ...

  4. Global prevention, funding, accountability debated in fight against HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-18

    World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.

  5. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...

  6. Accounting for youth audiences' resistances to HIV and AIDS messages in the television drama Tsha Tsha in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwambeni, Blessing; Salawu, Abiodun

    2018-12-01

    Theoretical debates and literature on E-E efforts in Africa have largely focussed on understanding how and why interventions on HIV and AIDS are effective in influencing behaviour change among target communities. Very few studies have sought to investigate and understand why a substantial number of targeted audiences resist the preferred readings that are encoded into E-E interventions on HIV and AIDS. Using cultural studies as its conceptual framework and reception analysis as its methodology, this study investigated and accounted for the oppositional readings that subaltern black South African youths negotiate from Tsha Tsha, an E-E television drama on HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Results from the study show that HIV and AIDS messages in Tsha Tsha face substantial resistances from situated youth viewers whose social contexts of consumption, shared identities, quotidian experiences and subjectivities, provide critical lines along which the E-E text is often resisted and inflected. These findings do not only hold several implications for E-E practice and research, they further reflect the utility of articulating cultural studies and reception analysis into a more nuanced theoretical and methodological framework for evaluating the 'impact' of E-E interventions on HIV and AIDS.

  7. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  8. Accounting for youth audiences’ resistances to HIV and AIDS messages in the television drama Tsha Tsha in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwambeni, Blessing; Salawu, Abiodun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Theoretical debates and literature on E-E efforts in Africa have largely focussed on understanding how and why interventions on HIV and AIDS are effective in influencing behaviour change among target communities. Very few studies have sought to investigate and understand why a substantial number of targeted audiences resist the preferred readings that are encoded into E-E interventions on HIV and AIDS. Using cultural studies as its conceptual framework and reception analysis as its methodology, this study investigated and accounted for the oppositional readings that subaltern black South African youths negotiate from Tsha Tsha, an E-E television drama on HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Results from the study show that HIV and AIDS messages in Tsha Tsha face substantial resistances from situated youth viewers whose social contexts of consumption, shared identities, quotidian experiences and subjectivities, provide critical lines along which the E-E text is often resisted and inflected. These findings do not only hold several implications for E-E practice and research, they further reflect the utility of articulating cultural studies and reception analysis into a more nuanced theoretical and methodological framework for evaluating the ‘impact’ of E-E interventions on HIV and AIDS. PMID:29508641

  9. The role of the community conversation approach in facilitating HIV/AIDS competence and utilisation of testing services in Africa : the case of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Abera, Solomon; Mekonnen, Medhanit G.; Melesse, Wondiber N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic. Although unpublished studies showed that the number of AIDS related deaths has fallen by 39% between 2005 and 2013 in sub-Saharan Africa, the region still accounted for 74% of all the people dying from AIDS-related causes. While the community conversation

  10. Multi-regional input–output model and ecological network analysis for regional embodied energy accounting in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Yang, Zhifeng; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Li, Yanxian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese regions frequently exchange materials, but regional differences in economic development create unbalanced flows of these resources. In this study, we examined energy by assessing embodied energy consumption to describe the energy-flow structure in China's seven regions. Based on multi-regional monetary input–output tables and energy statistical yearbooks for Chinese provinces in 2002 and 2007, we accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption, respectively, and the integral input and output of the provinces. Most integral inputs of energy flowed from north to south or from east to west, whereas integral output flows were mainly from northeast to southwest. This differed from the direct flows, which were predominantly from north to south and west to east. This demonstrates the importance of calculating both direct and indirect energy flows. Analysis of the distance and direction traveled by the energy consumption centers of gravity showed that the centers for embodied energy consumption and inputs moved southeast because of the movements of the centers of the Eastern region. However, the center for outputs moved northeast because the movement of the Central region. These analyses provide a basis for identifying how regional economic development policies influence the embodied energy consumption and its flows among regions. - Highlights: • We integrated multi-regional input–output analysis with ecological network analysis. • We accounted for both direct and indirect energy consumption. • The centers of gravity for embodied energy flows moved southeast from 2002 to 2007. • The results support planning of energy consumption and energy flows among regions.

  11. Financial assistance: the order reflected in accounting and tax accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Vygivska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a comprehensive approach to the accounting reflection of repayable financial aid makes it impossible to establish an information base for the evaluation of its attraction and use. Therefore, to ensure completeness of operations related to the involvement of financial assistance is only possible through the use of scientifically based methods of accounting and scientific researches in the field of accounting should be directed at ensuring stable financial condition of the enterprise, improving management decision-making to attract and use financial aid and prevent violations of the payment discipline. Based analysis approach to mapping returnable financial assistance has shown that the accounting staff has no single method for such transactions. In order to eliminate this disadvantage we offer to display repayable financial assistance as a part of the loan capital through the use of 609 "Swivel financial assistance" account to the opening of the analytical account of 609.1 "Swivel financial assistance in the national currency", and 609.2 "Swivel financial assistance in foreign currency" and the account of 505 "Long-term financial assistance in the national currency" and 506 "Long-term financial assistance in foreign currency".

  12. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiangping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhongdan; Yuan, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Fu, Jeannia; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Duan, Song; Bulterys, Marc; Sante, Michael; Ye, Runhua; Xiang, Lifen; Yang, Yuecheng

    2013-01-01

    We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations. 2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology. Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4%) prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs), sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM), with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%. Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  13. Total HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province in 2010: the first systematic evaluation of both health and non-health related HIV/AIDS expenditures in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available We assessed HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province, one of the highest prevalence regions in China, and describe funding sources and spending for different categories of HIV-related interventions and at-risk populations.2010 HIV/AIDS expenditures in Dehong Prefecture were evaluated based on UNAIDS' National AIDS Spending Assessment methodology.Nearly 93% of total expenditures for HIV/AIDS was contributed by public sources. Of total expenditures, 52.7% was allocated to treatment and care, 24.5% to program management and administration and 19.8% to prevention. Spending on treatment and care was primarily allocated to the treatment of opportunistic infections. Most (40.4% prevention spending was concentrated on most-at-risk populations, injection drug users (IDUs, sex workers, and men who have sex with men (MSM, with 5.5% allocated to voluntary counseling and testing. Prevention funding allocated for MSM, partners of people living with HIV and prisoners and other confined populations was low compared to the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in these populations. Overall, people living with HIV accounted for 57.57% of total expenditures, while most-at-risk populations accounted for only 7.99%.Our study demonstrated the applicability of NASA for tracking and assessing HIV expenditure in the context of China, it proved to be a useful tool in understanding national HIV/AIDS response from financial aspect, and to assess the extent to which HIV expenditure matches epidemic patterns. Limited funding for primary prevention and prevention for MSM, prisoners and partners of people living with HIV, signal that resource allocation to these key areas must be strengthened. Comprehensive analyses of regional and national funding strategies are needed to inform more equitable, effective and cost-effective HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

  14. The Blue Book. Accounting, Recordkeeping, and Reporting by Postsecondary Educational Institutions for Federally Funded Student Financial Aid Programs. [1999 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to provide guidance to college and university business office personnel who handle recordkeeping, accounting, and other fiscal reporting functions for federal Title IV financial aid programs, as authorized by the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended. This edition emphasizes the benefits and challenges of electronic…

  15. Revisiting Tourism Regional Economic Impact: Accounting for Secondary Household Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, David W.; Shields, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Many argue that tourism development is beneficial for local economies, partly because of spillover effects. Others hold that tourism jobs are lower paying, often seasonal, and can generate a host of social ills with earned income concentrated in low-income households. A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of a Pennsylvania region is used to test the impacts of tourism businesses supported by the Progress Fund, a regional Community Development Financial Institution, on household income distribution...

  16. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  17. [Incidence and mortality of children and teenagers with AIDS: challenges in the southern region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio Cristiano de; Ferraz, Rosemeire de Olanda; Nascimento, Juliana Luporini do; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the time trend of coefficients of incidence and mortality associated with AIDS in children and adolescents. An ecological time trend study was conducted among individuals under 14 living in the regional context of high incidence of AIDS - Porto Alegre and the State of Rio Grande do Sul - from 1996 to 2012. For this purpose, a segmented regression model was adjusted for age categories and place of residence. AIDS morbidity and mortality indicators in Porto Alegre are still higher than those registered in the State, the southern region and other areas of the country. In Porto Alegre, 59.1% of cases (371/628) occurred in children under four years of age, the incidence showed peaks in the period and the mortality dropped from 9 to 2 per 100,000. A significant decreasing in annual percentage change in mortality was observed especially in children under 1 year of age in Porto Alegre. This drop may be related to prevention and treatment of pregnant women. The challenge is to identify possible fragilities of the STD/AIDS Program and its vulnerable points in order to make specific interventions and investments with a greater impact potential.

  18. GANP regulates the choice of DNA repair pathway by DNA-PKcs interaction in AID-dependent IgV region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Shimoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2014-06-15

    RNA export factor germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) interacts with activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and shepherds it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and toward the IgV region loci in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate a role for GANP in the repair of AID-initiated DNA damage in chicken DT40 B cells to generate IgV region diversity by gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. GANP plays a positive role in IgV region diversification of DT40 B cells in a nonhomologous end joining-proficient state. DNA-PKcs physically interacts with GANP, and this interaction is dissociated by dsDNA breaks induced by a topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide, or AID overexpression. GANP affects the choice of DNA repair mechanism in B cells toward homologous recombination rather than nonhomologous end joining repair. Thus, GANP presumably plays a critical role in protection of the rearranged IgV loci by favoring homologous recombination of the DNA breaks under accelerated AID recruitment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Regional Balance Model of Financial Flows through Sectoral Approaches System of National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Zaharchuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study, the results of which are reflected in this article, is the theoretical and methodological substantiation of possibilities to build a regional balance model of financial flows consistent with the principles of the construction of the System of National Accounts (SNA. The paper summarizes the international experience of building regional accounts in the SNA as well as reflects the advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques for constructing Social Accounting Matrix. The authors have proposed an approach to build the regional balance model of financial flows, which is based on the disaggregated tables of the formation, distribution and use of the added value of territory in the framework of institutional sectors of SNA (corporations, public administration, households. Within the problem resolution of the transition of value added from industries to sectors, the authors have offered an approach to the accounting of development, distribution and use of value added within the institutional sectors of the territories. The methods of calculation are based on the publicly available information base of statistics agencies and federal services. The authors provide the scheme of the interrelations of the indicators of the regional balance model of financial flows. It allows to coordinate mutually the movement of regional resources by the sectors of «corporation», «public administration» and «households» among themselves, and cash flows of the region — by the sectors and directions of use. As a result, they form a single account of the formation and distribution of territorial financial resources, which is a regional balance model of financial flows. This matrix shows the distribution of financial resources by income sources and sectors, where the components of the formation (compensation, taxes and gross profit, distribution (transfers and payments and use (final consumption, accumulation of value added are

  20. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  1. 14 CFR 152.305 - Accounting records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting records. 152.305 Section 152.305... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.305 Accounting records. (a) Airport... individual project, an accounting record satisfactory to the Administrator which segregates cost information...

  2. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2018-06-01

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  4. Accounting for youth audiences' resistances to HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. How to perform first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John

    2016-01-13

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  6. The next 5 years of global HIV/AIDS policy: critical gaps and strategies for effective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Greg

    2008-08-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles Program in Global Health performed a landscape analysis based on interviews conducted between November 2006 and February 2007 with 35 key informants from major international organizations conducting HIV/AIDS work. Institutions represented included multilateral organizations, foundations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this analysis is to assist major foundations and other institutions to understand better the international HIV/AIDS policy landscape and to formulate research and development programmes that can make a significant contribution to moving important issues forward in the HIV/AIDS policy arena. Topics identified during the interviews were organized around the four major themes of the Ford Foundation's Global HIV/AIDS Initiative: leadership and leadership development; equity; accountability; and global partnerships. Key informants focused on the need for a visionary response to the HIV pandemic, the need to maintain momentum, ways to improve the scope of leadership development programmes, ideas for improving gender equity and addressing regional disparities and the needs of vulnerable populations, recommendations for strengthening accountability mechanisms among governments, foundations, and civil society and on calling for increased collaboration and partnership among key players in the global HIV/AIDS response.

  7. Accounting for youth audiences' resistances to HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from the study show that HIV and AIDS messages in Tsha Tsha face substantial resistances from situated youth viewers whose social contexts of consumption, shared identities, quotidian experiences and subjectivities, provide critical lines along which the E-E text is often resisted and inflected. These findings do ...

  8. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-01-01

     Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this stu...

  9. Moving Mountains:The Race to Treat Global AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS provides a lucid account of global efforts to scale up treatment for HIV/AIDS.As shown in the book, these efforts confront a number of critical challenges at a political, social, cultural and economic level.The book attempts to provide accounts of these challenges by looking at ...

  10. Accounting and Control in Ensuring Economic Security of the Organizations of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Valetyevich Epishin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the urgent problem concerning the regional development as well as the specific organization, or to the development of an integrated system of economic security of the organization. The article discusses the importance of such an element of economic security (including the financial security as the accounting and control as well as their possible violations. The authors substantiate their position on the relationship of the violations of accounting and control and also the internal theft, other economic crimes and their negative consequences. The analysis of the existing national and foreign sources related to the subject of the study is carried out. The conclusion is made about the lack of modern research devoted to the study of the protective properties of accounting, control and their violations, which condition economic crimes. The methodological tools of the research include dialectic method, systemic analysis, complex sociological methods: the analysis of the legal sources, of statistical information and judicial practice. On the basis of the analysis of criminal cases, financial statements, publications media, the authors made the conclusion about the conditionality of the theft in the organizations as there are the violations of accounting and control, low efficiency of control and auditing, of preventive measures for neutralization of the violations of accounting and control from the services of economic security, accounting offices, auditing and law enforcement services. The recommendations for the optimization of this work are introduced. They can be used by accounting departments, auditing bodies, fiscal authorities at the municipal and regional level and by law enforcement officials. The economic security is necessary for any organizations regardless of their forms of ownership, ranging from government organizations to small kiosks. The difference will only consist in the means and methods.

  11. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  12. HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific: a regional tool to support strategic information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu Shwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 global commitments towards controlling HIV made by Asia-Pacific countries require considerable improvement in strategic information and response tracking. The HIV and AIDS Data Hub can serve as an important tool for stakeholders with its regional database of subnational indicators, web site and data synthesis capacity.

  13. PENGETAHUAN IBU TENTANG AIDS, SDKI 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey 1994 ever married women age 15-49 years were asked whether they have ever heard of AIDS and if so their sources of information concerning prevention and treatment of the disease, and their personal perception about the risk of getting the disease. Half of the women age 20-34 years have ever heard about AIDS and among the older women less than half of them have ever heard about it. This analysis describes information about the relationship between knowledge of ever married women 15-49 years about AIDS with various background characteristics - age, education, occupation, exposure to mass media, area, and regions. This information is required to improve the existing health education campaign about AIDS.   The results indicate that women with less than secondary education or married to husband with less than secondary education or women who do not work or working as farmers are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS. Women who are not exposed to any type of mass media or exposed to only one media are less likely to have ever heard about AIDS than those who are exposed to two or more media. The proportion of women who have ever heard about AIDS in outer Java Bali region is lower than in Java Bali region, likewise in the rural areas it is lower than in urban areas. There are significant associations between area, region, women' education, husbands' education, occupation, exposure to mass media and having ever heart about AIDS. The major source of information about AIDS are from TV and second are newspapers and radio. To control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS the role of mass media is very important and therefore it is necessary to improve the coverage and acceptability of the information considering mothers' education, region/area, and occupation. The information material should be simple and easily understood by the various social levels of community.

  14. Accounting Programs' Home Pages: What's Happening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Lucia E.; Roxas, Maria L.

    2002-01-01

    Content analysis of 62 accounting programs' websites indicated the following: 53% include mission statements; 62.9% list accreditation; many faculty biographies and personal pages used inconsistent formats; provision of information on financial aid, student organizations, career services, and certified public accountant requirements varied. Many…

  15. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Analysis of Human Resources Policies and Regional Financial Accounting System on Regional Government Financial Statements’ Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Nahar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accountability of local governments in the implementation of policies should be carried out with the financial statements present the quality. Qualitative characteristics of financial statements described in PP 24/ 2005 that the qualitative characteristics of financial statements is a normative measurement that needs to be realized in the accounting information that can be fulfil its purpose. To be able to raise the normative requirements, this characteristics is absolutely necessary in order to meet the government 's financial statements desired qualities are: relevant, reliable, comparable, and understandable.The population of this research is PPK-SKPD in Karesidenan Pati. Consisting of: Regency Jepara, Kudus, Pati , Rembang, Blora, and Grobogan, totally 113 SKPD with 73 respondents with a random sampling technique . Data analysis technique used is multiple regression analysis. The results mentioned that human resource policies affect the quality of financial reporting by 4.167. Implementation of the system accounting effect on the quality of financial reporting by 3.309 % . Human resources policies and implementation of accounting systems affect the quality of financial statements. This study did not succeed accept hypothesis 5 proved that the value of t = -1.021 and p = 0.311, which means that the BPK audit does not affect the relationship between the Application System Accounting for the Quality of Regional Financial Statements.

  17. 14 CFR 151.127 - Accounting and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting and audit. 151.127 Section 151...) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Rules and Procedures for Advance Planning and Engineering Proposals § 151.127 Accounting and audit. The requirements of § 151.55 relating to accounting and audit of project...

  18. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  19. Computer aided accountancy for tritium handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannagel, G.; Schmid, C.

    1993-03-01

    A program is presented which can be used in tritium bearing systems for inventory taking and accountancy purposes. In particular, a detailed description is given of the environment in which this program has been integrated. It is explained in which way a high user friendliness has been attained and which structures contribute to achieving the flexibility required. (orig.) [de

  20. ‘Low-hanging fruit’: Counting and accounting for children in PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsey J.

    2014-01-01

    The article traces the social life of a policy that aimed to define and circumscribe the ambiguous and contested category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable children’ (OVC) in South Africa at the height of the ‘emergency response’ to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on several months of institutional ethnographic research conducted over the course of five years with South African organisations receiving funding from the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to provide services to ‘OVC’, the project interrogates the influence of governmental forms of counting and accounting on health policy and practice in South Africa. Focusing on the experiences of one organisation, the article describes a process of policy ‘translation’ typified by a series of disconnects between the intentions of a policy and the exigencies of implementation, structured by the ambiguous and flexible nature of the category of the ‘orphaned and vulnerable child’. In this context, the article argues, the uncertainty produced by the implementation of the guidelines was not simply an artifact of a poorly designed policy, but rather signals an underlying epistemological tension in the practice of ‘global health’, in which quantitative metrics designed for monitoring and evaluation are often incapable of approximating the complexities of everyday life. PMID:24498970

  1. International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By offering a common format and central repository, the IATI improves the transparency, accountability, and effectiveness of international aid. It is used ... organizations. IDRC is one of almost 400 participants who publish project titles and descriptions, country and geographic area, aid type, dates, and budget information.

  2. Experiencing the History of HIV/AIDS: A Review of Taking Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bussone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371', by MK Czerwiec. Paperback; 50 pgs; full colour. March 15 2017. Penn State University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0271078182 This review argues that 'Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371' (Czerwiec 2017 provides an accurate and factual account of the history of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in America in the 1990s. Through the use of illustrations and text, the book presents the reader with an immersive account of what it was like to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients during that time.

  3. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case was confirmed in 1986, Senegal has conducted an aggressive prevention campaign. Senegal's National AIDS Committee has noted the contributions of poverty and migration to the spread of AIDS. By June 1994, 1297 AIDS cases had been reported and an estimated 500,000 people (1.4% of the population) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and 2. The highest rate of HIV infection (14%) exists among commercial sex workers. At present, HIV/AIDS cases are concentrated in Dakar, Kaolack, the Matam region, and Ziguinchor; however, the growing importance of inter-regional trading is expected to spread HIV to the smaller towns and rural areas. Also salient is the recent devaluation by 50% of the CFA franc, which has reduced the public sector workforce and led many poor urban residents into commercial sex work. CFA devaluation has made Senegal attractive to tourists and business visitors--another factor responsible for growth of the legalized commercial sex industry. Although sex workers are instructed in condom use and tested annually for HIV, only 850 of the 2000 registered sex workers have reported for check-ups, and the majority of prostitutes are unregistered. Senegal's AIDS Plan for 1994-98 focuses on care of AIDS patients, pressures placed on family structures by HIV, and AIDS-related erosions in the status of women. Each health service region has its own local plan for AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, supervised by a regional committee. Public education has involved outreach to religious leaders, promotion of affordable condoms, and distribution of over 75,000 leaflets to key target populations. About US $16 million of the $25,688,875-budget HIV/AIDS program for 1994-98 was pledged by external donors.

  4. Intra-annual wave resource characterization for energy exploitation: A new decision-aid tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, R.; Sánchez, M.; Ramos, V.; Fraguela, J.A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decision-aid tool is developed for computing the monthly performance of WECs. • It allows the generation of high-resolution monthly characterization matrices. • The decision-aid tool is implemented to the Death Coast (N Spain). • The monthly matrices can be obtained at any coastal location within the Death Coast. • The tool is applied to a coastal location of a proposed wave farm. - Abstract: The wave energy resource is usually characterized by a significant variability throughout the year. In estimating the power performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) it is fundamental to take into account this variability; indeed, an estimate based on mean annual values may well result in a wrong decision making. In this work, a novel decision-aid tool, iWEDGE (intra-annual Wave Energy Diagram GEnerator) is developed and implemented to a coastal region of interest, the Death Coast (Spain), one of the regions in Europe with the largest wave resource. Following a comprehensive procedure, and based on deep water wave data and high-resolution numerical modelling, this tool provides the monthly high-resolution characterization matrices (or energy diagrams) for any location of interest. In other words, the information required for the accurate computation of the intra-annual performance of any WEC at any location within the region covered is made available. Finally, an application of iWEDGE to the site of a proposed wave farm is presented. The results obtained highlight the importance of the decision-aid tool herein provided for wave energy exploitation

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE AID POLICY FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALDAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Competition Council's activity regarding the state aid field has considered Romania's obligations as a member state, and the fulfillment of some specific tasks by the competition authority acquired after January 1, 2007. In this regard, the Competition Council has encouraged the collaboration between institutions to develop projects of state aid schemes. In 2010 there were six major investment projects approved, four of them being in the photovoltaic sector in which three are in Germany, one is in Spain and the rest concern the mechanical industry in Germany and Italy. Also, there were approved five ad hoc aid measures in favor of individual enterprises, for investments in areas that are on the regional aid maps for the period 2007-2013, and ten aid schemes, of which five related to the outermost regions. In accordance with the guidelines on national regional aids for 2007-2013, the Commission developed a statistical evaluation of the situation of state aid and regional aid ceiling which received a transitional assisted area status under Article 107 paragraph 3 letters (a by the end of 2010. The Commission accepted the changes introduced by the three member states (France, Ireland and Italy in state aid maps for certain regions eligible for regional aid under Article 107 paragraph 3letter (c.

  6. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) as safeguard regional agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvim, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials - ABACC applies regional safeguards on nuclear materials in Brazil and Argentina. The framework of international agreements concerning ABACC is presented, and the characteristics and requirements that a regional nuclear safeguards organization must fulfill are discussed. (author). 2 refs, 1 tab

  7. A review of accounting research in internationalising journals in the South African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charl J. de Villiers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyses the accounting research articles published by South African journals. Aim and setting: A review of accounting research in internationalising journals in the South African region that publish accounting research. Methods: The characteristics of accounting articles were analysed. Five journals were analysed, including the four internationalising journals, Investment Analysts Journal, Meditari Accountancy Research, South African Journal of Business Management, and South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences and one local journal, South African Journal of Accounting Research (SAJAR. Results: The findings of this study will be of interest to journal editors, authors who would like their research to make an impact and be cited, as well as university research administrators and government higher education policy-makers. Conclusion: The analyses show that many of the highly cited articles have been published recently, boding well for the citation statistics of these journals in future and indicating some success in their efforts to internationalise. The citations of SAJAR lag behind the citations of the internationalising journals. Each journal publishes articles that cover different subject area(s. Within accounting research, accounting education and social and environmental accounting are popular areas of research, whereas taxation; the public sector; and management accounting are not well represented among published articles during 2015–2016 in these five journals. About half of all accounting articles claim their insights will contribute to the accounting literature, with much smaller percentages claiming to contribute to management, policy-making and practice. The most prolific authors and most prominent universities to some extent follow the most popular subject areas, with a social and environmental researcher, Warren Maroun, featuring strongly, and his university, the University of the

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV / AIDS in the south region of Cameroon: case of the town of Kribi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed.

  9. Trajectories of Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Müller, Anders Riel

    2014-01-01

    Environmental aid has become a major component of development aid. We analyzed the contingent characters of environmental aid of Japan and South Korea using the definition of Williams, which regards aid policy as donor driven and autobiographical of the donor agencies and societies from which...... they sprang. Both Japan and South Korea consider environmental aid as an important tool of their diplomacy. A combination of a moral obligation and domestic, international, political, and economic interests underpin both countries’ environmental aid policy. Seen from the stated policies and practices, both...... countries use accounts of their past as once- developing countries trying to catch up in their aid narrative. In this manner, the environmental aid of Japan and South Korea is autobiographic, reflecting their interpretation of their own development history and position in global politics....

  10. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  11. DNA/RNA hybrid substrates modulate the catalytic activity of purified AID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdouni, Hala S; King, Justin J; Ghorbani, Atefeh; Fifield, Heather; Berghuis, Lesley; Larijani, Mani

    2018-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytidine to uridine at Immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation and class switching of antibodies. In vitro, AID acts on single stranded DNA (ssDNA), but neither double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) oligonucleotides nor RNA, and it is believed that transcription is the in vivo generator of ssDNA targeted by AID. It is also known that the Ig loci, particularly the switch (S) regions targeted by AID are rich in transcription-generated DNA/RNA hybrids. Here, we examined the binding and catalytic behavior of purified AID on DNA/RNA hybrid substrates bearing either random sequences or GC-rich sequences simulating Ig S regions. If substrates were made up of a random sequence, AID preferred substrates composed entirely of DNA over DNA/RNA hybrids. In contrast, if substrates were composed of S region sequences, AID preferred to mutate DNA/RNA hybrids over substrates composed entirely of DNA. Accordingly, AID exhibited a significantly higher affinity for binding DNA/RNA hybrid substrates composed specifically of S region sequences, than any other substrates composed of DNA. Thus, in the absence of any other cellular processes or factors, AID itself favors binding and mutating DNA/RNA hybrids composed of S region sequences. AID:DNA/RNA complex formation and supporting mutational analyses suggest that recognition of DNA/RNA hybrids is an inherent structural property of AID. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Language Planning and Development Aid: The (In)Visibility of Language in Development Aid Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Benson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Despite the essential role of local, regional, national and international languages in human development, there is little reference to language planning in development aid discourse. Beginning with definitions of development aid and language planning, the paper examines how the two were linked in pre- and post-colonial times, showing how language…

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  14. Assessment of hearing aid algorithms using a master hearing aid: the influence of hearing aid experience on the relationship between speech recognition and cognitive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rählmann, Sebastian; Meis, Markus; Schulte, Michael; Kießling, Jürgen; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    2017-04-27

    Model-based hearing aid development considers the assessment of speech recognition using a master hearing aid (MHA). It is known that aided speech recognition in noise is related to cognitive factors such as working memory capacity (WMC). This relationship might be mediated by hearing aid experience (HAE). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of WMC and speech recognition with a MHA for listeners with different HAE. Using the MHA, unaided and aided 80% speech recognition thresholds in noise were determined. Individual WMC capacity was assed using the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) and the Reading Span Test (RST). Forty-nine hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss divided into three groups differing in HAE. Whereas unaided speech recognition did not show a significant relationship with WMC, a significant correlation could be observed between WMC and aided speech recognition. However, this only applied to listeners with HAE of up to approximately three years, and a consistent weakening of the correlation could be observed with more experience. Speech recognition scores obtained in acute experiments with an MHA are less influenced by individual cognitive capacity when experienced HA users are taken into account.

  15. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  16. Quantitative evaluation of time-series GHG emissions by sector and region using consumption-based accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Takashi; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates global time-series consumption-based GHG emissions by region from 1990 to 2005, including both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions. Estimations are conducted for the whole economy and for two specific sectors: manufacturing and agriculture. Especially in the agricultural sector, it is important to include non-CO 2 GHG emissions because these are the major emissions present. In most of the regions examined, the improvements in GHG intensities achieved in the manufacturing sector are larger than those in the agricultural sector. Compared with developing regions, most developed regions have consistently larger per-capita consumption-based GHG emissions over the whole economy, as well as higher production-based emissions. In the manufacturing sector, differences calculated by subtracting production-based emissions from consumption-based GHG emissions are determined by the regional economic level while, in the agricultural sector, they are dependent on regional production structures that are determined by international trade competitiveness. In the manufacturing sector, these differences are consistently and increasingly positive for the U.S., EU15 and Japan but negative for developing regions. In the agricultural sector, the differences calculated for the major agricultural importers like Japan and the EU15 are consistently positive while those of exporters like the U.S., Australia and New Zealand are consistently negative. - Highlights: ► We evaluate global time-series production-based and consumption-based GHG emissions. ► We focus on both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions, broken down by region and by sector. ► Including non-CO 2 GHG emissions is important in agricultural sector. ► In agriculture, differences in accountings are dependent on production structures. ► In manufacturing sector, differences in accountings are determined by economic level.

  17. Regional training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The publication is an outline of the subjects that are included in a regional training course organized in Buenos Aires (Argentina) by the IAEA with the cooperation of the Argentine Government and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) from September 24 to October 5, 2001

  18. Orthotics, prosthesis and mobility aids (OPM dispensation in the Regional Health Department of the 3RD Region of Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Caminha Caro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the process of dispensation of orthotics, prostheses and mobility aids (OPM by the Unified Health System (SUS in the Regional Health Department of the 3rd Region (DRSIII of Sao Paulo state; perform a mapping of the existing physical rehabilitation services in that region; and subsequently correlate the data with applicable laws. Methodology: This is an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study whose subjects were the main professionals involved in the process of OPM dispensation, or responsible for their acquisition flow in the cities of that region. Data collection was carried out through a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by the researchers themselves, composed of questions aiming to identify the physical rehabilitation centers in the towns, the staff members involved, the provision of assistive technology through SUS, delivery time and existence of waiting lists. Results and discussion: The data were statistically measured, categorized, described and correlated with the current legislation aimed to guarantee access to assistive technology. We observed that the practice around this resource in the 3rd region concentrates in a single care center, causing long waits and poor efficiency of the services provided, in addition to maintaining a paternalistic aspect. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that, although the right to access to assistive technology is legally guaranteed, there are still many difficulties and challenges around this practice.

  19. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  20. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  1. Current Account Reversals and Persistency in Transition Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Aristovnik, Aleksander

    2006-01-01

    The article investigates sharp reductions seen in current account deficits in transition countries in the 1992-2003 period. By using both descriptive statistical approaches as well as panel regression-based analysis the article focuses on three important aspects of these current account reversals: a) to examine those factors that might have triggered the reversals and to provide some insights into the current account adjustment process; b) to reveal some characteristics of persistent current ...

  2. USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.

  3. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems.

  4. Managerial Accounting. Course Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant. Inst. for Personal and Career Development.

    This manual is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting and intended to aid instructors in helping students to work their way through the self-instructional study guide around which the course is organized. The manual describes the various materials and components used in the self-instructional sequence…

  5. A regional-scale, high resolution dynamical malaria model that accounts for population density, climate and surface hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian M; Ermert, Volker

    2013-02-18

    The relative roles of climate variability and population related effects in malaria transmission could be better understood if regional-scale dynamical malaria models could account for these factors. A new dynamical community malaria model is introduced that accounts for the temperature and rainfall influences on the parasite and vector life cycles which are finely resolved in order to correctly represent the delay between the rains and the malaria season. The rainfall drives a simple but physically based representation of the surface hydrology. The model accounts for the population density in the calculation of daily biting rates. Model simulations of entomological inoculation rate and circumsporozoite protein rate compare well to data from field studies from a wide range of locations in West Africa that encompass both seasonal endemic and epidemic fringe areas. A focus on Bobo-Dioulasso shows the ability of the model to represent the differences in transmission rates between rural and peri-urban areas in addition to the seasonality of malaria. Fine spatial resolution regional integrations for Eastern Africa reproduce the malaria atlas project (MAP) spatial distribution of the parasite ratio, and integrations for West and Eastern Africa show that the model grossly reproduces the reduction in parasite ratio as a function of population density observed in a large number of field surveys, although it underestimates malaria prevalence at high densities probably due to the neglect of population migration. A new dynamical community malaria model is publicly available that accounts for climate and population density to simulate malaria transmission on a regional scale. The model structure facilitates future development to incorporate migration, immunity and interventions.

  6. A genetic-algorithm-aided stochastic optimization model for regional air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaosheng; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    A genetic-algorithm-aided stochastic optimization (GASO) model was developed in this study for supporting regional air quality management under uncertainty. The model incorporated genetic algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo simulation techniques into a general stochastic chance-constrained programming (CCP) framework and allowed uncertainties in simulation and optimization model parameters to be considered explicitly in the design of least-cost strategies. GA was used to seek the optimal solution of the management model by progressively evaluating the performances of individual solutions. Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the feasibility of each solution. A management problem in terms of regional air pollution control was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Results of the case study indicated the proposed model could effectively communicate uncertainties into the optimization process and generate solutions that contained a spectrum of potential air pollutant treatment options with risk and cost information. Decision alternatives could be obtained by analyzing tradeoffs between the overall pollutant treatment cost and the system-failure risk due to inherent uncertainties.

  7. Aid for regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion POPESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.

  8. Computer-aided assessment of regional abdominal fat with food residue removal in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the regional electricity companies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the electricity distribution and supply sector in England and Wales, specifically the transformation of the Electricity Area Boards into the 12 Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). It considers the factors influencing the setting of post-privatization price control factors; the capital restructuring of the RECs; the valuation placed by the Secretary of State for Energy on each company at flotation, and market reaction to this as shown in subsequent changes in share price; and changes in the information provided in the RECs' accounts over the privatization period. (Author)

  10. Computer-aided design and computer science technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.; Voigt, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of computer-aided design requirements and the resulting computer science advances needed to support aerospace design. The aerospace design environment is examined, taking into account problems of data handling and aspects of computer hardware and software. The interactive terminal is normally the primary interface between the computer system and the engineering designer. Attention is given to user aids, interactive design, interactive computations, the characteristics of design information, data management requirements, hardware advancements, and computer science developments.

  11. Decree bringing into force Act n0 996 of 8 December 1970 providing regulations for aid and assistance to populations struck by catastrophes - Public welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this Decree is to provide a framework for aid and assistance at a local level, taking into account the decentralization following the creation in 1972 of autonomous administration in the regions. The provisions of thid Decree are of general application, and therefore cover nuclear emergencies, although they are not explicitly mentioned (NEA) [fr

  12. HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Karim, Quarraisha A

    2016-01-01

    Global trends in HIV infection demonstrate an overall increase in HIV prevalence and substantial declines in AIDS related deaths largely attributable to the survival benefits of antiretroviral treatment. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionate burden of HIV, accounting for more than 70% of the global burden of infection. Success in HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to impact on the global burden of HIV. Notwithstanding substantial progress in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 74% of the 1.5 million AIDS related deaths in 2013. Of the estimated 6000 new infections that occur globally each day, two out of three are in sub-Saharan Africa with young women continuing to bear a disproportionate burden. Adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years have up to eight fold higher rates of HIV infection compared to their male peers. There remains a gap in women initiated HIV prevention technologies especially for women who are unable to negotiate the current HIV prevention options of abstinence, behavior change, condoms and medical male circumcision or early treatment initiation in their relationships. The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we are able to prevent HIV infection in young women. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, key drivers of the continued high incidence, mortality rates and priorities for altering current epidemic trajectory in the region. Strategies for optimizing the use of existing and increasingly limited resources are included.

  13. HIV Infection and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B.M.; Karim, Quarraisha A.

    2016-01-01

    Global trends in HIV infection demonstrate an overall increase in HIV prevalence and substantial declines in AIDS related deaths largely attributable to the survival benefits of antiretroviral treatment. Sub-Saharan Africa carries a disproportionate burden of HIV, accounting for more than 70% of the global burden of infection. Success in HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to impact on the global burden of HIV. Notwithstanding substantial progress in scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 74% of the 1.5 million AIDS related deaths in 2013. Of the estimated 6000 new infections that occur globally each day, two out of three are in sub-Saharan Africa with young women continuing to bear a disproportionate burden. Adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years have up to eight fold higher rates of HIV infection compared to their male peers. There remains a gap in women initiated HIV prevention technologies especially for women who are unable to negotiate the current HIV prevention options of abstinence, behavior change, condoms and medical male circumcision or early treatment initiation in their relationships. The possibility of an AIDS free generation cannot be realized unless we are able to prevent HIV infection in young women. This review will focus on the epidemiology of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, key drivers of the continued high incidence, mortality rates and priorities for altering current epidemic trajectory in the region. Strategies for optimizing the use of existing and increasingly limited resources are included. PMID:27347270

  14. (Comvivendo com a Aids: perfil dos portadores de HIV/Aids na região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, 1989-2005 = Living with aids: profile of hiv/aids patients in northwestern Paraná, 1989-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Soares dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos 27 anos de epidemia da Aids, ocorreram mudanças cruciais nas tendências de transmissão do vírus HIV e no perfil epidemiológico da doença. Neste estudo foi analisado o perfil dos inscritos no Programa de Controle das DST/Aids de uma regional de saúde do Estado do Paraná, nos anos de 1989 a 2005. Os dados foram coletados do banco de dados regional do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação – SINANW, no Setor de Epidemiologia da 14ª Regional de Saúde. As variáveis estudadas foram: sexo, idade, ocupação e município de residência dos pacientes; forma de transmissão da doença, data do diagnóstico e de notificação do caso; e data de óbito. No período foram diagnosticados 241 casos de Aids na região, com concentração de 53% no município pólo, porém em seis municípios da região não ocorreu notificação nos 17 anos estudados, mas a ausência de casos pode indicar a ausência real de casos ou subnotificação ou exportação de casos. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente em homens, na faixa etária entre 25 e 49 anos, com transmissão pela via sexual; no período de 2001 a 2005, no entanto, observa-se o aumento do número de mulheres infectadas, com razão entre os sexos de 1,6 homens por mulher, e o incremento da transmissão heterossexual, acometendo indivíduos com ocupação do lar e autônomos. Foi encontrado número expressivo de caso com notificação epidemiológica na data do diagnóstico de doenças decorrentes da Aids ou nos dias subsequentes, sugerindo identificação tardia da doença e indivíduos diagnosticados já na fase terminal da doença.Over the last 27 years of the AIDS epidemic, crucial changes have taken place in the trends of HIV transmission and in the disease’s epidemiological profile. This study analyzed the profiles of people enrolled in the STD/AIDS Control Program of a regional health division in the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 1989 and 2005. Data were

  15. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the pattern of survival and factors associated with the outcome of disease in patients with AIDS. DESIGN--Inception cohort. Data collected retrospectively from patients' charts. SETTING--52 clinical centres in 17 European countries. SUBJECTS--6578 adults diagnosed with AIDS....... The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii...... pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has...

  16. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. Methods For 1990–2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990–2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. Findings In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million–1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d’Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8–10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Interpretation Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress

  17. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  18. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  19. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  20. Accountability as an element of governmentality : an investigation of national and local executive accountability practices in the water sector in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katomero, Jesper George

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, and Tanzania in particular, international donors increasingly exert influence on governments to embrace accountability reforms as a pre-condition for receiving bilateral and multilateral development aid. This influence is noticeable in the Washington Consensus ideas about economic

  1. AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    AIDS Prevention in the Southern African Development Community : Policy Research and Decision Support. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is at the epicentre of the AIDS pandemic. The regional adult HIV prevalence is approximately 11%, twice the average in other African countries. Scores of ...

  2. Autonomous motivation is associated with hearing aid adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jason; Hickson, Louise; Lind, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    To use the self-determination theory of motivation to investigate whether different forms of motivation were associated with adults' decisions whether or not to adopt hearing aids. A quantitative approach was used in this cohort study. Participants completed the treatment self-regulation questionnaire (TSRQ), which measured autonomous and controlled motivation for hearing aid adoption. Sociodemographic data and audiometric information were also obtained. Participants were 253 adults who had sought information about their hearing but had not consulted with a hearing professional. Participants were categorized as hearing aid adopters if they had been fitted with hearing aids 4-6 months after completing the TSRQ, and as non-adopters if they had not. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between autonomous and controlled motivation, sociodemographic and audiometric variables, and hearing aid adoption (n = 160). Three factors were significantly associated with increased hearing aid adoption when the influence of other variables was accounted for: autonomous motivation, perceived hearing difficulty, and poorer hearing. Controlled motivation was not found to influence hearing aid adoption. These empirical findings that link autonomous motivation to decisions of hearing help-seekers have implications for the ways practitioners may evaluate motivation and could inform discussions with clients about hearing aid adoption.

  3. Malaysia urges ASEAN to tackle AIDS crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-07

    Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text

  4. Psychological correlates of suicidality in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Mishara, Brian; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2016-10-01

    There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of suicidality in HIV/AIDS, and associated psychological factors in sub-Saharan Africa, shown to be high in Uganda. Yet, the region accounts for over 70% of the world HIV burden. Our study used a cross-sectional survey of 226 HIV-positive (HIV+) adults and adolescents (aged 15-17 years) in Mbarara, Uganda. The relationship between suicidality and depressed mood, anxiety symptoms, state anger, self-esteem, trait anger and hopelessness was examined; anger was the predominant factor in suicidality, suggesting that anger management could potentially lower the prevalence of suicidality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Student Financial Aid. High Risk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses the continuing concerns of the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in regard to the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan, the Ford Direct Loan, and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. GAO commends the department for its…

  6. Comprehensive Characterization of HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology and Demographic History in the Brazilian Region Most Heavily Affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Tiago; Machado Fritsch, Hegger; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Maletich Junqueira, Dennis; Esteves de Matos Almeida, Sabrina; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto

    2016-09-15

    The high incidence of AIDS cases and the dominance of HIV-1 subtype C infections are two features that distinguish the HIV-1 epidemic in the two southernmost Brazilian states (Rio Grande do Sul [RS] and Santa Catarina [SC]) from the epidemic in other parts of the country. Nevertheless, previous studies on HIV molecular epidemiology were conducted mainly in capital cities, and a more comprehensive understanding of factors driving this unique epidemic in Brazil is necessary. Blood samples were collected from individuals in 13 municipalities in the Brazilian southern region. HIV-1 env and pol genes were submitted to phylogenetic analyses for assignment of subtype, and viral population phylodynamics were reconstructed by applying Skygrid and logistic coalescent models in a Bayesian analysis. A high prevalence of subtype C was observed in all sampled locations; however, an increased frequency of recombinant strains was found in RS, with evidence for new circulating forms (CRFs). In the SC state, subtype B and C epidemics were associated with distinct exposure groups. Although logistic models estimated similar growth rates for HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) and HIV-1B, a Skygrid plot reveals that the former epidemic has been expanding for a longer time. Our results highlight a consistent expansion of HIV-1C in south Brazil, and we also discuss how heterosexual and men who have sex with men (MSM) transmission chains might have impacted the current prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes in this region. The AIDS epidemic in south Brazil is expanding rapidly, but the circumstances driving this condition are not well known. A high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C was reported in the capital cities of this region, in contrast to the subtype B dominance in the rest of the country. This study sought to comparatively investigate the HIV-1 subtype B and C epidemics by sampling individuals from several cities in the two states with the highest AIDS incidences in Brazil. Our analyses showed distinct

  7. Need, Merit or Self-Interest - What Determines the Allocation of Aid?

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Hoeffler; Verity Outram

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies into aid allocation have concluded that foreign aid is allocated not only according to development needs but also according to donor self-interest. We revisit this topic and allow for donor as well as recipient specific effects in our analysis. Our results indicate that roughly half of the predicted value of aid is determined by donor specific effects. Of the remaining variation, recipient need accounts for 36 percent and donor self-interest for about 16 percent. This suggest...

  8. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  9. The Uniform Chart of Accounts and Its Use in Management Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    accounting reports [Ref. 10: p.45]. Horngren [Ref. 5: p. 162] notes that a common complaint of *, managers is that they are unfairly charged with costs ...aids of amsst 0W somir IM WOR M oo Owp U CA Hospital Management Control Uniform Chart of Accounts Performance Measurement Hospital Cost Accounting ...Output Measurement HCU 30. he.T ACT fCamnnus m .. s ado It 09000*Min d IdWOReeO 661 eammeei ~Full implementation of thc Uniform Chart of Accounts (UCA

  10. Computer Aided Drug Design: Success and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmad, Khurshid; Roy, Sudeep; Ashraf, Jalaluddin Mohammad; Adil, Mohd; Siddiqui, Mohammad Haris; Khan, Saif; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Provazník, Ivo; Choi, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, computer-aided drug design has emerged as a powerful technique playing a crucial role in the development of new drug molecules. Structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design are two methods commonly used in computer-aided drug design. In this article, we discuss the theory behind both methods, as well as their successful applications and limitations. To accomplish this, we reviewed structure based and ligand based virtual screening processes. Molecular dynamics simulation, which has become one of the most influential tool for prediction of the conformation of small molecules and changes in their conformation within the biological target, has also been taken into account. Finally, we discuss the principles and concepts of molecular docking, pharmacophores and other methods used in computer-aided drug design.

  11. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  12. Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  13. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast, George Washington University (East Coast and Ohio State University (Mid-Region to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43, specimen (15, and anatomical site (50 types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA, DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32% and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%. Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded, 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV/AIDS

  14. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Africa Make Use of the New Aid Architecture?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... procurement requirements, payments procedures, accounting routines, etc. .... exercise effective leadership over their development policies and .... sion, that there is need to make a fundamental reform of the aid system itself.

  16. Did the Aid Boom Pacify Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of civil war in Sub-Saharan Africa since the turn of the century is less than half of what it was on average in the last quarter of the 20th century. This paper shows that the aid boom triggered by 9/11 played a key role in achieving purposefully this result using panel data for 46 African countries over four decades. It applies a nearidentification approach to test the aid-conflict tradeoff, taking due account of asymmetric information between the donors and the econometrician....

  17. A critical assessment of theories/models used in health communication for HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Obregon, R

    2000-01-01

    Most theories and models used to develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) communication are based on social psychology that emphasizes individualism. Researchers including communication and health scholars are now questioning the presumed global relevance of these models and thus the need to develop innovative theories and models that take into account regional contexts. In this paper, we discuss the commonly used theories and models in HIV/AIDS communication. Furthermore, we argue that the flaws in the application of the commonly used "classical" models in health communication are because of contextual differences in locations where these models are applied. That is to say that these theories and models are being applied in contexts for which they were not designed. For example, the differences in health behaviors are often the function of culture. Therefore, culture should be viewed for its strength and not always as a barrier. The metaphorical coupling of "culture" and "barrier" needs to be exposed, deconstructed, and reconstructed so that new, positive, cultural linkages can be forged. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has served as a flashpoint to either highlight the importance or deny the relevance of theories and models while at the same time addressing the importance of culture in the development and implementation of communication programs.

  18. The interesting cross-paths of HIV/AIDS and water in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS and water-borne diseases account for a substantial degree of morbidity and mortality in different age groups across the globe, but their ripple effects are more devastating in developing countries. Estimates of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa vary but attest to a mature and generalised epidemic. Antenatal ...

  19. Changes in Accounting Education: Improving Principles Content for Better Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David T.; Boyd, Sanithia C.; Boyd, William L.

    2000-01-01

    Offers suggestions for more effective teaching of the first course of accounting in terms of time, content, and process. Suggests the use of visual aids and the concepts approach. (Contains 18 references.) (JOW)

  20. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  1. World AIDS day 1991 observances urge sharing the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Region of the Americas took part in World AIDS DAy 1991, whose theme, "Sharing the Challenge," urged all sectors of society to support AIDS-related education, services, and advocacy. The day of observance was intended to encourage the participation of public, private, nongovernmental, and religious leaders in promoting AIDS-related activities. Although World AIDS Day took place on December 1, activities in the Region of the Americans began from the last week of November and into the first week of December. Most of these activities were designed to educate the public on how to avoid infection, as well as inform and sensitize audiences on the health and social needs of those infected. These activities took the form of press conferences, exhibitions, lectures, public concerts, television adds, etc. One such activity, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., focused on the AIDS crisis and the need for educational activities. The program opened with a speech by Dr. Carlyle Guerra de Macedo, PAHO's director, who warned against complacency in confronting the disease. US Surgeon General Antonia Novello also spoke at the occasion, addressing the growing threat of AIDS among women. Already, 12% of AIDS victims in the US are women, and heterosexual transmissions of AIDS will likely continued to increase. Pointing out that a vaccine is not expected in the short term, PAHO's Dr. David Brandling-Bennet stressed that the fight against AIDS depends on disseminating information. The PAHO meeting also featured a panel discussion composed of educators and health professionals, who discussed the educational responsibility of television in transmitting the AIDS-prevention message to the public.

  2. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae

    2010-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  3. AIDS in Africa. ILO launches campaign on HIV / AIDS in the world of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of the regional workshop on HIV/AIDS and its social and labor impact in Africa conducted by the International Labor Organization (ILO) in Pretoria. According to the Pretoria report, HIV/AIDS had become a human tragedy in Africa. It affects the health and development of the region and threatens the social and economic growth of almost all sub-Saharan African countries. It is considered to be the single most important impediment to social progress to many countries in Africa. Thus, the primary goal of the ILO, which is promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity, is threatened by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, several activities have taken place in response to the need for the prevention and control of the disease. In addition, the report calls for efforts to create an enabling environment for people living with the disease involving governments, employers' and workers' organizations. It noted that the ILO could provide assistance in the adoption of laws and regulations to protect the rights of these people with regards to the access of health insurance, employment, education, as well as labor administration, productivity and the informal sector.

  4. Future forest carbon accounting challenges: the question of regionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Forest carbon accounting techniques are changing. This year, a new accounting system is making its debut with the production of forest carbon data for EPA’s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. The Forest Service’s annualized inventory system is being more fully integrated into estimates of forest carbon at the national and state levels both for the present and the...

  5. Tuberculosis and AIDS co-morbidity in Brazil: linkage of the tuberculosis and AIDS databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Espinosa Miranda

    Full Text Available This study evaluated differences in AIDS patients with and without tuberculosis (TB in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Standard regional AIDS (SINAN, SISCEL, SICLOM and SIM and tuberculosis (SINAN databases were used. TB and AIDS databases were linked using Reclink software, version 3, with SPSS software support to identify co-infected cases. Data from July 2000 to June 2006 in Espírito Santo State were linked. The results showed 3,523 adult AIDS cases and 9,958 adult TB cases resulted in 430 co-infected patients, who were compared to 1,290 AIDS patients who never developed TB. Among 430 co-infected patients, TB was diagnosed first in 223 (51.9%, AIDS was first in 44 (10.2%, and AIDS and TB were diagnosed concurrently in 163 (37.9%. Median age did not differ between co-infected cases (36 years (interquartile range [IQR] 29-43 and non-co-infected cases (34 years; IQR 28-42. Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 239 (55.6%; 109 (25.3% had extra-pulmonary TB and 82 (19.1% had both presentations. In the final logistic regression model, living in a metropolitan area [Odds Ratio (OR=1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.05-1.95], education < 3 years [OR=3.03 (95%CI 1.56-5.88] and CD4 counts < 200/mm³ [OR=1.14 (95%CI 1.09-1.18] were associated with co-infection. This report emphasizes the significance of tuberculosis among AIDS cases in Brazil, and highlights the importance of evaluating secondary data for purposes of improving data quality and developing public health interventions.

  6. AID-induced decrease in topoisomerase 1 induces DNA structural alteration and DNA cleavage for class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Aida, Masatoshi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Begum, Nasim A; Kitawaki, Yoko; Nakata, Mikiyo; Stanlie, Andre; Doi, Tomomitsu; Kato, Lucia; Okazaki, Il-mi; Shinkura, Reiko; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Honjo, Tasuku

    2009-12-29

    To initiate class switch recombination (CSR) activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces staggered nick cleavage in the S region, which lies 5' to each Ig constant region gene and is rich in palindromic sequences. Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) controls the supercoiling of DNA by nicking, rotating, and religating one strand of DNA. Curiously, Top1 reduction or AID overexpression causes the genomic instability. Here, we report that the inactivation of Top1 by its specific inhibitor camptothecin drastically blocked both the S region cleavage and CSR, indicating that Top1 is responsible for the S region cleavage in CSR. Surprisingly, AID expression suppressed Top1 mRNA translation and reduced its protein level. In addition, the decrease in the Top1 protein by RNA-mediated knockdown augmented the AID-dependent S region cleavage, as well as CSR. Furthermore, Top1 reduction altered DNA structure of the Smu region. Taken together, AID-induced Top1 reduction alters S region DNA structure probably to non-B form, on which Top1 can introduce nicks but cannot religate, resulting in S region cleavage.

  7. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N

    1994-01-01

    . The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii...... pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has...

  8. AIDS by mother-to-child transmission: survival analysis of cases followed from 1983 to 2002 in different regions of Brazil AIDS por transmissão vertical: análise de sobrevivência dos casos acompanhados entre 1983 e 2002 nas diferentes regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy contributes to decreasing morbidity and mortality, and ultimately to increasing survival. In Brazil, there are regional differences in HIV epidemiology regarding pregnant women and children with HIV/AIDS. This study evaluates survival time after AIDS diagnosis in 914 children infected by mother-to-child transmission, reported between 1983 and 1998 and followed until 2002, in Brazil's five regions. Time between birth and HIV diagnosis decreased over the years, mainly in the South and Southeast Regions. There was a significant improvement in survival; more than 75% of cases were still living four years after diagnosis in the 1997-1998 group. This Brazilian study demonstrates that even with regional inequalities in health care infrastructure it is possible for a developing country to establish an effective system of universal and free access to antiretroviral therapy that produces a significant increase in survival for children with AIDS.A terapia anti-retroviral contribui para a diminuição da morbidade e da mortalidade, com conseqüente aumento da sobrevida. No Brasil, há diferenças regionais relativas à dinâmica da epidemia do HIV e ao seu enfrentamento no grupo das gestantes e das crianças com HIV/AIDS. Este estudo verifica o tempo de sobrevida após o diagnóstico de AIDS em 914 crianças infectadas por transmissão vertical, entre os anos de 1983 e 1998, e acompanhadas até 2002, nas cinco regiões brasileiras. O tempo do nascimento ao diagnóstico de infecção pelo HIV, ao longo dos anos, apresenta uma diminuição, principalmente nos estados das regiões Sul e Sudeste. Houve melhora significativa da sobrevivência, mais de 75% dos casos ainda estavam vivendo quatro anos após o diagnóstico, no grupo de 1997 e 1998. Esta análise brasileira mostra ser possível para um país em desenvolvimento estabelecer um sistema efetivo de acesso gratuito e universal à terapia anti-retroviral, mesmo com dificuldades

  9. 'Checkmating HIV&AIDS': Using chess to break the silence in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Omar

    2012-12-01

    In this article, I give an account of my 'Checkmating HIV&AIDS' action research project, which was an attempt to break the 'culture of silence' concerning HIV&AIDS and sex and sexuality in my classroom. In this project, I focused specifically on one code of sport, namely chess, and I point out and discuss the potential of using chess as an educational tool in addressing HIV&AIDS. It was found that learners enjoy playing chess and that it can be used in the Life Orientation classroom to promote HIV&AIDS awareness. This type of alternative awareness is relevant as learners in most schools were becoming fatigued by HIV&AIDS information overload. The project portrays the role of the teacher as a researcher and critical change agent in an HIV&AIDS-challenged society.

  10. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’ agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims to understand agricultural knowledge and practices among children orphaned by AIDS, consecutive to widespread interest in and concern about erosion of agricultural knowledge in AIDS-affected communities. Such ...

  11. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  12. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  13. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  14. Specialized case tools for the development of the accounting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approach to building specialized CASE tools for the development of accounting applications. These tools form an integrated development environment allowing the computer aided development of the different applications in this field. This development environment consists of a formula interpreter, ...

  15. [HIV/AIDS masks in a therapist's practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchina, A A; Ponomareva, E Yu; Rebrov, A P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate clinical manifestations and diagnostic difficulties in patients with HIV/AIDS in the practice of therapeutic units of a multidisciplinary hospital. The investigation included 65 HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the therapy units of a Saratov Regional clinical hospital in 2007 to 2011. The clinical features of HIV/AIDS, immunological status, and viral load were studied. The structure of the clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS showed a preponderance of lung injury in 45 (69%) patients. There were hematological disorders in 38 (58%) patients and nephropathy in 33 (51 %); 11 (17%) patients were diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Rheumatic symptoms and syndromes mimicking HIV/AIDS were found in 10 (15.4%) patients. The degree of immune disorders was most severe in patients with pulmonary dissemination and rheumatic masks and mutually related to the rate of cutaneous manifestations. The specific features of lung injury, infective endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatic symptoms, and kidney injury were discussed in HIV/AIDS patients having different causes for admission to specialized therapy units. In connection with the clinical polymorphism of HIV/AIDS, physicians of all specialties should be alert for the possible clinical manifestations of this disease to timely examine patients.

  16. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    investigation. The focus is on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that when monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, then aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment....

  17. Political economy of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities in three Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Ezumah, Nkoli; Ajayi, Olayinka; Sanwo, Olusola; Uzochukwu, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Decentralisation is defined as the dispersion, distribution or transfer of resources, functions and decision-making power from a central authority to regional and local authorities. It is usually accompanied by assignment of accountability and responsibility for results. Fundamental to understanding decentralisation is learning what motivates central governments to give up power and resources to local governments, and the practical significance of this on their positions regarding decentralisation. This study examined key political and institutional influences on role-players' capacity to support decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, and implications for sustainability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 purposively selected key informants, drawn from three Nigerian states that were at different stages of decentralising HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary care facilities. Key informants represented different categories of role-players involved in HIV and AIDS control programmes. Thematic framework analysis of data was done. Support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities was substantial among different categories of actors. Political factors such as the local and global agenda for health, political tenure and party affiliations, and institutional factors such as consolidation of decision-making power and improvements in career trajectories, influenced role-players support for decentralisation of HIV and AIDS treatment services. It is feasible and acceptable to decentralise HIV and AIDS treatment services to primary healthcare facilities, to help improve coverage. However, role-players' support largely depends on how well the reform aligns with political structures and current institutional practices.

  18. Zimbabwe's national AIDS levy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nisha; Kilmarx, Peter H; Dube, Freeman; Manenji, Albert; Dube, Medelina; Magure, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a case study of the Zimbabwe National AIDS Trust Fund ('AIDS Levy') as an approach to domestic government financing of the response to HIV and AIDS. Data came from three sources: a literature review, including a search for grey literature, review of government documents from the Zimbabwe National AIDS Council (NAC), and key informant interviews with representatives of the Zimbabwean government, civil society and international organizations. The literature search yielded 139 sources, and 20 key informants were interviewed. Established by legislation in 1999, the AIDS Levy entails a 3% income tax for individuals and 3% tax on profits of employers and trusts (which excluded the mining industry until 2015). It is managed by the parastatal NAC through a decentralized structure of AIDS Action Committees. Revenues increased from inception to 2006 through 2008, a period of economic instability and hyperinflation. Following dollarization in 2009, annual revenues continued to increase, reaching US$38.6 million in 2014. By policy, at least 50% of funds are used for purchase of antiretroviral medications. Other spending includes administration and capital costs, HIV prevention, and monitoring and evaluation. Several financial controls and auditing systems are in place. Key informants perceived the AIDS Levy as a 'homegrown' solution that provided country ownership and reduced dependence on donor funding, but called for further increased transparency, accountability, and reduced administrative costs, as well as recommended changes to increase revenue. The Zimbabwe AIDS Levy has generated substantial resources, recently over US$35 million per year, and signals an important commitment by Zimbabweans, which may have helped attract other donor resources. Many key informants considered the Zimbabwe AIDS Levy to be a best practice for other countries to follow.

  19. New approach to safeguards accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.

    1977-03-01

    In recent years there has been widespread concern over the problem of nuclear safeguards. Due to the proliferation of nuclear reactors throughout the world, the concern about the loss or diversion of nuclear materials at various points in the fuel cycle has greatly increased. To minimize the possibility of material loss, the nuclear industry relies on physical protection systems and materials accountability procedures at licensed facilities. Present techniques of material accountability rely on double-entry accounting systems. For various reasons, only noisy observations of on-hand inventory are available. Hence one is forced to use statistical techniques in an attempt to detect the existence of missing material. Current practice is to use control charts as the basis for detecting significant material losses. Control charts may aid in detecting large material losses but are insensitive to small quantities of material loss, even if these small losses occur repeatedly over a long period of time. The purpose of this research is to show the feasibility of using linear state estimation theory in nuclear material accountability. The Kalman Filter is used as the state estimation technique. The state vector which consists of on-hand inventory and material losses is estimated recursively

  20. Aid for the victims of the forest fires in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To support the victims of the fires which devastated the Peloponnese at the end of August, the Permanent Mission of Greece in Geneva has informed us that the Greek government has opened an account into which donations may be paid. The funds collected will be used to assist the many victims of these fires. Bank of Greece Account name: Logariasmos Arogis Pyropathon (Hellenic Republic) (account reserved for aid for the victims of the forest fires) SWIFT : BNGRGRAA IBAN : GR 98 0100 0230 0000 0234 1103 053

  1. No More Broken Promises: Challenges and Opportunities for Key Populations in Demanding More Transparency, Accountability, and Participation in the Global Response Against the HIV and AIDS Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Pico, Tomás A; Kohler, Jillian Clare; Hoffmann, Julia; Mungala, Lucy

    2017-12-01

    The global fight against HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges: infection rates are on the rise in many settings, stigma and discrimination remain rampant, and the global response is under increasing financial pressure. There is a high risk of losing what has been achieved so far in the fight against HIV and AIDS, but also the momentum to meet the so-called Fast Track targets for 2030. In light of these trends, it is fundamental to focus on the human rights of key populations (KPs)-especially to health, non-discrimination, access to information, and to equal and meaningful participation in political and public affairs-by placing them at the center of the global HIV response. Such rights, and the demand for more transparency, accountability, and participation (TAP), have been recognized as both a necessary social justice imperative, and as a way to build more responsive, inclusive, and sustainable health systems. This article will argue that embracing TAP as key guiding principles of the global HIV response (especially in low- and middle-income countries) could have the potential to create the conditions for KPs to have their human rights fulfilled, and to expand their participation in the decision-making processes that guide the efforts against the epidemic. It will then propose a number of avenues for further engagement between different communities of practice in terms of research, agendas, and policy and practices that could be beneficial in maximizing the impact of the global efforts to end HIV/AIDS.

  2. On the dynamic effects of foreign aid on corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice Asongu

    2015-01-01

    We assemble more pieces on the puzzle of the aid-corruption nexus. In essence, we extend the debate on the effect of foreign aid on corruption by providing evidence on dynamic effects of wealth, legal origin, religious-domination, regional proximity, openness to sea, natural resources and politico-economic stability. The empirical evidence from dynamic panel GMM estimation is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. The findings show that the positive effect of foreign aid on c...

  3. A Comparison of the Diabetes Risk Score in HIV/AIDS Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART and HAART-Naïve Patients at the Limbe Regional Hospital, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Akem Dimala

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been associated with dysglycaemia. However, there is scarce data on the risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM in HIV/AIDS patients in Africa.Primarily to quantify and compare the risk of having diabetes mellitus in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to determine if there is an association between HAART and increased DM risk.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and gender to 100 HAART-naïve patients. The Diabetes Risk Score (DRS was calculated using a clinically validated model based on routinely recorded primary care parameters. A DRS ≥ 7% was considered as indicative of an increased risk of developing DM.The median DRS was significantly higher in patients on HAART (2.30% than in HAART-naïve patients (1.62%, p = 0.002. The prevalence of the increased DM risk (DRS ≥ 7% was significantly higher in patients on HAART, 31% (95% CI: 22.13-41.03 than in HAART-naïve patients, 17% (95% CI: 10.23-25.82, p = 0.020. HAART was significantly associated with an increased DM risk, the odds ratio of the HAART group compared to the HAART-naïve group was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.12-4.30, p = 0.020. However, no association was found after adjusting for BMI-defined overweight, hypertension, age, sex, family history of DM and smoking (Odds ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.42-3.59, p = 0.708. Higher BMI and hypertension accounted for the increased risk of DM in patients on HAART. Also, more than 82% of the participants were receiving or had ever used Zidovudine based HAART regimens.HIV/AIDS patients on HAART could be at a greater risk of having DM than HAART-naïve patients as a result of the effect of HAART on risk factors of DM such as BMI and blood pressure.

  4. Why are Virgin Adolescents Worried about Contracting HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In addition, the inclusion of data from different sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa (East, West, and South) in different stages of the HIV/AIDS is likely to increase our understanding both of adolescents' risk for HIV/AIDS, STDs, and unintended pregnancy and of how they manage the multiple risks they face in various contexts.

  5. HIV / AIDS and the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K

    1999-01-01

    Employing approximately 1.5 million employees and comprised of 80,000 employers, the retail and wholesale sector accounted for 16.1% of South Africa's gross domestic product in 1996. HIV/AIDS threatens the retail sector, but it is unclear whether the pandemic threatens equally every sub-sector of the industry. The 4 main sub-sectors are fast-moving consumer goods; clothing, footwear, and textiles; vehicles; and furniture and major appliances. The nature of retail infrastructure and competitive and economic trends are described. Over the next decade, AIDS may reduce the size of consumer markets through increased mortality, and will certainly slow growth in spending. The pandemic may also divert spending away from retail merchandise to health care, and threaten businesses which extend credit and offer death benefits and funeral policies to clients. AIDS morbidity and mortality could also disrupt supply chains, especially for retailers who buy their products locally. The vulnerability of retail activities is discussed, with reference to the Living Standards Measure (LSM) developed by the South African Advertising Research Foundation.

  6. Europe?s Shifting Response to HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a history of championing HIV/AIDS as a human rights issue, and a rhetorical commitment to health as a human right, European states and institutions have shifted from a rights-based response to a risk management approach to HIV/AIDS since the economic recession of 2008. An interdisciplinary perspective is applied to analyze health policy changes at the national, regional, and global levels by drawing on data from key informant interviews, and institutional and civil society do...

  7. How much do parents know about first aid for burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M; Maguire, S; Okolie, C; Watkins, W; Kemp, A M

    2013-09-01

    Prompt first aid reduces burn morbidity. With an estimated 19,000 children attending emergency departments (ED) with a burn or scald every year in the UK, a parent's knowledge of first aid is particularly important. This study evaluates the extent and source of this knowledge. Parents attending the emergency and antenatal departments of a University Hospital answered a structured questionnaire detailing demographics, knowledge of burns first aid and its source. Knowledge was stratified into 4 categories: contraindicated, poor, inadequate and adequate. Individual chi-squared tests and ordered logistic regressions were performed to relate knowledge to demographic features. The 106 respondents (44% men) reflected a wide range of socio-economic (SE) grouping and educational level. Overall 32% had an adequate knowledge of burns first aid while 43% had poor or no knowledge. There was no significant correlation between gender, educational status or age and knowledge; however those from higher SE groups (pfirst aid training (pfirst aid training, 74% had adequate knowledge. The logistic regression accounting for all significant variables showed that previous first aid training was the most influential factor in knowledge of first aid (pfirst-aid knowledge. Overall, the knowledge of burns first aid among parents is inadequate and correlates with lower SE groups. There was a significant association between knowledge and previous first aid training. Results suggest that targeting burns first aid training to all new parents, particularly those in low income households, would be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Framing rights and responsibilities: accounts of women with a history of AIDS activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Hayley; Mills, Elizabeth

    2011-12-16

    In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have also been considerable advances since 1994 towards legal enshrinement of sexual and reproductive health rights and in the provision of related services. Since HIV in this setting has heavily affected women of reproductive age, there has been discussion about the particular needs of this subgroup, especially in the context of service integration. This paper is concerned with the way in which HIV positive women conceptualise these rights and whether they wish and are able to actualise them in their daily lives. In 2003 a group of women involved with the Treatment Action Campaign and Medicines Sans Frontières participated in an initiative to 'map' their bodies as affected by the virus. A book containing the maps and narratives was published and used as a political tool to pressure the government of the day to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the population. In 2008, the authors coordinated an initiative that involved conducting follow-up in-depth interviews in which five of these women reflected on those body maps and on how their lives had changed in the intervening five years since gaining the right to treatment through the public sector. Drawing upon this qualitative data and published sources, these new accounts are analysed in order to reflect the perspectives of these women living with chronic HIV with respect to their sexual relations and fertility desires. The paper reveals difficulties faced by these women in negotiating sexual relationships and disclosure of their HIV positive status. It focuses on how they perceive relative responsibilities in terms of taking preventative measures in sexual encounters. Women adopt tactics within a context characterised by various inequalities in order to 'make do', such as by remaining silent about their status

  9. Indonesian Local Government’s Accountability and Performance: The Isomorphism Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahyaruddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explore the accountability and performance of government agency in perspective of institutional theory. It analytically answer two research questions: Do institutional isomorphism exist in the implementation of performance measurement system and accountability in public sector organizations? (RQ1 and Do government agencies actually use performance measurement information to aid decision-making and help plan for future performance improvement? (RQ2. This study is a qualitative research to answer two research question proposed with use semi-stuctured and open interview from SKPD officers in the local government of Yogyakarta Province. The results of interview were analyzed use thematic content analysis. Our finding show that three form of institutional isomorphism (coersive, mimetic and normative were existed in the implementation of performance measurement system and accountability in public sector organizations. This result also show an interesting finding in government agency that performance information who reported in LAKIP was only a formality. The information content in LAKIP is not used as feedback to aid decision-making and plan for future performance improvement.

  10. Social accounting in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentiana Filipi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Social accounting is the process of communicating the social and environmental effects of organizations economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large. This research paper is focused on the concepts of social and environmental accounting, viewed as an important part of the Albanian policy preparation for European Union integration. Presently, however, the EU notion of corporate engagement and Social accounting is still a new concept in the region. The paper aims to reveal the Albanian reality, as a country with strong aspiration toward EU. For this purpose we have analysed the main initiatives and projects implemented in the region and in Albania aimed at developing corporate social responsibility (CSR. This paper examines the applicable and relevant paragraphs of the global financial reporting standards (IFRS. The relevant paragraphs for environmental accounting have been analyzed in relation to the environmental financial reporting. We believe that this research may serve as a starting point for further studies on this topic. This paper concludes that social and environmental reporting practices are increasing day by day in the region. In Albania the awareness of CSR and how it can be applied is still quite low, perceived mainly as an opportunity to adopt international standards and engage in environmental protection. Hence we believe that improvements in quality of environmental financial reporting are required.

  11. EDITORIAL IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON EDUCATION IN THE SUB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 609. EDITORIAL. IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON EDUCATION IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. HIV /AIDS mark a severe development crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Approximately 3.5 million new infections occurred in 2001, ...

  12. (Comvivendo com a Aids: perfil dos portadores de HIV/Aids na região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, 1989-2005 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.773 Living with aids: profile of hiv/aids patients in northwestern Paraná, 1989-2005 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i1.773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos 27 anos de epidemia da Aids, ocorreram mudanças cruciais nas tendências de transmissão do vírus HIV e no perfil epidemiológico da doença. Neste estudo foi analisado o perfil dos inscritos no Programa de Controle das DST/Aids de uma regional de saúde do Estado do Paraná, nos anos de 1989 a 2005. Os dados foram coletados do banco de dados regional do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação – SINANW, no Setor de Epidemiologia da 14ª Regional de Saúde. As variáveis estudadas foram: sexo, idade, ocupação e município de residência dos pacientes; forma de transmissão da doença, data do diagnóstico e de notificação do caso; e data de óbito. No período foram diagnosticados 241 casos de Aids na região, com concentração de 53% no município pólo, porém em seis municípios da região não ocorreu notificação nos 17 anos estudados, mas a ausência de casos pode indicar a ausência real de casos ou subnotificação ou exportação de casos. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente em homens, na faixa etária entre 25 e 49 anos, com transmissão pela via sexual; no período de 2001 a 2005, no entanto, observa-se o aumento do número de mulheres infectadas, com razão entre os sexos de 1,6 homens por mulher, e o incremento da transmissão heterossexual, acometendo indivíduos com ocupação do lar e autônomos. Foi encontrado número expressivo de caso com notificação epidemiológica na data do diagnóstico de doenças decorrentes da Aids ou nos dias subsequentes, sugerindo identificação tardia da doença e indivíduos diagnosticados já na fase terminal da doença.Living with aids: profile of hiv/aids patients in northwestern Paraná, 1989-2005. Over the last 27 years of the AIDS epidemic, crucial changes have taken place in the trends of HIV transmission and in the disease’s epidemiological profile. This study analyzed the profiles of people enrolled in the STD/AIDS Control Program of a regional health

  13. GUIDANCE2: accurate detection of unreliable alignment regions accounting for the uncertainty of multiple parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Itamar; Ashkenazy, Haim; Katoh, Kazutaka; Pupko, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Inference of multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) is a critical part of phylogenetic and comparative genomics studies. However, from the same set of sequences different MSAs are often inferred, depending on the methodologies used and the assumed parameters. Much effort has recently been devoted to improving the ability to identify unreliable alignment regions. Detecting such unreliable regions was previously shown to be important for downstream analyses relying on MSAs, such as the detection of positive selection. Here we developed GUIDANCE2, a new integrative methodology that accounts for: (i) uncertainty in the process of indel formation, (ii) uncertainty in the assumed guide tree and (iii) co-optimal solutions in the pairwise alignments, used as building blocks in progressive alignment algorithms. We compared GUIDANCE2 with seven methodologies to detect unreliable MSA regions using extensive simulations and empirical benchmarks. We show that GUIDANCE2 outperforms all previously developed methodologies. Furthermore, GUIDANCE2 also provides a set of alternative MSAs which can be useful for downstream analyses. The novel algorithm is implemented as a web-server, available at: http://guidance.tau.ac.il. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. The Effect of Used Information Technology, Internal Control, and Regional Accounting System on the Performance of City Governance Agency of Banda Aceh City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Djalil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of utilization of information technology, internal control system, and regional financial accounting system on the performance of city government agencies in Banda Aceh city government, Indonesia.The population of the research is 39 city government agencies (SKPK of Banda Aceh and by using the simple random sampling technique, it is selected 28 agencies within city government as a sample and employed 84 persons as respondents. The primary data of this research arecollected by using questionnaire and analyzed by using the multiple regression regresion method with a SPSS application software.The result shows that perceived by simultaneously statistical test indicated that the utilization of information technology, internal control system and implementation of regionalfinancial accounting system have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agency. Similarly, tested partially, utilization of information technology, internalcontrol system, and implementation of the regional financial accounting system also have a significant positive effect on the performance of city government agencies in the city government of Banda Aceh, Indonesia.Keywords: Information Technology, Internal Control System, Regional Financial Accounting System, and Performance of City Governance.

  15. Low-level and narm radioactive wastes. Model documentation: accounting model for PRESTO-EPA-POP, PRESTO-EPA-DEEP, and PRESTO-EPA-BRC. Methodology and users manual. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.; Hung, C.

    1987-12-01

    The accounting model was used as a utility model for assessing the cumulative health effects to the general population residing in the downstream regional water basin as a result of the disposal of LLW when a unit response analysis method is used. The utility model is specifically designed to assess the cumulative population health effects in conjunction with the PRESTO-EPA-POP, PRESTO-EPA-BRC, or PRESTO-EPA-DEEP model simply for the purpose of reducing the cost of analysis. Therefore, the assessment of the cumulative population health effects may also be conducted with one of the above appropriate models without the aid of this accounting model

  16. AID to overcome the limitations of genomic information by introducing somatic DNA alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Shinkura, Reiko

    2006-05-01

    The immune system has adopted somatic DNA alterations to overcome the limitations of the genomic information. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme to regulate class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and gene conversion (GC) of the immunoglobulin gene. AID is known to be required for DNA cleavage of S regions in CSR and V regions in SHM. However, its molecular mechanism is a focus of extensive debate. RNA editing hypothesis postulates that AID edits yet unknown mRNA, to generate specific endonucleases for CSR and SHM. By contrast, DNA deamination hypothesis assumes that AID deaminates cytosine in DNA, followed by DNA cleavage by base excision repair enzymes. We summarize the basic knowledge for molecular mechanisms for CSR and SHM and then discuss the importance of AID not only in the immune regulation but also in the genome instability.

  17. Differential programming of B cells in AID deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Hogenbirk

    Full Text Available The Aicda locus encodes the activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID and is highly expressed in germinal center (GC B cells to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM and class switch recombination (CSR of immunoglobulin (Ig genes. Besides these Ig specific activities in B cells, AID has been implicated in active DNA demethylation in non-B cell systems. We here determined a potential role of AID as an epigenetic eraser and transcriptional regulator in B cells. RNA-Seq on different B cell subsets revealed that Aicda(-/- B cells are developmentally affected. However as shown by RNA-Seq, MethylCap-Seq, and SNP analysis these transcriptome alterations may not relate to AID, but alternatively to a CBA mouse strain derived region around the targeted Aicda locus. These unexpected confounding parameters provide alternative, AID-independent interpretations on genotype-phenotype correlations previously reported in numerous studies on AID using the Aicda(-/- mouse strain.

  18. Spatiotemporal Analysis of AIDS Incidence Among Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2016-01-01

    AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis. The proposed statistical model allows obtaining a standardized incidence ratio (SIR, adjusted by gender and age). Among the men, our results show higher incidence rates in the States of the Southern regions as well as in the state of Amazonas (Northern Brazil). In females, we found other patterns for SIR, with higher incidence rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region), Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (both in Southern region). Among men it was observed as an expressive association between the SIR values and the overall HDI and income and education components, but it was observed to have an inverse association with the life expectancy component. Among women, it is noted that the SIR values are associated with the overall HDI and the education components only at the beginning of the studied period. AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happened because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.

  19. DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits AID-induced antibody gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J L Cook

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Affinity maturation and class switching of antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-dependent hypermutation of Ig V(DJ rearrangements and Ig S regions, respectively, in activated B cells. AID deaminates deoxycytidine bases in Ig genes, converting them into deoxyuridines. In V(DJ regions, subsequent excision of the deaminated bases by uracil-DNA glycosylase, or by mismatch repair, leads to further point mutation or gene conversion, depending on the species. In Ig S regions, nicking at the abasic sites produced by AID and uracil-DNA glycosylases results in staggered double-strand breaks, whose repair by nonhomologous end joining mediates Ig class switching. We have tested whether nonhomologous end joining also plays a role in V(DJ hypermutation using chicken DT40 cells deficient for Ku70 or the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs. Inactivation of the Ku70 or DNA-PKcs genes in DT40 cells elevated the rate of AID-induced gene conversion as much as 5-fold. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs-deficiency appeared to reduce point mutation. The data provide strong evidence that double-strand DNA ends capable of recruiting the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex are important intermediates in Ig V gene conversion.

  20. AIDS in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  1. The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Malawi: cultural and gender perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first step towards behaviour change lies in whether or not people accept that the illness they ... account the issues of culture and gender. The problem I ..... transmission, see J.C. Chakanza, "HIV/AIDS and Culture in Malawi," The. Lamp, 43 ...

  2. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  3. Adhesive Bonding to Computer-aided Design/ Computer-aided Manufacturing Esthetic Dental Materials: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mohamed Moustafa; Alqahtani, H; Al-Mudahi, A; Murayshed, M S; Alrahlah, A; Bhandi, Shilpa H

    2017-07-01

    To review the adhesive bonding to different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) esthetic restorative materials. The use of CAD/CAM esthetic restorative materials has gained popularity in recent years. Several CAD/ CAM esthetic restorative materials are commercially available. Adhesive bonding is a major determinant of success of CAD/ CAM restorations. Review result: An account of the currently available bonding strategies are discussed with their rationale in various CAD/ CAM materials. Different surface treatment methods as well as adhesion promoters can be used to achieve reliable bonding of CAD/CAM restorative materials. Selection of bonding strategy to such material is determined based on its composition. Further evidence is required to evaluate the effect of new surface treatment methods, such as nonthermal atmospheric plasma and self-etching ceramic primer on bonding to different dental ceramics. An understanding of the currently available bonding strategies to CA/CAM materials can help the clinician to select the most indicated system for each category of materials.

  4. Aid and AIDS: a delicate cocktail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.

    2008-01-01

    Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.

  5. AIDS and African smallholder agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutangadura, G

    1998-09-01

    During the Responding to HIV/AIDS: Technology Development Needs for African Smallholder Agriculture Conference in Harare, about 70 delegates participated from government and nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, agricultural research, and regional and international organizations. The aims of the conference were to analyze the impact of HIV/AIDS on smallholder agriculture; identify the necessary technologies, policy, and institutional responses; and propose frameworks for future activities. The conference participants noted that the onset of HIV/AIDS has changed the African rural environment in which existing policy and programs on agriculture have been operating. In view of this, recommendations on technology and development and policy to mitigate the impact of the epidemic were highlighted; namely, promote existing labor and capital saving technologies; review existing agricultural extension; develop appropriate technologies to reduce the time spent on water and fuel collection; develop income-generating activities; strengthen existing community-based initiatives; and redefine the criteria for land tenure and ownership. Moreover, collaboration between development organizations and applied research were also emphasized.

  6. The Impact of Quality Assurance Initiatives and Workplace Policies and Procedures on HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Experienced by Patients and Nurses in Regions with High Prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G; Pietrosanu, Matthew; Edwards, Nancy

    2018-02-23

    Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya). This is one of the first studies in LMIC countries to use hierarchical linear modeling to examine the contributions of organizational and individual factors to HIV/AIDS stigma. Based on our results, we argue that organizational interventions explicitly targeting HIV/AIDS stigma are required to reduce the incidence, prevalence and morbidity of HIV/AIDS.

  7. [Population, development and AIDS "that is all we needed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoga, L N

    1990-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been undergoing a devastating economic recession forcing the need for structural adjustment programs (SAP's) to correct many of the economic imbalances, but the effects of SAP's have been to destroy rather than to adjust, making the situation worse than ever. Budgets for social welfare expenditures have been depleted and entire families cannot plan a day ahead. The last thing SSA needed was AIDS to add to the region's poverty and misery. The transmission of AIDS has been facilitated by 2 movements: 1) urbanization and 2) spatial migration from the rural areas to the urban. Some other routes that facilitate the transmission of AIDS in SSA are: 1) returning migrants or people with long-term jobs from countries such as Burkina Faso returning to the Ivory Coast; 2) the truck drivers on the highways; 3) prostitution such as in the Ivory Coast with the rich coffee or cocoa planters; 4) multiple sex partners; 5) wars of liberation such as in Angola; and 6) vertical transmission between mother and child. The SAP's have further increased the transmission of AIDS because of the poverty of the region. For example, some of the immediate effects of SAP's have been intensification of migration for economic reasons, destruction of the traditional family and the growth of urban prostitution. Demographic effects of AIDS has been the increase in mortality. It is important that future surveys on AIDS in SSA should be the responsibility of African researchers to ensure that they do not also become "prophets of apocalypse" as have many researchers from the West. These African led surveys and outcomes should become the basis of an AIDS IEC program.

  8. Does HIV/AIDS matter for economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis; Skovsgaard, Christian; Lesner, Tine

    Estimating the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on economic growth is challenging because of endogeneity concerns. In this paper, we use novel data on male circumcision and distance from the first HIV outbreak as instrumental variables for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 241 regions across 25 countries in sub......-Saharan Africa during 2003–12. Our main finding shows that the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on economic growth is negative but statistically insignificant. Further investigation on the main channels through which HIV/AIDS may affect economic growth—namely human capital, population growth, and productivity......—finds no impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on these channels....

  9. Role of a national system of accounting and control of nuclear material under ABACC's (Brazilian-Argentine Agency) regional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, Sonia; Estrada Oyuela, Miguel E.

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian-Argentine Agency (ABACC) and the 'Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials' (SCCC) are the result of a process started with nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil. The SCCC reflects a common policy of transparency established by a Bilateral Agreement. Its insertion in the global context was made through a Quadripartite Agreement (Argentina, Brazil, ABBAC, IAEA). This paper describes the role of the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) in the framework established in the Bilateral and the Quadripartite Safeguards Agreements and in the context of new trends and perspectives in international safeguards. It could also serve as a example for initiatives in other regions. (author)

  10. Transcription factor YY1 can control AID-mediated mutagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprazna, Kristina; Basu, Arindam; Tom, Nikola; Jha, Vibha; Hodawadekar, Suchita; Radova, Lenka; Malcikova, Jitka; Tichy, Boris; Pospisilova, Sarka; Atchison, Michael L

    2018-02-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deminase (AID) is crucial for controlling the immunoglobulin (Ig) diversification processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). AID initiates these processes by deamination of cytosine, ultimately resulting in mutations or double strand DNA breaks needed for SHM and CSR. Levels of AID control mutation rates, and off-target non-Ig gene mutations can contribute to lymphomagenesis. Therefore, factors that control AID levels in the nucleus can regulate SHM and CSR, and may contribute to disease. We previously showed that transcription factor YY1 can regulate the level of AID in the nucleus and Ig CSR. Therefore, we hypothesized that conditional knock-out of YY1 would lead to reduction in AID localization at the Ig locus, and reduced AID-mediated mutations. Using mice that overexpress AID (IgκAID yy1 f/f ) or that express normal AID levels (yy1 f/f ), we found that conditional knock-out of YY1 results in reduced AID nuclear levels, reduced localization of AID to the Sμ switch region, and reduced AID-mediated mutations. We find that the mechanism of YY1 control of AID nuclear accumulation is likely due to YY1-AID physical interaction which blocks AID ubiquitination. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [The application of National AIDS spending assessment in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiang-ping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhong-dan; Yuan, Jian-hua; Li, Tao; Duan, Song; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Michael, Sante; Ye, Run-hua; Xiang, Li-fen; Yang, Yue-cheng; Ren, Da

    2012-11-01

    To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010. Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December, 2011, and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units. Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis. The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of ¥16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010. Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure (¥15 630 937), followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% (¥484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% (¥120 432). Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas, and expenditure on Care & Treatment was ¥12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure), followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% (¥2 325 707), Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% (¥1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% (¥240 342). The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure. (¥13 753 428), followed by 4.8% for high risk population, including female sex workers and their partners (¥297 333), injection drug users and their partners (¥293 143), men having sex with men and their partners (¥185 136) and 1.5% (¥241 429) for the general population. The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient. The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding. Care and treatment was the first spending priority in the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be increased. Prevention and treatment and care should be combined to ensure the effectiveness of

  12. Skew-t partially linear mixed-effects models for AIDS clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We propose partially linear mixed-effects models with asymmetry and missingness to investigate the relationship between two biomarkers in clinical studies. The proposed models take into account irregular time effects commonly observed in clinical studies under a semiparametric model framework. In addition, commonly assumed symmetric distributions for model errors are substituted by asymmetric distribution to account for skewness. Further, informative missing data mechanism is accounted for. A Bayesian approach is developed to perform parameter estimation simultaneously. The proposed model and method are applied to an AIDS dataset and comparisons with alternative models are performed.

  13. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  14. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  15. Management tools used by providers of accounting services in small and medium enterprises of João Pessoa Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Queiroz Henriques Coutinho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Management Accounting has several tools that can provide administrative support to the entities in the decision-making process. Therefore, this study aimed to make a survey on the use of these tools by the companies providing accounting services responsible for accounting of Small and Medium Enterprises located in the metropolitan area of João Pessoa. The method used was the bibliographical and descriptive. In order to obtain the information needed to perform the study, semi-structured questionnaire was used, with closed and open questions, applied to the leaders of 31 accounting companies from an universe of 135 registered and active in Paraíba Accounting Regional Council in 2013. The knowledge and application of the management tools by the office was verified - the results indicate that accountants know most of the tools, but they do not apply these tools in their clients in the same proportion. This scenario was partially justified when they answered during the survey that the Implantation Phase is considered the most difficult to apply the tools in their clients. Among the management tools, Cash Flow and the Strategic Planning were the most cited about knowledge and applicability, on the other hand, the PROCEM certificate and Downsizing were the least mentioned.

  16. Enhancing the Understanding of Government and Nonprofit Accounting with THE PUZZLE GAME: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…

  17. The Passing-on Defence Catapulted Out of State Aid Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The annotated judgment concerns the aftermath of a differentiated taxation on travelling. The General Court partially annulled the Commission’s decision and found that the recovery of the aid should be limited to the advantage actually retained by the airlines, taking into account the competitive...

  18. Computer-aided dental prostheses construction using reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, E; Minguez, R; Barrenetxea, L; Sierra, E; Etxaniz, O

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems with virtual articulators, which take into account the kinematics, constitutes a breakthrough in the construction of customised dental prostheses. This paper presents a multidisciplinary protocol involving CAM techniques to produce dental prostheses. This protocol includes a step-by-step procedure using innovative reverse engineering technologies to transform completely virtual design processes into customised prostheses. A special emphasis is placed on a novel method that permits a virtual location of the models. The complete workflow includes the optical scanning of the patient, the use of reverse engineering software and, if necessary, the use of rapid prototyping to produce CAD temporary prostheses.

  19. Computer-Aided Detection of Kidney Tumor on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Park, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a computer-aided detection system for kidney segmentation and kidney tumor detection on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods: Abdominal CT images were digitized with a film digitizer, and a gray-level threshold method was used to segment the kidney. Based on texture analysis performed on sample images of kidney tumors, a portion of the kidney tumor was selected as seed region for start point of the region-growing process. The average and standard deviations were used to detect the kidney tumor. Starting at the detected seed region, the region-growing method was used to segment the kidney tumor with intensity values used as an acceptance criterion for a homogeneous test. This test was performed to merge the neighboring region as kidney tumor boundary. These methods were applied on 156 transverse images of 12 cases of kidney tumors scanned using a G.E. Hispeed CT scanner and digitized with a Lumisys LS-40 film digitizer. Results: The computer-aided detection system resulted in a kidney tumor detection sensitivity of 85% and no false-positive findings. Conclusion: This computer-aided detection scheme was useful for kidney tumor detection and gave the characteristics of detected kidney tumors

  20. Framing rights and responsibilities: accounts of women with a history of AIDS activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacGregor Hayley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have also been considerable advances since 1994 towards legal enshrinement of sexual and reproductive health rights and in the provision of related services. Since HIV in this setting has heavily affected women of reproductive age, there has been discussion about the particular needs of this subgroup, especially in the context of service integration. This paper is concerned with the way in which HIV positive women conceptualise these rights and whether they wish and are able to actualise them in their daily lives. Methods In 2003 a group of women involved with the Treatment Action Campaign and Medicines Sans Frontières participated in an initiative to ‘map’ their bodies as affected by the virus. A book containing the maps and narratives was published and used as a political tool to pressure the government of the day to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART to the population. In 2008, the authors coordinated an initiative that involved conducting follow-up in-depth interviews in which five of these women reflected on those body maps and on how their lives had changed in the intervening five years since gaining the right to treatment through the public sector. Results Drawing upon this qualitative data and published sources, these new accounts are analysed in order to reflect the perspectives of these women living with chronic HIV with respect to their sexual relations and fertility desires. The paper reveals difficulties faced by these women in negotiating sexual relationships and disclosure of their HIV positive status. It focuses on how they perceive relative responsibilities in terms of taking preventative measures in sexual encounters. Women adopt tactics within a context characterised by various inequalities in order to

  1. Aid performance and its determinants. A comparison of Italy with the OECD norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bertoli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available this paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the determinants of aid effort by donor countries, a topic that has been rather under researched in the vast economic literature on development aid. We conduct an econometric analysis on panel data that refer to the 22 member countries of the OECD Development Assistance Committee over the 1970 2004 period; the estimates are then used as a benchmark against which we assess to what extent the poor Italian aid performance can be traced back to its specific macroeconomic, structural and institutional characteristics. The analysis suggests that these factors – that are found to significantly influence aid effort – fall short of explaining the limited amount of fiscal resources that Italy devotes to international aid. Even when its specific characteristics are accounted for, Italy is found to be lagging behind the OECD norm, so that the analysis challenges the claims that the limited Italian aid effort is due to binding fiscal constraints.

  2. Practical Problems of Giving Opinions by Regional Chambers of Accounting on the Possibility of Repayment of Obligations in Local Government Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opinions of the regional accounting chambers on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities by local government units have some specific features compared with the other opinions concerning the financial management of the local government. Firstly, they are only issued at the request of the unit that they concerned. Secondly, for the reason they relate to public debt issues, to some extent their content may be similar or “partial reproduction” of the standpoint of the regional chamber of accounting within already issued opinions referring to acts on budgetary planning process in local government units. The purpose of this article is to assess the legitimacy of issuing such opinions and to identify the relationship between the ordinances (resolutions on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities and provisions of local government budget.

  3. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    to a natural economic null hypothesis. Our study identifies three reasons for econometrically unsatisfactory results in the literature: failure to adequately account for unit roots and breaks; imposing seemingly innocuous but invalid data transformations; and imposing aid endogeneity/exogeneity without testing....

  4. Vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly in an urban center in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Driemeier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As the world population ages with an improved quality of life and sexual longevity, the prevalence of AIDS is rising among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability to AIDS among individuals attending senior community centers in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHOD: This descriptive, exploratory investigation included 329 subjects selected in a probabilistic manner. Individuals with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination indicating cognitive impairment were excluded from the analyses. Barthel's and Lawton's functional assessment scales were applied. Interviews were conducted to evaluate the presence of cognitive and behavioral factors associated with HIV transmission. RESULTS: Most subjects were non-dependent, fell within the 60- to 69-year age bracket and were female. A majority of individuals reported having knowledge about AIDS and were aware that the elderly are vulnerable to the disease. More than a quarter (26.9% of the sample reported previous HIV testing. No participants reported drug use, homosexual orientation, or alcohol abuse. A minority of participants reported using medication for erectile dysfunction. Casual and multiple partners accounted for 12% and 34% of reported intercourse experiences, respectively. Condom use was reported by 14% of respondents. CONCLUSION: Unprotected sex was the primary factor accounting for vulnerability to AIDS among the elderly.

  5. The "first digit law" - A hypothesis on its possible impact on medicine and development aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollach, Gregor; Brunkhorst, Frank; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Namboya, Felix; Mndolo, Samson; Luiz, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log 10 (d+1)-log 10 (d)=log 10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data. Whether you plan the catchment area for the future district hospitals, the number of health posts, the staff establishment for the central hospital or the drug budget in the Ministry. The "first digit law" can be used in medicine, public health, physiology and development aid to unmask questionable data, to discover unexpected challenges, difficulties in the data collection process, loss through corruption and criminal fraud. Our hypothesis suggests, that the "first digit law" is a cost effective tool, which is easy to use for most people in the medical profession, which does not really needs complicated statistical software and can be used on the spot, even in the resource restricted conditions of developing countries. Several preconditions (like the size of the data set and its reach over more than two dimensions) have to be fulfilled, but then Benfords law can be used by any clinician, physiologist, public health specialist or aid consultant without difficulties and without deeper statistical knowledge in the four steps, we suggest in this article. The consequences will be different depending on the level (local regional, national, continental, international) on which you will use the law. All levels will be enabled to get insight into the validity of the data-challenges for the other levels without the help of trained statisticians or accountants. We believe that the "first digit law" is a

  6. New AICPA standards aid accounting for the costs of internal-use software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, R W; Meeting, D T; Klingshirn, R G

    1999-05-01

    Statement of Position (SOP) No. 98-1, "Accounting for the Costs of Computer Software Developed or Obtained for Internal Use," issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in March 1998, provides financial managers with guidelines regarding which costs involved in developing or obtaining internal-use software should be expensed and which should be capitalized. The SOP identifies three stages in the development of internal-use software: the preliminary project stage, the application development stage, and the postimplementation-operation stage. The SOP provides that all costs incurred during the preliminary project stage should be expensed as incurred. During the application development stage, costs associated with developing or obtaining the software should be capitalized, while costs associated with preparing data for use within the new system should be expensed. Costs incurred during the postimplementation-operation stage, typically associated with training and application maintenance, should be expensed.

  7. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  8. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  9. Imaging findings of mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenopathy in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Yuan Chunwang; Zhang Lijie; Jin Erhu; Ma Daqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate X-ray, CT and MRI features of mediastinal tuberculosis in AIDS. Methods: Images (including X-ray; CT and MRI) of 9 patients with AIDS associated hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis were analysed retrospectively. All the cases were performed with chest X-ray and CT scan, of which 5 with enhanced CT scan and 1 with MRI. Results: In the hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis complicated by AIDS, the enlarged lymph nodes were mostly located in region 7 (100%, 9/9), 77.8% cases (7/9) were in 4R and 55.6% (5/9) were in 2R. Conclusion: The imaging findings of hilar and mediastinal lymphonode tuberculosis in AIDS is characterized by the enlarged lymphnodes that can fuse together and encroach on the tissues outside the lymph nodes. CT and MRI scans are extraordinarily helpful to the diagnosis of such diseases. (authors)

  10. Computer in radiology: Physicians memorandum and administration of medical practice aided by COMRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.

    1983-01-01

    One year after introduction of the COMRAD EDP system of text processing to the radiological practice of the author, the advantages resulting for the physician and medical staff as well as for the transferring physician and their patients are presented and the econimic efficiency is determined. The high capacity of COMRAD including the automatic text processing for a complete computer aided administration of medical practice and the accounting department, is based on the advanced technological development of microelectronics and combined with a user specific software. The hardware equipment enables multiprogram processing, data processing in on-line operation as well as short access-time of stored data, due to the rapid tracertechnology of the computer. The software equipment, with text processing and a medical practice administration system, permits the regular workload to be handled efficiently and reliable. The main issue is text processing using a text rail. An integrated part of the result output is the performance capacity enabling automatic settlement of accounts with health insurance agencies and privatly insured patients. Statistical evaluation, for instance the daily performance efficiency of the practice can be recalled any time. An accounting system accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll and general accounting supplements the software package enabling a computer aided handling of all administrative tasks required in a radiological practice. (orig.)

  11. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  12. AIDS e doenças oportunistas transmissíveis na faixa de fronteira Brasileira AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior

    2010-10-01

    AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area. METHODS: Brazilian border area municipalities were grouped into three cultural regions; the source data was AIDS cases registered with the Ministry of Health from 1990 to 2003, which were classified according to CDC-adapted, Rio de Janeiro/Caracas and death criteria; detected communicable opportunistic diseases were categorized into groups according to transmission: 1 inhalation agent; 2 contaminated water and/or food ingestion, and 3 interpersonal contact. The descriptive evaluation considered cultural region, years of schooling, sex and age group. RESULTS: Different AIDS incidence patterns were observed among groups of opportunistic diseases in each cultural region. The extreme southern region showed the greatest incidence of AIDS; the absolute incidence of female cases was greatest in the category of heterosexual transmission; the number of male cases was greatest among intravenous drug users; transmission was most frequent in the interpersonal contact group, particularly incidences of candidiasis; tuberculoses and pneumonias were most frequent in the inhalation agent transmission group; the contaminated water/food ingestion transmission group showed an unchanged pattern of absolute incidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian border area is a very important and heterogeneous geographic phenomenon; AIDS programs must recognize different cultural geographies.

  13. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  14. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...

  15. A epidemia de aids no Estado de São Paulo: uma aplicação do modelo espaço-temporal bayesiano completo The aids epidemic in the State of São Paulo: application of the full Bayesian space-time model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ruscitto do Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de São Paulo, por compreender aproximadamente 40% dos casos de aids notificados no Brasil, oferece uma situação propícia para análise espaço-temporal, visando melhor compreensão da disseminação do HIV/aids. Utilizando os casos de aids notificados ao Ministério da Saúde nos anos de 1990 a 2004 para pessoas com idade igual ou superior a 15 anos, tendo como fonte de informação o Sistema de Informação de Agravos e Notificação, Ministério da Saúde, foram estimados os riscos relativos de aids segundo sexo para períodos de 3 anos utilizando modelos bayesianos completos. Os modelos utilizados se mostraram adequados para explicar o processo de disseminação da aids no Estado de São Paulo e evidenciam os processos de feminização e interiorização da doença, além de sugerir que os municípios atualmente mais atingidos se encontram em regiões de pólos de crescimento econômico e possuem população inferior a 50.000 habitantes.The State of São Paulo accounts for approximately 40% of the AIDS cases notified in Brazil and provides a suitable opportunity for space-time analysis aimed at better understanding of the dissemination of HIV/AIDS. Using the AIDS cases notified to the Ministry of Health between 1990 and 2004, among individuals aged 15 years or over, and the Ministry of Health's information system for disease notification (Sistema de Informação de Agravos e Notificação, SINAN as the information source, the relative risks of AIDS over three-year periods were estimated using full Bayesian models, for each gender. The models used were shown to be adequate for explaining the process of AIDS dissemination in the State of São Paulo and demonstrated the growth among females and in small-sized municipalities. They also suggested that the municipalities currently most affected are in regions of economic growth and have populations of less than 50,000 inhabitants.

  16. Estudo comparativo do LCR de pacientes com neurocriptococose sem AIDS e com AIDS Comparison between CSF samples from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista dos Reis-Filho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Até a década de 80, antes do surgimento da AIDS, a criptococose era relativamente rara. Verificou-se que esta doença afeta muito frequentemente os pacientes com AIDS e pode ser a primeira manifestação desta síndrome. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de comparar o resultado dos exames das amostras do LCR inicial na meningencefalite por criptococo entre pacientes com e sem AIDS. Este trabalho é baseado no estudo de 41 pacientes com neurocriptococose sem AIDS e de 23 pacientes com neurocriptococose e AIDS. Este estudo permitiu verificar que a reação inflamatória, no sistema nervoso, quando presente, foi de menor intensidade nos pacientes com AIDS; a reação inflamatória esteve presente em todos os pacientes sem AIDS e ausente em 21,7% dos pacientes com AIDS; o quadro inflamatório crônico, semelhante ao da meningencefalite tuberculosa, clássico nas meningencefalites por criptococo, ocorreu raramente nos pacientes com AIDS; em média, o número de criptococos no LCR foi maior nos pacientes com AIDS; pode ser feito diagnóstico presuntivo da AIDS quando o criptococo estiver presente no LCR que não apresenta alterações citológicas e bioquímicas.Neurocryptococcosis was a rare nervous system infection. With the rising number of patients with AIDS it became a very frequent disease. This infection is supposed to infect patients with some kind of immunodeficiency and the CSF alterations often simulate tuberculous meningitis. The purpose of this research was to compare the CSF changes in AIDS and non-AIDS patients with meningoencephalitis caused by Cr. neoformans. There were analysed 41 CSF samples from non-AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis and 23 CSF samples from AIDS patients with neurocryptococcosis. The results of this research allowed to conclude that the inflammatory changes in the CSF from AIDS patients showed a lower intensity compared to those non-AIDS patients. These results showed as well, that the CSF samples from non-AIDS

  17. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  18. Europe's Shifting Response to HIV/AIDS: From Human Rights to Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia

    2016-12-01

    Despite a history of championing HIV/AIDS as a human rights issue, and a rhetorical commitment to health as a human right, European states and institutions have shifted from a rights-based response to a risk management approach to HIV/AIDS since the economic recession of 2008. An interdisciplinary perspective is applied to analyze health policy changes at the national, regional, and global levels by drawing on data from key informant interviews, and institutional and civil society documents. It is demonstrated that, in the context of austerity measures, member states such as the UK and Greece reduced commitments to rights associated with HIV/AIDS; at the regional level, the EU failed to develop rights-based approaches to address the vulnerabilities and health care needs of key populations affected by HIV/AIDS, particularly migrants and sex workers; and at the global level, the EU backtracked on commitments to global health and is prioritizing the intellectual property rights of pharmaceutical companies over the human rights of people living with HIV/AIDS. The focus within and from the EU is on containment, efficiency, and cost reduction. The rights of those most affected are no longer prioritized.

  19. Q&A: A Conversation With David France - The HIV/AID Plague Years and Where We Stand Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Journalist David France's How to Survive A Plague is a searing firsthand account of the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in New York City. AIDS activists, most of them gay men, were fighting for their lives. Researchers, politicians, public health officials, and pharma were slow to respond-or resisted outright.

  20. Emotions and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: A Multilingual Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that in order to gain a more informed perspective on emotions and HIV/AIDS, crosslinguistic differences in emotion language need to be taken into account, particularly in a multilingual context. The paper reviews four published academic articles with the aim of illustrating how more consideration of the ...

  1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher L Hendrickson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human mitochondrial genome includes only 13 coding genes while nuclear-encoded genes account for 99% of proteins responsible for mitochondrial morphology, redox regulation, and energetics. Mitochondrial pathogenesis occurs in HIV patients and genetically, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with presumed functional differences have been associated with differential AIDS progression.Here we explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 904 of the estimated 1,500 genes that specify nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs influence AIDS progression among HIV-1 infected patients. We examined NEMPs for association with the rate of AIDS progression using genotypes generated by an Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array of 1,455 European American patients from five US AIDS cohorts. Successfully genotyped SNPs gave 50% or better haplotype coverage for 679 of known NEMP genes. With a Bonferroni adjustment for the number of genes and tests examined, multiple SNPs within two NEMP genes showed significant association with AIDS progression: acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 4 (ACSM4 on chromosome 12 and peroxisomal D3,D2-enoyl-CoA isomerase (PECI on chromosome 6.Our previous studies on mitochondrial DNA showed that European haplogroups with presumed functional differences were associated with AIDS progression and HAART mediated adverse events. The modest influences of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes found in the current study add support to the idea that mitochondrial function plays a role in AIDS pathogenesis.

  2. Media Accounts of School Performance: Reinforcing Dominant Practices of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutsis, Aspa

    2016-01-01

    Media reportage often act as interpretations of accountability policies thereby making the news media a part of the policy enactment process. Within such a process, their role is that of policy reinforcement rather than policy construction or contestation. This paper draws on the experiences of school leaders in regional Queensland, Australia, and…

  3. Comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and x-ray emission in a solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, B.M.; Bruner, M.E.; Hagyard, M.J.; Bonnet, R.M.; NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; ESA, Paris, France)

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft x-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region. 29 references

  4. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Treasury for collection when the debts are delinquent more than 120 days.9 Further, UBOs can transfer debt to the Defense Finance and Accounting ...Comptroller); • Defense Finance and Accounting Service; • MEDCOM; • RHCE; and • LRMC. During the site visits to LRMC and MEDCOM, we observed daily...Uniform Business Office Manual,” November 2006; and • MEDCOM Finance and Accounting Division Standard Operating Procedures Medical Services Account

  5. [Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joilson Santana; Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of conclusion, it reinforces the need for discussion of prevention encompassing the need to put on the agenda the construction of the sex/gender system around which to articulate the social meanings of masculinity and femininity that influence the structural plan of affective sexual relations in general and HIV/AIDS in particular.

  6. Foreign Aid versus Military Intervention in the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Thelen, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework and some empirical results showing that the level of foreign aid received reduces the supply of terrorist attacks from recipient countries, while U.S. military interventions are liable to increase this supply. Due account is taken of endogeneity problems in producing these results. They suggest that…

  7. Irregular Migration and Vulnerability to HIV&AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, ... Email: france.maphosa@mopipi.ub.bw, fmaphosa@hotmail.com ... Studies indicate that the epidemiology of HIV&AIDS is closely linked ... migration from the Matabeleland region of Zimbabwe to South Africa. ..... These networks facilitate.

  8. A matrix of social accounting for Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Argüelles

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Social Accounting Matrix is an integrated system of accounts that presents in a double-entry table all the transactions made in an economy among productive sectors, production factors, institutional sectors and the rest of the world. In comparison with an Input-Output Table, it offers a greater deal of information and shows completely the circular process of income, captivating more precisely the effects of exogenous changes. One of the main profits of a Social Accounting Matrix is to serve as a database for the development and application of a computable general equilibrium model. This is, in fact, the aim pursued with the elaboration of the Social Accounting Matrix for the Asturian economy presented here. This Matrix has been constructed with data from the 1995 Regional Accounts of Asturias, and its structure has been adapted to its future use as a database for a computable general equilibrium model of this regional economy.

  9. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, M.L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  10. Interpersonal relationships and HIV/AIDS stigma in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the implications of interpersonal relationships to HIV/AIDS stigma in Chinese society. The data were collected by 67 open-ended individual interviews. The study shows that HIV/AIDS stigma goes beyond fears about the risk of infection. Two interrelated themes, the social categorisation and bao, constitute the underlying principles in the structure of discourse. On the one hand, people with HIV/AIDS are typically represented as a deviant outgroup. They are believed to be retributed by the Heaven. However, the differentiation between ingroup and outgroup is not just simply based on HIV/AIDS infection. Instead, the boundary between the two is penetrable and is mediated by blood ties. One the other hand, the double-entendre of bao is called to play with respect to ingroup and outgroup. When a close kinship is taken into account, the belief of divine retribution fades out, and the belief of worldly reciprocation foregrounds. People with HIV/AIDS in this case straddle the very fine line between outgroup and ingroup. They are considered to be outgroup in the sense that HIV/AIDS as a virus/disease (a third party found in their body is contagious, and the physical boundary between “them” and “us” is therefore needed. Yet they are considered to be the part of ingroup, because either they are innocent, or they make use of the profit for righteousness. In both cases, they deserve to be reciprocally cared for by their family. The reciprocity hereby acts as an invisible binding force between the infected and the uninfected within a close kinship.

  11. AIDS Myths and Myths about AIDS Myths : A Study about AIDS-related Perceptions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sivelä, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have be...

  12. Rumor, gossip and blame: implications for HIV/AIDS prevention in the South African lowveld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Jonathan

    2003-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic provides fertile breeding ground for theories of the origin of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and the allocation of blame. Drawing on ethnographic research in the Bushbuckridge region of the South African lowveld, this article examines the articulation of AIDS through gossip and rumor. These oral forms create moral readings of behavior and shape folk discourses of AIDS that resist dominant epidemiological explanations. Significantly, constructions of AIDS are not uniform. Although elders claim AIDS as traditional and curable, younger men and women support theories of AIDS as a modern, foreign disease. Witchcraft beliefs are popular in explaining why certain people die and not others. At times, rumor may escalate into a moral panic. The implications of these findings for social responses to the AIDS epidemic and HIV/AIDS prevention are explored.

  13. [AIDS: the economy a victim of the epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-11

    A recent World Bank report on development prospects in sub-Saharan Africa over the next decade contained analyses based on projected rapid population growth which failed to take into account the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. Since 1960 the annual rate of population growth for the sub-Saharan African population has increased from 2.5%-3.23%. The number of inhabitants has doubled since 1965 and may double again to 1 million by the year 2010. The World Bank recommended classic and relatively inexpensive measures to meet the challenge of population growth. The governments concerned should devote .8% of their gross national products to family planning programs and manpower training. The spread of AIDS however is likely to reduce population growth. 2 specialists concluded for example that demographic growth in Uganda will decline from 3.25% to -2.4% annually by 2020, with average life expectancy declining from 52 to 24 years. The figures must be interpreted cautiously because their statistical basis is imprecise. World Health Organization figures published in June 1989 showed only 24,886 of the 157,191 reported cases of AIDS as occurring in Africa. But in urban zones of some parts of Africa from 20-30% of the sexually active population is estimated to be infected. Some experts predict that during the 1990s AIDS will kill 300,000-1.5 million Africans. The World Bank report scarcely mentions AIDS. Although AIDS has fewer victims than dysentery, malaria, or tuberculosis, its economic impact is greater because it strikes the working age population. Policies to control HIV infections and AIDS run the risk of reducing funds available for economic investment. Increasing expenditures on medical treatment and hospitalization in household as well as government budgets will be made to the detriment of other priorities. Policies to prevent AIDS must be put into place so that this economic disaster can be averted. Information and distribution of condoms have become longterm

  14. Initiatives for regional dialogue consideration of regional disarmament guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschik, R.

    1994-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security. The guidelines contain 52 principles on: relationship between regional disarmament, arm limitation and global security; general guidelines and recommendations for regional disarmament efforts; possible ways and means to assist and implement these efforts; possible role of the United Nations in aiding these efforts. Experiences gained in Europe and Near East are analysed in the framework of the situation in Northeast, South and Southeast Asia

  15. HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

  16. Defining Moments in MMWR History: The AIDS Epidemic, Pneumocystis Pneumonia --- Los Angeles 1981

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five previously healthy young gay men in Los Angeles, California. This report was later acknowledged as the first published account of what would become known as human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. It was the first of many MMWR reports that led to a better understanding of this new condition. In this podcast, Dr. Harold Jaffe recalls CDC's investigation and response to the AIDS Epidemic.

  17. CIDA funds AIDS counselling and care centre in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, S T

    1993-12-01

    In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving

  18. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  19. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  20. A Critical Review on HIV/AIDS and Wound Care | Weledji | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wound infections in AIDS patients increase discomfort, prolong hospital stay, render an additional burden upon an already debilitated patient and weaken the immune system further. Treatment must relate to the aetiology of the wound and take into account the patients underlying health problems. The treatment of wounds ...

  1. Does financial aid help or harm developing countries: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Hysa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Development aid is a financial aid given by governments, NGOs, global and regional unions, or private entities to support the development of developing countries, as a consequence also of Albania as one of them. Its main reason is decreasing poverty and encouraging development. Many literatures reveal evidences of the impact these financial aids have on the economic growth of a country. This paper creates a link between the research done and the practice by making a detailed description of the phenomena and making clear how the effects are derived. It further analyzes the economic development of Albania in terms of net income during the last 30 years, and the corresponding financial aid allocation for each year. Starting with the interpretation of the financial aid amount allocated each year; this research paper also extends the information regarding the fields of economy where this aid is invested. The descriptive statistics shows that financial aid has noticeably increased from year to year and its impact on the economy as well.

  2. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients.

  3. Causes of Death in HIV Patients and the Evolution of an AIDS Hospice: 1988–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ann; Chan Carusone, Soo; To, Kent; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Halman, Mark; Grimes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the transformation that has occurred in the care of people living with HIV/AIDS in a Toronto Hospice. Casey House opened in the pre-HAART era to care exclusively for people with HIV/AIDS, an incurable disease. At the time, all patients were admitted for palliative care and all deaths were due to AIDS-defining conditions. AIDS-defining malignancies accounted for 22 percent of deaths, mainly, Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. In the post-HAART era, AIDS-defining malignancies dropped dramatically and non-AIDS-defining malignancies became a significant cause of death, including liver cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancers. In the post-HAART era, people living with HIV/AIDS served at Casey House have changed considerably, with increasing numbers of patients facing homelessness and mental health issues, including substance use. Casey House offers a picture of the evolving epidemic and provides insight into changes and improvements made in the care of these patients. PMID:22666562

  4. A comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and X-ray emission in a solar active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, B. M.; Bruner, M. E.; Hagyard, M. J.; Bonnet, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft X-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region.

  5. How Advances in Technology Improve HIV/AIDS Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., the number of individuals aged 50 and older who are living with HIV has increased, leading to a phenomenon called the graying of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Advances in treating HIV have brought about a large growing population of seniors with HIV who are simultaneously facing social, psychological, and physical challenges correlated with the aging process. The stigma against HIV/AIDS has been linked to poor health, depression, and loneliness. In a recent study, about 39.1% of HIV/AIDS patients showed symptoms of major depression (C. Grov et al, 2010. Consequently, to reduce lasting effects of major depressive symptoms, there is a vital need for service providers to employ innovative efforts to confront the stigma and psychosocial and physical health problems that are characteristic of an older HIV/AIDS population. The new technological approaches to healthcare delivery have resulted in faster, more accurate diagnosis and monitoring, in more sophisticated coordination across regions and agencies, and in sophisticated risk-checking procedures. New healthcare technology that can help the AIDS/HIV patient is called Health Information Technology, a basic element of Health Relationship Management Services (HRMS, which is a new approach to healthcare. HRMS can assist individuals with HIV/AIDS in managing not only their physical, but also their mental health.

  6. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  7. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  8. Health transition in Brazil: regional variations and divergence/convergence in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gabriel Mendes

    2017-08-21

    This study analyzes the main characteristics of the health transition in Brazil and its five major regions, using a framework that accounts for regional inequalities in mortality trends. The regional mortality divergence/convergence process is described and discussed by considering the specific contributions of age groups and causes of death in life expectancy variations. Results show that mortality change in Brazil has follow the epidemiologic transition theory to some extent during the period under analysis - for instance, the sharp decline in infant mortality in all regions (first from infectious and parasitic diseases and then from causes associated with the perinatal period) and the increase in the participation of chronic and degenerative diseases as the main cause of death. However, some features of Brazilian transition have not followed the linear and unidirectional pattern proposed by the epidemiologic transition theory, which helps to understand the periods of regional divergence in life expectancy, despite the long-term trends showing reducing regional inequalities. The emergence of HIV/AIDS, the persistence of relatively high levels of other infections and parasitic diseases, the regional differences in the unexpected mortality improvements from cardiovascular diseases, and the rapid and strong variations in mortality from external causes are some of the examples.

  9. Incident and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among patients attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people, ages 15–24, account for approximately 40% of new HIV infections (among those 15 and over). Globally, young women are twice as likely to become infected with HIV than their male counterparts. As at 2012, UNAIDS revealed that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among adults of ages 15-49 in Nigeria was ...

  10. The Analysis of Human Resources Policies and Regional Financial Accounting System on Regional Government Financial Statements’ Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Nahar; Subadriyah Subadriyah; Ali Sofwan

    2018-01-01

    Accountability of local governments in the implementation of policies should be carried out with the financial statements present the quality. Qualitative characteristics of financial statements described in PP 24/ 2005 that the qualitative characteristics of financial statements is a normative measurement that needs to be realized in the accounting information that can be fulfil its purpose. To be able to raise the normative requirements, this characteristics is absolutely necessary in order...

  11. Aid is dead. Long live aid!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Severino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts, targets, tools, institutions and modes of operation of official development assistance have been overtaken by the pace of change in a world marked by the combined momentum of demography, technology and economic growth.Aid can however recover, as social consequences of the globalization call for new forms of regulation. It will then be necessary to modify and diversify our target-setting processes, to update operating procedures, and to find better ways of measuring policy implementation. Aid volumes will certainly continue to grow, and we must transform the way aid is financed. Public and private aid stakeholders must recognize the importance of these transformations and be ready to support them, by questioning the methods as well as the objectives of the policies they are implementing. Otherwise, they will severely impede the emergence of the policies we need if we are to build a better world.

  12. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; van Wyk, Brian; Hausler, Harry; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs). Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his/her household

  13. HIV/AIDS Competent Households: Interaction between a Health-Enabling Environment and Community-Based Treatment Adherence Support for People Living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available In the context of severe human resource shortages in HIV care, task-shifting and especially community-based support are increasingly being cited as potential means of providing durable care to chronic HIV patients. Socio-ecological theory clearly stipulates that-in all social interventions-the interrelatedness and interdependency between individuals and their immediate social contexts should be taken into account. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA seldom live in isolation, yet community-based interventions for supporting chronic HIV patients have largely ignored the social contexts in which they are implemented. Research is thus required to investigate such community-based support within its context. The aim of this study is to address this research gap by examining the way in which HIV/AIDS competence in the household hampers or facilitates community-based treatment adherence support. The data was analyzed carefully in accordance with the Grounded Theory procedures, using Nvivo 10. More specifically, we analyzed field notes from participatory observations conducted during 48 community-based treatment adherence support sessions in townships on the outskirts of Cape Town, transcripts of 32 audio-recorded in-depth interviews with PLWHA and transcripts of 4 focus group discussions with 36 community health workers (CHWs. Despite the fact that the CHWs try to present themselves as not being openly associated with HIV/AIDS services, results show that the presence of a CHW is often seen as a marker of the disease. Depending on the HIV/AIDS competence in the household, this association can challenge the patient's hybrid identity management and his/her attempt to regulate the interference of the household in the disease management. The results deepen our understanding of how the degree of HIV/AIDS competence present in a PLWHA's household affects the manner in which the CHW can perform his or her job and the associated benefits for the patient and his

  14. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS - Vol 15, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting for youth audiences' resistances to HIV and AIDS messages in the television drama Tsha Tsha in South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Blessing Makwambeni, Abiodun Salawu, 20-30 ...

  15. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  16. Global AIDS Reporting-2001 to 2015: Lessons for Monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfvén, T; Erkkola, T; Ghys, P D; Padayachy, J; Warner-Smith, M; Rugg, D; de Lay, P

    2017-07-01

    Since 2001 the UNAIDS Secretariat has retained the responsibility for monitoring progress towards global commitments on HIV/AIDS. Key critical characteristics of the reporting system were assessed for the reporting period from 2004 to 2014 and analyses were undertaken of response rates and core indicator performance. Country submission rates ranged from 102 (53%) Member States in 2004 to 186 (96%) in 2012. There was great variance in response rates for specific indicators, with the highest response rates for treatment-related indicators. The Global AIDS reporting system has improved substantially over time and has provided key trend data on responses to the HIV epidemic, serving as the global accountability mechanism and providing reference data on the global AIDS response. It will be critical that reporting systems continue to evolve to support the monitoring of the Sustainable Development Goals, in view of ending the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030.

  17. Cost of hospital care for HIV/AIDS infected patients in three general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly income and the level of education were both statistically significant predictors for healthcare consumption. The analysis allows us to extend the study by using different analytical accounting approaches such as by case and by pathology. Key words: Healthcare costs, HIV AIDS, Predictive factors for healthcare ...

  18. Towards engagement, compliance and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annyssa Bellal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The UN and other international and regional organisations are increasingly trying to hold armed non-state actors (ANSAs accountable at the international level for violations of international norms....

  19. HIV/AIDS and food insecurity: Double jeopardy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... ... have a devastating effect on hunger throughout the developing world. ... and cofounder of the Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food .... CASE STUDY: Kampala, Uganda — From the ground up: Urban ...

  20. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  1. correlation of who clinical staging with cd4 counts in adult hiv/aids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... AIDS and HIV/AIDS case definitions for surveillance. (African region) (12). Laboratory and radiological methods were carried out if they were required to make a clinical diagnosis. In the majority of the cases, the HIV clinical events were presumptive diagnosis and based on the WHO clinical staging for ...

  2. [Computer-aided Prognosis for Breast Cancer Based on Hematoxylin & Eosin Histopathology Image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamei; Qu, Aiping; Liu, Wenlou; Wang, Linwei; Yuan, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Quantitatively analyzing hematoxylin &eosin(H&E)histopathology images is an emerging field attracting increasing attentions in recent years.This paper reviews the application of computer-aided image analysis in breast cancer prognosis.The traditional prognosis based on H&E histopathology image for breast cancer is firstly sketched,followed by a detailed description of the workflow of computer-aided prognosis including image acquisition,image preprocessing,regions of interest detection and object segmentation,feature extraction,and computer-aided prognosis.In the end,major technical challenges and future directions in this field are summarized.

  3. A Review of Financial Accounting Fraud Detection based on Data Mining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Kumar Panigrahi, Prabin

    2012-02-01

    With an upsurge in financial accounting fraud in the current economic scenario experienced, financial accounting fraud detection (FAFD) has become an emerging topic of great importance for academic, research and industries. The failure of internal auditing system of the organization in identifying the accounting frauds has lead to use of specialized procedures to detect financial accounting fraud, collective known as forensic accounting. Data mining techniques are providing great aid in financial accounting fraud detection, since dealing with the large data volumes and complexities of financial data are big challenges for forensic accounting. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on the application of data mining techniques for the detection of financial accounting fraud and proposes a framework for data mining techniques based accounting fraud detection. The systematic and comprehensive literature review of the data mining techniques applicable to financial accounting fraud detection may provide a foundation to future research in this field. The findings of this review show that data mining techniques like logistic models, neural networks, Bayesian belief network, and decision trees have been applied most extensively to provide primary solutions to the problems inherent in the detection and classification of fraudulent data.

  4. Response to: Practice of first aid in burn related injuries in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin; Amin, Kavit; Khor, Wee Sim; Khwaja, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Traditional remedies for burns first aid are rarely compliant with current best practice. Greater Manchester is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the UK. Our burns centre has noted the prevalent use of traditional remedies over recognised first aid prior to presentation. We review traditional burns remedies and highlight the importance of burns first aid education that is accessible to migrant communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Efektivitas Collaborative Governance dalam Pelayanan Komprehensif Berkesinambungan untuk Menanggulangi HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyo Demartoto

    2015-05-01

    collaborative governance between stakeholders in a sustainable comprehensive service to cope with HIV/AIDS in Surakarta City. This study was an exploratory study. Informants were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data collection was conducted on 2 July – 2 September 2013 using in-depth interview, observation, focus group discussion, and documentation. Technique of data analysis was an interactive analysis model. Results showed that service provider and receiver had taken roles in HIV/AIDS coping based on their own duty and function. Prevention and outreach, healthcare service, harm reduction and empowerment programs had not been yet effective because of less optimal commitment to purpose and mutual trust between stakeholders, less professional fieldworkers, latent conflict occurred between stakeholders, less optimal coordination between AIDS Coping Commission of Surakarta City members, and low budget for HIV/AIDS coping as HIV/AIDS is not yet a priority issue in regional development. In brief, collaborative governance between stakeholders is not yet efffective. To improve the quality and the collaborative governance effectivity between stakeholders, there should be any clear norm, structure and process in coping with HIV/AIDS.

  6. Comparison of safety measures with a multicriteria decision aiding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1985-01-01

    Attributes such as political, social and psychological factors have to be taken into account for the decision-making process. Multiattribute decision-aiding techniques are used to cope with this multidimensionality of the risk management process. A simple example will be given to illustrate how such method can be helpful for the selection of proper safety measures in a rational way. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Health workers need research, leadership, and policy skills to help ... the regions hardest hit by the pandemic, by building these skills among ... Nowhere in the world has AIDS had a more devastating effect than in Africa.

  8. Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) co-transcriptional scanning at single-molecule resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathne, Gayan; Bertram, Jeffrey G.; Jaszczur, Malgorzata; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Pham, Phuong; Mak, Chi H.; Goodman, Myron F.; Rueda, David

    2015-12-01

    Activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) generates antibody diversity in B cells by initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) during transcription of immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and switch region (IgS) DNA. Using single-molecule FRET, we show that AID binds to transcribed dsDNA and translocates unidirectionally in concert with RNA polymerase (RNAP) on moving transcription bubbles, while increasing the fraction of stalled bubbles. AID scans randomly when constrained in an 8 nt model bubble. When unconstrained on single-stranded (ss) DNA, AID moves in random bidirectional short slides/hops over the entire molecule while remaining bound for ~5 min. Our analysis distinguishes dynamic scanning from static ssDNA creasing. That AID alone can track along with RNAP during transcription and scan within stalled transcription bubbles suggests a mechanism by which AID can initiate SHM and CSR when properly regulated, yet when unregulated can access non-Ig genes and cause cancer.

  9. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  10. "I Can Sort of Slot into Many Different Roles": Examining Teacher Aide Roles and Their Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lois Ruth; Aprile, Kerry Therese

    2015-01-01

    This study utilised role theory to investigate teacher aide roles within regional schools in Queensland, Australia. Twenty primary schoolteacher aides were interviewed; data were triangulated with 27 teacher aides' responses to a follow-up questionnaire and interviews with 6 administrative staff. Data suggest that classroom instructional support…

  11. PACS-Based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K. (Bernie); Liu, Brent J.; Le, Anh HongTu; Documet, Jorge

    The ultimate goal of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)-based Computer-Aided Detection and Diagnosis (CAD) is to integrate CAD results into daily clinical practice so that it becomes a second reader to aid the radiologist's diagnosis. Integration of CAD and Hospital Information System (HIS), Radiology Information System (RIS) or PACS requires certain basic ingredients from Health Level 7 (HL7) standard for textual data, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard for images, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles in order to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requirements to be a healthcare information system. Among the DICOM standards and IHE workflow profiles, DICOM Structured Reporting (DICOM-SR); and IHE Key Image Note (KIN), Simple Image and Numeric Report (SINR) and Post-processing Work Flow (PWF) are utilized in CAD-HIS/RIS/PACS integration. These topics with examples are presented in this chapter.

  12. Health and human rights in today’s fight against HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemple, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The development of the health and human rights framework coincided with the beginning of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Since then, the international community has increasingly turned to human rights language and instruments to address the disease. Not only are human rights essential to addressing a disease that impacts marginalized groups most severely, but the spread of HIV/AIDS itself exacerbates inequality and impedes the realization of a range of human rights. Policy developments of the past decade include the United Nations (UN) Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment on the ‘Right to Health’, the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, and the UN’s International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, among others. Rights-related setbacks include the failure of the Declaration and its 5-year follow-up specifically to address men who have sex with men, sex workers, and intravenous drug users, political restrictions placed on urgently needed US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funds, and the failure of many countries to decriminalize same-sex sex and outlaw discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS. Male circumcision as an HIV prevention measure is a topic around which important debate, touching on gender, informed consent and children’s rights, serves to illustrate the ongoing vitality of the health and human rights dialogue. Mechanisms to increase state accountability for addressing HIV/AIDS should be explored in greater depth. Such measures might include an increase in the use of treaty-based judicial mechanisms, the linking of human rights compliance with preferential trade agreements, and rights requirements tied to HIV/ AIDS funding. PMID:18641463

  13. National poverty reduction strategies and HIV/AIDS governance in Malawi: a preliminary study of shared health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Catherine; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2011-06-01

    The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi's National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation? In 2007, we developed and conducted a survey of Malawian government ministries, United Nations agencies, members of the Country Coordination Mechanism, the Malawi National AIDS Commission (NAC), and NAC grantees (N = 125, 90% response rate), seeking survey respondents' retrospective perceptions of NSF resource levels, participation, inclusion, and governance before, during, and after Malawi's PRSP process (2000-2004). We also assessed principle health sector and economic indicators and budget allocations for HIV/AIDS. These indicators are part of a new conceptual framework called shared health governance (SHG), which seeks congruence among the values and goals of different groups and actors to reflect a common purpose. Under this framework, global health policy should encompass: (i) consensus among global, national, and sub-national actors on goals and measurable outcomes; (ii) mutual collective accountability; and (iii) enhancement of individual and group health agency. Indicators to assess these elements included: (i) goal alignment; (ii) adequate resource levels; (iii) agreement on key outcomes and indicators for evaluating those outcomes; (iv) meaningful inclusion and participation of groups and institutions; (v) special efforts to ensure participation of vulnerable groups; and (vi) effectiveness and efficiency measures. Results suggest that the PRSP process supported accountability for NSF resources. However, the process may have marginalized key stakeholders, potentially undercutting the

  14. 5 CFR 2412.9 - Accounting of disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 2412.9 Section... RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL GENERAL PROVISIONS PRIVACY § 2412.9 Accounting of disclosures. (a) All Regional Directors of the Authority and the Director of Administration of the Authority...

  15. Ele não quer com camisinha e eu quero me prevenir: exposição de adolescentes do sexo feminino às DST/aids no semi-árido nordestino He does not want it with condom and I want to protect myself: exposure of female adolescents to STD/AIDS in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da aids tem sofrido mudanças em seu perfil, e o aumento de casos em mulheres tem sido cada vez mais frequente, contribuindo de modo decisivo para o fenômeno chamado feminização da aids. Levando em consideração essa realidade, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a exposição de adolescentes às DST/aids no semiárido nordestino. A metodologia de trabalho utilizada foi baseada na abordagem qualitativa em saúde, utilizando como modelo teórico-metodológico as Práticas Discursivas e Produção de Sentido (Spink, 2004; Spink e Medrado, 1999. Ao todo três estratégias metodológicas foram utilizadas para a coleta de dados: 1024 horas de observação participante, 72 entrevistas semiestruturadas e 36 grupos focais, englobando dois grupos de atores: 72 profissionais de 8 equipes de saúde e 360 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos. A partir da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que a realidade nordestina é permeada por características que tornam a mulher vulnerável às DST/aids, tais como: a a baixa escolaridade; b as relações desiguais de gênero; c a ausência de uma política de prevenção direcionada ao público adolescente; d a inexistência de vínculo entre profissionais da saúde e população; e e a frequente compreensão dos serviços de saúde como espaço exclusivamente da mulher. Diante desse contexto, aponta-se a necessidade da efetivação de políticas de atenção à saúde integral de adolescentes, que trabalhem os direitos sexuais e reprodutivos na perspectiva de gênero, para a efetiva prevenção das DST/aids, exercendo impacto direto na promoção da qualidade de suas vidas.The dissemination of AIDS has suffered changes in its profile and the increase in cases among women has been more and more frequent, contributing decisively to the phenomenon called the feminization of AIDS. Taking this fact into account, the objective of this work is to examine the exposure of adolescents to STD / AIDS in the

  16. Tracking the Global Distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Accounting for E-Waste Exports to Developing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Knut; Armitage, James M; Wania, Frank; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-01-19

    Elevated concentrations of various industrial-use Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been reported in some developing areas in subtropical and tropical regions known to be destinations of e-waste. We used a recent inventory of the global generation and exports of e-waste to develop various global scale emission scenarios for industrial-use organic contaminants (IUOCs). For representative IUOCs (RIUOCs), only hypothetical emissions via passive volatilization from e-waste were considered whereas for PCBs, historical emissions throughout the chemical life-cycle (i.e., manufacturing, use, disposal) were included. The environmental transport and fate of RIUOCs and PCBs were then simulated using the BETR Global 2.0 model. Export of e-waste is expected to increase and sustain global emissions beyond the baseline scenario, which assumes no export. A comparison between model predictions and observations for PCBs in selected recipient regions generally suggests a better agreement when exports are accounted for. This study may be the first to integrate the global transport of IUOCs in waste with their long-range transport in air and water. The results call for integrated chemical management strategies on a global scale.

  17. Aid for Trade: an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Low fruit and vegetable consumption is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. In the wake of the United Nations High-level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs), held in September 2011, a rise in the consumption of fruits and vegetables is foreseeable and this increased demand will have to be met through improved supply. The World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank have highlighted the potential for developing countries to benefit nutritionally and economically from the increased production and export of fruit and vegetables. Aid for Trade, launched in 2005 as an initiative designed to link development aid and trade holistically, offers an opportunity for the health and trade sectors to work jointly to enhance health and development. The Aid for Trade work programme stresses the importance of policy coherence across sectors, yet the commonality of purpose driving the Aid for Trade initiative and NCD prevention efforts has not been explored. In this paper food supply chain analysis was used to show health policy-makers that Aid for Trade can provide a mechanism for increasing the supply of fruits and vegetables in developing countries. Aid for Trade is an existing funding channel with clear accountability and reporting mechanisms, but its priorities are determined with little or no input from the health sector. The paper seeks to enable public health policy-makers, practitioners and advocates to improve coherence between trade and public health policies by highlighting Aid for Trade’s potential role in this endeavour. PMID:23397351

  18. Psychological first-aid: a practical aide-memoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J

    1995-07-01

    Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.

  19. Air Cargo Development in the Regional Airports of the Baltic Sea Region Through Road Feeder Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As issued in the Competition Policy Brief on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry by the Competition Directorate-General of the European Commission in February 20141, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to obtain financial public subsidies on EU, national or regional level. Although the positive impact of small airports on the regional development and general accessibility was mentioned, still the operating aid to the airports shall be cut out over a maximum of 10 years. It has been further stated that the vast majority of small and regional airports experience problems to cover their running operative costs, as a result from an intensive market competition and overlapping of airports’ catchment areas preventing even some promising airports from growth. Public subsidies are mostly used by the airport management for infrastructural investments, to cover operating losses or to attract price-sensitive airlines. Herewith, among other things, the EU Commission is pointing out at the lack of cooperation structures and network strategies among the regional airports and at rather isolated and individual approach during elaboration of the airport development scenarios. However, the Competition Policy Brief permits public aid to regional airports, among other things if there is sufficient transports need to establish transition periods for small airports; the need for more flexibility of the regional airports in the remote areas has been underlined. The EU Commission is expecting herewith not to close the regional airports, but to stimulate them to operate on cost efficient and profitable basis, and that only the most inefficient airports will be closed.

  20. Integrating Forensic Accounting Core Competency into the Study of Accounting. Case of Nigeria Tertiary Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel F. Johnson-Rokosu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud and forensic accounting education is a necessity in very corrupt corporate and government institutions across the globe. Accounting educators have been pressured to make changes to the accounting curriculum and to include courses in forensic accounting and fraud examination by professional organizations and legislators as fraud cases have mounted and academic were criticized for not preparing their students for this professional environment. Accounting graduate trained under the existing curriculum exhibit lesser knowledge, skills and abilities in fraud detection, prevention and deterrence. This study therefore examined the philosophical beliefs, behavioural science concepts and approaches that can be adopted in integrating a fraud/ forensic accounting (FFA into existing accounting curriculum. The study adopted mixed research methods, content analysis and quantitative method of data analysis was employed. This paper basically made use of the content analysis in analyzing the content of the existing accounting curriculum in Nigeria universities. This study involved selected universities in South West region of Nigeria using survey research method. Findings in this study revealed that most respondents would prefer integrating fraud/forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum by offering a separate fraud/forensic accounting courses. Also, the study revealed that fraud/ forensic accounting education has positive impact on student expertise, skepticism and fraud judgment. The study identified the following consideration that Accounting course developers need to consider before, during and after curriculum revision. Involvement of faculty; consider stakeholders opinion; accreditation agencies’ and governmental requirements; resources available; need for change; among others.

  1. Prevalence of Hypertension in HIV/AIDS Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART Compared with HAART-Naive Patients at the Limbe Regional Hospital, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Akem Dimala

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients but has also been associated with increased metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between HAART and hypertension (HTN in Africa are scarce.Primarily to compare the prevalence of HTN in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to assess other socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HTN in this population.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and sex to 100 HAART-naïve patients. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg.The prevalence of HTN in patients on HAART was twice (38%; 95% CI: 28.5-48.3 that of the HAART-naïve patients (19%; 95% CI, 11.8-28.1, p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, family history of HTN, and BMI-defined overweight, HAART was associated with HTN, the adjusted odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus HAART-naïve group was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.07-4.52, p = 0.032. HTN was associated with older age and male gender, in the HAART group and with BMI-defined overweight in the HAART-naïve group.The prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients in Limbe stands out to be elevated, higher in patients on HAART compared to those not on treatment. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors should be routinely monitored. Other factors such as diet, weight control and physical exercise should also be considered.

  2. DECS tries out instructional materials on AIDS prevention education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A national try-out of the newly developed print and non-print instructional materials on AIDS Education is being conducted by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) this school year 1993-to 1994. To determine the effectiveness of these materials, various public and private schools in Region IV (Southern Tagalog), VII (Central Visayas) XI (Southern Mindanao) and National Capital Region (Metro, Manila) were chosen as try-out institutions. The AIDS education materials will be tried out in different subjects in some grade and year levels such as civics and culture (grade one); science and health (grades three and six); home economics and livelihood education (grade five); physical education, health and music (second year) and Pilipino Language (third year). The materials for the elementary level consist of posters, cut-out pictures, voice tapes, jingles, talking books and slides, while the secondary school level utilizes modules. For the tertiary level, a Resource Book on AIDS Prevention Education is used by the Teacher Training Institutions and the Non-Formal Education employs the Facilitator's Guide for Levels I-III. These materials will be tried out in both urban and rural schools, with control school and experimental school at each level. full text

  3. Measuring and tracking the flow of climate change adaptation aid to the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Simon D.; Kandlikar, Milind; Webber, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    The developed world has pledged to mobilize at least US 100 billion per year of ‘new’ and ‘additional’ funds by 2020 to help the developing world respond to climate change. Tracking this finance is particularly problematic for climate change adaptation, as there is no clear definition of what separates adaptation aid from standard development aid. Here we use a historical database of overseas development assistance projects to test the effect of different accounting assumptions on the delivery of adaptation finance to the developing countries of Oceania, using machine algorithms developed from a manual pilot study. The results show that explicit adaptation finance grew to 3%-4% of all development aid to Oceania by the 2008-2012 period, but that total adaptation finance could be as high as 37% of all aid, depending on potentially politically motivated assumptions about what counts as adaptation. There was also an uneven distribution of adaptation aid between countries facing similar challenges like Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The analysis indicates that data allowing individual projects to be weighted by their climate change relevance is needed. A robust and mandatory metadata system for all aid projects would allow multilateral aid agencies and independent third parties to perform their own analyses using different assumptions and definitions, and serve as a key check on international climate aid promises.

  4. Modelling and Control of HIV/AIDS Propagation - A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling and Control of HIV/AIDS Propagation - A Case Study of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... in the Ashanti Region of Ghana for the period 1982 to 2001 with a view to assessing the level and impact of the pandemic as well as the effectiveness of the existing control measures.

  5. Australia to fund HIV / AIDS projects in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-19

    Australia will fund 23 new HIV-AIDS projects in Southeast Asian countries, the government announced. "Asia is predicted to be the major growth area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections over the next decade, " Minister for Development Cooperation Gordon Bilney said. "These projects, worth some $4.35 million over three years, will help meet the challenge of preventing the spread of the disease in the region." The projects--in Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia--emphasize education and prevention activities as well as programs which focus on the care and support of people living with HIV, Bilney said. He also said a variety of Australian and overseas organizations will implement the projects, many of which will feature the significant involvement of communities at risk and people with HIV. "It is in keeping with the fundamental spirit of the aid program that we should seek to share this expertise with our neighbors in the region." Bilney said one Australian success story--the creative "Streetwize comics" (publications in Australia which help street kids and under privileged kids understand HIV/AIDS problems)--will be piloted in Vietnam in conjunction with the Vietnam Youth Federation. He said Vietnamese staff will be trained in the production of a series of bilingual mini-comics on HIV-AIDS prevention for youth. "This project will receive funding of $187,500 over three years," Bilney said. Bilney said the projects would help minimize the individual and social impact of the epidemic in the targeted countries. full text

  6. Gender and AIDS: time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Alan; Peacock, Dean; Jewkes, Rachel; Msimang, Sisonke

    2008-08-01

    Gender has long been recognized as being key to understanding and addressing HIV and AIDS. Gender roles and relations that structure and legitimate women's subordination and simultaneously foster models of masculinity that justify and reproduce men's dominance over women exacerbate the spread and impact of the epidemic. Notions of masculinity prevalent in many parts of the world that equate being a man with dominance over women, sexual conquest and risk-taking are associated with less condom use, more sexually transmitted infections, more partners, including more casual partners, more frequent sex, more abuse of alcohol and more transactional sex. They also contribute to men accessing treatment later than women and at greater cost to public health systems. The imperative of addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS has been clearly and repeatedly articulated. Many interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing gender-related risks and vulnerabilities including programmes designed to reach and engage men, improve women's legal and economic position, integrate gender-based violence prevention into HIV services, and increase girls' access to secondary and tertiary education. Despite this, the political will to act has been sorely lacking and not nearly enough has been done to hold governments and multilateral institutions to account. This paper argues that we can no longer simply pay lip service to the urgent need to act on what we know about gender and AIDS. Simply put, it is time to act.

  7. Economic efficiency of Nuclear Cell Mars with reference to different regions with the account cogenerating production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Kucharkin, N. E.; Udjanskiy, Y. N.; Schepetina, T. D.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    The popular belief in a low economic efficiency NPP with nuclear reactors of small capacity (SNPP) is stipulated by the stereotyped approach to their role as a power source (PS) and absence of a system approach to an estimation of their role and place in economy of regions. Actually, the specific expenses of installed capacity for SNPP can be some times higher than those for ones with high-power reactors. As a rule, pay back of the SNPP projects is justified proceeding from only the income of sale produced electric power and heat. Poor economic efficiency of such variant of use forces the developers to consider variants cogeneration of useful production, for example, power-desalination complexes. But thus it is not taken into account, that only nuclear power source (NPS), due to quality of long-term autonomy can ensure in hard-to-reach regions ecologically safe, practically unbounded on time, reliable energy provision of unique production manufacture, which can be yielded only in a sectional place and due to presence of reliable and ecologically acceptable power supply. Examples of such exclusive symbiosis of technologies can be enough, especially taking into account the factor of an ecological acceptability, which acquires the increasing weight at definition of competitiveness of the projects. The factor of uniqueness at technologies combination in a sectional context does not contradict the strategy of seriality small capacity NPS application, as they are irreplaceable for long-time and reliable power supply of the independent removed or hard-to-reach consumers. In this their special applicability and their specific energy niche, which not busy while by any another PS. On land their role is similar nuclear submarines, which thanking NPS have got completely other quality of autonomy in the discharge of underwater kettles.The territory of Russia on the area both variety of resources and manufactures allows to implement different variants and combinations of

  8. Examining HIV/AIDS provider stigma: assessing regional concerns in the islands of the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, N; Rutledge, S E; McCann, T J; Padmore, J

    2007-02-01

    HIV/AIDS provider stigma has been understudied in the context of prevention, testing, and treatment. Results of a survey of persons associated with HIV/AIDS education, health care, and social service delivery in the Eastern Caribbean are described. Reliable constructs were observed for warmth towards PLHA, comfort in association with them, tendencies to distance from or condemn them, beliefs in viral transmission myths, and perceived capacity to counsel effectively. Most discrimination was directed towards MSM and IDUs. Providers whose roles were likely to involve touch felt less comfortable around PLHA and more likely to distance from and condemn them than providers whose roles were not. Implications for improved measurement and incorporation of mindfulness techniques in stigma intervention are discussed.

  9. HIV/AIDS Communication Inequalities and Associated Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: A Call for a Socioecological Approach to AIDS Communication in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven; Viswanath, K Vish

    2017-06-01

    Three-and-a-half decades on, no cure or vaccine is yet on the horizon for HIV, making effective behavior change communication (BCC) the key preventive strategy. Despite considerable success, HIV/AIDS BCC efforts have long been criticized for their primary focus on the individual-level field of influence, drawing on the more reductionist view of causation at the individual level. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies that employed a household survey, field experiment, and textual content analysis, and explored the macro-social-level effects of HIV/AIDS-related media and messages on HIV/AIDS cognitive and affective outcomes in Ethiopia. Against a backdrop of epidemiological and socioecological differences, urban versus rural residence has emerged as an important community-level factor that impacts HIV/AIDS-related media and message consumption processes and associated outcomes. The central thread crossing through the six studies included in this paper demonstrates that urban and rural people in high HIV prevalence contexts differ in their concern about and information needs on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS-related media use, and HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and affective outcomes, as well as in their reaction to differently designed/framed HIV prevention messages. This paper proposes that HIV prevention media and message effects in high epidemic situations should be considered from a larger community-level perspective and calls for a socioecological approach to AIDS communication in the hard-hit sub-Saharan Africa. With a number of concrete recommendations to current and future HIV/AIDS BCC efforts in the region, the study joins an emerging body of health communication literature and theorizing that suggests the need to consider media and message effects from a macro-social perspective.

  10. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  11. Global health diplomacy, national integration, and regional development through the monitoring and evaluation of HIV/AIDS programs in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Gildea, Amy; Garae, Caleb; Moa, Serafi; Lautusi, Avaia

    2015-04-27

    The South Pacific countries of Vanuatu, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea have ascended rapidly up the development spectrum in recent years, refining an independent and post-colonial economic and political identity that enhances their recognition on the world stage. All three countries have overcome economic, political and public health challenges in order to stake their claim to sovereignty. In this regard, the contributions of national and international programs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, with specific reference to their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) aspects, have contributed not just to public health, but also to broader political and diplomatic goals such as 'nation-building'. This perspective describes the specific contributions of global health programs to the pursuit of national integration, development, and regional international relations, in Vanuatu, Samoa and Papua New Guinea, respectively, based on in-country M&E activities on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria and the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) during 2014 and 2015. Key findings include: (1) that global health programs contribute to non-health goals; (2) that HIV/AIDS programs promote international relations, decentralized development, and internal unity; (3) that arguments in favour of the maintenance and augmentation of global health funding may be enhanced on this basis; and (4) that "smart" global health approaches have been successful in South Pacific countries. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  12. Attitudes of pediatric intensive care unit physicians towards the use of cognitive aids: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthew J; Kramer, Chelsea; Tremblay, Sébastien; Côté, Luc

    2016-05-21

    Cognitive aids are increasingly recommended in clinical practice, yet little is known about the attitudes of physicians towards these tools. We employed a qualitative, descriptive design to explore physician attitudes towards cognitive aids in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Semi-structured interviews elicited the opinions of a convenience sample of practicing PICU physicians towards the use of cognitive aids. We analyzed interview data for thematic content to examine the three factors of intention to use cognitive aids as defined by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), attitudes, social norms, and perceived control. Analysis of 14 interviews suggested that in the PICU setting, cognitive aids are widely used. Discovered themes related to their use touched on all three TPB factors of intention and included: aids are perceived to improve team communication; aids may improve patient safety; aids may hinder clinician judgment; physicians may resist implementation if it occurs prior to demonstration of benefit; effective adoption requires cognitive aids to be integrated into local workplace culture; and implementation should take physician concerns into account. Our sample of PICU physicians were open to cognitive aids in their practice, as long as such aids preserve the primacy of clinical judgment, focus on team communication, demonstrate effectiveness through preliminary testing, and are designed and implemented with the local culture and work environment in mind. Future knowledge translation efforts to implement cognitive aids would benefit from consideration of these issues.

  13. Defining Moments in MMWR History: The AIDS Epidemic, Pneumocystis Pneumonia --- Los Angeles 1981

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-01

    On June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five previously healthy young gay men in Los Angeles, California. This report was later acknowledged as the first published account of what would become known as human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. It was the first of many MMWR reports that led to a better understanding of this new condition. In this podcast, Dr. Harold Jaffe recalls CDC’s investigation and response to the AIDS Epidemic.  Created: 12/1/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/1/2017.

  14. Rethinking the Poverty-disease Nexus: the Case of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Kiran

    2017-09-01

    While it is well-established that poverty and disease are intimately connected, the nature of this connection and the role of poverty in disease causation remains contested in scientific and social studies of disease. Using the case of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and drawing on a theoretically grounded analysis, this paper reconceptualises disease and poverty as ontologically entangled. In the context of the South African HIV epidemic, this rethinking of the poverty-disease dynamic enables an account of how social forces such as poverty become embodied in the very substance of disease to produce ontologies of HIV/AIDS unique to South Africa.

  15. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  16. Snakebites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...

  17. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  18. Investigating the association between HIV/AIDS and recent fertility patterns in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica Akinyi; Agwanda, Alfred O

    2010-07-01

    Findings from previous studies linking the HIV/AIDS epidemic and fertility of populations have remained inconclusive. In sub-Saharan Africa, demographic patterns point to the epidemic resulting in fertility reduction. However, evidence from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) has revealed interesting patterns, with regions most adversely affected with HIV/AIDS showing the clearest reversal trend in fertility decline. While there is suggestive evidence that fertility behaviour in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa has changed in relation to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, more rigorous empirical analysis is necessary to better understand this relationship. In this paper, we examine individual and contextual community HIV/AIDS factors associated with fertility patterns in Kenya, paying particular attention to possible mechanisms of the association. Multilevel models are applied to the 2003 KDHS, introducing various proximate fertility determinants in successive stages, to explore possible mechanisms through which HIV/AIDS may be associated with fertility. The results corroborate findings from earlier studies of the fertility inhibiting effect of HIV among infected women. HIV-infected women have 40 percent lower odds of having had a recent birth than their uninfected counterparts of similar background characteristics. Further analysis suggests an association between HIV/AIDS and fertility that exists through proximate fertility determinants relating to sexual exposure, breastfeeding duration, and foetal loss. While HIV/AIDS may have contributed to reduced fertility, mainly through reduced sexual exposure, there is evidence that it has contributed to increased fertility, through reduced breastfeeding and increased desire for more children resulting from increased infant/child mortality (i.e. a replacement phenomenon). In communities at advanced stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is possible that infant/child mortality has reached appreciably high levels where the

  19. Chest Pain: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...

  20. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  1. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  2. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV Infection/AIDS in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetagic, Sead; Porobić-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dilista; Custovic, Amer; Sabitovic, Damir; Zepic, Denis

    2015-02-01

    More than three decades after recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States, the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has dramatically changed the global burden of disease. The main goal of this research is retrospective analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 28 HIV infected patients, who were diagnosed and treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 1996 until the end of 2013. Retrospective analysis was performed using the medical records of 28 HIV-infected persons. Two rapid tests were used for HIV testing: OraQuick Advance test, Vikia HIV1/2, Elisa combo test, HIV RNA test. AIDS disease was determined by using the criteria from WHO. Among a total of 28 HIV-infected persons, 23 (82.14%) were males and 5 (17.86%) were females, with the male: female ratio of 4,6:1. In terms of the transmission route, a large proportion of cases were infected through heterosexual contact 19 (67.86%). At the time of the first visit, 16 (57.15%) patients showed asymptomatic HIV infection, 4 (14.28%) HIV infection with symptoms other than the AIDS defining diseases, and 8 (28.57) had AIDS. At the time of first hospital visit, the CD4 + cells count ranged from 40 to 1795/µl (conducted in 19 patients), and mean value of CD4 + cells was 365,31/µl, and mean HIV RNA titer was 287 118 copies/ml³. Of 28 HIV-infected persons 39 cases of opportunistic diseases developed in 12 patients (42.9%). In terms of the frequency of opportunistic diseases, tuberculosis (12 cases, 42.9%). Among a total of 28 HIV-infected patients, 6 (21.4%) of them died. This study characterizes the epidemiological and clinical patterns of HIV-infected patients in Tuzla region of Bosnia and Herzegovina to accurately understand HIV infection/AIDS in our region, in the hope to contribute in the establishment of effective HIV guidelines in the Tuzla region of B&H in the future.

  3. Biogas plants site selection integrating Multicriteria Decision Aid methods and GIS techniques: A case study in a Portuguese region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sandra; Alçada-Almeida, Luís; Dias, Luís C.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of determining the most suitable sites for locating biogas plants using dairy manure as feedstock, specifically in the Entre-Douro-e-Minho Region in Portugal. A Multicriteria Spatial Decision Support System is developed to tackle this complex multicriteria decision-making problem, involving constraints and many environmental, economic, safety, and social factors. The approach followed combines the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to manage and process spatial information with the flexibility of Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) to assess factual information (e.g. soil type, slope, infrastructures) with more subjective information (e.g. expert opinion). The MCDA method used is ELECTRE TRI, an outranking-type method that yields a classification of the possible alternatives. The results of the performed analysis show that the use of ELECTRE TRI is suitable to address real-world problems of land suitability, leading towards a flexible and integrated assessment. - Highlights: • We present a spatial multi-criteria methodology to decide biogas plants siting. • Methodology combines ELECTRE TRI with GIS for spatial analysis. • Constraints and environmental, economic and social factors have been identified. • The methodology is illustrated with application to a case study in the EDM Region. • A suitability map was generated, identifying the most suitable biogas plant locations

  4. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.

  5. AIDS: new threat to the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, L

    1988-01-01

    Acquired immuneodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) threatens to have a catastrophic historical impact on the 3rd world, undermining decades of progress toward improved health and sustained economic development. By 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate between 5 and 10 million people worldwide were carriers. By 1990, WHO projects 50 to 100 million may be infected, leaving 15 to 30 million dead by 1995. The extent of AIDS cases in LDCs is most likely underreported as these countries already have limited access to health care. The infection rate could be 100 times higher in African cities than in the US as a whole. With an estimated 2 million infected, Africa is the hardest hit region in the world; Asia is the least affected with Japan having the highest number of reported cases at 43. Overall rate of transmission is likely to remain higher in the 3rd world for numerous reasons including the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, lack of money to screen blood for transfusions, high number of sexual partners due to socio-economic conditions, chronic exposure to viral and parasitic infections, and unhygienic conditions. Unlike developed nations, LDCs do not have the health care budgets to care for the opportunistic infections of AIDS patients. Therefore they often are subject to triage, passed over in favor of patients with curable diseases. AIDS provides an even greater threat as a multiplier of existing but dormant diseases such as tuberculosis. AIDS will undermine the decades of progress in maternal and child health and may soon be significant factor in the mother/child survival quotient. Some African cities report that 8 to 14% of women attending prenatal clinics test positive. Since it strikes the most productive age group--those between 20 and 49-- AIDS threatens to undermine the economies of LDCs at a time when most LDCsa are already struggling. Meeting the global challenge of AIDS will requre unprecedented international cooperation. The fact that both

  6. FlexAID: Revisiting Docking on Non-Native-Complex Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2015-07-27

    Small-molecule protein docking is an essential tool in drug design and to understand molecular recognition. In the present work we introduce FlexAID, a small-molecule docking algorithm that accounts for target side-chain flexibility and utilizes a soft scoring function, i.e. one that is not highly dependent on specific geometric criteria, based on surface complementarity. The pairwise energy parameters were derived from a large dataset of true positive poses and negative decoys from the PDBbind database through an iterative process using Monte Carlo simulations. The prediction of binding poses is tested using the widely used Astex dataset as well as the HAP2 dataset, while performance in virtual screening is evaluated using a subset of the DUD dataset. We compare FlexAID to AutoDock Vina, FlexX, and rDock in an extensive number of scenarios to understand the strengths and limitations of the different programs as well as to reported results for Glide, GOLD, and DOCK6 where applicable. The most relevant among these scenarios is that of docking on flexible non-native-complex structures where as is the case in reality, the target conformation in the bound form is not known a priori. We demonstrate that FlexAID, unlike other programs, is robust against increasing structural variability. FlexAID obtains equivalent sampling success as GOLD and performs better than AutoDock Vina or FlexX in all scenarios against non-native-complex structures. FlexAID is better than rDock when there is at least one critical side-chain movement required upon ligand binding. In virtual screening, FlexAID results are lower on average than those of AutoDock Vina and rDock. The higher accuracy in flexible targets where critical movements are required, intuitive PyMOL-integrated graphical user interface and free source code as well as precompiled executables for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS make FlexAID a welcome addition to the arsenal of existing small-molecule protein docking methods.

  7. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  8. Tuberculose associada à AIDS: situação de região do Nordeste brasileiro Tuberculosis associated with AIDS: the position in a Northeastern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. S. Kerr-Pontes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os principais aspectos da co-infecção pelo HIV e o Mycobacterium tuberculosis nos pacientes adultos assistidos pelo hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, responsável pela notificação de 89,3% dos casos registrados no Estado, entre 1986-92. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de prontuários de pacientes maiores de 15 anos, com diagnóstico de AIDS, atendidos em hospital de referência estadual, região Nordeste do Brasil. A análise dos dados seguem o critério do Ministério da Saúde, para definição dessa doença. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose apresentou-se em 30,6% dos pacientes estudados (151/493 e foi diagnosticada até o primeiro ano após o diagnóstico da AIDS em 76,8% dos casos. Observou-se um tendência crescente na proporção de casos de tuberculose entre pacientes com AIDS conforme decresce o nível de escolaridade (INTRODUCTION: The main aspects of the HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection in the adult patients attended by the main reference hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Ceará, Brazil, responsible for the notification of 89.3% of the cases registered in the state between 1986 and 1992 were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the case histories of patients of more than 15 years of age with a diagnosis of AIDS, attended in a state reference hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The analysis of the data obeys the criteria of the Ministry of Health for the definition of this disease. RESULTS: Tuberculosis had been present in 30.6% of the patients studied (151/493 and it was diagnosed by the first year after the AIDS diagnosis in 76.8% of the cases. The proportion of AIDS cases with tuberculosis is significantly greater (p=0,032 among men (94.7% than among women (88.3%. An increased linear trend in the proportion of cases with tuberculosis was noticed in the AIDS cases according to the decrease in level of schooling (p<0,001. The

  9. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  10. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  11. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Thompson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of programmes for people living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the health literacy needs of women living with HIV. The research design was qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual. After women living with HIV/AIDS were sampled purposively, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women and qualitative content analysis done. The findings revealed that the women expressed a need to increase their knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge they needed ranged from basic pathophysiology about HIV/AIDS, to the impact of HIV/AIDS on their health, to an awareness of the modes of HIV transmission and methods of protecting others from being infected. Other important health literacy needs related to self-care and correct antiretroviral use. A need for psychosocial skills was also identified in order for women to build and maintain their relationships. Recommendations were made for nursing practice, education and further research, based on these findings.

  12. Gauging Change in Australian Aid: Stakeholder Perceptions of the Government Aid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terence; Burkot, Camilla; Howes, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we use data from the 2013 and 2015 Australian Aid Stakeholder Surveys to gauge the extent of the changes to the Australian Government Aid Program since the 2013 federal election. The two surveys targeted the same set of stakeholders of the aid program, and both gathered data on a wide range of aspects of its functioning. As we assess the findings that emerged from the surveys, we situate our work amongst recent academic studies that have looked at the post-2013 aid changes in Australia. Our key findings are that the post-2013 changes to Australian aid have had wide-ranging impacts and have led to deteriorating overall aid quality. However, changes have not affected all aspects of the aid program equally, and some changes are starting to be reversed. In discussion, we examine what these developments mean for the future of Australian aid.

  13. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  14. Commitment is the key to these accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yborra, S.

    1996-01-01

    Key accounts--A.G.A.'s name for regional and national multi-unit accounts--affect gas load and market share in several ways. Many make their equipment and energy policies and decisions at the corporate or regional level, making gas company sales and marketing efforts to them critical, since multiple installations will likely emanate from a single decision. To survive, chains often mimic each other; a money-saving idea implemented by one chain can lead to others in that market sector copying it. A successful equipment field trial with one of these accounts can lead to others following suit. Chains also can play a critical role in launching a new or emerging technology. It a gas equipment test demonstrate meets the chain's energy goals, it can lead to a significant number of orders, accelerating a product's market penetration, improving manufacturing economies of scale, lowering prices and speeding up delivery times. A.G.A.'s key-accounts program's marketing activities fall into three basic categories: assisting chain clients, either directly or through members; enhancing members' key-account program development through training and networking; and increasing chains' awareness of the benefits of gas energy, equipment and services through national forums such as trade expos, seminars, conferences and press exposure

  15. From accounting convergence to accounting harmonization under the auspices of economic globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Mărculescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current international economic context is urgently needed more than ever a transparency of business information. This situation is caused by the fact that economic decisions are based on accounting information, and knowing the regional and international accounting rules is crucial to have a correct interpretation of the business connections in the world.The misleading barriers between the independent economic systems, local, national and others the same, have had throughout the history significant implications on the economic policies adopted in each of these systems. Liberalization of capital movements and workforce provides the premises of exploitation the existing opportunities (employment, savings, investments, so. in the technological and economic environments but also the fiscal and monetary models.

  16. ASSESMEN INTEGRITAS DALAM PROGRAM PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKIT HIV/AIDS DI KOTA MANADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Glenn Albert Massie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, there is HIV/AIDS epidemics with a prevalence of 0.2% among adults. It needs assessment on integrity to improve reliability and effectiveness the program implementation for understanding public policy, transparency, accountability, active community participation and ethics considerations of HIV/AIDS based on Government Regulation No. 75/2006. The study aimed to understand integrity of HIV/AIDS on public health institutions, and related private sectors in Manado City. It was an observational study with a cross sectional design. Data were collected by in-depth interviews to policy makers in the public sector, Head of Health Offi ces and the programmers, Provincial AIDS Committee, Province hospital, health centers, NGOs and private clinics. Standards and regulations of HIV/AIDS management activities refer to the international, national, provincial and municipal. There were transparencies but fi nancial aspects and recording reporting of cases are still un opened. The accountability and effectiveness of procedure management could not be as a whole because lacked of adequate resources, including budget availability. There were not availabity of etics based standard services. There were not policy on human resources capacity building that caused in balance the quality and quantity of staffs. The prevention and management are still lack in high-risk and vulnerable populations. There were lack of concept understanding and practical integrity of health workers on management level and health care providers. Itneeded fi nancial transparency. Monitoring and evaluation to health facilities should be regularly; there should be policies for handling public complaints, training of standards management for health workers; training concept of integrity to related sectors. The active community participation should be enhanced. ABSTRAK Di Indonesia terdapat epidemi penyakit HIV/AIDS, dengan prevalensi 0,2% orang dewasa. Perlu penilaian terhadap

  17. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  18. Annual Report on State Financial Aid Programs: 2007-08 Accounting, 2008-09 Estimates, and Notable Events and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The state of Washington has a long-standing commitment to postsecondary education opportunities for all students, regardless of income. The purpose of this report is to provide the members of the Higher Education Coordinating Board with: (1) An overview of state, federal, and institutional financial aid in Washington; (2) A description of notable…

  19. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  20. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  1. Geografia social da AIDS no Brasil The social geography of AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Inácio Bastos

    1995-02-01

    augmentation of heterosexual transmission and IDUs as transmission groups, are described and analised. The geographical distribution of the AIDS cases registered between 1987-1993 in Brazil throughout the Brazilian States is evaluated by means of worksheets, maps, and non-parametric statistics. Results show that Gravimetric Centers (obtained by the use of the calculus spatial means of AIDS in Brazil are situated within a triangle the sides of which are formed lines joining the three main metropolitan areas of the wealthiest region of Brazil - the southeast, i.e. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. These especially S. Paulo, function as points of attraction for these Gravimetric Centers (GCs towards the south as compared with the GCs of the general population calculated ia accordance with data from the 1980 and 1991 censuses. It is possible to observe a displacement of the GCs toward the northwest over this period in accordance with the migration patterns of the Brazilian population in general, though with a dynamic of its own. These changes in the geographical, socio-demographic and transmission group patterns show the complex nature of the epidemic in Brazil and pose additional difficulties for the development of prevention strategies.

  2. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2011-11-01

    context and can therefore result in more accountable hearing aid fittings taking place. The test can further be used as a counseling tool to assist audiologists and patients in understanding the problems they experience regarding music perception and might be used for future musical training in areas where participants experience problems to customize individual fittings

  3. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    , are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  4. Cancer as a cause of death among people with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are at increased risk for cancer. Highly active antiretroviral therapy [(HAART), widely available since 1996] has resulted in dramatic declines in AIDS-related deaths. Methods We evaluated cancer as a cause of death in a U.S. registry-based cohort of 83,282 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Causes of death due to AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) were assessed. We evaluated mortality rates and the fraction of deaths due to cancer. Poisson regression assessed rates according to calendar year of AIDS onset. Results Overall mortality declined from 302 (1980–1989), to 140 (1990–1995), to 29 per 1,000 person-years (1996–2006). ADC mortality declined from 2.95 (1980–1989) to 0.65 per 1,000 person-years (1996–2006) (PAIDS-related deaths. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the commonest cancer-related cause of death (36% during 1996–2006). Likewise, NADC mortality declined from 2.21 to 0.84 per 1,000 person-years (1980–1989 vs. 1996–2006, PAIDS, cancers account for a growing fraction of deaths. Improved cancer prevention and treatment, particularly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and lung cancer, would reduce mortality among people with AIDS. PMID:20825305

  5. China’s Aid and Oil-for-Infrastructure in Nigeria: Resource-Driven or Development Motive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Kafilah Lola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s ascent influences the Western aid dynamic significantly and changes the landscape in aid-donor and aid-recipient relationship for resource-endowed countries in Africa. Similarly, within China-Africa relations, Nigeria established diplomatic relations with China in 2006 for a concessional oil-for-infrastructure plan to fill the development aperture. However, Nigeria opted out as political uncertainty and elite interest in rent-seeking supersedes development and well-being motive. We conclude that two interrelated causal factors – accountability and transparency – overwhelmingly obstruct Nigeria from optimising China interest in infrastructure development. The study recommends the review of National Planning Commission (NPC 2007 ODA policy document on technical assistance, grants, and concessional loans to identify new problems and challenges associated with formulation and implementation of donor-assisted programmes.

  6. Is AGC beneficial in hearing aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A B; Martin, M C

    1984-02-01

    Three different functions of Automatic Gain Control (AGC) circuits in hearing aids are distinguished and the evidence for their benefits is considered. The value of AGC's function as a relatively distortion-free means of limiting output has been well established. With regard to compression, the benefit of short-term or 'syllabic' compression has not been demonstrated convincingly. Most evaluations of this type of AGC have looked for increase in speech intelligibility, but theoretical predictions of its effect do not appear to take account of the acoustic cues to consonant contrasts actually used by hearing impaired people, and empirical studies have often used listening conditions which do not give a realistic test of benefit. Relatively little attention has been paid to long-term compression, or to the effect of AGC on comfort rather than intelligibility. Listening tests carried out at the RNID and reported here have shown that AGC can benefit hearing aid users by allowing them to listen to a wider range of sound levels without either strain or discomfort, and, if time constants are well chosen, without adverse effects on speech intelligibility in quiet or in noise.

  7. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...

  8. Aid Allocation across Sectors: Does aid fit well with recipients' development priorities?

    OpenAIRE

    KASUGA Hidefumi

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether aid flows to developing countries fit well with their development priorities. In particular, we examine aid allocation across sectors in a given recipient country by using sectoral data on aid and indicators that measure the recipient's need for aid in each sector. The data show that inter-recipient aid allocation reflects the recipient's need. However, we found no evidence that inter-sectoral allocation fits with national priorities except in high- and middle-...

  9. Regional Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal aid policy in the area carried out on several considerations including: Implementation of the authority given to the legal aid act, granting the guarantee and protection of access to justice and equality before the law in the area, equitable distribution of justice and increase public awareness and understanding of the law, and legal implications that accompanied the emergence of the right to legal counsel without pay and the right to choose the legal settlement. How To Cite Fatah, A. (2015. Regional Legal Assistance. Rechtsidee, 2(1, 1-10. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i1.7

  10. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamadan Bin Mohammad Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Ec...

  11. The GPI transportation accounts : sustainable transportation in Halifax Regional Municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savelson, A.; Colman, R.; Martin, W. [GPI Atlantic, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    The Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) approved its first municipal planning strategy (MPS), in June 2006 that set the general framework for planning decisions over the next 20 years. The major objectives of this initiative are to manage a moderate level of population growth, minimize the environmental impact of that growth, and use it as a catalyst to make HRM more sustainable in all of its activities. Due to the dispersed nature of HRM and the diverse mix of its urban, suburban, and rural areas, the links between communities become a key focal point for sustainability measures. Transportation issues are central to many of HRM's current planning decisions and are a key component of the MPS. This report summarized the portion of the MPS that related to the development of functional transportation plans for HRM. The report also presented findings for eight key indicator categories that could be utilized to assess the sustainability of HRM's transportation system. These indicator categories include transport activity; energy consumption; greenhouse gas emissions; transportation emissions of air pollutants; land use and transportation; access to basic services; access to public transportation; neighbourhood quality of life; and household spending on transportation. The report also provided a quantitative assessment of the economic costs of passenger road transportation in HRM. The costing section provided estimates for 15 cost categories, many of which go unexamined in standard transportation accounting mechanisms. Last, a set of data and policy recommendations outlining ways to improve transportation monitoring in HRM as well as to advance the sustainability of HRM's transportation system as a whole were presented. Recommendations included: establishing settlement patterns and pedestrian or cycling-oriented infrastructure where more people could walk or cycle to work and amenities; increasing ridership by making transit accessible to a wider

  12. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhang, Kong-lai; Shan, Guang-liang

    2010-04-20

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project. In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms, but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  13. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  14. AIDing Chromatin and Transcription-Coupled Orchestration of Immunoglobulin Class-Switch Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Yen, Wei-Feng; Pucella, Joseph N.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    Secondary diversification of the antibody repertoire upon antigenic challenge, in the form of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) endows mature, naïve B cells in peripheral lymphoid organs with a limitless ability to mount an optimal humoral immune response, thus expediting pathogen elimination. CSR replaces the default constant (CH) region exons (Cμ) of IgH with any of the downstream CH exons (Cγ, Cε, or Cα), thereby altering effector functions of the antibody molecule. This process depends on, and is orchestrated by, activation-induced deaminase (AID), a DNA cytidine deaminase that acts on single-stranded DNA exposed during transcription of switch (S) region sequences at the IgH locus. DNA lesions thus generated are processed by components of several general DNA repair pathways to drive CSR. Given that AID can instigate DNA lesions and genomic instability, stringent checks are imposed that constrain and restrict its mutagenic potential. In this review, we will discuss how AID expression and substrate specificity and activity is rigorously enforced at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic levels, and how the DNA-damage response is choreographed with precision to permit targeted activity while limiting bystander catastrophe. PMID:24734031

  15. India’s strategic interests in South Asia and its aid to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Nemova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Providing foreign aid to developing countries is one of the most important aspects of contemporary foreign politics. The article studies relations between India and Bangladesh from the perspective of foreign aid flows and discovers conditions, forms, mechanisms, and trends of India’s aid to Bangladesh from 1971 until today. The research uses the approach of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD towards foreign aid and understands it as financial assistance, technical assistance, as well as aid in goods in the form of grants and soft loans with the aim to provide economic development and well-being. The author analyzes factors of the geopolitical significance of Bangladesh for India and studies India’s aid to Bangladesh in the context of the history of bilateral relations between the two countries. As a result, a certain correlation is discovered between aid flows and the state of bilateral relations. China’s growing interest is seen as one of additional factors, which cause India to increase volumes of its aid to the neighboring countries, including Bangladesh. China and India are understood as emerging donors who are competing to increase their influence in the world. The two Asian giants have recently taken considerable aid commitments to Bangladesh which indicates that Bangladesh starts to play a more important role in the regional geopolitics. In this context, the article predicts a further growth in the volumes of Indian aid to Bangladesh in the future and concludes that India uses its foreign aid programs as a tool to promote its own economic, political, and strategic interests. Foreign aid, including official development assistance (ODA, is becoming a means of India’s economic diplomacy although some researchers point to the fact that the country’s policymakers still lack coordination to make aid efficient in terms of political gains.

  16. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  17. AIDS and jail: social representations of women in freedom deprivation situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Raquel Soares Guedes Trigueiro

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To graspthe AIDS social representations built by freedom-deprived women. METHOD Descriptive study with a quali-quantitative approach that involved 174 convicted women in a women's prison in a capital city of the Brazilian northeastern region. Aword-association test was applied in October and November 2014, using AIDS as a stimulus. The corpuswas processed usingIramuteq software. Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis were applied. RESULTS The content that comprises the social representation of AIDS was influenced by the prison context, which was pervaded by a lack of assistance, lack of knowledge, discrimination, and suffering that disclosed vulnerability to HIV/AIDS factors such as unprotected sex and object sharing. This underlines the stigma and fear of the illness, in addition to favoring and supporting negative feelings and a sense of rejection. CONCLUSION To consider the use of this representational amalgam to ensure a comprehensive, contextualized care can help redirect practices, motivate self-care practices, and reduce prejudiced attitudes.

  18. The AIDS epidemic in the city of Copenhagen, Denmark: potential years of life lost and impact on life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Smith, Else; Juel, Knud

    2005-01-01

    accounted for 8% of all PYLL in men and showed an increasing tendency from 1983 to 1991, when it became the leading cause of PYLL. AIDS had most impact in men in the age group 25-44 years and accounted for 29% of all PYLL in this group at the peak in 1993, decreasing significantly after the introduction...

  19. Process information displays from a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    A computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system is being developed for an LWR spent fuel reprocessing facility. This system directly accesses process instrument readings, sample analyses, and outputs of various on-line analytical instruments. In this paper, methods of processing and displaying this information in ways that aid in the efficient, timely, and safe control of the chemical processes of the facility are described

  20. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  1. Cutaneous manifestation in children with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Naser Emadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies have explained almost 2.3 million children are affected with HIV up to the end of 2009. Sub-Saharan Africa is the main region affected by AIDS compare to other parts of the world. Despite providing competent healthcare services to prevent mother-to-child transmission as a main way of infection to a newborn, an estimated 370,000 children were newly infected to HIV in 2009. Skin disorders are common and may even be the first manifestation of HIV in children.The most common skin illnesses are classified in four categories; infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and drug related (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. In addition, unusual anatomical sites, disseminated skin lesions, increased frequency and severity, unexplained clinical presentation, rapid onset, and finally treatment failure may be the other specified skin conditions in HIV/AIDS children. CD4 count and viral load are two basic factors playing an important role in terms of type and severity of skin illness. The aim of this review was to show the common and crucial cutaneous findings among HIV/AIDS children via published articles with the same subject.

  2. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS.

  3. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by?enhancing formation of AID?accessible single?stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation?induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single?stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID. Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID t...

  4. The Influence Of Costs Accounting And Professional Accountant On The Training Of Sales Price Of Micro And Small Enterprises In Porto Velho City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Licório

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the contribution of cost accounting and professional accountant, as a competitive advantage in the formation of the selling price of micro and small enterprises in Porto Velho city. The methodology used for the preparation of this work was a survey, of course, literature, descriptive and qualitative, as well as a field study using questionnaire. Starting from the following problem: in a globalized economy, with such aggressive pricing, which the importance of cost accounting and the advice of a professional accountant in the formation of the selling price? This research is justified in the increasingly competitive market, such as the Old Port, where any detail can bring a great advantage in the bottom line. The main results identified show that the vast majority of micro and small entrepreneurs of Porto Velho do not use cost accounting, nor the aid of a counter, a qualified professional with the necessary techniques to support the formation of their prices so they do not incur errors that bring you losses also do not use the advantage of the information that the cost accounting features for decision making. In a globalized economy, specifically in a growing market as the Porto Velho any detail can make the difference between success and failure of a micro and small business, cost accounting becomes an increasingly necessary tool, and it is undeniable the contribution that the counter as specialized professional can bring to the manager has grounds to form their prices, deciding marketing strategies, and control costs.

  5. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  6. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used......Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  7. Vulnerable to HIV / AIDS. Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, I

    1998-01-01

    This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.

  8. Migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  9. Scientific approaches to AIDS prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, T; Shao, Y

    2011-04-01

    The HIV epidemic in China started among intravenous drug users in the late 1980s. The second wave of the epidemic was caused by an outbreak in the paid plasma donors in central China in the mid-1990s. Sexually transmitted HIV cases have steadily increased and comprised more than half the reported HIV/AIDS infections since 2007. In the last 5 years, there has been a sharp increase of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The HIV epidemic in China has expanded from high-risk groups to the general population and from rural regions to urban areas. This brief article discusses the history of HIV epidemics in China and the challenges facing the current AIDS control efforts in the country. It explains that only scientific approaches can sustain the national AIDS control programs and introduce the type of research needed to address those challenges. The selected research areas include molecular epidemiology, drug resistance surveillance, and the Chinese HIV vaccine research.

  10. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in a region of Southern Brazil where the subtype C of HIV-1 infection predominates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Sandra Aparecida; Galato Júnior, João; Silveira, Elizângela da Silva; Oenning, Roberto Teixeira; Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo; Moreira, Jeverson; Fochesato, Celine Maria; Brígido, Luís Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosângela; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt Torres

    2011-01-01

    Southern Brazil has the highest prevalence rate of AIDS in the country and is the only region in the Americas where HIV-1 subtype C prevails. We evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in the South region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. All pregnant women with HIV infection attending the obstetric outpatient clinic of Criciúma, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007 (n = 46) were invited to participate. Data of 36 eligible participants were obtained through a standardized questionnaire. The great majority were young, with a steady partner, low family income, low education level and referring early first sexual intercourse. Many reported use of illicit non-injecting drugs (55.5%) and unprotected sex with partners that were HIV-positive (57.7%), injecting drug user (22.2%), male inmate (19.4%), truck driver (13.8%), with history of sexually transmitted disease (11.1%) or men who have sex with men (MSM) (2.8%). Most (66.7%) of the participants had their HIV diagnosis done during the pregnancy, 7 (19.4%) had a previous history of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Therapy based on highly active antiretroviral therapy (94%) was initiated at 19.3 weeks on average and 33% showed irregular antiretroviral adherence. These results confirm previous data on HIV epidemiology in Brazil and suggest that the women partners' sexual behavior and unprotected sexual intercourse are important aspects of HIV epidemic. Additional efforts in education, prophylaxis and medication adherence are needed.

  11. Reframing governance, security and conflict in the light of HIV/AIDS: a synthesis of findings from the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws upon the findings of the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI) to reach conclusions about the relationship between HIV/AIDS, security, conflict and governance, in the areas of HIV/AIDS and state fragility, the reciprocal interactions between armed conflicts (including post-conflict transitions) and HIV/AIDS, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on uniformed services and their operational effectiveness. Gender issues cut across all elements of the research agenda. ASCI commissioned 29 research projects across regions, disciplines and communities of practice. Over the last decade, approaches to HIV/AIDS as a security threat have altered dramatically, from the early anticipation that the epidemic posed a threat to the basic functioning of states and security institutions, to a more sanguine assessment that the impacts will be less severe than feared. ASCI finds that governance outcomes have been shaped as much by the perception of HIV/AIDS as a security threat, as the actual impacts of the epidemic. ASCI research found that the current indices of fragility at country level did not demonstrate any significant association with HIV, calling into question the models used for asserting such linkages. However at local government level, appreciable impacts can be seen. Evidence from ASCI and elsewhere indicates that conventional indicators of conflict, including the definition of when it ends, fail to capture the social traumas associated with violent disruption and their implications for HIV. Policy frameworks adopted for political and security reasons translate poorly into social and public health policies. Fears of much-elevated HIV rates among soldiers with disastrous impacts on armies as institutions, have been overstated. In mature epidemics, rates of infection among the military resemble those of the peer groups within the general population. Military HIV/AIDS control policies follow a different and parallel paradigm to national (civilian) policies, in

  12. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  13. Closed to reason: time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2007-05-01

    International Harm Reduction Development Program (IHRD joined by former United Nations Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, the respected Canadian statesman Stephen Lewis. The full report, "Closed to Reason: The International Narcotics Control Board and HIV/AIDS" is attached along [see Additional file 1] with a Russian translation of the key findings of the authors [see Additional files 2] as well as Russian and Chinese translations of this abstract [see Additional 3 and 4]. As the report makes very clear, the time to inject some accountability and reason into the INCB is now. Additional file 1 Closed to Reason: The International Narcotics Control Board and HIV/AIDS. Report by J. Csete and D. Wolfe of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network; International Harm Reduction Development Program (IHRD; Open Society Institute (OSI; 2007:1–32. Click here for file Additional file 2 Closed to Reason: The International Narcotics Control Board and HIV/AIDS Key Findings. Russian translation of key findings of the above report. Click here for file Additional file 3 "Closed to Reason": Time for Accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board. Russian translation of abstract of the above editorial. Click here for file Additional file 4 "Closed to Reason": Time for accountability for the International Narcotic Control Board. Chinese translation of abstract of the above editorial. Click here for file Howmany times must a man look up Before he can see the sky Yes and how many ears Must one man have Before he can hear people cry? Yes, and how many deaths Will it take till he knows That too many people have died? Bob Dylan

  14. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  15. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricélia da Silveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract: Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths, 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0, with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  16. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  17. To reiterate the concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jie HE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Explore new concept of self-aid and buddy-aid for combat wounded based on the emergency timeliness and the challenges we are going to face in the future combats, the importance of self-aid, buddy-aid and rescue are discussed. The concept and characteristics of self-aid and buddy-aid in our army are reviewed, and the care of the wounded in foreign armies were reviewed. Based on the experiences gained from previous combats, and the results of "Medical Service Mission-2014 Drill", it was believed that the emergency rescue of battle wounded should follow the timeliness rule and the principle of self-aid and buddy-aid technology. It might be beneficial to use cell protective agent, urgent relief of life-threatening conditions such as profuse bleeding from extremities, suffocation, pneumothorax, and traumatic shock etc., in order to stabilize the general condition of the wounded, according to the regime of "Platinum 10 minutes" and "golden 1 hour", self-aid and buddy-aid might play an important role in preventing early death and late morbidity of the wounded, thus helps reduce the mortality rate or the victims of combat wounds. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.01

  18. Indigenous Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C; Shimwooshili-Shaimemanya, Cornelia N; Kasanda, Choshi D; Zealand, Donovan

    2011-06-09

    The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease), katjumba (a young child), kakithi (disease), and shinangele (very thin person) were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog), esingahogo (pretender), ekifi (disease), and shinyakwi noyana (useless person) were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse), fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball), and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters), desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization). Typical (body wasting) and non-typical (big head, red eyes) symptoms of HIV were also revealed. The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board. © 2011 Chinsembu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Indigenous knowledge of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zealand Donovan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK can help students to form schemas for interpreting local phenomena through the prism of what they already know. The formation of schemas related to HIV/AIDS risk perception and prevention is important for individuals to form local meanings of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS among High School students in Namibia Methods Focus group discussions were used to collect qualitative data on indigenous names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS from students in 18 secondary schools located in six education regions. Data were grouped into themes. Results People living with HIV/AIDS were called names meaning prostitute: ihule, butuku bwa sihule, and shikumbu. Names such askibutu bwa masapo (bone disease,katjumba (a young child,kakithi (disease, andshinangele (very thin person were used to describe AIDS. Derogatory names like mbwa (dog, esingahogo (pretender, ekifi (disease, and shinyakwi noyana (useless person were also used. Other terms connoted death (zeguru, heaven; omudimba, corpse, fear (simbandembande, fish eagle; katanga kamufifi, (hot ball, and subtle meaning using slang words such as 4 × 4, oondanda ne (four letters, desert soul, and mapilelo (an AIDS service organization. Typical (body wasting and non-typical (big head, red eyes symptoms of HIV were also revealed. Conclusions The study determined students' IK of the names and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. Programmes to prevent/manage adolescent HIV infection and stigma may be strengthened if they take students' indigenous understandings of the disease on board.

  20. Development of a unified web-based national HIV/AIDS information system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Wang, Changhe; Qin, Qianqian; Ma, Ye; Ma, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the past, many data collection systems were in operation for different HIV/AIDS projects in China. We describe the creation of a unified, web-based national HIV/AIDS information system designed to streamline data collection and facilitate data use. Integration of separate HIV/AIDS data systems was carried out in three phases. Phase 1, from January 2006 to December 2007, involved creating a set of unified data collection forms that took into account existing program needs and the reporting requirements of various international organizations. Phase 2, from January to October 2007, involved creating a web-based platform to host the integrated HIV/AIDS data collection system. Phase 3, from November to December 2007, involved pilot testing the new, integrated system prior to nationwide application. Eight web-based data collection subsystems based on one platform began operation on 1 January 2008. These eight subsystems cover: (i) HIV/AIDS case reporting; (ii) HIV testing and counselling; (iii) antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults; (iv) ART for children; (v) behavioural interventions for high-risk groups; (vi) methadone maintenance treatment; (vii) sentinel and behavioural surveillance; and (viii) local county background information. The system provides real-time data to monitor HIV testing, prevention and treatment programs across the country. China's new unified, web-based HIV/AIDS information system has improved the efficiency of data collection, reporting, analysis and use, as well as data quality and security. It is a powerful tool to support policy making, program evaluation and implementation of the national HIV/AIDS program and, thus, may serve a model for other countries.

  1. A double hit model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillale, Nagaraja Rao

    2013-09-01

    Incubation time is a key epidemiologic descriptor of an infectious disease. In the case of HIV infection this is a random variable and is probably the longest one. The probability distribution of incubation time is the major determinant of the relation between the incidences of HIV infection and its manifestation to Aids. This is also one of the key factors used for accurate estimation of AIDS incidence in a region. The present article i) briefly reviews the work done, points out uncertainties in estimation of AIDS onset time and stresses the need for its precise estimation, ii) highlights some of the modelling features of onset distribution including immune failure mechanism, and iii) proposes a 'Double Hit' model for the distribution of time to AIDS onset in the cases of (a) independent and (b) dependent time variables of the two markers and examined the applicability of a few standard probability models.

  2. Need assessment for HIV/AIDS Education: The level of knowledge about transmission in some risk groups in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcebe, H.

    2002-01-01

    Every year, the number of HIV/AIDS cases increases twice as much as the year before in Turkey. The authors anticipate that the actual numbers of HIV/AIDS cases in Turkey are higher than the number of cases diagnosed and reported. This review summarizes the results of some previous studies that were conducted among various risk groups, such as high school and university students, barbers, hair dressers, nurses, pharmacists and doctors, men and women engaged in sex trade and security workers in different regions of country. The responses of participants to similar questions of studies on the transmission of HIV/AIDS were evaluated in this review. The studies that have been conducted among different risk groups in different regions have shown that in spite of low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Turkey, many risk groups still do not have adequate or correct information on the prevalence and transmission of disease. Effective and extensive health education on HIV/AIDS and the practice of healthy lifestyle would change the epidemiology of the disease in Turkey. (author)

  3. Water Accounting Priorities in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.

    2017-12-01

    In regions facing water scarcity, understanding the water balance sheet—how much there is, who has claims to it, and what is actually being "spent"—is key to effectively managing supplies to meet a wide range of societal goals. This is a common challenge across the American West, a region needing to balance the water demands of large irrigated agricultural sectors, growing urban populations, and declining aquatic ecosystems—in a context of increasingly variable, and in some cases diminishing, water supplies. Many local urban water utilities, and some irrigation water suppliers, have developed sophisticated data systems for tracking water availability and use within their systems. But there are still major gaps in essential metrics at the scale of watersheds and river basins. On the supply side, key issues include understanding groundwater availability and surface-groundwater interactions. On the demand side, the biggest challenges relate to understanding groundwater use and return flows—the water that is returned to rivers or aquifers and is available for reuse. In addition, most states lack consistent accounting and data standards for sharing water availability, claims, and use information—and transparent systems for reporting information to users in ways that facilitates oversight and flexible tools such as water trading. Drawing on a detailed study of water accounting in 12 western states and 2 countries with similar water challenges (Escriva Bou et al. 2016, Accounting for Water in Dry Regions: A Comparative Review, Public Policy Institute of California), this talk provides insights on best practices that can help fill critical water accounting gaps.

  4. The Effectiveness of a Single Intervention of Computer-Aided Argument Mapping in a Marketing and a Financial Accounting Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Michal; Chen, Richard; Davies, Martin; Kaur, Jagjit; Neville, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    An argument map visually represents the structure of an argument, outlining its informal logical connections and informing judgments as to its worthiness. Argument mapping can be augmented with dedicated software that aids the mapping process. Empirical evidence suggests that semester-length subjects using argument mapping along with dedicated…

  5. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early deaf subjects. Granger

  6. IQ, Skin Color, Crime, HIV/AIDS, and Income in 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In 50 U.S. states, we found a positive manifold across 11 measures including IQ, skin color, birth rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, HIV/AIDS, violent crime, and state income with the first principal component accounting for 33% of the variance (median factor loading = 0.34). The correlation with a composite of total violent crime was…

  7. Benefits of Imperfect Conflict Resolution Advisory Aids for Future Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapsilawati, Fitri; Wickens, Christopher D; Qu, Xingda; Chen, Chun-Hsien

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the human-automation interaction issues and the interacting factors in the context of conflict detection and resolution advisory (CRA) systems. The issues of imperfect automation in air traffic control (ATC) have been well documented in previous studies, particularly in conflict-alerting systems. The extent to which the prior findings can be applied to an integrated conflict detection and resolution system in future ATC remains unknown. Twenty-four participants were evenly divided into two groups corresponding to a medium- and a high-traffic density condition, respectively. In each traffic density condition, participants were instructed to perform simulated ATC tasks under four automation conditions, including reliable, unreliable with short time allowance to secondary conflict (TAS), unreliable with long TAS, and manual conditions. Dependent variables accounted for conflict resolution performance, workload, situation awareness, and trust in and dependence on the CRA aid, respectively. Imposing the CRA automation did increase performance and reduce workload as compared with manual performance. The CRA aid did not decrease situation awareness. The benefits of the CRA aid were manifest even when it was imperfectly reliable and were apparent across traffic loads. In the unreliable blocks, trust in the CRA aid was degraded but dependence was not influenced, yet the performance was not adversely affected. The use of CRA aid would benefit ATC operations across traffic densities. CRA aid offers benefits across traffic densities, regardless of its imperfection, as long as its reliability level is set above the threshold of assistance, suggesting its application for future ATC. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-12-01

    For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China's response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes.

  9. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  10. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  11. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...

  12. Regional differences in AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality in HIV-positive individuals across Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kowalska, Justyna Dominika; Karpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals acros...

  13. State and regional systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials cooperation between international, regional and states safeguards organizations: An evolving issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández Moreno, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between the IAEA, States and regional organizations is increasingly important to ensure effective accountancy and control of nuclear material in peaceful uses. The IAEA, SAGSI2 and institutions such INMM3 and ESARDA4 have recognized the relevance and the evolving role that SSAC5 and regional organizations play to this aim. In this context, it is important to take steps to ensure the effectiveness of the system and the optimal level of relationship between these organizations so as to maximize the benefits for each party, particularly in those cases where well developed systems exist. Moreover, expansion of nuclear energy requires concerted efforts towards building competence in safeguards in all relevant States. This is also important with respect to other aspects of nonproliferation. In this scenario there is agreement on the need to have effective state organizations that fulfill international safeguards and other security obligations. However, the roles and duties of SSAC and the possible scope of cooperation between the IAEA and SSAC are still under evolution. This paper discusses possible ways and means to build competence in safeguards and how the international community could be more proactive in establishing a framework including the various dimensions of the cooperation in safeguards and other security matters between all parties concerned. The establishment of a forum and a network of interested parties under the auspice of interested organizations could be one mechanism to exchange best practices and experiences. (authors)

  14. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  15. HIV / AIDS in China: migrant population, drug injection responsible for increased transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1998-01-01

    By 2000, China will have 1.2 million people infected with HIV and 33,000 people with AIDS. While HIV infection has been reported from almost all provinces and occupational groups in the country, HIV prevalence is highest among IV drug users in Yunnan province. The major source of infection elsewhere in China is through the receipt of tainted blood products and heterosexual intercourse. A National AIDS Committee was formed in October 1986 to advise the government on AIDS policy, and since 1990 to coordinate all AIDS prevention activities. The National Strategies Plan for AIDS/STD Prevention in China during 1996-2000 was prepared in 1995. China's in-country migrant labor population may become the most vulnerable to HIV infection. There are currently about 120 million migrant workers in China, of whom about half are registered, nonpermanent residents working in the fastest developing regions. The open nature of China's economy relative to recent past decades has made it difficult to monitor and control internal migration. Floating populations are the most difficult to reach with preventive health education and they tend to be deprived of access of health care. 61.4% of the migrant population is male and 40% are aged 20-24 years. China's traditional trade routes may be a factor in HIV infection. HIV/AIDS epidemiology, the synergy of STDs and AIDS in China, the international partnership in HIV/AIDS prevention in China, the role of international nongovernmental organizations in China, Hong Kong's contribution to AIDS prevention in China, awareness of the problems associated with HIV infection in China, and the challenges for AIDS-related work in China are discussed.

  16. The contributing role of tourism in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisatoki, R O; Oguntibeju, O O; Truter, E J

    2009-01-01

    The first confirmed case of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean was reported in 1982, however a recent report by UNAIDS shows that the epidemic has risen to over 250,000 persons living with the virus with the highest prevalence rates shown to be in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Various factors ranging from commercial sex trading to unsafe injection employed for drug abuse have been identified to play a contributing role in this increase. Also, the role and impact of tourism on the spread of HIV infection has been reported. Due to concerns shown by countries and territories who are dependent on tourism and that they rank amongst the most highly affected by HIV/AIDS in the region, this paper endeavours to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS and the contributing role of tourism to HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean.

  17. Accounting-related transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, M.; Bjorn, P.; Pate, G.

    1999-01-01

    Various initiatives have been undertaken by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to deregulate wholesale electric energy markets. These initiatives have focused on restructuring the transmission systems in the US and recently have culminated in a proposal requiring formation of and participation in regional transmission organizations. The overall form of regulation selected to determine rates for transmission entities as well as underlying regulatory decisions reached on key issues will have profound implications for transmission entities. For example, traditional cost-based regulation would require one set of accounting and reporting rules, while incentive-based regulation may not be subject to those same rules. An overview of some of the major accounting and financial reporting issues that will need to be considered is presented

  18. HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the elderly population in three divisions within the Northwest Region of Cameroon was examined. Data for this paper were extracted from a larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of ...

  19. Expert system aided operator's mental activities training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.

    1994-01-01

    The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  20. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  1. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  2. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  3. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    positively, whereas it is negatively associated with government consumption. Our results concerning the impacts of disaggregated aid stand in stark contrast to earlier work. Bilateral aid increases investment and GDP and is negatively associated with government consumption, whereas multilateral aid is only...... positively associated with imports. Grants contribute to GDP, investment and imports, whereas loans affect none of the variables. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that multilateral aid and loans have been disbursed in a procyclical fashion...

  4. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed

  5. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  6. Experts from necessity : agricultural knowledge of children orphaned by AIDS in the Couffo region, Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagbemissi, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 sketches the general background of the study. The study tests
    the hypothesis that HIV and AIDS not only impairs or modifies farmers’
    agroecological knowledge base, but also impairs or modifies their strategies to
    mobilize knowledge and resources. The research mainly aims

  7. Men and women--still far apart on HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Tim

    2003-11-01

    What could be more logical than a gay-feminist alliance to respond to the AIDS epidemic in Latin America? However, drawing on published articles and the author's experience in HIV/AIDS work in Chile, this paper argues that such an alliance is more rhetorical than real. Instead, both groups tend to stick to their respective niches and view the epidemic through the prism of the particular needs and concerns of their target constituencies, rather than learn from and support each other. Feminist rhetoric sometimes suggests that AIDS is a problem only because it affects women. The African paradigm of vulnerable women is inexactly applied, given the predominantly male and homosexual nature of the epidemic in most Latin American countries. Both women and homosexually active men are highly vulnerable to HIV infection, and little is gained by competing for the top slot on the "tragedy honour roll". Latin American gay men's groups, torn between AIDS and gay rights activism, often resist both protagonism by women and women's issues. Although the fight for access to antiretroviral treatment has obscured this conflict, it resurfaces in associations of HIV-positive people and may increase along with heterosexual transmission in the region. Discussion and exchanges should be encouraged to overcome these largely hidden divisions.

  8. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  10. Figure-ground organization and object recognition processes: an interactive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    1998-04-01

    Traditional bottom-up models of visual processing assume that figure-ground organization precedes object recognition. This assumption seems logically necessary: How can object recognition occur before a region is labeled as figure? However, some behavioral studies find that familiar regions are more likely to be labeled figure than less familiar regions, a problematic finding for bottom-up models. An interactive account is proposed in which figure-ground processes receive top-down input from object representations in a hierarchical system. A graded, interactive computational model is presented that accounts for behavioral results in which familiarity effects are found. The interactive model offers an alternative conception of visual processing to bottom-up models.

  11. Building a competitive regional innovation environment : the regional development platform method as a tool for regional innovation policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harmaakorpi, Vesa

    2004-01-01

    The study focuses on building a regional innovation policy tool that takes into account the demands of the present techno-economic and socio-institutional paradigms. Regions are seen to be strongly dependent on their history. The competitiveness of a region is based on the regional resource configurations. In a turbulent world these resource configurations have to be renewed over time setting demands for regional dynamic capabilities. This study emphasises five regional dynamic capabilities: ...

  12. Accounts Payable Administrator | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary An Accounts Payable Administrator is responsible for the processing of supplier invoices and grant payment requests (from the Grant Administration Division and regional offices for institutional recipients, participants, scholars, fellows and other awardees). Each Administrator looks after internal cost centers, ...

  13. Regional strategy and its features in the conditions of market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Myroshnyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “region” is defined. It is studied that in the conditions of modern market economy for an effective management of financial resources it is necessary providing the enterprise activities with optimal amount of these resources, their rational use, maximization of income and providing the appreciation of market enterprise value. In such conditions the issues of improvement of management of production processes, the effective use of financial, labor, and material resources become topical. The transition to the modern market economy caused the changes of all the economic system and, for the first, regional enterprises. The terms of managing the economy suffered transformations, which found an expression in the changes of ownership patterns, the terms of government control, and the tax system. The non-public sector of economy appeared as a result of reforms, modern banking system, markets of commodities, services, capital. It gives an opportunity for the reproduction on an expanded scale, the increase of enterprise profits, and the income of its proprietors. One is able to achieve this goal only under the optimal management of finances. In the modern conditions of managing the economy the control system is to be migrated to regions differing one to another in national, historical, geographical, economic and other peculiarities. A structural policy that must foresee the transition of state economy to a new resource-provided, hi-tech and economically safe model of operation is realized in Ukraine. Establishing in the country of free economic zones, where the favourable custom, currency-financial, tax and other conditions of economic activity are in force, is very promising. The territorial social-and-economic structure of Ukraine is based upon the principles of unity and integral state power, an appropriate balance of socio-economic development of separate territories taking into account historical and cultural traditions, demographic and

  14. A review of computer-aided oral and maxillofacial surgery: planning, simulation and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Sun, Yi; Politis, Constantinus

    2016-11-01

    Currently, oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) still poses a significant challenge for surgeons due to the anatomic complexity and limited field of view of the oral cavity. With the great development of computer technologies, he computer-aided surgery has been widely used for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of surgery. Areas covered: The major goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive reference source of current and future development of computer-aided OMFS including surgical planning, simulation and navigation for relevant researchers. Expert commentary: Compared with the traditional OMFS, computer-aided OMFS overcomes the disadvantage that the treatment on the region of anatomically complex maxillofacial depends almost exclusively on the experience of the surgeon.

  15. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  16. GIS-aided low flow mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, B.; Mohammadi, A.

    2003-04-01

    Most studies involving water resources allocation, water quality, hydropower generation, and allowable water withdrawal and transfer require estimation of low flows. Normally, frequency analysis on at-station D-day low flow data is performed to derive various T-yr return period values. However, this analysis is restricted to the location of hydrometric stations where the flow discharge is measured. Regional analysis is therefore conducted to relate the at-station low flow quantiles to watershed characteristics. This enables the transposition of low flow quantiles to ungauged sites. Nevertheless, a procedure to map the regional regression relations for the entire stream network, within the bounds of the relations, is particularly helpful when one studies and weighs alternative sites for certain water resources project. In this study, we used a GIS-aided procedure for low flow mapping in Gilan province, part of northern region in Iran. Gilan enjoys a humid climate with an average of 1100 mm annual precipitation. Although rich in water resources, the highly populated area is quite dependent on minimum amount of water to sustain the vast rice farming and to maintain required flow discharge for quality purposes. To carry out the low flow analysis, a total of 36 hydrometric stations with sufficient and reliable discharge data were identified in the region. The average area of the watersheds was 250 sq. km. Log Pearson type 3 was found the best distribution for flow durations over 60 days, while log normal fitted well the shorter duration series. Low flows with return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 year were then computed. Cluster analysis identified two homogeneous areas. Although various watershed parameters were examined in factor analysis, the results showed watershed area, length of the main stream, and annual precipitation were the most effective low flow parameters. The regression equations were then mapped with the aid of GIS based on flow accumulation maps

  17. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  18. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colins Kingoum Nubed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13–25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 % respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 % had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 % and high (62.1 % levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922. Conclusions Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among senior secondary school students in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubed, Colins Kingoum; Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla

    2016-08-22

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13-25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 %) respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 %) had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 %) and high (62.1 %) levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922). Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention. Those with adequate knowledge were more likely to display

  1. Health economics: potential applications in HIV/AIDS control in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing evidence that HIV/AIDS has enormous negative impact on health status and economic development of individuals, households, communities and nations in the African region [33]. Thus, there is urgent need for various disciplines to demonstrate how they can contribute in curbing the spread of this deadly ...

  2. Psychoactive Substance use among People living with HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a wide opinion on pattern of use of psychoactive substances especially parenteral psychoactive substances which have been indicted as one of the major mode of transmission of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the western world. However, there is regional variability especially in ...

  3. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...

  4. Buying a Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the aids? Start using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking hours. Keep a diary to help you remember your ...

  5. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  6. (Burnout Syndrome İn The Accounting Managers Of Lodging Operations)

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Ayten; Utku, Burcu Demirel

    2005-01-01

    (Burnout Syndrome İn The Accounting Managers Of Lodging Operations) In this study, the burn-out levels of accounting managers working in 5 star hotels or 1st class holiday villages operating in Antalya region are examined in terms of some variables. The population of this research consists of "77" 5 star hotels, "60" 1st class holiday villages, in total "137" accounting managers. İn the scope of the research, 101 accounting managers chosen through random samplin...

  7. AIDS-related stigma and social interaction: Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José

    2005-02-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.

  8. EU Development Aid towards Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Normative Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K. Bountagkidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU and most aid donors invoke a strong normative power face by explicitly connecting foreign aid with human and social development. However, how well the EU’s rhetoric is consistent with its practices as a multilateral development actor has not been explored extensively. In this study, we challenge the normative dimension of the EU’s development policy and explore whether the EU’s Official Development Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa is based on objective deprivation on the part of recipient countries or whether it is “interest driven”. We use a least squares dummy variable model regression to examine aid flows from the EU to all 48 Sub-Saharan African states for the period 2000 to 2010. The evidence found indicates that in certain instances, aid allocation contradicts the normative rhetoric that the EU uses to describe its development policy, as the donor’s own interests in the region seem to supersede priority given to the needs of the aid recipient states. A limitation to the findings is the fact that normative values and strategic interests are not mutually exclusive. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that the EU’s portrayal as a force for good in international relations requires cautious critique.

  9. Severe Bleeding: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...

  10. Puncture Wounds: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...

  11. A mathematical model of the spread of the AIDS virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, J.M.; Stanley, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical computer model of the spread of the AIDS epidemic in the US is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This model predicts the spreading of the HIV infection, and subsequent development of clinical AIDS in various population groups. These groups are chosen according to age, frequency and type of sexual contact, population density, and region of the country. Type of sexual contact includes not only the heterosexual, homosexual differentiation but also repeated contacts with such primary partners as spouses. In conjunction with the computer model, we are developing a database containing relevant information on the natural history of the viral infection, the prevalence of the infection and of clinical AIDS in the population, the distribution of people into sexual behavior groups as a function of age and information on interregional contacts. The effects of variable infectiousness and sexual activity during the long period from infection to disease are found to have a major impact on the predictions of the model. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  13. Design and operation of the national home health aide survey: 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitz, Anita; Moss, Abigail J; Sengupta, Manisha; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Squillace, Marie R; Emily, Rosenoff; Branden, Laura

    2010-03-01

    This report provides an overview of the National Home Health Aide Survey (NHHAS), the first national probability survey of home health aides. NHHAS was designed to provide national estimates of home health aides who provided assistance in activities of daily living (ADLs) and were directly employed by agencies that provide home health and/or hospice care. This report discusses the need for and objectives of the survey, the design process, the survey methods, and data availability. METHODS NHHAS, a multistage probability sample survey, was conducted as a supplement to the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS). Agencies providing home health and/or hospice care were sampled, and then aides employed by these agencies were sampled and interviewed by telephone. Survey topics included recruitment, training, job history, family life, client relations, work-related injuries, and demographics. NHHAS was virtually identical to the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey of certified nursing assistants employed in sampled nursing homes with minor changes to account for differences in workplace environment and responsibilities. RESULTS From September 2007 to April 2008, interviews were completed with 3,416 aides. A public-use data file that contains the interview responses, sampling weights, and design variables is available. The NHHAS overall response rate weighted by the inverse of the probability of selection was 41 percent. This rate is the product of the weighted first-stage agency response rate of 57 percent (i.e., weighted response rate of 59 percent for agency participation in NHHCS times the weighted response rate of 97 percent for agencies participating in NHHCS that also participated in NHHAS) and the weighted second-stage aide response rate of 72 percent to NHHAS.

  14. Healthy competition drives success in results-based aid: Lessons from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Palmisano, Erin B; Dansereau, Emily; Schaefer, Alexandra; Woldeab, Alexander; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Salvatierra, Benito; Hernandez-Prado, Bernardo; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI) is a three-operation strategy, and is a pioneer in the world of results-based aid (RBA) in terms of the success it has achieved in improving health system inputs following its initial operation. This success in meeting pre-defined targets is rare in the world of financial assistance for health. We investigated the influential aspects of SMI that could have contributed to its effectiveness in improving health systems, with the aim of providing international donors, bilateral organizations, philanthropies, and recipient countries with new perspectives that can help increase the effectiveness of future assistance for health, specifically in the arena of RBA. Qualitative methods based on the criteria of relevance and effectiveness proposed by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Our methods included document review, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion, and a partnership analysis. A purposive sample of 113 key informants, comprising donors, representatives from the Inter-American Development Bank, ministries of health, technical assistance organizations, evaluation organizations, and health care providers. During May-October 2016, we interviewed regarding the relevance and effectiveness of SMI. Themes emerged relative to the topics we investigated, and covered the design and the drivers of success of the initiative. The success is due to 1) the initiative's regional approach, which pressured recipient countries to compete toward meeting targets, 2) a robust and flexible design that incorporated the richness of input from stakeholders at all levels, 3) the design-embedded evaluation component that created a culture of accountability among recipient countries, and 4) the reflective knowledge environment that created a culture of evidence-based decision-making. A regional approach involving all appropriate stakeholders, and based on knowledge sharing and

  15. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  16. Application Framework Of Integrated Energy Resources Planning Considering Full Environmental Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, Paulo Helio; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar; Ribeiro Galvao, Luis Claudio; Baesso Grimoni, Jose Aquiles

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes the full environmental accounting being used in RAA (Administrative Region of Aracatuba), an area composed of 43 municipalities in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The full environment accounting shows the vulnerabilities and advantages in the region that can be used as a tool for public awareness and involvement in decision making to choose the most appropriate energy resources of the region. It is characterized by four main environmental categories: aerial, aquatic, land and anthropogenic mediums, each to be used as a tool for decision making in energy planning, specifically with the methodology of PIR - Integrated Energy Resources Planning.

  17. ACCOUNTING AND AUDIT OPERATIONS ON CURRENT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblyanska Olena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to theoretical, methodical and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account. The purpose of the study is to deepen and consolidate the theoretical and practical knowledge of the issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account, identify practical problems with the implementation of the methodology and organization of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account and develop recommendations for the elimination of deficiencies and improve the accounting and auditing. Results. The issue of the relevance of proper accounting and audit of transactions on the current account in the bank is considered. The research of typical operations on the current account was carried out with using of the method of their reflection in the account on practical examples. Features of the audit of transactions on the current account are examined, the procedure for its implementation is presented, and types of abuses and violations that occur while performing operations on the current account are identified. The legal regulation of accounting, analysis and control of operations with cash on current accounts is considered. The problem issues related to the organization and conducting of the audit of funds in the accounts of the bank are analyzed, as well as the directions of their solution are determined. The proposals for determining the sequence of actions of the auditor during the check of cash flow on accounts in the bank are provided. Conclusions. The questions about theoretical, methodological and practical issues of accounting and auditing of operations on the current account in the bank. A study of typical operations with cash on the current account was carried out with the use of the method of their reflection in the accounts and the features of the auditing of cash on the account.

  18. Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: as easy as ABC? | Bertrand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The failure to stem HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and the unique epidemiological modes of infection within this region have demonstrated that unique strategies for combatting the virus are required. This review article discusses why international AIDS campaigns in sub- Saharan Africa have largely been ...

  19. An assessment of government policy response to HIV/AIDS in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emphasis on the linkages between economic development, urban ... of policy response by counter-balancing the level of .... show high prevalence in the eastern and Volta regions ..... subjects such as English language, agriculture, life skills, ..... Work! USAID/Mobile Task Team on HIV/AIDS in Education,Accra. Claypoole, C.

  20. Positive implications from socially accountable, community-engaged medical education across two Philippines regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Torres; Cristobal, Fortunato; Siega-Sur, Jusie; Ross, Simone; Neusy, Andre-Jacques; Halili, Servando; Reeve, Carole

    2018-02-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide lack access to quality health services, largely because of geographic and socioeconomic maldistribution of qualified practitioners. This study describes differences between the practice locations of Philippines medical graduates from two 'socially accountable, community-engaged' health professional education (SAHPE) schools and the practice locations of graduates from two 'conventionally trained' medical schools located in the same respective geographic regions. Licensed medical graduates were currently practising in the Philippines and had been practising for at least 6 months. Graduates were from two Philippines SAHPE schools (Ateneo de Zamboanga University-School of Medicine (ADZU-SOM) on the Zamboanga Peninsula (n=212) and the University of the Philippines Manila-School of Health Sciences (SHS-Palo) in Eastern Visayas (n=71), and from two 'conventional' medical schools Methods: Current graduate practice locations in municipalities or cities were linked with their respective population size and socioeconomic income class, and geocoded using Geographical Information System software onto a geospatial map of the Philippines. Bivariate analysis compared the population size and socioeconomic class of communities where the SAHPE medical graduates practised to communities where 'conventional' medical school graduates practised. Thirty-one percent of ADZU-SOM medical graduates practised in communities play a significant role in graduates choosing to practice in rural and/or economically disadvantaged communities. Governments experiencing medical workforce maldistributions similar to those in the Philippines should consider SAHPE as a potentially cost-effective strategy in recruiting and retaining health graduates to underserved areas.

  1. Basic Practices Aiding High-Performance Homeland Security Regional Partnerships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caudle, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    ....1 A national priority under the Goal is the use of geographic regions across the nation to share risk, engage in joint planning, and share resources to develop and sustain risk-based capability levels...

  2. The Performance-Perceptual Test (PPT) and its relationship to aided reported handicap and hearing aid satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Forsline, Anna

    2006-06-01

    significant predictors of scores on the HHIE/A such that greater reported handicap is associated with underestimating hearing ability, poorer aided ability to understand speech in noise, and being younger. Scores on the Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life were not well explained by the PPT, age, or audiometric thresholds. When individuals were grouped by their HHIE/A scores, it was seen that individuals who report more handicap than expected based on their audiometric thresholds, have a more negative PPDIS, i.e., underestimate their hearing ability, relative to individuals who report expected handicap, who in turn have a more negative PPDIS than individuals who report less handicap than expected. No such patterns were apparent for the Performance SRTN. The study showed the PPT to be a reliable outcome measure that can provide more information than a performance measure and/or a questionnaire measure alone, in that the PPDIS can provide the clinician with an explanation for discrepant objective and subjective reports of hearing difficulties. The finding that self-reported handicap is affected independently by both actual ability to hear and the (mis)perception of ability to hear underscores the difficulty clinicians encounter when trying to interpret outcomes questionnaires. We suggest that this variable should be measured and taken into account when interpreting questionnaires and counseling patients.

  3. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A.; Stammen, Ronald M.; Mantell, Joanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed. PMID:17906312

  4. Corruption and oil exploration: expert agreement about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Isidore A; Stammen, Ronald M; Mantell, Joanne E

    2008-08-01

    The Niger Delta, according to the Nigerian Ministry of Health, has a disproportionately high HIV infection rate, which is double the national average. The United Nations Development Program attributes the spiraling HIV infection rate in the region to poverty, migration and gender inequality. This paper examines two complementary suppositions: Is the high prevalence of HIV in the Niger Delta related to incompetent leadership and corruption? Is it related to the negative effects of oil exploration in the region? Currently, there is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of government programs or the role of the oil industry on the impact of AIDS in Nigeria. To address this gap, we conducted a survey with 27 internationally renowned experts from diverse disciplines using a three-round modified Delphi to formulate consensus about the impact of weak governance and oil corruption on AIDS in the Niger Delta. Results from the Delphi suggest that these factors and others have exacerbated the transmission of HIV in the region. To mitigate the impact of AIDS in the region, efforts to engage oil companies in implementing HIV prevention programs as part of their corporate environmental responsibility to the community are urgently needed.

  5. Cell Cycle Regulates Nuclear Stability of AID and Determines the Cellular Response to AID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Le

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AID (Activation Induced Deaminase deaminates cytosines in DNA to initiate immunoglobulin gene diversification and to reprogram CpG methylation in early development. AID is potentially highly mutagenic, and it causes genomic instability evident as translocations in B cell malignancies. Here we show that AID is cell cycle regulated. By high content screening microscopy, we demonstrate that AID undergoes nuclear degradation more slowly in G1 phase than in S or G2-M phase, and that mutations that affect regulatory phosphorylation or catalytic activity can alter AID stability and abundance. We directly test the role of cell cycle regulation by fusing AID to tags that destabilize nuclear protein outside of G1 or S-G2/M phases. We show that enforced nuclear localization of AID in G1 phase accelerates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, and is well-tolerated; while nuclear AID compromises viability in S-G2/M phase cells. We identify AID derivatives that accelerate somatic hypermutation with minimal impact on viability, which will be useful tools for engineering genes and proteins by iterative mutagenesis and selection. Our results further suggest that use of cell cycle tags to regulate nuclear stability may be generally applicable to studying DNA repair and to engineering the genome.

  6. We are all people living with AIDS: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, H

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice.

  7. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  8. Prevalence and lethality among patients with histoplasmosis and AIDS in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaísa C; Treméa, Carolina M; Zara, Ana Laura S A; Mendonça, Ana Flávia; Godoy, Cássia S M; Costa, Carolina R; Souza, Lúcia K H; Silva, Maria R R

    2017-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis that is considered an important public health problem. In this work, we performed a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study with a secondary data analysis of medical records from 2000 to 2012 at a tertiary hospital. The study sample consisted of 275 patients with laboratory-confirmed Disseminated Histoplasmosis (DH)/AIDS. The results showed that the prevalence of DH associated with AIDS was 4.4%. The majority of patients were young adult men with fever in 84.2%, cough in 63.4%, weight loss in 63.1%, diarrhoea in 44.8% and skin manifestations in 27.6% of patients. In the overall cohort, the CD4 counts were low, but not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors. Higher levels of urea and lower levels of haemoglobin and platelets were observed in non-survivor patients (<.05). The global lethality was 71.3% (196/275). The results with high prevalence and lethality highlight the need to adopt measures to facilitate early diagnosis, proper treatment and improved prognosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  11. Kebijakan Pengendalian HIV/AIDS di Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara nasional, Indonesia telah mengantisipasi epidemi HIV/AIDS, tetapi jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Provinsi Bali dari tahun ke tahun memperlihatkan peningkatan yang semakin mengkhawatirkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan jumlah kasus dan kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS di Denpasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang dilakukan di Denpasar pada tanggal 11-17 September 2011. Sampel penelitian ini menggunakan informan terpilih yaitu kepala bappeda, pejabat Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Denpasar, direktur rumah sakit, puskesmas, ketua komisi penanggulangan AIDS di kabupaten/kota dan pemerhati HIV/AIDS termasuk ODHA. Penelitian menemukan jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Kota Denpasar yang tertinggi dan penularan terbesarnya melalui hubungan seks. Namun, dukungan pemerintah daerah dalam upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS terlihat belum maksimal. Padahal kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS sangat ditentukan oleh cara pandang pemerintah terhadap penyakit HIV/AIDS. Untuk itu, perlu peningkatan pemahaman tentang HIV/AIDS serta pencegahan dan penanganan semua pihak terkait sehingga penanggulangan HIV/AIDS dapat lebih efektif, efisien, dan tepat sasaran. Nationally, Indonesia anticipated HIV/AIDS epidemic, but the number of cases of HIV/AIDS in Bali province from year to year showed an increase in the increasingly alarming. This study aimed to determine the number of cases and the development of policies on HIV / AIDS in Denpasar. This research was conducted using qualitative methods in Denpasar on 11-17 September 2011. The study sample was selected using the informant is head of planning, Denpasar District health officers, the director of the hospital, health center, chairman of the commission on AIDS in the district/city and observer of HIV / AIDS, including people living with HIV. The study found the number of cases of HIV / AIDS in the city of Denpasar is the highest and greatest transmission through sexual intercourse

  12. Body region dissatisfaction predicts attention to body regions on other women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Amy D; Ferris, Tamara; Graham, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of "idealized" (i.e., very thin and attractive) women in the media has contributed to increasing rates of body dissatisfaction among women. However, it remains relatively unknown how women attend to these images: does dissatisfaction predict greater or lesser attention to these body regions on others? Fifty healthy women (mean age=21.8 years) viewed images of idealized and plus-size models; an eye-tracker recorded visual attention. Participants also completed measures of satisfaction for specific body regions, which were then used as predictors of visual attention to these regions on models. Consistent with an avoidance-type process, lower levels of satisfaction with the two regions of greatest reported concern (mid, lower torso) predicted less attention to these regions; greater satisfaction predicted more attention to these regions. While this visual attention bias may aid in preserving self-esteem when viewing idealized others, it may preclude the opportunity for comparisons that could improve self-esteem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Illicit Drug Use and the Social Context of HIV/AIDS in Alabama's Black Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen

    2007-01-01

    Context: The rural Black Belt of Alabama is among the poorest areas of the nation. Poverty, lack of health infrastructure, and health disparities involving HIV/AIDS and other diseases reflect the lower life expectancy of people in the region. The Black Belt region has the highest HIV rates in rural America. Purpose: Using Alabama as a case…

  14. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  15. Reducing regional vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Trindade, Bernardo; Jonathan, Herman; Harrison, Zeff; Gregory, Characklis

    2016-04-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern US are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative management strategies. Results show that the sampling of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM can aid in the discovery of management actions that substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be explored jointly to decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. The insights from this work have general merit for regions where adjacent municipalities can benefit from cooperative regional water portfolio planning.

  16. Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2010-08-09

    Persons living with AIDS today remain at elevated cancer risk. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), widely available since 1996, prolongs life, but immune function is not fully restored. We conducted this study to assess long-term cancer risk among persons with AIDS relative to the general population and the impact of HAART on cancer incidence. Records of 263 254 adults and adolescents with AIDS (1980-2004) from 15 US regions were matched to cancer registries to capture incident cancers during years 3 through 5 and 6 through 10 after AIDS onset. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess risks relative to the general population. Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare cancer incidence before and after 1996 to assess the impact of availability of HAART. Risk was elevated for the 2 major AIDS-defining cancers: Kaposi sarcoma (SIRs, 5321 and 1347 in years 3-5 and 6-10, respectively) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIRs, 32 and 15). Incidence of both malignancies declined in the HAART era (1996-2006). Risk was elevated for all non-AIDS-defining cancers combined (SIRs, 1.7 and 1.6 in years 3-5 and 6-10, respectively) and for the following specific non-AIDS-defining cancers: Hodgkin lymphoma and cancers of the oral cavity and/or pharynx, tongue, anus, liver, larynx, lung and/or bronchus, and penis. Anal cancer incidence increased between 1990-1995 and 1996-2006 (RR, 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-4.0), as did that of Hodgkin lymphoma (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9). Among people who survived for several years or more after an AIDS diagnosis, we observed high risks of AIDS-defining cancers and increasing incidence of anal cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma.

  17. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  18. Aid policy for peat from the EU's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Suvanto-Luomala, S.; Aeimae, K.

    2002-10-01

    The study analyses the restrictions that may be imposed by the European Union on our national taxation schemes supporting the energy use of peat. These restrictions would mainly relate to the EU and international climate policy, which may change the attitudes towards the energy use of peat. The taxation arrangements studied concern the refunds of the electricity tax granted to small peat-fired power plants and the tax on peat, which compared especially with coal, is light in heat production. The study aims to find out whether the arrangements included State aid prohibited by the European Community or whether they gave rise to prohibited tax discrimination of other Member States' energy products. It was concluded that the objectives of the Community, particularly the regional security of energy supply, promotion of combined electricity and heat production, and employment, favour the energy use of peat rather than oppose to it. As for the aid to small power plants, it can be considered that the grounds for obtaining an exemption from the EC State aid prohibition exist, because the benefits of the aid referred to are more important than the disadvantages brought by it for undistorted trade and competition. This situation cannot be expected to change in the near future, either, e.g. as a result of the climate policy. As regards heat production, peat taxation cannot be considered to include State aid or to lead to discrimination against exported fuels like coal. This is essentially based on the taxation sovereignty of Member States and the related right to enhance national goals by means of taxation. The current energy tax regulation by the Community or the Commission's Proposal for an Energy Tax Directive do not seem to pose any obstacles to continuing Finland's present energy taxation policy. (orig.)

  19. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  20. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  1. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  2. Depressive symptoms among older caregivers raising children impacted by HIV/AIDS in the Omusati Region of Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalomo, Eveline; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Besthorn, Fred

    2017-12-01

    The study of depressive symptoms among caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans is emerging as an important area of research. However, it has not been explored at length in generational and cultural contexts. In this study, the authors explore the role of financial strain, raising a HIV-infected and/or impacted child, and caregiver knowledge on the depressive symptoms of 89-older caregivers raising HIV/AIDS-orphans in Namibia, Africa. In this study, we found elevated levels of depressive symptoms among this population. Using hierarchical regression, a significant positive association between financial strain and depressive symptoms was found. A significant negative association between caring for an HIV-infected orphan and depression was shown. Our work suggests the need for economic assistance programs and psychosocial interventions for older caregivers.

  3. Aid, growth, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...

  4. Managerial innovation in the hospital: an analysis of the diffusion of hospital cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counte, M A; Glandon, G L

    1988-01-01

    Currently much interest is focused on the uses of cost-accounting systems within the hospital industry. Proponents frequently contend that such systems will help hospitals successfully adapt to new methods of financial reimbursement because they are essential to a number of major management functions, including competitive bidding, cost management, pricing, and profitability assessment. This article reports the results of a study conducted to examine the extent to which hospitals in a major market are actually beginning to use standard cost-accounting systems and identify factors that either aid or hinder the diffusion of these methods. Chief financial officers from 94 hospitals (83 percent response rate) participated in the study during the summer of 1986 where less than half of the hospitals (43 percent) had recently purchased a cost-accounting system. Detailed information about the interface of cost-accounting systems with other application systems and their specific management uses is reported.

  5. High expression of AID and active class switch recombination might account for a more aggressive disease in unmutated CLL patients: link with an activated microenvironment in CLL disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Florencia; Moreno, Pilar; Morande, Pablo; Abreu, Cecilia; Correa, Agustín; Porro, Valentina; Landoni, Ana Ines; Gabus, Raul; Giordano, Mirta; Dighiero, Guillermo; Pritsch, Otto; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2010-06-03

    Interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells with tissue microenvironment has been suggested to favor disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Previous work has shown expression in peripheral blood (PB) of CLL B cells of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) among CLL patients with an unmutated (UM) profile of immunoglobulin genes and with ongoing class switch recombination (CSR) process. Because AID expression results from interaction with activated tissue microenvironment, we speculated whether the small subset with ongoing CSR is responsible for high levels of AID expression and could be derived from this particular microenvironment. In this work, we quantified AID expression and ongoing CSR in PB of 50 CLL patients and characterized the expression of different molecules related to microenvironment interaction. Our results show that among UM patients (1) high AID expression is restricted to the subpopulation of tumoral cells ongoing CSR; (2) this small subset expresses high levels of proliferation, antiapoptotic and progression markers (Ki-67, c-myc, Bcl-2, CD49d, and CCL3/4 chemokines). Overall, this work outlines the importance of a cellular subset in PB of UM CLL patients with a poor clinical outcome, high AID levels, and ongoing CSR, whose presence might be a hallmark of a recent contact with the microenvironment.

  6. HIV/AIDS reference questions in an AIDS service organization special library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevey, Sharon; Behring, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Librarians in many venues may anticipate a wide range of reference questions related to HIV and AIDS. Information on HIV/ AIDS is now available in medical, academic, and public libraries and on the Internet, and ranges from the most complex science to the most private disclosures about personal behavior. In this article, the 913 reference questions asked between May 2002 and August 2004 in a special library in a mid-western community-based AIDS service organization are described and analyzed.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of leukoencephalopathy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John O.; Li, Chin-Shang; Helton, Kathleen J.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use objective quantitative MR imaging methods to develop a computer-aided diagnosis tool to differentiate white matter (WM) hyperintensities as either leukoencephalopathy (LE) or normal maturational processes in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with intravenous high dose methotrexate. A combined imaging set consisting of T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR MR images and WM, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid a priori maps from a spatially normalized atlas were analyzed with a neural network segmentation based on a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map. Segmented regions were manually classified to identify the most hyperintense WM region and the normal appearing genu region. Signal intensity differences normalized to the genu within each examination were generated for two time points in 203 children. An unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithm with the agglomeration method of McQuitty was used to divide data from the first examination into normal appearing or LE groups. A C-support vector machine (C-SVM) was then trained on the first examination data and used to classify the data from the second examination. The overall accuracy of the computer-aided detection tool was 83.5% (299/358) with sensitivity to normal WM of 86.9% (199/229) and specificity to LE of 77.5% (100/129) when compared to the readings of two expert observers. These results suggest that subtle therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy can be objectively and reproducibly detected in children treated for cancer using this computer-aided detection approach based on relative differences in quantitative signal intensity measures normalized within each examination.

  8. Physicians Mutual Aid Group: A Response to AIDS-Related Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…

  9. Solidarity and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.

  10. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.

    2010-01-01

    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that

  11. Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...

  12. Study Guide for First Aid Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygerson, Alton L.

    This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…

  13. Mutual aid in oil spill response: The Alaskan north slope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, B.; Ingram, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaskan Arctic Region provides one of the world's most remote and challenging environments in which to mount an oil spill response. To facilitate the timeliness and appropriateness of the response, Alaska Clean Seas (ACS) and the operators of the North Slope oil fields have implemented a mutual aid concept for spill response. The concept is based upon each operator on the North Slope maintaining its own inventory of personnel [a spill response team (SRT)] and equipment that is available on short notice to respond to a spill. If the spill exceeds the responsible operator's resources, additional resources can be obtained from other operators and/or ACS through mutual aid. Individuals from diverse organizations are brought together in a mutual aid event. To allow different organizations to function effectively in a multi-organizational environment, a common management structure was required. The structure chosen for the North Slope was the incident command system (ICS). A key concern when discussing mutual aid is the provision of indemnification from liability for responders. For the North Slope, ACS and its member companies are indemnified when responding to a spill through provisions in the ACS charter and the ACS response action contract

  14. Pulmonary infections and risk of lung cancer among persons with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma M; Engels, Eric A; Goedert, James J; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2010-11-01

    Lung cancer risk is significantly increased among persons with AIDS (PWA), and increased smoking may not explain all of the elevated risk, suggesting a role for additional cofactors. We investigated whether AIDS-defining pulmonary infections (recurrent pneumonia, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and pulmonary tuberculosis) affected the risk of subsequent lung cancer over 10 years after AIDS onset among 322,675 PWA, whose records were linked with cancer registries in 11 US regions. We assessed lung cancer hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression and indirectly adjusted HRs for confounding by smoking. Individuals with recurrent pneumonia (n = 5317) were at significantly higher lung cancer risk than those without [HR = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08 to 2.46, adjusted for age, race, sex, HIV acquisition mode, CD4 count, and AIDS diagnosis year]. This association was especially strong among young PWA (risk was unrelated to tuberculosis [(n = 13,878) HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.53] or Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [(n = 69,771) HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.18]. The increased lung cancer risk associated with recurrent pneumonia supports the hypothesis that chronic pulmonary inflammation arising from infections contributes to lung carcinogenesis.

  15. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen

    2018-03-01

    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The First Aid Training Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  17. System of regional centres of first aid in cases of radiation accidents in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    1996-01-01

    When in the seventies the number of occupational radiation exposed persons in the Federal Republic of Germany increased from about 35,000 (1974) to about 160,000 (1978) the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes felt prompted to reflect about special measures to prevent radiation accidents and provide health care for this special cases. They did so without any actual occasion: accidents were persons have been exposed by ionizing radiation were in the seventies just as rare as today. But that fact does not allow the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes to neglect the existing potential for severe accidents. So the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Electrical Industry including Precision Mechanics and the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute for the Chemical Industry created the Institute for Radiation Protection in 1978. The primary task of that Institute is to guarantee an effective first aid in the case of a radiation accident. To realize that task the Institute contracted 11 wellknown institutions like radiological departments of large hospitals or the medical departments of research centres where the i knowledge on diagnostic and therapy of radiation effects is present. They are called 'Regionale Strahlenschutzzentren', Regional Centres for Radiation Protection (RCRP). In the case of radiation accidents these RCRP are the logistical centres for all arising questions of treatment. They have facilities for reconstructing exposure situations and assessing and evaluating doses, including measurements of internal contamination as well as for medical inpatient or out-patient treating like internal or external decontamination. Another important task of the RCRP is to advise employers in ad radiation protection questions which arise with the industrial application of ionizing radiation. Of course the centres give also answer to many question from members of the public, for example the personal effects of the power plant accident at Chernobyl

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Extra Federal aid for minorities presents challenges for CBOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-27

    Congress awarded $156 million to deal with the HIV epidemic among African-Americans and other minorities. AIDS service providers welcomed the money but said that much more needs to be done. Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving minority populations are relatively new, and many need improved accounting and auditing procedures, information technology, and leadership development systems if they are to be productive. Hurdles faced by CBOs include competing for funding, recruiting volunteers, educating minority physicians, and planning community responses. The opinions of two former U.S. Surgeon Generals regarding this new funding and how it should be used are discussed.

  20. Aligning the systems of environmental accounting: From EU to Stockholm and vice versa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstroem, F.; Frostell, B. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Technology and Work Science

    2001-07-01

    During the last decade, authorities in local and regional communities, nations and international governance organisations, like the European Union (EU), have developed several systems for environmental accounting. An important issue in this development is the collection and collation of data. Except for the question of what data to collect, there is also a question of how to collect data. Focusing in particular on developments of physical environmental accounting systems in Sweden, a member nation of the EU, and drawing from experiences from work with materials accounting in the City of Stockholm, this paper discusses the need to align environmental accounting systems of different societal levels. It is argued that the systems of collecting 'environmental' data have to be better aligned with the objectives and strategies of environmental management and policy making, taking into account all aspects of utilisation of the basic data to be collected. If not, the result will be a conservation of the fragmented point solutions of environmental accounting systems we face today, resulting in inconsistency of data, duplication of data collection and processing efforts, and inflexibility to deal with changes. From this, it is also argued that the collection of data for physical environmental accounting (i.e. data on flows and stocks of materials and substances in society and the environment), would preferably be performed by a local/regional authority, but co-ordinated by national authorities and a national statistical office, under supervision of international authorities and statistical offices. Finally, the paper presents a structural framework for regional materials accounting, which combines a product-oriented strand with a substance-oriented strand of materials accounting, and allows for accounting and analysis on different levels of aggregation. This framework, which has been developed in co-operation with the City of Stockholm, should mainly be considered

  1. AIDS, haemophiliacs and, Haitians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 Feb 1983 ... deal with immunological changes in haemophiliacs similar to those in AIDS and indicate that a number of these patients may be at special risk, a finding supported by a report> of 3 ca es of AIDS identified in heterosexual haemophiliacs. An even more baffling finding is that AIDS is more prevalent in ...

  2. Danish first aid books compliance with the new evidence-based non-resuscitative first aid guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies...... between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. METHODS: We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess...... the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 first aid books...

  3. Using HIV&AIDS statistics in pre-service Mathematics Education to integrate HIV&AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laren, Linda

    2012-12-01

    In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.

  4. Trends in three decades of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand by nonparametric backcalculation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyacharoensin, Narat; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat

    2009-06-01

    To reconstruct the past HIV incidence and prevalence in Thailand from 1980 to 2008 and predict the country's AIDS incidence from 2009 to 2011. Nonparametric backcalculation was adopted utilizing 100 quarterly observed new AIDS counts excluding pediatric cases. The accuracy of data was enhanced through a series of data adjustments using the weight method to account for several surveillance reporting issues. The mixture of time-dependent distributions allowed the effects of age at seroconversion and antiretroviral therapy to be incorporated simultaneously. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess model variations that were subject to major uncertainties. Future AIDS incidence was projected for various predetermined HIV incidence patterns. HIV incidence in Thailand reached its peak in 1992 with approximately 115,000 cases. A steep decline thereafter discontinued in 1997 and was followed by another strike of 42,000 cases in 1999. The second surge, which happened concurrently with the major economic crisis, brought on 60,000 new infections. As of December 2008, more than 1 million individuals had been infected and around 430,000 adults were living with HIV corresponding to a prevalence rate of 1.2%. The incidence rate had become less than 0.1% since 2002. The backcalculated estimates were dominated by postulated median AIDS progression time and adjustments to surveillance data. Our analysis indicated that, thus far, the 1990s was the most severe era of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand with two HIV incidence peaks. A drop in new infections led to a decrease in recent AIDS incidence, and this tendency is likely to remain unchanged until 2011, if not further.

  5. Assessing Automatic Aid as an Emergency Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    provides examples such as Warren Buffet as someone who exhibits “smart trust.”20 Events that exceed the capacity of one agency require interagency...federal grant dollars to adoption is most successful. The 2004 Government Accountability Office report conclusion that some jurisdictions failed to work... Accountability Office, Effective Regional Coordination Can Enhance Emergency Preparedness (2004), 9, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/gaoreports/index.html. 19 III

  6. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of programmes for people living with the virus. The purpose of the study was to explore ...

  7. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  8. Determinants of Accounting Frauds:Perceptions of Indonesian Civil Servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadri Kusuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine a number of factors that affect the accounting fraud. This study used the variables consisting of information asymmetry, organizational commitment and individual morality. Theauthors study surveyed the employees at the Office for Management of Regional Revenue, Finance and Assets (Dinas Pendapatan Pengelolaan Keuangan Aset, Yogyakarta Province. This study uses convenience sampling technique method. The data from 96 respondents revealed that the variables of information asymmetry and organizational commitment significantly enhanced the accounting fraud while the individual morality significantly diminished the accounting fraud.

  9. Danish first aid books compliance with the new evidence-based non-resuscitative first aid guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Viereck, Søren; Roland, Jens; Pedersen, Thomas Egesborg; Lippert, Freddy K

    2018-01-10

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) released new guidelines on resuscitation in 2015. For the first time, the guidelines included a separate chapter on first aid for laypersons. We analysed the current major Danish national first aid books to identify potential inconsistencies between the current books and the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. We identified first aid books from all the first aid courses offered by major Danish suppliers. Based on the new ERC first aid guidelines, we developed a checklist of 26 items within 16 different categories to assess the content; this checklist was adapted following the principle of mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive questioning. To assess the agreement between four raters, Fleiss' kappa test was used. Items that did not reach an acceptable kappa score were excluded. We evaluated 10 first aid books used for first aid courses and published between 2009 and 2015. The content of the books complied with the new in 38% of the answers. In 12 of the 26 items, there was less than 50% consistency. These items include proximal pressure points and elevation of extremities for the control of bleeding, use of cervical collars, treatment for an open chest wound, burn dressing, dental avulsion, passive leg raising, administration of bronchodilators, adrenaline, and aspirin. Danish course material showed significant inconsistencies with the new evidence-based first aid guidelines. The new knowledge from the evidence-based guidelines should be incorporated into revised and updated first aid course material.

  10. Computed tomography for diagnosis of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Schonlau, R.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    To check the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the intestine, CT findings in ten patients with coloscopically proven CMV infection were reviewed. All patients were chronically ill men with AIDS. In nine of the ten cases CT scans of the small intestine and/or colon disclosed abnormalities. The predominant alteration (9/9) was a symmetric wall thickening in the bowel segments involved (10-30 mm). The location and extent showed good agreement with the inflammatory areas seen on coloscopy. The cecum and terminal ileum were the regions most frequently affected. In seven of the nine patients with CT abnormalities CT revealed pericolonic inflammation, particularly around the cecum. Lymph nodes were increased but not enlarged. Comparison of the findings in intestinal CMV infection with those in other AIDS-related diseases suggests that CT may be to limit the differential diagnosis. Abdominal CT serves as suitable primary imaging modality for the initial evaluation of patients with AIDS and abdominal symptoms of unknow etiology. (orig.)

  11. Evidence-based approach to HIV/AIDS policy and research prioritization in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizzadeh, A; Nedjat, S; Asghari, S; Keshtkar, A; Heshmat, R; Setayesh, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2010-03-01

    In formulating the second national strategic plan for prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Islamic Republic of Iran a more evidence-based approach was needed. This paper reports on a systematic review of the local evidence about the determinants of HIV/AIDS transmission in 3 categories: poor knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV transmission; injection drug use; and sexual promiscuity. Of 93 reports reviewed, 53 met the inclusion criteria. Information about the prevalence and magnitude of effect for the 3 risk determinants at the national and regional level was scarce. Heterogeneity between studies, even in the same sub-population, was significant. An improved research base and better sharing of information are needed within countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  12. THE MODERNISATION OF STATE AID CONTROL AND ITS OBJECTIVES: CLARITY, RELEVANCE, EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Di Bucci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 8 May 2012, the Commission adopted its Communication on State aid modernisation. Two years later, most elements of the reform have come into force. This was the most comprehensive overhaul in the history of State aid control. First, the Council quickly agreed to amendments of the Enabling Regulation, enlarging the scope of measures that can be exempted from notification, and of the Procedural Regulation, enhancing the investigative powers of the Commission and introducing the possibility for the Commission to intervene in national litigation. Second, the Commission issued new versions, based on a common structure, of its horizontal guidelines and frameworks: regional aid, risk finance, environmental protection with the addition of energy, research and development and innovation, rescuing and restructuring of undertakings in difficulty, a new document concerning important projects of common European interest, and some important sectorial instruments (broadband, aviation. Third, the Commission adopted a new de minimis regulation and a new, comprehensive block exemption regulation, intended to cover the majority of national aid measures. Fourth, a new notice on the notion of aid, yet to be finally adopted, should provide interpretative guidance. The result of the exercise is a considerable clarification of the rules, an improvement of the procedural tools and a limitation of the obligation to notify State aid projects. In turn, this should allow the Commission to work more efficiently, to reduce the duration of its procedures and to focus on the most distortive measures.

  13. THE ORGANIZATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AT SMALL ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Nadiya Khocha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to study the organization of managerial accounting in Ukrainian small enterprises. Methodology. The survey of management accounting is conducted by an interview with the manager/ chief accountant/financial director of small enterprises, or by sending the questionnaires to these persons via the e-mail. The sample of study includes fifty-five small enterprises of the Lviv region in different types of activities and forms of ownership. Results. Analysis of theoreti...

  14. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  15. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  16. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ben-Yan; Xiang, Yuan-Xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Liang, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (Peducation level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  17. Infâncias, adolescências e AIDS Childhood, adolescence and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Franco Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A epidemia da AIDS atinge crianças e adolescentes, demandando da sociedade a busca de respostas para seu cuidado, educação e saúde. Inúmeras ações, instituições e discursos começaram a emergir em nossa cultura, produzindo "verdades" sobre essa população. Utilizando o referencial teórico de Michael Foucault e dos estudos culturais, realizei um estudo com o objetivo de problematizar discursos sobre infância, adolescência e AIDS. Os resultados indicam que, nas práticas discursivas e não discursivas relativas às casas de apoio, sexualidade e revelação do diagnóstico, emergem modos de conceber a infância, a adolescência e a AIDS que vão "inventando" as crianças e adolescentes vivendo com HIV/AIDS. E que estes passam a narrar-se, a construir uma experiência de si mesmos através desses dispositivos que produzem subjetividades e que funcionam como uma tecnologia do eu. As discussões deste trabalho sinalizam para a necessidade de reflexão e revisão das práticas nessa área.The AIDS epidemic reaches children and adolescents, demanding from the society the search for answers to their care, education and health. Innumerable actions, institutions and discourses had started to emerge in our culture, producing "truths" about this population. Using the theoretical referential of Michael Foucault and the cultural studies I carried through a study with the objective of debate the discourses about childhood, adolescence and AIDS. The results indicate that, from the discourse practices and other ones related to support homes, sexuality and diagnosis' revelation, ways to conceive childhood, adolescence and AIDS emerge, "inventing" the children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. Also, these children and adolescents start to narrate themselves, and construct an experience of themselves through these devices that produce subjectivities, which function as a technology of the self. The discussions in this work point to the necessity of

  18. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  19. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if desired. What questions should I ask before buying hearing aids? Before you buy a hearing aid, ... the period of warranty? Does the warranty cover future maintenance and repairs? Will loaner aids be provided ...

  20. CHINA’S ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN AFRICA: TRADE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND AID

    OpenAIRE

    Michałowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the nature of China’s economic activities in Africa in three dimensions: merchandise trade, foreign direct investment, and aid. These are three main channels through which China’s presence on the continent affects Africa’s economic growth and development. China’s economic relations with Africa are, to a large extent, driven by Chinese demand for natural resources, especially oil and minerals. It is the most visible in Sino-African trade, where fuels alone account for about ...

  1. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-07-01

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  2. [Rejecting or prioritizing life? The ambiguities of AIDS biopolitics in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihling, Hanspeter

    2010-06-01

    The biopolitics of aids in Uruguay could be seen between two big poles: the investment and the rejection of life. The productive mode can be expressed in the treatment of children who contracted HIV through mother to child transmission. For these children the infection in many cases becomes an asset until they reach adolescence. Except of some efforts of forced detention and mandatory testing, the public health system as well as NGOs show little interest in assisting adolescence infected or affected by HIV/aids. This is the result of a moral economy which marks people who are able to transmit the virus sexually or who have contracted it through sexual intercourse. Especially HIV positive mothers are seen as irresponsible and dangerous in contraposition to their "pure" offspring. However, this moral discourse hardly takes into account the larger social and economic context in which those mothers contracted the virus and as they faced Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). The life history of an adolescent boy will be told in order to reflect upon the modes of inclusion and exclusion of people living with HIV/aids since the beginning of the epidemic in Uruguay. Although the case is not representative, it identifies dynamics within the Uruguayan health system which are difficult to discern through conventional statistical methods.

  3. Masculinidade hegemônica, vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV/AIDS Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Santana Marques Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo analisar as relações entre masculinidade, vulnerabilidade e prevenção do HIV/AIDS, com a ancoragem em narrativas de homens jovens pertencentes às chamadas classes trabalhadoras urbanas, levando em conta não só os sentidos atribuídos à prevenção por parte desses sujeitos, mas também considerando a relação dialética entre individuo e sociedade. O referencial conceitual engloba três eixos masculinidade hegemônica, prevenção e vulnerabilidade. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa baseada na perspectiva da hermenêutica dialética que utiliza o método de interpretação de sentidos. A análise produziu dois eixos como resultados: A masculinidade hegemônica como fator de vulnerabilidade; Mitos e preconceitos como fatores de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS; Em termos de conclusão, reforça-se a necessidade da discussão acerca da prevenção encampar a necessidade de colocar na ordem do dia a construção do sistema sexo/gênero em volta do qual se articulam os significados sociais da masculinidade e da feminilidade que influenciam estruturalmente o plano das relações afetivo sexuais, em geral, e a prevenção do HIV/AIDS, em específico.The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of

  4. Implementing HIV/AIDS education: impact of teachers' training on HIV/AIDS education in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.

  5. PP65 antigenemia in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Capela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. PP65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. The present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the Botucatu region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the Department of Tropical Diseases of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, and divided into three groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. The control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. Fourteen AIDS patients with low CD4+ cell counts tested positive for PP65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.

  6. "All I eat is ARVs": the paradox of AIDS treatment interventions in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalofonos, Ippolytos Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The number of people on antiretroviral treatment in Mozambique has increased by over 1,500 percent since it first became free and publicly available in 2004. The rising count of "lives saved" seems to portray a success story of high-tech treatment being provided in one of the poorest contexts in the world, as people with AIDS experience dramatic recoveries and live longer. The "scale-up" has had significant social effects, however, as it unfolds in a region with a complicated history and persistent problems related to poverty. Hunger is the principal complaint of people on antiretroviral treatment. The inability of current interventions to adequately address this issue leads to intense competition among people living with HIV/AIDS for the scarce resources available, undermining social solidarity and the potential for further community action around HIV/AIDS issues. Discourses of hunger serve as a critique of these shortcomings, and of the wider political economy underlying the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  7. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  8. Disseminated Infections with Talaromyces marneffei in Non-AIDS Patients Given Monoclonal Antibodies against CD20 and Kinase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jasper F.W.; Chan, Thomas S.Y.; Gill, Harinder; Lam, Frank Y.F.; Trendell-Smith, Nigel J.; Sridhar, Siddharth; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K.P.; Hung, Ivan F.N.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infections with the fungus Talaromyces (formerly Penicillium) marneffei are rare in patients who do not have AIDS. We report disseminated T. marneffei infection in 4 hematology patients without AIDS who received targeted therapy with monoclonal antibodies against CD20 or kinase inhibitors during the past 2 years. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging complication, especially in patients from disease-endemic regions.

  9. Is HIV-2- induced AIDS different from HIV-1-associated AIDS? Data from a West African clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Steele, Euridice; Awasana, Akum Aveika; Corrah, Tumani; Sabally, Saihou; van der Sande, Marianne; Jaye, Assan; Togun, Toyin; Sarge-Njie, Ramu; McConkey, Samuel J.; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2007-01-01

    Although AIDS is less frequent following HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection, it is unclear whether the clinical picture and clinical course of AIDS are similar in the two infections. To compare the pattern of AIDS-defining events, CD4 cell count at the time of AIDS diagnosis, survival from time of AIDS, and

  10. IMPROVEMENT ACCOUNTING OF SALES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON FARM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmuratovich Eshmuradov ULUGBEK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the selling process of farm enterprises,particularly, we will investigate the approach of improving the accounting of sales.The study also examines the factors associated with recognition of revenue in the phase of sale of goods and services of farm enterprises. The findings show that there are numerous mistakes in accounting of sales and financial statements. In addition, we conclude that the main contribution of IAS 41 is to provide a strong conceptual framework in agricultural accounting practice. However, this standard is mainly used in EU. In the study we try to find the ways of applying of IAS 41 in accounting system of farms of the region Samarkand.

  11. A Review of the Factors Associated with the Adoption of Accounting Information Systems in Gulf Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammour, Hadal; Househ, Mowafa; Razzak, Hira Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This review attempts to elucidate the significance of accounting information systems within healthcare settings in the Gulf regions. Information and communication technologies (ICT) has provided accounting system the ability to help an organization use and develop computerized systems to record and track financial transactions. Accounting information systems, if well implemented, can permit healthcare sectors in the Gulf regions to produce reports that can support the decision making process. Additional abilities of an accounting information systems include faster processing, enriched accuracy, amplified functionality, and improved external reporting. Training of hospital staff can help in enhancing the use of accounting information systems in gulf hospitals.

  12. Exploring experience and perspectives of foreign-born direct care workers in dementia care: Accounts of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin

    2018-05-01

    This focus group study explored experience of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms. Personal care aides described dementia caregiving as challenging, demanding and stressful, yet they cared for their clients with love and affection, particularly with jeong (i.e., a Korean cultural concept of love, affection, sympathy, and bondage). They learned about dementia mostly through their caregiving experience and expressed their need and strong desire to learn more about dementia. They felt for family struggle and observed family conflict and filial obligation. They advocated the value of personal care aides' involvement in dementia care. This study revealed a pressing need for dementia training for personal care aides and called for an outreach effort to recruit and train direct care workers with potential of providing culturally competent care for traditionally underserved ethnic minorities.

  13. Cinema as an Historical Document: AIDS in 25 years of Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais de Lacerda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It was 25 years ago, in the summer of 1981, when society as a whole and particularly the scientific community was faced with an unknown disease that came later to be known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Several films have sufficiently reflected the initial fears and uncertainty, the responses of the different social groups, the fight against ignorance, the urge of having access to treatment and the suffering of the infected individuals and their families that were due to this disease. Taking into account that these movies were filmed when these epidemics took place they can actually be considered as true historical documents that deserve being analysed by the generations to come. Films such as And The Band Played On; Long time Companion; Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt; Les Nuites Fauves; Angels in America; Yesterday and My Brother... Nikhil have marked 25 years of AIDS history that should not be forgotten by the world.

  14. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  15. Accountability and Transparency: Essential Underpinnings of Quality Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everton, C.; Floyd, R.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of IAEA safeguards is to maintain confidence in the international community of the compliance of States with their respective non-proliferation commitments. The safeguards system for ensuring this compliance produces the most important output, the IAEA's compliance findings. Confidence in the findings of any compliance verification system requires some basic elements such as independence, accountability, transparency, and quality management systems. Quality management systems are an internal set of documents and procedures that, while clearly important, need to incorporate an external communication component in order to engender confidence as to how compliance is being managed and ensured. This paper will explore the importance of these fundamentals to confidence in IAEA safeguards compliance conclusions, with a focus on the external communication elements of accountability and transparency. Accountability and transparency will be considered with different communication channels through which safeguards implementation matters are explained and reported and at different levels, facility, State, regional, and the IAEA. This will include communications by: the IAEA and State authorities to the general public; State authorities to peers in other national safeguards authorities (regional and beyond); and, the IAEA and State authorities to the international community as represented through the Board of Governors and General Conference. Examples will be presented of good practices in these areas to encourage greater accountability and transparency in the work of safeguards. (author)

  16. AIDS wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.

  17. Women and AIDS in south and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboi, N

    1996-01-01

    South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa. Those concerned with the welfare of the people of Asia, therefore, must make serious efforts to break the chain of HIV transmission as quickly and effectively as possible and identify and care for the infected. Women are entitled to protection by rights the same as men. However, for anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's "natural" vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic-potential "infectee", care-giver, transmitter of infection-if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women. Meeting this challenge requires involvement of men as well as women, individuals and institutions, governments and NGOs, in four broad areas of activity: (i) HIV/AIDS education and information; (ii) basic education and economic activity to reduce gender inequities; (iii) improvements in policy and social environments; and (iv) provision of health and other services. Lack of commitment, skill, or persistence in meeting the challenge will cost lives across Asia.

  18. A Study of Some Rostrofacial Indices Related to Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increasing use of the porcine species as experimental models for improvement of human dental implants, this work will further aid the knowledge of the regional anaesthesia of this species in dental implant studies and could be of value in the surgical intervention of priced animals. Keywords: Rostrofacial, Regional ...

  19. Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes adultos com tuberculose e AIDS no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil: relacionamento dos bancos de dados de tuberculose e AIDS Epidemiological profile of adult patients with tuberculosis and AIDS in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: cross-referencing tuberculosis and AIDS databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Nascimento do Prado

    2011-02-01

    demographic and clinical data from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center (TB database, Brazilian Case Registry Database, and Brazilian National Mortality Database, as well as the Brazilian National CD4+/CD8+ T Lymphocyte Count and Viral Load Network Laboratory Test Control System and the Logistic Medication Monitoring System (HIV/AIDS databases. All of the compiled data were cross-referenced. RESULTS: During the study period, we identified 9,543 TB patients > 15 years of age, 437 of whom (4.6% had AIDS. The median age did not differ between TB/AIDS and TB-only patients (35 years vs. 38 years. Of the 437 TB/AIDS patients, 298 (68.2% were male, and 156 (35.8% were in the 30-39 age bracket. In terms of TB treatment outcome, 79.0% were cured, 9.7% were referred to other facilities, 6.0% died, 5.2% abandoned treatment, and 0.2% developed multidrug-resistant TB. Death was 4.75 times more common in patients with TB/AIDS than in those with TB only. Pulmonary TB accounted for 82.4% of the cases. The combination of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB was 8.2 times more common in the TB/AIDS patients than in the TB-only patients (95% CI: 6.2-10.8. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasize the significance of AIDS among TB patients in Brazil, as well as the importance of evaluating secondary data in order to improve their quality and develop public health interventions

  20. Geochemical reconnaissance for uranium in the Palmyrides region of central Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the application of multielement reconnaissance rock chemistry, coupled with ground scintillation γ-ray measurements, to the investigation of the dispersion patterns of uranium and other major and trace elements in the rocks of the arid Palmyrides region of central Syria. The region is underlain by 10 km of sediments that accumulated in an interplatform depression during the Mesozoic and Caenozoic. Uranium and associated elements were syngenetically incorporated into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Palaeogene sediments - especially phosphorites, which are well represented in the region. The oxidizing environment of the region has facilitated the subsequent geochemical redistribution of uranium. In the investigation more than 400 lithogeochemical samples collected from an area of approximately 9000 km 2 were analysed for over 30 elements. The resulting data were interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate statistical methods and the areal distribution of uranium, its associated elements, multivariate geochemical functions and factor scores were mapped with the use of computer graphics. Anomalies of U are accompanied by concentrations of As, Se, V, Mo, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and P in various combinations. The highest U concentrations are found in the Upper Cretaceous, which contains a high proportion of phosphatic rocks; younger sediments contain progressively less U. Uranium anomalies close to faults, which have provided conduits for wider U migration, are superimposed on this pattern. Lithogeochemical methods thus define geochemical dispersion patterns with good contrast and delineate areas for further investigation. (author)

  1. How "accountable" are accountable care organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Rachael; Shortell, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of accountable care organizations (ACOs) in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was intended to support both cost savings and high-quality care. However, a key challenge will be to ensure that governance and accountability mechanisms are sufficient to support those twin ambitions. This exploratory study considers how recently developed ACOs have established governance structures and accountability mechanisms, particularly focusing on attempts at collaborative accountability and shared governance arrangements. Four case studies of ACOs across the United States were undertaken, with data collected throughout 2012. These involved 34 semistructured interviews with ACO administrative and clinical leaders, observation of nine meetings, and a review of documentary materials from each ACO. We identified very few examples of physicians being held to account as a collective and therefore only limited evidence of collaborative accountability impacting on behavior change. However, ACO leaders do have many mechanisms available to stimulate change across physicians. The challenge is to determine governance structure(s) and accountability mechanisms that facilitate the most effective combination of approaches, measures, incentives, and sanctions to achieve the goals of more accountable care. Accountability structures and processes will need to be tailored to local membership composition, historical evolution, and current stage of development. There are also some common lessons to be drawn. Shared goals and incentives should be reflected through performance criteria. It is important to align measures and thresholds across payers to ensure ACOs are not unnecessarily burdened or compromised by reporting on different and potentially disjointed measures. Finally, emphasis needs to be placed on the importance of credible, transparent data. This exploratory study provides early evidence regarding how ACOs are establishing their governance and accountability arrangements and

  2. What if "Form" Was the Aid? Possible Opportunities for Renewed Neighbourliness in Aid Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Kabini

    2016-01-01

    For Pacific Islands' peoples, relationships are of enduring importance. Yet, in spite of decades of aid giving and receiving, relationships in Pacific aid communities have predominantly been indifferent. In an era of global challenges, a new Oceania Education aid community is called to journey together to the common good through relational…

  3. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  4. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  5. Marketing Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.

    1978-01-01

    Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)

  6. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  7. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  8. Opinion: do we have the architecture for health aid right? Increasing global aid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godal, Tore

    2005-11-01

    The advent of the new millennium has witnessed the embracing of a different perspective on global health aid. New and innovative mechanisms in health-aid financing are leading to new opportunities, focused on greater innovation, risk taking and speed. However, these opportunities might not fully materialize if the traditional approaches of channeling and using funds are followed. To maximize global aid effectiveness and to have a realistic chance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the implementation of a holistic approach to the global architecture of health aid will be essential.

  9. [Traditional Chinese medicine syndrome factors of patients with HIV infection or AIDS in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Fu, Lin-chun; Ma, Jian-ping; Zhou, Qing; Peng, Bo; Xie, Shi-ping; Guo, Hui-jun; Dong, Yong-xin; Ma, Xiu-lan; Guo, Xuan-xian; Xie, Zhong-li; Hu, Yan-ping; Li, Qing-ya; Li, Hua-wei; Jin, Yan-tao

    2011-09-01

    To study the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome factors of patients from different areas of China with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A cross-sectional investigation study was conducted in Henan, Guangdong and Yunnan Provinces and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China from October 2008 to August 2010. Based on literature review and expert opinion, a clinical questionnaire of TCM syndromes was drawn up. This survey was carried out after the investigators were professionally trained. Wenfeng III Auxiliary Diagnosis and Treat System of TCM was used to analyze the frequencies of AIDS patients' signs and symptoms with scores above 70 of syndrome factors respectively. Based on this work, syndrome factors of AIDS were analyzed in different areas. There were 608 HIV/AIDS cases investigated from October 2008 to August 2010 in total; among them, 276 cases were from Henan, 126 cases from Guangdong, 120 cases from Xinjiang and 86 cases from Yunnan. The results of syndrome factor analysis indicated that the syndromes of four provinces were similar. HIV/AIDS patients in the four areas exhibited qi deficiency, blood deficiency, yin deficiency, yang deficiency, dampness, phlegm, qi stagnation and essence deficiency syndromes. Patients in each area also had their own characteristics, such as that the scores of dampness of Guangdong and yin deficiency of Xinjiang were higher than the other syndromes, whereas the scores of Henan Province were higher than the other areas. AIDS patients had higher scores of syndromes than HIV-infected patients. HIV/AIDS patients from different areas had similar syndrome elements. The theory of "AIDS toxin injuring primordial qi" can sum up the TCM etiology and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS.

  10. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between

  11. First aid in the case of increased exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Describes first aid measures for persons who have been exposed to increased radiation, especially certain steps to be taken in the case of external exposure of the whole and/or the partial body, in the case of contamination and incorporation. The pamphlet not only includes definition of terms but also a list of regional radiation protection centres. (RW) [de

  12. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  14. 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS research project'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, E. J.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Fontanet, A. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'Ethiopia-Netherlands AIDS Research Project' (ENARP), started in 1994, is a long-term collaboration between AIDS researchers in Amsterdam and the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in Addis Ababa. The ENARP's primary objectives include conducting studies on HIV and AIDS in

  15. The learning hearing aid: common-sense reasoning in hearing aid circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.M.H.; Ypma, A.; Vries, de B.; Leenen, J.R.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how hearing aid engineers have applied the Bayesian probability theory approach to the problem of hearing aid fitting. Currently more an art than a science, it is likely that probability theory will play a large role in future generations of fitting software used by dispensing

  16. 30 Years of HIV/AIDS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-02

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses the 30 year anniversary of the first reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Dr. Fenton also reflects on the HIV/AIDS epidemic – past, present, and future.  Created: 6/2/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/2/2011.

  17. The power of AIDS: kinship, mobility and the valuing of social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on fieldwork in Tanzania, I show how the Luo in the Mara region define HIV/AIDS as an outcome of modernity and globalisation, which to them have become embodied in processes of migration, the collapse of generational and gender hierarchies, and an increased immorality in contemporary society. While social ...

  18. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  19. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  20. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of