WorldWideScience

Sample records for aid policy public

  1. PUBLIC FINANCIAL AIDS - STATE FINANCIAL SUPPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available State aid represents selective measures of public financial support granted for activities or areas to achieve general objectives, such as environmental protection, development of SMEs, development of disadvantaged areas, rescue and restructuring strategic businesses, etc. But, even if the public authorities support economic development, the state aids can distort normal competitive environment. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement precisely rules on how the public authorities can intervene on market by providing state aids. State aid may be compatible if it pursues clearly defined objectives of common interest with the general beneficial effects on economic development, and does not affect the trade between European Union Member States.

  2. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  3. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  4. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  5. A sociedade civil contra a Aids: demandas coletivas e políticas públicas The civil society against aids: collective demands and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jimenez Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo realiza uma discussão da produção bibliográfica acerca da organização da sociedade civil na luta contra a Aids no Brasil. O objetivo é analisar as diferentes formas de articulação dos atores sociais, segundo a manifestação das necessidades coletivas e a conquista de políticas públicas. Foram recuperadas bibliografias da área da saúde e das ciências sociais, produzidas desde o início da epidemia no país até o momento atual. A análise da produção mostra que a pressão exercida pelos grupos mobilizados, principalmente no período da emergência da epidemia, gerou respostas por parte do poder público que tinham como referência o direito ao acesso e à assistência integral das pessoas que vivem com HIV/Aids. Atualmente, observa-se a heterogeneidade dos grupos da sociedade civil organizada voltados, sobretudo ao aprimoramento das políticas públicas existentes e à consolidação dos espaços conquistados. A importância desse estudo revela-se diante da necessidade de fortalecimento da ação coletiva para que sejam reivindicadas do Estado respostas compatíveis com o enfrentamento das novas demandas levantadas pelo movimento de luta contra a Aids.This article features a discussion about the bibliographical output on the organization of civil society in the campaign against Aids in Brazil. The objective was to analyze the different forms of articulation of the social players in accordance with the manifestation of collective needs and the achievement of public policies. The literature in the area of health and social sciences was reviewed from the outbreak of the Aids epidemic in Brazil through to the present moment. The results show that the pressure applied by mobilized groups at the beginning of the epidemic produced a response of the public authorities for whom the benchmark was right to access and comprehensive care of people infected with HIV/Aids. Currently, there are heterogeneous groups of organized civil

  6. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  7. LEGISLATIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AID IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION AS THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STATE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Demydenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes normative documents according to which economic incentives can become state aid, ways of developing European and national policies that allow the allocation of state aid for environmental protection and protected areas, and the promotion of biodiversity conservation on legal grounds.

  8. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  9. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  10. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenan M. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  11. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Gwenan M; Dharan, Nila J; Fox, Gregory J; Stennis, Natalie; Zwerling, Alice; Khurana, Renuka; Dowdy, David W

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy), the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  13. Implementing public employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Bredgaard, Thomas

    . But there is an interesting question to investigate here: whether and if so how, NPM-inspired reforms are related to changes in employment policy towards a work-first approach? Are changes in public management systems created as deliberate policy changes, or do they bring about more indirect and unintended policy changes......Like most other areas within welfare policy, the employment and social policy areas are undergoing far-reaching changes in many countries. Partly in the shape of new forms of governance inspired by New Public Management (NPM), partly through new policies oriented towards activation and stronger...... disciplining of the unemployed (work first) (cf.Bredgaard & Larsen, 2005; Sol & Westerweld, 2005). It is, however, remarkable that in the research field there seems to be a division of labour so that changes in public administration and changes in the substance of employment policies are dealt with separately...

  14. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  15. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy; La politique d'aide aux biocarburants. Rapport public thematique. Evaluation d'une politique publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  16. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  17. Gender and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreira Santos Farah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consists on an analysis of the incorporation of the gender perspective by public policies at the subnational level of government in Brazil. The article begins with a reconstitution of the gender agenda and its relations with the State reform agenda and the public policies reform agenda, since the 80s. Taking as reference the proposals that came from the women movement and from feminist entities, the article analyses programs from three sectors – health, violence against women and employment and income generation. The analysis focuses on the adherence of these programs to the gender agenda.

  18. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  19. Innovations in Public Policy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Alan J.

    Four major changes have occurred in public policy education during the past 5-0 years. First, public policy educators have richer and more complicated discussions about the relative benefits of advocacy and objectivity in policy education. Second, public policy educators and community developers are moving toward a genuine merger of content and…

  20. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    , and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over......This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  1. College Affordability and the Emergence of Progressive Tuition Models: Are New Financial Aid Policies at Major Public Universities Working? Research and Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.7.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Patrick A.; Douglass, John Aubrey

    2016-01-01

    In an era of significant disinvestment in public higher education by state governments, many public universities are moving toward a "progressive tuition model" that attempts to invest approximately one-third of tuition income into institutional financial aid for lower-income and middle-class students. The objective is to mitigate the…

  2. CDC WONDER: AIDS Public Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The AIDS Public Information Data Set (APIDS) for years 1981-2002 on CDC WONDER online database contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases...

  3. Preparing for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Brendan

    2002-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.

  4. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  5. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...

  6. Game theory and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    McCain, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a critical, selective review of concepts from game theory and their applications in public policy, and further suggests some modifications for some of the models (chiefly in cooperative game theory) to improve their applicability to economics and public policy.

  7. Public Professionals and Policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); B. Vermeeren (Brenda); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, public policies often focus on economic values, such as efficiency and financial transparency. Public professionals often resist implementing such policies. We analyse this using the concept of ‘role conflicts’. We use a novel approach by conceptualizing and measuring

  8. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  10. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  11. Public policy analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knoepfel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...-institutionalist schools The relationships between the structuring of a problem and political strategies Variables for the political agenda setting of public problems Actors, resources and insti...

  12. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  13. Public Policy and Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John W.; Skolnik, Michael L.

    This monograph was written in response to the perceived need for an examination of the role of manpower programs as components of public policy. Both manpower programs and related policies are examined in the context of the overall activities and purposes of government in Ontario and in the Canadian federal system. The importance of societal…

  14. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... Taylor fights to the finish, there will be no peace' (Eze 2003:2). Taylor was removed via an asylum offer by Nigeria. If there is any Nigerian government foreign policy gesture that has in recent times generated considerable public outcry, it is the issue of. Nigerian involvement in Liberia. It is one foreign policy ...

  15. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  16. Policy, Profession and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    with focus on an expressive logic, on the other hand, is defined by tolerance and inclusiveness both regarding forms of culture, types of aesthetic experiences and regarding participants. P for Profession: Professional logics The librarian profession has been analyzed and described several places. Some...... interconnected concerns that relates to literature promotion. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics of New Public Management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials......). Theoretical perspectives In order to investigate how Policy, Public management and Professional logics interplay in the field of public libraries, this paper uses an institutional perspective. Institutional theory is concerned with the field level. The concept of institutional logics is well suited...

  17. HIV and AIDS workplace interventions; Gaps between policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This study set out to identify gaps between policy and practice of HIV and AIDS workplace interventions in the University of Malawi, in particular College of Medicine in line with the UNIMA HIV and AIDS policy. Objectives The main objective was to establish whether the HIV and AIDS workplace interventions at ...

  18. Policy, Profession and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    PUBLIC LIBRARIES TODAY AND IN A HISTORICAL CONTEXT. Nordic conference on public library research – Oslo December 9, 2010 2. Belfiore, E. (2004). Auditing Culture. International Journal of Cultural Policy, Vol 10, no 2, p.183 – 202. 3. Buschman, J. E. (2003). Dismantling the Public Sphere: Situating...... of resources in the public sector more controllable, legitimate and transparent (Jarlov & Melander, 2005). In cultural policy studies NPM has been criticized for focusing on quantitative output such as lending rates instead of focusing on the impact of cultural activities in society (Belfiore, 2004...... and sustaining librarianship in the age of the new public philosophy. Westport, Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited. 4. Elbeshausen, H. & Schreiber, T. (eds) (2006). Bibliotekarerne – en profession i et felt af viden, kommunikation og teknologi. København: Samfundslitteratur. 5. Jarlov, S., & Melander, P. (2005...

  19. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  20. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  1. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Akihiro

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Public Policy and Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine

    2018-04-05

    To provide an overview of the history of electronic health policy and identify significant laws that influence health informatics. US Department of Health and Human Services. The development of health information technology has influenced the process for delivering health care. Public policy and regulations are an important part of health informatics and establish the structure of electronic health systems. Regulatory bodies of the government initiate policies to ease the execution of electronic health record implementation. These same bureaucratic entities regulate the system to protect the rights of the patients and providers. Nurses should have an overall understanding of the system behind health informatics and be able to advocate for change. Nurses can utilize this information to optimize the use of health informatics and campaign for safe, effective, and efficient health information technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Policy, politics and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Public Policy and Foucaultian Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mads Peter; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that certain intertwinements can be discerned between contemporary public policies and post-structural thinking, emblematically represented by Foucault and scholars drawing upon his work. The article demonstrates that the post-structural perspective on power, while recognising...... its strengths and efficacy, confines observers to a particular form of analytical critique, which sets specific limits for what can be observed and debated. The position of Nikolas Rose is discussed with a specific attention to his diagnosis of the adoption of ‘community’ as a governmental category...... conditions of critical practice which implies analytical critique and resistance through creative self-formation. The article suggests some dislocations of the generalized Foucaultian position on public policy that seem increasingly necessary in the present situation....

  5. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  6. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  7. Public policy alienation of public service workers : A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. This is troublesome, as for a proper implementation a minimal level of identification with the public policy is required. We use

  8. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  9. Análise das políticas públicas: uma proposta metodológica para o estudo no campo da prevenção em Aids Public policies assessment: a methodological proposal for the study in the field of Aids prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As políticas públicas são respostas do poder público para problemáticas sociais. Elas são estratégias de grande relevância para o enfrentamento da Aids e desenvolvimento de ações de prevenção da infecção do HIV, pois institucionalizam no setor público de saúde ações sistemáticas para esse fim. Elas se estruturam numa rede de determinantes que delineiam os caminhos a serem trilhados pelo gestor público. Nesse contexto, entram em jogo diversos atores, com diferentes interesses e poder de barganha político-econômica, negociação de concepções de mundo, estratégias de ação e campos de luta por direitos e deveres sociais. É uma disputa de saberes e interesses travada no campo político, permeada por aspectos sócio-culturais e econômicos. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho objetiva uma discussão conceitual sobre esse tema, desenvolvendo a concepção teórica sobre a análise de políticas, enquanto uma metodologia de estudo, compreendendo as categorias: atores, conteúdo, contexto e processo, onde, nessa última, se delimitam especificamente os processos de construção de agenda, formulação e implementação de uma política. Esse quadro teórico é desenvolvido centrando a temática da prevenção da Aids, contextualizada no cenário brasileiro, a partir da qual são elencados alguns entraves das políticas propostas, articulando-as às considerações de especialistas que buscam reorientar as intervenções públicas de prevenção à Aids.Public policies are the response of public power to social issues. They are very relevant strategies to face AIDS and the development of prevention measures concerning HIV infection, for they institutionalize systematic actions in the public health sector with this purpose. They are structured in a network of directives that establish the routes to be followed by public officials. Within this context, different actors are part of the game, with different interests and social and

  10. O papel das ONGs na construção de políticas de saúde: a Aids, a saúde da mulher e a saúde mental The role of NGOs in designing public health policies: the Aids epidemic, women's health and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ramos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa iniciativas da sociedade civil na elaboração de políticas de saúde no Brasil a partir do exame de três casos em que a atuação de organizações não-governamentais teve papel relevante nas três últimas décadas: a epidemia de Aids, a saúde da mulher e a reforma psiquiátrica. Situa o surgimento das ONGs no contexto dos movimentos de participação civil no Brasil, identifica suas características distintivas em relação a outras formas de associação e compara as trajetórias específicas nos casos da Aids, da saúde da mulher e do movimento psiquiátrico. O texto indica dilemas comuns ao campo das organizações não-governamentais no final dos anos 90 e aponta a necessidade de estudos sobre a participação de organizações da sociedade civil no desenvolvimento de políticas sociais, em especial das políticas contra a violência.This article evaluates a series of civil society initiatives concerning the design of Brazilian public health policies stemming from the analysis of three cases in which non-governmental organizations played a significant role in the three last decades: the Aids epidemic, women's health and the psychiatric reform. It studies the birth of NGOs in the context of civil society participation in the country, it identifies its distinctive characteristics in relation to other forms of association and it compares their specific paths in the case of Aids, women's health and the psychiatric movement. It points to common dilemmas in the field of NGOs at the end of the 1990's and the need for studies about the participation of civil society organizations in the development of social public policies, specially in the area of public policies concerning violence.

  11. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari-Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers' agenda setting in Iran. A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon's framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran's participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran's five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams' parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon's framework, especially in the health sector.

  12. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  13. United States Foreign Aid Policy for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tisson, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The policy shift appears to be directly related to the Global War on Terrorism and acknowledges that foreign aid can play an important role in mitigating developmental deficits that can result in instability...

  14. The new aid paradigm: A case of policy incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction At the end of the 1990s there was widespread disappointment with aid and with what aid had achieved. Poverty was still rampant, and growth rates in many poor countries were still low, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of coherence with other policies of the rich

  15. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  16. Policy alienation of public professionals: the effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. We conceptualize policy alienation, starting from the sociological concept of alienation and showing how this can be used in the

  17. Shortchanging Small Schools: Nebraska School Finance Policy. The Impacts of LB 1114 and LB 806 on State Aid and Property Tax Revenues for Nebraska Public School Systems by School Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Patricia E.

    Nebraska's small schools have been shortchanged by recently enacted school finance policies. LB 1114, which limited property tax levy rates, and LB 806, which changed the state aid distribution formula, were first implemented for the 1998-99 school year. These measures were intended to force cuts in school expenditures, especially among smaller,…

  18. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy

  19. Publishing on policy: trends in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Dreisinger, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the number and topics of policy articles published in general public health journals. We conducted an audit of articles in 16 public health journals from 1998 through 2008. Results showed no trends for the decade studied; only 3.7% of all articles published in these journals were policy-related, and the topics most represented were smoking/tobacco, health care, and school policy. As policy research on public health issues continues to develop, researchers have an opportunity to increase dissemination through publication in general public health journals.

  20. Family planning as public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    The inclusion of constitutional provisions and laws regarding family planning and the creation of the Population Commission in the Philippines are examples of the growing recognition in many developing countries that proper and humane control of population growth is a key factor in economic progress. Similar provisions have recently appeared in Thailand, Mexico, and the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Awareness of the need for adequate public education to ensure the success of family planning programs has resulted in the formation of commissions for that purpose in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal, and Sri Lanka. Voluntary sterilization is gradually gaining support. 3 South Asian nations (Pakistan, Singapore, and New Zealand) were among 12 to liberalize laws in 1974 and 1975. However, the prevailing opinion is that a massive public education program will have to be waged before acceptance becomes widespread in the region. Singapore's sterilization law can be used as a guideline for other nations in the area contemplating policy changes.

  1. The Impact of Financial Aid on College GPA at Three Flagship Public Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stater, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement in higher education is an important current policy issue because institutions are under public pressure to justify state subsidies and rising tuitions with demonstrable gains in student learning. This article uses data from three flagship public universities to examine the effects of financial aid on first-through fourth-year…

  2. Criminology, Economics, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, John

    1979-01-01

    At a time when Congress is facing critical decisions with respect to criminal justice policy, the participation of criminologists in the formation of policies remains negligible. A commitment by criminologists to policy research that examines the links between economic conditions and crime would constitute an enlightened approach to crime control.…

  3. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  4. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding Progress. Couverture du livre Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy : Rebuilding Progress. Directeur(s):. Devaki Jain et Diane Elson. Maison(s) d'édition: Sage, CRDI. 3 novembre 2011. ISBN : 9788132107415. 394 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505458.

  5. Post-exceptionalism in public policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Framing the special issue on the transformation of Food and Agricultural Policy, this article introduces the concept of post-exceptionalism in public policies. The analysis of change in agri-food policy serves as a generative example to conceptualize current transformations in sectoral policy...... arrangements in democratic welfare states. Often these arrangements have been characterized by an exceptionalist ideational framework that legitimizes a sector’s special treatment through compartmentalized, exclusive and producer-centered policies and politics. In times of internationalization of policy......-making, increasing interlinkage of policy areas and trends towards self-regulation, liberalization and performance-based policies, policy exceptionalism is under pressure to either transform or give way to (neo-)liberal policy arrangements. Post-exceptionalism denotes a partial transformation of exceptionalist ideas...

  6. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  7. Chapitre 13. Overview of Current Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current Public Policies, Rules and Legislation – especially European ones – With Regard to Highly Skilled Immigration, Nationality Regimes, Stay Rights, etc.Binod Khadria Introduction: Three Levels of Public Policies Policies and programs adopted by the developed receiving countries – mainly the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union (EU) countries – for the admission of foreign workers with a view to facilitating and/or regulating high-skill immigration fall into three broa...

  8. Psychology, behavioral economics, and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, O; Ariely, D; Cooke, A; Dunning, D; Epley, N; Gneezy, U; Koszegi, B; Lichtenstein, D; Mazar, N; Mullainathan, S; Prelec, D; Shafir, E; Silva, J

    2005-01-01

    Economics has typically been the social science of choice to inform public policy and policymakers. In the current paper we contemplate the role behavioral science can play in enlightening policymakers. In particular, we provide some examples of research that has and can be used to inform policy, reflect on the kind of behavioral science that is important for policy, and approaches for convincing policy-makers to listen to behavioral scientists. We suggest that policymakers are unlikely to in...

  9. Public Libraries Participation In Hiv/Aids Awareness Campaign In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines public libraries involvement in HIV/AIDS awareness campaign in South West Nigeria. These include the materials and services available on HIV/AIDS and challenges to their participation in the war against the epidemic. The study revealed that public libraries in South West Nigeria are not participating ...

  10. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sandra Garrido de; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-07-21

    To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu's genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. Analisar a gênese da política de controle da aids no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico (1981-1989), orientado pela sociologia genética de Bourdieu, por meio de análise documental, revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas em profundidade. Consistiu na articulação entre a análise das trajetórias de 33 agentes envolvidos na criação de um espaço social voltado para as questões relativas à aids e as condições históricas de possibilidade

  11. Public values for energy futures: Framing, indeterminacy and policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.; Demski, C.; Parkhill, K.; Pidgeon, N.; Spence, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK there are strong policy imperatives to transition toward low carbon energy systems but how and in what ways such transitional processes might be realised remains highly uncertain. One key area of uncertainty pertains to public attitudes and acceptability. Though there is wide-ranging research relevant to public acceptability, very little work has unpacked the multiple questions concerning how policy-makers can grapple with and mitigate related uncertainties in efforts to enact energy systems change. In this paper, public acceptability is identified as an indeterminate form of uncertainty that presents particular challenges for policy making. We build on our existing research into public values for energy system change to explore how the outcomes of the project can be applied in thinking through the uncertainties associated with public acceptability. Notably, we illustrate how the public values identified through our research bring into view alternative and quite different problem and solution framings to those currently evident within UK policy. We argue that engagement with a wide range of different framings can offer a basis for better understanding and anticipating public responses to energy system change, ultimately aiding in managing the complex set of uncertainties associated with public acceptability. - Highlights: • We argue that public acceptability represents an indeterminate form of uncertainty. • This means alternative approaches to decision-making are required. • We introduce a public value set for energy system change. • We use this as a basis for interrogating current UK policy approaches to transitions. • Incorporating public values in policy can help tackle uncertainty about acceptability.

  12. Public Policies Analysis and the Prince System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behxhet Brajshori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Policies present governmental sectorial policies and according to several scholars those are defined based on "what does the Government do". In fact, those are mandatory state's principles for the Government that aims the implementation of the strategy, objectives and Government's goals in the function of its promises' fulfilment towards the electors and all of the country's citizens. Public Policies Analysis has to do with the monitoring of government's agenda which directly can influence on a specific community. The idea of public policies analysis in linked with the need that the Government through statistical data has to prove what is being worked. Public Policies Analysis evolves in terms of design, implementation and public policies' effects. One of the methods for predicting the probability that a specifi c public policy will be implemented or not, is the Prince System. The Prince System, actually, presents a technique for assessing the relative support or opposition to a particular policy from individuals, groups or organizations.

  13. State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies: For Public Colleges and Universities, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Allison C.; Carnahan, Julie; L'Orange, Hans P.

    2011-01-01

    This report, "State Tuition, Fees, and Financial Assistance Policies for Public Colleges and Universities: 2010-11", examines the philosophies, policies, and procedures that influence decision-making regarding public college and university tuition, student fees, and student financial aid programs. This report also provides information…

  14. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  15. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS.../AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... White HIV/AIDS Program funded services to receive housing services. In response, HRSA's Administrator...

  16. Trade policy and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health.

  17. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  18. Strategic management and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2003-01-01

    Making strategic decisions that ensure a productive fit between the internal situation and external environment of a healthcare entity--sometimes, even decisions that ensure its survival--is a great challenge. The author suggests that hospitals must adopt specific strategies to anticipate and respond appropriately to changes in policy.

  19. Public Policies and Strategies of Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiret, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis "Public Policies and Strategies of Actors" concerns the same theme as Part 4 of the "Handbook of Distance Education" (Moore 2007), which deals with policies, administration, and management. Eleven articles illustrate the theme. Three articles are studies about the experience in France between 2000 and 2003 of the…

  20. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  1. School Uniform Policies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2006-01-01

    The movement for school uniforms in public schools continues to grow despite the author's research indicating little if any impact on student behavior, achievement, and self-esteem. The author examines the distribution of uniform policies by region and demographics, the impact of these policies on perceptions of school climate and safety, and…

  2. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  3. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    CERN is committed to Open Access. It represents one of the values written in our Convention sixty years ago and is increasingly important for our Member States.   In the last edition of the Bulletin, this article described how CERN is doing with regards to open access publishing today. On Thursday this week, the Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications* was endorsed by the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) and approved by the Director-General the same day . For any clarifications regarding the policy, please contact the Scientific Information Service library.desk@cern.ch. * A French version of the policy will be made available shortly.

  5. Aid Financing of Global Public Goods: an Update

    OpenAIRE

    Cepparulo, Alessandra; Giuriato, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The paper compares different aggregates of aid financed global public goods and detects the presence, for the period 1995-2006, of the substitution effect between these aggregates and traditional aid that was found by former studies for earlier periods. A second focus of the paper is on the differences in the importance that donors attach to the various types of global public goods, trying to detect regular patterns in their choices of financing. Statistical regularities, representative of c...

  6. "If you don't abstain, you will die of AIDS": AIDS education in Kenyan public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Carolyne; Nzioka, Charles; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Pertet, Anne M; Voeten, Helene A C M

    2009-04-01

    We explored constraints of implementing AIDS education in public schools in Kenya. Sixty interviews with teachers and 60 focus group discussions with students were conducted in 21 primary and nine secondary schools. System/school-level constraints included lack of time in the curriculum, limited reach of secondary-school students (because AIDS education is embedded in biology, which is not compulsory), and disapproval of openness about sex and condoms by the Ministry of Education and parents. Alternative strategies to teach about AIDS had their own constraints. Teachers lacked training and support and felt uncomfortable with the topic. They were not used to interactive teaching methods and sometimes breached confidentiality. Teachers' negative attitudes constrained students from seeking information. Training interventions should be provided to teachers to increase their self-confidence, foster more positive attitudes, and stimulate interactive teaching methods. The Ministry of Education needs to have a clear policy toward the promotion of condoms.

  7. Aid policy for peat from the EU's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Suvanto-Luomala, S.; Aeimae, K.

    2002-10-01

    The study analyses the restrictions that may be imposed by the European Union on our national taxation schemes supporting the energy use of peat. These restrictions would mainly relate to the EU and international climate policy, which may change the attitudes towards the energy use of peat. The taxation arrangements studied concern the refunds of the electricity tax granted to small peat-fired power plants and the tax on peat, which compared especially with coal, is light in heat production. The study aims to find out whether the arrangements included State aid prohibited by the European Community or whether they gave rise to prohibited tax discrimination of other Member States' energy products. It was concluded that the objectives of the Community, particularly the regional security of energy supply, promotion of combined electricity and heat production, and employment, favour the energy use of peat rather than oppose to it. As for the aid to small power plants, it can be considered that the grounds for obtaining an exemption from the EC State aid prohibition exist, because the benefits of the aid referred to are more important than the disadvantages brought by it for undistorted trade and competition. This situation cannot be expected to change in the near future, either, e.g. as a result of the climate policy. As regards heat production, peat taxation cannot be considered to include State aid or to lead to discrimination against exported fuels like coal. This is essentially based on the taxation sovereignty of Member States and the related right to enhance national goals by means of taxation. The current energy tax regulation by the Community or the Commission's Proposal for an Energy Tax Directive do not seem to pose any obstacles to continuing Finland's present energy taxation policy. (orig.)

  8. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Executive summary In September 2015, the member states of the United Nations endorsed sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030 that aspire to human rights-centered approaches to ensuring the health and well-being of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy that has been fraught with controversy, seen as inconsistent with human rights norms, and for which scientific evidence and public health approaches have arguably played too limited a role. The previous UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 – convened under the theme “a drug-free world, we can do it!” – endorsed drug control policies based on the goal of prohibiting all use, possession, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs. This goal is enshrined in national law in many countries. In pronouncing drugs a “grave threat to the health and well-being of all mankind,” the 1998 UNGASS echoed the foundational 1961 convention of the international drug control regime, which justified eliminating the “evil” of drugs in the name of “the health and welfare of mankind.” But neither of these international agreements refers to the ways in which pursuing drug prohibition itself might affect public health. The “war on drugs” and “zero-tolerance” policies that grew out of the prohibitionist consensus are now being challenged on multiple fronts, including their health, human rights, and development impact. The Johns Hopkins – Lancet Commission on Drug Policy and Health has sought to examine the emerging scientific evidence on public health issues arising from drug control policy and to inform and encourage a central focus on public health evidence and outcomes in drug policy debates, such as the important deliberations of

  9. Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health concern that is responsible for almost 1 million deaths each year worldwide. It is commonly an impulsive act by a vulnerable individual. The impulsivity of suicide provides opportunities to reduce the risk of suicide by restricting access to lethal means. In the United States, firearms, particularly handguns, are the most common means of suicide. Despite strong empirical evidence that restriction of access to firearms reduces suicides, access to firearms in the United States is generally subject to few restrictions. Implementation and evaluation of measures such as waiting periods and permit requirements that restrict access to handguns should be a top priority for reducing deaths from impulsive suicide in the United States. PMID:23153127

  10. Essays in Human Development and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Arindam

    2010-01-01

    Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. This dissertation examines the effectiveness of public policy in improving some important human development outcomes, with a focus on gender issues. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states which hitherto had not legislated such a policy. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal d...

  11. Pharmaceutical policy and the lay public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Almost every national and supranational health policy document accords high importance to the need to listen to and 'empower' patients. The relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the lay public is not direct but mediated by several actors, including health care workers, patient....... The reasons for this lack of citizen involvement in health and pharmaceutical policymaking are many, for example: there is no consensus about what public involvement means; there is a predominance of special interest groups with narrow, specific agendas; not all decision makers welcome lay participation......; patients and professionals have different rationalities with regard to their views on medicine. Because the lay public and medicine users are not one entity, one of the many challenges facing policy makers today is to identify, incorporate and prioritise the many diverse needs. The authors recommend...

  12. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  13. International Public-private Partnership Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    This paper focuses on how international public-private partnership (PPP) policies are formulated and implemented by international organizations. PPPs for infrastructure projects are relevant and present in many countries around the world. The literature is full of studies of individual countries...... make policy for PPPs and to focus on perception issues related to their actions. The research questions are: How do international organizations make policy for PPPs and what tools do they use? Do PPP policies from international organizations converge on the same kind of themes? The theoretical lenses...... and various aspects of PPPs governance and finance. But what has been less emphasized in the literature is the way in which international organizations have been developing and promoting policies for PPPs. This paper makes a first attempt in trying to describe and analyze the way international organizations...

  14. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-73 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters is of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973 the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programme for the period 1975-85 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations. These were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper then describes how the public, by its activities in the energy study circles, was given a possibility to influence the formulation of the new Swedish energy policy. It outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the key energy issues, especially as regards the future role of nuclear power. Finally, it also tries to evaluate to what extent this effort in education and involvement can be expected to react on the implementation of the energy policy programme and on future energy policy decisions

  15. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Tasleem J

    2017-02-01

    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  16. International Public Relations in the EU: Development Cooperation Public Opinion and Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Negrescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the growing importance of the cooperation for development in the European Union and the appearance of a common growing public opinion agreement supporting this kind of initiatives, it is necessary to understand if we can talk today about a true common European consensus. Still covered on intergovernmental level and considered to be a part of the national foreign policies, EU development aid is still far from reaching the maximum of its efficiency. In this paper we try to introduce a new evaluation method of the cooperation for development policies and interpretation of the degree of communitarisation of the national policies that will enable us to appreciate the stages that have to be completed by the member countries but also by the EU to realize a completely uniform European assistance strategy and of the activities, so necessary for raising the efficiency of the funds allocated by the EU, but also in the perspective of achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

  17. Essays on public policy and private incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Kjerstad, Egil

    2001-01-01

    The main question asked in this thesis is how market-based governance structures influence the resource utilisation in public sector. The four essays are predominately occupied with policy issues. For instance, all essays are inspired by public sector reforms implemented across OECD member states during the last ten to fifteen years. Three out of four essays are applied econometric work concerned with analysing and describing effects of reforms made in the health care and social care sectors....

  18. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders.

  19. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  20. Practice of Participatory Governance in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алена Сергеевна Перезолова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the idea of participatory democracy. The article provides case study of pilot projects aimed to engage citizens for public participation in different forms, such as: participatory budgeting, participatory modeling, public consultations and other participatory practices. The concept of public participation implied in most common methods of consultation as local meetings, public hearings, creation of working groups, public dialogue commissions, workshops, discussion forums on Web sites, contests of ideas and projects, crowdfunding projects, cooperation citizens initiatives and more consumerist type as polls and focus groups. The ability to work together becomes a resource for growth of civic consciousness, where citizens become active actors, who able to participate in public policy, resource mobilization, independent projects for realization and formation of social capital. The challenge for participatory democracy is maturity degree of civil society and examined examples of participatory practices are pilot projects that aimed formation of civic consciousness.

  1. Xenotransplantation: science, ethics, and public policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Xenograft, Transplantation Institute; Institute of Medicine

    ... Division of Health Sciences Policy Division of Health Care Services INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from this of recomp...

  2. Xenotransplantation: science, ethics, and public policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Xenograft, Transplantation Institute

    1996-01-01

    ... Division of Health Sciences Policy Division of Health Care Services INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other XML and from this of recomp...

  3. Futurism: Gaining a Toehold in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1975-01-01

    What has come to be known as applied futurism or futuristics, as a mode of thought, has been emerging from the academic environment into the realm of public policy. Insights noted at the Second General Assembly of the World Future Society are presented. (EB)

  4. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  5. Essays in social choice and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Francis William

    2000-10-01

    Information is claimed to be a necessary element in order to facilitate vote trading. In this dissertation I test for the effect of information on vote trading, coalition size and legislative behavior. Using a difference in differences approach to measure the impact of information on coalition size I find support for Professor Riker's claim that coalition size falls as information improves. I also discover that legislators abstain strategically when the secret vote is no longer available. I use a Fixed Effects model to test for the effects of information on spending and logrolling. My results indicate that spending does indeed increase after the improvement in information. Finally, using an industry level model, I simulate the impact of various policy tools on the price of renewable energy. My results indicate that no single policy tool can offer wind energy the aid it needs in order to compete in our deregulated energy markets.

  6. Public participation in the process of local public health policy, using policy network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yukyung; Kim, Chang-Yup; You, Myoung Soon; Lee, Kun Sei; Park, Eunyoung

    2014-11-01

    To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs. We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts ('gu's) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer. The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively. Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.

  7. Public involvement in danish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refslund Poulsen, N.; Breinholt Larsen, F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on ''Public involvment in the Danish energy policy. The nuclear power issue'' was carried out as part of the project on ''Public involvment in decision-making related to science and technology'' performed by the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry of the OECD in Paris. The historical development of Danish energy policy is briefly described. An account is given of the nuclear controversy, and the development of public opinion is outlined. The public debate has been very widespread and intense, by far the most comprehensive debate since that concerning the European Communities. Assuming that the development of public opinion reflects the relative success or failure of the contending parties, the opponents of nuclear energy seem to have done best. Opinion polls showed some marked deviations among the electorate according to different variables. The most striking were those observed in relation to sex, age, education, and political preferences. One chapter treats the attitude of public authorities to extended public involvment, and special accounts are given of the Energy Information Committee, and the Energy Council. Finally the prime movers of the nuclear debate are dealt with, in particular the Organization for Information on Nuclear Energy OOA, which opposes nuclear power. (B.P.)

  8. 'Public enemy no. 1': Tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Thompson, Sheryl; Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the history of tobacco industry funding for the AIDS response - a largely ignored aspect of private donor involvement. Primary documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and AIDS organizations are analyzed, alongside existing literature on the tobacco control and AIDS responses. Research on the tactics of transnational tobacco companies has documented how they have used various charitable causes to subvert tobacco control efforts and influence public health policy. This raises questions, which this paper seeks to answer, about if donations by tobacco companies to AIDS organizations have been used for similar means, and if so how AIDS organizations have responded to tobacco industry overtures. Two examples illustrate how tobacco companies initially tried to use the AIDS response to counter tobacco control measures: (1) During the 1990s, Philip Morris, one of the largest corporate donors of the AIDS response in the USA, used its connections with AIDS organizations to create competition for health resources, improve its reputation, and market tobacco products to the LGBT community; (2) In both Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, Philip Morris and British American Tobacco championed the AIDS response in order to delegitimize efforts to develop the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. However, from the late 1990s onwards, AIDS organizations began to refuse tobacco funding and partnerships - though these policies have been not comprehensive, as many tobacco companies still fund programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The article concludes that tobacco companies aimed to exploit competition between health issues, and use the high-profile AIDS response to improve their reputation and market access. However, AIDS organizations, adhering to broader health goals and drawing on extensive resources and networks, were able to shut the tobacco industry out of much of the response, though pockets of influence still exist

  9. Radiation protection, public policies and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone F.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Barreto, Alberto A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

  10. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  11. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    court’s perception. As the contracts had been declared to be in force by a declaratory judgment that was res judicata, the dispute before the CJEU concerned the national interpretation of the principle of res judicata and its application in a State aid context. The CJEU first turned to the principle......In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the national...... of consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...

  12. The Politics of Public College Tuition and State Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the different levels of tuition and financial aid observed in the United States? This study hypothesizes that state-level political characteristics account for much of the variation observed. Of particular importance are the ideology of state legislators and the relative influence of public and private institutions. Estimates of a…

  13. A distant light scientists and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A collection of essays by a Nobel Prize Laureate on a wide range of critical issues facing the world, and the role of scientists in solving these problems. Kendall has been closely involved with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group that began as an informal assocation at MIT in 1969 to protest US involvement in Vietnam and is today an organization with an annual budget exceeding $6 million, with 100,000 supporters worldwide. UCD is today a voice of authority in US government science policy, particularly with regard to environment issues, most recently the worldwide initiatives on global warming. Together, these essays represent both the sucessses and failures of science to impact public policy, the challenges facing scientists, and offers practical guidelines for involvement in science policy. The essays are roughly chronological, organized by subject with introductions, beginning with the controversies on nuclear power safety and Three Mile Island,then followed by sections on national security issues, ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Housing Policy Review in South Africa | Ndinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses policy issues around HIV/ AIDS, through a review of international and. South African literature on housing. The article identifi es gaps in the existing housing and other sectoral policies and makes suggestions on the possible policy options that can be devised to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South

  15. Explaining willingness of public professionals to implement new policies: A policy alienation framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, public professionals are often unwilling to implement new policies. We analyse this problem using an interdisciplinary approach, combining public administration and change management literature. From public administration, we use the policy alienation concept, consisting of

  16. Public, less worried about AIDS, sees a vaccine on horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-02

    A poll released on April 21, 1997 by Louis Harris and Associates indicates that Americans' concern about AIDS continues to lessen and the majority believe that a vaccine will be found within the next five years. Fifty-one percent of those surveyed said that it was likely AIDS would become an epidemic for the public at large; in 1992, 65 percent of those surveyed expected a general epidemic. Concern about infection is greatest among African Americans, people with low household incomes, those aged 18-24, and Hispanics. These figures are consistent with an ABC News poll conducted in 1996.

  17. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a

  18. Determinants of Public Policies and the Manufacturing Sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    international best practices especially in the area of employment generation. Policy advocacy should be ... and fiscal policy to excise duty. Determinants of Public Policies & the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria (1997-2013) ..... relationship between public policy and manufacturing sector in. Nigeria, the relationship is strong ...

  19. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-1973 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973, the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programmme for the period 1975-1985 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision-making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations, which were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the energy issues. (author)

  20. The Management of Public Policy in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlena NEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within this work I analyzed the run of the LLP Program LLP - Life-long Learning Program through the problems and objectives, as they appear in the Common decision of the Parliament and the Council of the European Union, decision related to the implementation of this program. I also referred to another aspect of integration “equation” into European structures, the objectives of education in the European Union, in the description of its social policy, continuing with the presentation of Community programs as an instrument of European public policy in education, strategic management of human resources, explaining the importance of developing human resources, of the impact of national and international programs on training of human resources, pending the establishment of directions for the development of integrated lifelong education program.

  1. Foreign Policy and Public Opinion: An Assessment of Ijebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been said on the nexus between public opinion and foreign policy. There are those who believe that public opinion is the primary, if not the sole, molder of foreign policy. On the other hand, there are those who hold that the elite, rather than the general public, determine foreign policy. There are also others who ...

  2. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  3. South African public sceptical about new AIDS "cure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1999-03-20

    Against a background of scams to treat HIV/AIDS, the government's erratic approach to the epidemic, and an increasingly cynical but desperate public, a team from the Medical University of South Africa recently announced Inactivan as an anabolic steroid which stops HIV from replicating in white blood cells. The development of the drug was announced in a well-publicized press conference after a 5-day trial on humans. However, few people in South Africa are ready to accept the team's findings since it comes shortly after 2 poorly-qualified scientists claimed to have found a cure for AIDS in 1998. Their drug, Virodene, was actually a toxic industrial solvent. South Africa's minister of health, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, tarnished her reputation by associating herself with the drug, which had not been through any of the usual research protocols, peer review, or drug regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  5. PUBLIC POLICIES FOR DIGITAL INCLUSION IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Silveira Bonilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the presentation of the Green Book of the Society of Information Program in Brazil, in 2000, the discussion about digital inclusion takes national scene, however, starts being incorporated by the schools since 2007, with the Proinfo reformulation. Although the thematic is present in the documents, is far of pedagogic practices yet. This article discuss this problem since the analysis of public policies for digital inclusion in Brazilian schools, underling critical points of that articulation and indicating as a possibility of getting over the instrumental perspective of school, the opening for the digital culture entire living.

  6. PUBLIC POLICIES REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Barbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze public policies regarding people with disabilities. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: children, and as they continue to become adults, in the short term, in order to diminish suicide attempts, they must be monitored so that the traceability of the integration of persons with disabilities can be determined from the moment of their institutionalization. In the long run, these people with disabilities will integrate and from sustained people will become supporters of social health, unemployment and pension insurance institutions, relevant to the change process.

  7. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014. Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges.

  8. Six challenges in modelling for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Edmunds, W J; Lessler, J

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organisation's definition of public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole (World Health Organization, 2014). Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in helping to guide the most high impact and cost-effective means of achieving these goals. Public health programmes are usually implemented over a long period of time with broad benefits to many in the community. Clinical trials are seldom large enough to capture these effects. Observational data may be used to evaluate a programme after it is underway, but have limited value in helping to predict the future impact of a proposed policy. Furthermore, public health practitioners are often required to respond to new threats, for which there is little or no previous data on which to assess the threat. Computational and mathematical models can help to assess potential threats and impacts early in the process, and later aid in interpreting data from complex and multifactorial systems. As such, these models can be critical tools in guiding public health action. However, there are a number of challenges in achieving a successful interface between modelling and public health. Here, we discuss some of these challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New public management and policies of secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise DEMAILLY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossing a survey of literature in sociology of health and her own inquiries in the field of mental health, the author studies the historical change in policies of secrecy in health domains and specifically, in modern democracies, practical aporias opposing rights and duties to and towards secrecy, rights and duty to and towards transparency. The paper describes weakening of medical secret regarding legitimization of standards of transparency, coordination and evaluation supported by the New Public Management (NPM. Two forms of resistance against technocratic enforcement to publicizing are suggested. The first of these forms is the historical exception, nowadays vilified as out of date, of psychoanalysis bound to strict secret of the singular interview and building there a space for emancipation, preventing any governance of behavior by healthiness. The second one: some intentional and paradoxical break of secret can result in symbolic reversal against domination and shame.

  10. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  11. PUBLIC POLICY VIOLATION UNDER NEW YORK CONVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ayu Chinta Kristy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of the use of arbitration in Asia has highlighted the significant influence of the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. The New York Convention currently becomes the most widely accepted convention to which the courts would refer when recognizing and enforcing foreign arbitral awards. This article would firstly provide a comparative study of the court’s interpretation towards public policy as mentioned under Article V (2 b of the New York Convention between non-arbitration-friendly-law Indonesia and arbitration-friendly-law China. Subsequently, it will discuss whether uniformity in interpreting and reserving public policy is required or not. Peningkatan jumlah penggunaan lembaga arbitrasi di Asia mendorong peningkatan signifikansi pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Konvensi New York saat ini menjadi konvensi yang diterima secara luas dimana dijadikan referensi oleh pengadilan dalam hal pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Artikel ini akan pertama-tama membahas studi perbandingan atas interpretasi pengadilan mengenai penggunaan kebijakan publik sebagaimana tertera pada Pasal V (2 b Konvensi New York antara Indonesia yang hukumnya tidak mendukung dan China dengan hukum yang mendukung pengakuan dan pelaksanaan putusan arbitrasi asing. Apakah keseragaman antar negara dalam menginterpretasi dan menggunakan kebijakan publik diperlukan atau tidak dibahas pada diskusi selanjutnya.

  12. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  13. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment 1 AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). ACTION: Notice of rescinded Policy Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB...

  14. Public policy in a multicultural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, J

    1987-03-01

    The debate on the consequences of large-scale immigration in the making of public policy began in 1968. Muliculturalism is for all Australians and any social policy designed for the benefit of one group in the population must have profound consequences on all people. 40% of the Australian population was born overseas or have at least 1 parent born overseas. Almost 1/4 of the population has ethnic roots in other than the Anglo-Celtic majority. The ideal of moral progress, greater equality, and improvement is the motive force in society. The presence of social heterogeneity--religious or ethnic--is linked with the issue of stability in a democratic system. There are 2 models of multiculturalism and corresponding public policy approaches. 1 model emphasizes the role of the political processes in Australian ethnic relations and sees ethnic structures (political, social, economic) as legitimate but separate interest groups, each having the exclusive responsibility for the realization of ethnic goals. The leading feature of this model is the structural fragmentation of Australian society into parallel segments of varying degrees of exclusiveness each with its own "ethnic" label. The 2nd model stresses the priority of the wholeness and welfare of the entire society. It assumes that a society based on satisfaction of individual needs through voluntary exchange is fertile ground for cultural enrichment. The goal is cohesion and unity in living together in Australia, seen as of central concern and consistent with the ideals of intercultural understanding and improved communication. The model assumes that the culture must be seen as a living, dynamic, changing, and interacting set of life patterns. The author prefers the 2nd model which stresses that the future vision of a multicultural Australia must be a shared one because only then can cultural diversity and national cohesion coexist within the 1 economic and political unit.

  15. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. STEPS TOWARDS A NEW RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC POLICY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the steps towards a new renewable energy public policy in Romania, with an eye to reveal the main actions and measures needed. Therefore, this study reveals firstly the key arguments for changing the public policy in the field of renewable energy, and secondly, the core directions and measures for a modern policy in the field of renewable energy. The results of this study may be helpful for further research regarding the adjustment of the renewable energy public policy.

  17. HIV/AIDS Policy Making Process in Iran: Analysis of HIV/AIDS Agenda Setting Based on Kingdon's Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Agenda setting is the process by which certain issues come onto the policy agenda from the much larger number of issues potentially worthy of attention by policy makers. The aim of this study was to deeply understand about how AIDS entered to health policy agenda in Iran. Material and Methods: An exploratory qualitative retrospective study based on multiple streams framework to analyze AIDS agenda setting process, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and stakeholders in Iran and 30 policy documents were reviewed. Data were analyzed using framework analysis method and MAXQDA software. Results : Problem, policy and politics, the three streams of HIV/AIDS in context of Iran were identified and the advent and continuity of multiple streams and their interactions and combination by policy entrepreneurs in couple of streams in policy windows were explained. Conclusion: In this study, the assumption of independence of three streams from each other was doubted. Also, framework has ambiguities in explaining entrepreneurs' act when opening policy windows. Other researchers can modify the framework by learning-by-doing.

  18. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  19. Explaining the willingness of public professionals to implement new policies: A policy alienation framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public policies focus on economic values, such as efficiency and client choice. Public professionals often show resistance to implementing such policies. We analyse this problem using an interdisciplinary approach. From public administration, we draw on the policy

  20. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  1. AIDS and the ethics of public health: challenges posed by a maturing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, R

    1988-01-01

    Ethical issues imposed on the United States by the maturing AIDS epidemic are discussed. In the 2 years since the U.S. Public Health Service predicted that 220,000 new cases of AIDS will appear by 1991, 5 times the number reported in the 1st 7 years, the projections appear to be remarkably on target. The sheer burden of these numbers, and their distribution, will affect the nation's social climate. The "ghettoization" of the disease will subject the voluntary education, counseling and testing policy to elements of coercion. A radical transformation of the culture regarding sexual behavior, childbearing and drug use will be required of the AIDS education campaign. The crippling moralism that inhibits education on sexual matters must be confronted. Efforts to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV will affect women's rights, the nature of counseling, the privacy of the abortion decision, and perhaps elements of coercion. Another serious issue is how to institutionalize and hospitalize poor and minority AIDS victims without turning the wards and hospitals into pariah institutions. Anxiety still persists among health care workers about their risk of contracting AIDS from their patients. A final ethical dilemma is how to allocate research, vaccine and drug testing, and treatment between wealthy and developing nations. The history of earlier epidemics teaches us that an objective, asocial response to disease is impossible: controversies between conflicting values will introduce numerous ethical dilemmas.

  2. On failures in education and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Education of the public and the resulting policies in many matters are grossly inadequate. Included as a small list of four samples of failings in vital matters are: 1. Societal Cohesiveness: A profound change in the school system will yield great benefit for the nation (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/publicservice.html.). 2. Lack of understanding regarding the coming avian flu pandemic (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/ElyFluMES.pdf). 3. Severe Hg intoxication from dentistry due to profound multifaceted ignorance (Ely JTA, Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001; 67(6),800-6). 4. The end of the world by global warming due to Christian religion forcing family planning money to be withheld from UN leading to population excess (http://faculty.washington.edu/ely/CO2runaway.html).

  3. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  4. Public policy and biofuels: The way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Michael B.; Ryan, Rachel; Ryan, Neal; Oloruntoba, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been given much attention by governments around the world, especially in increasingly energy-hungry OECD nations. Proponents have argued that they offer various advantages over hydrocarbon-based fuels, especially with respect to reducing dependence on OPEC-controlled oil, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensuring financial and lifestyle continuity to farmers and agriculturally dependent communities. This paper adds to the continuing technical debate by addressing the issue from a holistic public policy perspective. In particular, it looks at the proposed benefits of biofuels, yet also addresses the implications of increased demand on the global and regional environment, in addition to the economic welfare of developing nations. Furthermore, it posits that short-term reliance on biofuels vis-a-vis other alternative energy sources may potentially inhibit the development and maturation of longer-term technologies that have greater potential to correct the harmful effects of fossil-fuel dependence. In light of this, the manifold policy instruments currently employed or proposed by governments in developed nations to promote biofuels emerge as questionable

  5. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  6. Vulnerability and risk perception in the management of HIV/AIDS: Public priorities in a global pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis1,2, N. Nirupama21School of Health Policy and Management, 2School of Administrative Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Understanding the way perception of risk is shaped and constructed is crucial in understanding why it has been so difficult to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS. This paper uses the Pressure and Release (PAR model, used to predict the onset of natural disasters as the conceptual framework. It substitutes vulnerability and risk perception as the trigger factors in the model, in making the case that HIV/AIDS can be characterized as a slow onset disaster. The implications are that vulnerability must be managed and reduced by addressing root causes, dynamic pressures, and unsafe conditions that contribute to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS programs must be culturally appropriate and work toward influencing risk perception, while addressing social norms and values that negatively impact vulnerable populations. By impacting cultural and social expectations, individuals will be able to more readily adopt safer sex behaviors. The development of policies and programs addressing the issues in context, as opposed to individual behaviors alone, allows for effective public health intervention. This may have implications for public health measures implemented for combating the spread of HIV/AIDS.Keywords: vulnerability, risk perception, HIV/AIDS, public health intervention

  7. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  8. Allergies And Asthma : Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Behrmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social jus- tice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assess- ment include: 1 whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health ben- efit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2 whether targeting initiatives towards particu- lar societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population seg- ments, and 3 whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article con- cludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol, which public health officials could replicate as a guide in actual, region-specific policy development.

  9. The biofuel support policy. Public thematic report. Assessing a public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In its first part, this detailed report gives an overview of some key facts regarding biofuels: energy context, biofuels and energy, biofuels and agriculture, multiple and superimposed regulation levels, financial data, and international comparisons. The second part analyses the positions of the different actors (oil industry and dealers, car manufacturers, bio-diesel producers, ethanol producers, farmers producing raw materials, consumer associations, defenders of the environment, public bodies). The third part reports the assessment of the French public policy in terms of efficiency. Some recommendations are made

  10. A rational approach to formulating public policy on substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunkey, Donald D; Bonnono, Carol

    2005-09-01

    Unlike alcohol, which is legal and regulated, current public policy makes drugs such as heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and marijuana illegal. This article summarizes the history of drug and alcohol use in the United States, compares our public policies on alcohol to those on drugs, and shows the direct link between alcohol or drug use and crime, corruption, violence, and health problems in other countries and in our own. A rational approach to formulating a workable public policy is presented.

  11. Regional Climate Change and Development of Public Health Decision Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Darmenova, K.; Grant, F.; Kiley, H.; Higgins, G. J.; Apling, D.

    2011-12-01

    According to the World Heath Organization (WHO) climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, and changes the way we must look at protecting vulnerable populations. Worldwide, the occurrence of some diseases and other threats to human health depend predominantly on local climate patterns. Rising average temperatures, in combination with changing rainfall patterns and humidity levels, alter the lifecycle and regional distribution of certain disease-carrying vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks and rodents. In addition, higher surface temperatures will bring heat waves and heat stress to urban regions worldwide and will likely increase heat-related health risks. A growing body of scientific evidence also suggests an increase in extreme weather events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes that can be destructive to human health and well-being. Therefore, climate adaptation and health decision aids are urgently needed by city planners and health officials to determine high risk areas, evaluate vulnerable populations and develop public health infrastructure and surveillance systems. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. WRF model is initialized with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model simulations forced with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. Our methodology involves development of climatological indices of extreme weather, quantifying the risk of occurrence of water/rodent/vector-borne diseases as well as developing various heat stress related decision aids. Our results indicate that the downscale simulations provide the necessary

  12. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health.

  13. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  14. Review: Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Helena

    2000-01-01

    This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.

  15. A POLICY AT WAR WITH ITSELF? STATE AID AND REGIONAL COHESION IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phedon Nicolaides

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The entry of ten new countries in the EU raises a number of questions about the need and type of reform of EU policies on cohesion and regional state aid. This paper examines the impact of regional state aid on regional disparities. It finds that the effect of state aid on regional cohesion is ambiguous, partly because state aid is not proportionally granted to the most needy regions. In the context of the forthcoming debate on reform of regional policy it follows that member states should limit the geographic coverage of regional aid and should take into account the possible trade-offs between other types of state aid and regional development or cohesion.

  16. The Notice on the Notion of State Aid and Public Procurement Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk......The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even...

  17. Engaging the Public in the Development of Sentencing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Indermaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the lack of confidence in the courts provides an opportunity for us to consider the question of how sentencing policy is formulated and whether there is room for improvement in the process. It is argued in this paper that the legitimacy of the courts and public satisfaction with sentencing can both be enhanced if we were to carefully provide for the inclusion of an informed and deliberating public into policy formulation. Such a strategy would not only quell the loose and ill-defined ‘public opinion’ that characterises the tabloids; it would also enhance the transparency and the public acceptance of policy. The paper considers the continuum of possibilities for including the public from the gratuitous exploitation of the public voice by populists and media entrepreneurs using top-of-the-head opinion polls through to informed public opinion, public consultation process and ultimately the democratisation of sentencing policy. It is argued that this continuum can be seen as reflecting both the amount of true power given to the public voice as well as the amount of respect given to public input. Much of the fear of public inclusion in elite circles concerns public opinion as depicted in the media which is largely ‘public emotion’. It is argued that, when properly integrated, the inclusion of the public voice in the policy formulation process will have the same salutary effect that the jury has on the criminal trial.

  18. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  19. Language Policy and Development Aid: A Critical Analysis of an ELT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, Ruanni; Tabiola, Honey

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights the political and ideological entanglements of language policy and English language teaching with neocolonialism, neoliberalism, and development aid. It does so by examining the explicit and implicit goals and practices of an educational development aid project in Mindanao, Philippines. The US-funded Job Enabling English…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Aid Policies for Human Resource Development: United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickert, Sarah; Kuroda, Kazuo

    Official Development Assistance (ODA) is an increasingly important part of foreign aid budgets. Countries that offer foreign aid to other nations do so for many, often contradictory reasons that range from national security and economic self-interest to humanitarian concerns. Every donor state uses ODA as an instrument of its foreign policy. This…

  1. Maximizing the Policy Impacts of Public Engagement : A European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Steven B.; Mulder, Henk A.J.; Frewer, Lynn J

    There is a lack of published evidence which demonstrates the impacts of public engagement (PE) in science and technology policy. This might represent the failure of PE to achieve policy impacts or indicate a lack of effective procedures for discerning the uptake by policy makers of PE-derived

  2. Public Policy and the ‘Sustainability’ of Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Holford, John

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable growth and development are intrinsically linked with the ways societal problems are thought of and addressed in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have shown the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to debate how...... on its relationships with adult education policy and social justice....

  3. Public policy and the ‘Sustainability’ of adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable growth and development are intrinsically linked with the ways societal problems are thought of and addressed in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have shown the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to debate how...... on its relationships with adult education policy and social justice....

  4. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2016-06-02

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize policy efforts to maximize the public health benefit of HPV vaccination. We examine selected examples of HPV vaccination policy in global contexts and in the United States.

  5. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  6. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  7. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J

    Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening. To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences. Seven important attributes were selected using the literature, interviews, and a panel session. Preferences were elicited using a swing weighting questionnaire. The resulting attribute weights indicate the relative importance of swings from the worst to the best level between attributes. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify subgroups with different attribute weights. One thousand thirty-four respondents from a representative Dutch panel aged between 40 and 80 years were included. The identified attributes were location of screening (weight = 0.18 ± 0.16), mode of screening (weight = 0.17 ± 0.14), sensitivity (weight = 0.16 ± 0.13) and specificity (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12) of the screening modality, waiting time until results (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), radiation burden (weight = 0.13 ± 0.12), and duration of screening procedure (weight = 0.10 ± 0.09). Most respondents preferred breath analysis (45%) to giving blood samples (31%) or going through a scanner (24%) as screening modality; 59% preferred screening at the general practitioner's office instead of at the hospital. There was a significant difference in education between the five identified preference subgroups (P screening. Different screening policies and implementation strategies may be appropriate for particular preference subgroups. Our results indicate that people prefer breath analysis and that they are more likely to attend screening modalities that can be used at a primary care facility. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  9. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  10. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  11. 77 FR 2724 - CVS Caremark Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Caremark Corporation; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade... Corporation (``CVSC''). The proposed consent order has been placed on the public record for thirty (30) days.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and...

  12. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  13. Policy alienation of public professionals : Application in a New Public Management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Today, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programmes they implement; that is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We conceptualise policy alienation

  14. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huey T

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU, and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  15. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: review of current situation, prevention and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-02-01

    Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and nongovernmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

  16. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  17. An Analysis of Cyberbullying Policies In Virginia Public School Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, G. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Wes Poole Abstract The study examines the acceptable computer system use policies of each of the public school districts in the Commonwealth of Virginia, as well as the Virginia School Boards Association and the National School Boards Association policies as they relate to cyberbullying. Public middle school and public secondary school administrators across the Commonwealth were surveyed to determine to what extent cyberbullying is an issue in their schools, and to d...

  18. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices. Keywords: African philosophy, ethics, ethno-philosophy, HIV testing, policy development, socio-ethical systems, sub-Saharan Africa African Journal of AIDS Research 2010, ...

  19. [Men, health and public policies: gender equality in question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Marcia Thereza; Gomes, Romeu

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this article is to pose questions on the theme of Men, Health and Public Policies to render debate on the subject viable, based on theoretical and empirical references related to these issues. Initially, some historical landmarks on the theme are presented to provide guidelines for debate. An overview of the gender agenda in public policies is then presented to introduce the discussion about the inclusion of a gender perspective in healthcare policies. After this discussion, queries are raised about whether or not policies geared to men's health promote gender equality. In the closing remarks, the complexity involved in the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies aimed at gender equality is highlighted. The need for the Brazilian policy geared towards men's health to be implemented with other policies such that the gender matrix is transversal in the healthcare field is also stressed.

  20. Public policy action and CCC implementation: benefits and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Carter; Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L; Petherick, J T; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M; Miller, Sara E

    2010-12-01

    Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how public policy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of public policy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty.

  1. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  2. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Claud

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  3. Social media for public health: an exploratory policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Ingrid; Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut; Suggs, L Suzanne

    2015-02-01

    To accomplish the aims of public health practice and policy today, new forms of communication and education are being applied. Social media are increasingly relevant for public health and used by various actors. Apart from benefits, there can also be risks in using social media, but policies regulating engagement in social media is not well researched. This study examined European public health-related organizations' social media policies and describes the main components of existing policies. This research used a mixed methods approach. A content analysis of social media policies from European institutions, non-government organizations (NGOs) and social media platforms was conducted. Next, individuals responsible for social media in their organization or projects completed a survey about their social media policy. Seventy-five per cent of institutions, NGOs and platforms had a social media policy available. The primary aspects covered within existing policies included data and privacy protection, intellectual property and copyright protection and regulations for the engagement in social media. Policies were intended to regulate staff use, to secure the liability of the institution and social responsibility. Respondents also stressed the importance of self-responsibility when using social media. This study of social media policies for public health in Europe provides a first snapshot of the existence and characteristics of social media policies among European health organizations. Policies tended to focus on legal aspects, rather than the health of the social media user. The effect of such policies on social media adoption and usage behaviour remains to be examined. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  5. An overview of HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anish P; Colvin, Mark; Rudatsikira, Jean-Baptiste; Ettl, David

    2007-07-01

    Workplace programmes refer to a range of company-based interventions including the institution of an HIV/AIDS policy, voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision. To review the existing information on workplace policies and programmes in southern Africa, and ascertain the common accomplishments in and challenges to implementation and efficacy. Given the paucity of peer-reviewed academic publications, information for this review was also drawn from working papers, symposia proceedings, and case studies. A convenience sample of 17 key informants was identified, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Workplace policies and programmes of varying sophistication are proliferating in large companies and selected sectors. Accomplishments include the institution of a legal apparatus that safeguards against discriminatory practices, the high prevalence of HIV education programmes, the growing provision of VCT, and the development of supply-chain initiatives that may enable smaller companies to develop HIV programmes. Challenges include poor recognition and monitoring of legal violations by management and unions, lack of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methodologies for workplace HIV prevention programmes, persistent stigma in the workplace resulting in poor uptake of HIV testing, and low enrollment into workplace ART programmes. The existing literature indicates a wide variation in workplace policies and programmes currently in place in southern Africa. The effectiveness of workplace interventions at the firm level, including prevention and treatment programmes is difficult to assess with currently available data. Further research on workplace programmes that addresses operational challenges to implementation and develops M&E strategies is urgently needed.

  6. The New Public Management and gender equality policies in Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Castaño Collado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality policies at European universities have been introduced in the context of reforms of higher education aimed at the implementation of market logic in the management of higher education (New Public Management. Greater transparency and mechanisms of competitiveness could call into question the traditional systems of production and reproduction of male power in universities. This article analyzes the experience of some countries that have preceded Spain in the implementation of equality policies in parallel with policies of transparency and competitiveness. Our goal is to draw conclusions that are useful for public policy.

  7. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  8. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  9. 76 FR 45546 - Public Meeting on Recommendations for Improvement of Student Financial Aid Offer Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Improvement of Student Financial Aid Offer Forms, Development of Model Financial Aid Forms AGENCY: Office of.... SUMMARY: We will conduct a public meeting for interested parties to discuss and offer recommendations for improvements to student financial aid offer forms, as required by section 484 of the Higher Education...

  10. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  11. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  12. Public relations policy: The Electronuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses the following topics: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Electrical Sector in Brazil; Nuclear Power and Public Acceptance in Brazil; The chances decision of Angra 3; Community Activities of the ELETRONUCLEAR Regional Programs and Emergency Planning Department whose function is to promote activities with or for the communities of Angra dos Reis region; Public Relations Actions

  13. Climate Change and Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason A; Vargo, Jason; Hoverter, Sara Pollock

    2017-03-01

    Climate change poses real and immediate impacts to the public health of populations around the globe. Adverse impacts are expected to continue throughout the century. Emphasizing co-benefits of climate action for health, combining adaptation and mitigation efforts, and increasing interagency coordination can effectively address both public health and climate change challenges.

  14. Environment and economy: Property rights and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    For much of its history, environmental economics has sought to modify public policy in order to achieve efficient use and management of environmental resources. The results of this attempt, however, have been dismaying for the most part, and environment public policy continues to differ from the course of action prescribed by economic analysis. Some economists have begun to acknowledge that the reasons for this gap between economic theory and public policy may lie in environmental economics itself rather than in poor policy choices. That is the message sent in this book by Daniel Bromley, who joins S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, Allan Schmid, and others in a strong internal critique of the discipline and, in particular, of the 'property rights school' of Coase, Demsetz, and other advocates of the market. Property rights are the common thread of this critique, which blames much of the failure of environmental economics to influence environmental policy on several fundamental misconceptions regarding property

  15. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  16. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  17. Improving Accountability in Public Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. The accountability systems put in place by No Child Left Behind have not produced enough improvement to meet the goal of all students meeting proficiency standards by 2014. While the current accountability system has…

  18. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  19. Cross-Cutting public policy requirements applicable to federal grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are cross-cutting public policy requirements applicable to Federal grants, including those awarded by the EPA. Some of those requirements are included here because they have been part of appropriations acts for several years without change.

  20. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Atle; Gjølberg, Maria; Kourula, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European...

  1. BASES OF PUBLIC POLICY FORMATION DIRECTED AT ENSURING BUDGET SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the priorities and public policies that can improve the safety level of the budget of Ukraine have been grounded. Attention on the problems of imbalance and deficiency trends accumulation of public debt has been focused. The detailed analysis of the budget deficit of the European community to further research the main problems of fiscal security has been carried out. The formation of the concept of budget policy should include long-term and medium-term priorities of the state priorities areas have been concluded. Budget policy on public debt must deal with interrelated issues of debt bondage and effective use of public credit, promote economic growth with respect safe level and structure of public debt have been emphasized by author. Debt policy as part of fiscal policy under certain conditions can be a powerful tool to intensify investment and innovation processes in society, promote economic and social development. The reorientation of fiscal policy to address current problems through debt and use it as the basis of investment and innovation development provides an effective public debt management is designed to reduce state budget expenditures on its servicing and repayment, optimizing the scope and structure of debt according to economic growth. The role of debt policy in modern terms increases is clearly subordinate to and consistent with long-term goals and priorities of fiscal policy. There is an urgent development and implementation of effective mechanisms for investing borrowed resources, increasing the efficiency of public investment, including the improvement of organizational, financial, legal and controls. Strategically budget security guarantees only competitive economy, which can be constructed only by recovery and accelerated development of promising sectors of the national economy in the presence of a balanced budget policy. Now there is a tendency to implement only measures to stabilize the political and socio

  2. Increasing HPV vaccination through policy for public health benefit

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Heather M.; Pierce, Jennifer Young; Crary, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines against specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cancer and other diseases have been met with mixed acceptance globally and in the United States. Policy-level interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing public health benefit. Government policies and mandates may result in improved HPV vaccination coverage and reduced disease burden, and alternative policies that improve unhindered access to HPV vaccination may allow success as well. The purpose of this c...

  3. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  4. Public Reactions to People with HIV/AIDS in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Bos (Arjan); G.J. Kok (Gerjo); A.J. Dijker (Anton)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA national telephone survey was conducted (1) to assess present-day public reactions to people with HIV/AIDS in the Netherlands, (2) to measure how knowledge about highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is related to public reactions to people with HIV/AIDS, and (3) to investigate

  5. Awareness of Public Library and Utilization of its HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public libraries have become become common ground for providing proactive prevention-focused AIDS information services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of presence of public librariesand low utilization of their AIDS information services. Librarians still have daunting work to do in Nigeria. Secondary ...

  6. PUBLIC DEBT MANAGEMENT – FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT OF PUBLIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pascal (Andriescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has put considerable pressure on public finances, particularly on government debt. Public debt in many countries of the world have increased in recent years to levels that were not registered by the end of the Second World War, facing today with a high risk regarding fiscal sustainability.Debt portfolio is usually the largest financial portfolio of a state, with a complex structure that can generate high risks that may affect public balance and financial stability of the country. Thus, proper management of public debt must become a priority for both the creditor and debtor countries. This paper aims to highlight the importance of effective management of government debt and to make a brief assessment of Romania's public debt structure and dynamic.

  7. REGULATORY PUBLIC POLICIES : AN INTRODUCTORY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Coskun Can Aktan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulation is one the significant economic role and function of the government.There are many types of economic regulations that might be demanded due tovarious reasons. Economists have different view and theories on economicregulations. Public interest theory of regulation explains the rationale ofregulation from the point of view of aiming public interest. Private interesttheories of regulation developed by Chicago and Virginia school of economistssuggests that regulation does not protect the public atlarge but only the interestsof special groups. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literatureconcerning regulation and also review the literature on various rationales foreconomic regulations.

  8. Proposed Policy: Drug Testing of Hawaii's Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bebi

    2007-01-01

    Because of a proposed policy, public school teachers in Hawaii are facing the possibility of being randomly tested for illegal drugs. Random drug testing has many implications and its impact is questionable. In this article, the author scrutinizes the controversial drug-testing policy for both troubling and promising aspects and how educators may…

  9. Alumni access policies in public university libraries | Burclaff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the current library access policies for alumni at a public university system using document analysis, observations and interviews. We found that alumni are specifically addressed in only two library access policies, and borrowing privileges through cards, on-site access and restricted access to electronic ...

  10. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems. Around the world, biotechnology has become a driving force for dramatic change in systems and policies intended to spur ...

  11. Using Research Evidence to Inform Public Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…

  12. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  13. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  14. Educational Stratification, School Expansion, and Public Policy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in Hong Kong's policy to extend free and compulsory education to the first three years of secondary schooling. Examines the consequences of this expansion and finds that the changes in public policy had a substantial impact on the ability of young people, especially girls, to go to secondary school, regardless of income.…

  15. Public debt managers' behaviour: interactions with macro policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, L.; Öztürk, B.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of public debt management, the policy behaviour of debt managers, and the impact of debt management on financial stability and monetary policy.The focus is on the euro area. Empirical estimations of a debt management reaction function indicate that the share of short

  16. About public health policies in the new century

    OpenAIRE

    Franco G., Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Several subjects of public health policies are analyzed from different points of view, bearing in mind the line of coherence of their universal, global and integral character. Themes such as "Health for All", understood as a universal policy at the close of this century, are included. Around it other recent approaches are considered which are also related between them: the subject of health promotion in its broad vision from the guidelines of the Ottawa (Canada) letter, and the public health ...

  17. Private and public consumption and counter-cyclical fiscal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marattin, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    This paper bulds a closed-economy NK-DSGE model with no capital, in which consumers value both private and public consumption and fiscal policy is determined by a feedback rule responding to output gap. We analyse how different degrees of substitutatibility/complementarity between private and public consumption and a pro/counter-cyclical stance of fiscal policy affect equilbrium determinacy and the response of the economy to a wide range of shocks. Results show that determinacy is ensured b...

  18. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  19. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  20. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  1. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  2. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  3. Adapting to climate change : the public policy response - public infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This paper assesses the threats and needs that multidimensional climate change imposes for : public infrastructure, reviews the existing adaptive capacity that could be applied to respond : to these threats and needs, and presents options for enhanci...

  4. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs.

  5. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Kim Yi

    2012-12-01

    - The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries.

  6. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST RESEARCH TO TRANSPORTATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto ITOH

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Established in 1995 with the basic philosophy of serving as a bridge between research and practice, the Institute for Transport Policy Studies conducts activities in support of transportation policy research in the public interest. This paper aims to describe the contribution of public interest research to transportation policy as seen in the Institute's activities. Touching first on the context and events leading to its establishment, the paper then describes the Institute's guiding principles, organization and staff and summarizes research and other activities.

  7. Ethics and policy: Dealing with public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered - one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. (authors)

  8. FINANCING POLICIES OF CROATIAN PUBLICLY LISTED FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Grubisic Seba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a typical bank-based transition economy whose capital market has been primarily used for secondary trading purposes since its re-establishment in 1990s. Except for a couple of exceptions, public offers of shares and corporate bonds have been rather rate. Private offerings of shares and short-term debt have been more frequent. However, due to secondary debt market illiquidity, the debt issues are signed up and either held until maturity or renewal, or they are traded exclusively between the institutional investors.This paper provides evidence from the field on financing preferences of Croatian public companies regarding seasoned equity and corporate debt issuance. It questiones why public offerings of corporate securities in non-financial sector after initial, mostly mandatory shares’ listing have been rare and whether making decisions on securities’ offers depend on other financial instruments’ sufficiency, costs of issunace or previous experience of companies in collecting funds in the capital market.

  9. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-01-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  10. Primary health care and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, K L; Luna, J; Smith, H L

    1988-01-01

    The health problems of Ecuador are similar to those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low, and housing and sanitation are inadequate. Women, children, and those living in rural areas are those most severely affected. National policy has been to attempt to increase access to health care in rural areas through the construction of new facilities and the appointment of highly paid medical staff. However, little attention was paid to sociocultural factors, which caused the peasantry to reject the medical care system, or to problems of internal efficiency which inhibited utilization. Since the 1970s various national and international organizations have attempted to implement primary health care (PHC) through the use of trained community health workers (CHWs). The primary problems faced by the CHWs were shortages of medicines and supplies, an almost total lack of supervision, and lack of transportation available to take staff to isolated villages. The poor supervision is blamed for the 17% drop out rate among CHWs since 1980. Independent PHC programs have also been established in Ecuador by voluntary organizations. These work best when coordinated with governmental programs, in order to allow monitoring and to avoid the duplication of services. Problems with the establishment of PHC programs in Ecuador will continue, as the government has no clear cut policy, and difficulties financing on a broad national scale. Other problems include the absence of effective supervision and logistical support for even small pilot programs, and inconsistencies in the training and role definition for CHWs. These problems need to be met in the implementation of a national PHC policy.

  11. Public Policy in Project Rural Settlement: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Nogueira Almeida Ratke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to know the rural settlement "Brejo dos Altos" to discuss whether the laws and public policies would be sufficient to encourage sustainable production and strengthening family agriculture to be able to promote the new rural development model. It used bibliographical and qualitative research to analyze the concepts and agrarian policy objectives, land policy, land reform, settlement and seated, according to the data collected. With land reform was an improvement in the quality of life of farmers, however, there are numerous challenges to be overcome in order to achieve the objectives of land policy.

  12. Climate Change, Public Health, and Policy: A California Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Chandrakala; Smith, Jason A

    2017-10-26

    Anthropogenic activity will bring immediate changes and disruptions to the global climate with accompanying health implications. Although policymakers and public health advocates are beginning to acknowledge the health implications of climate change, current policy approaches are lagging behind. We proposed that 4 key policy principles are critical to successful policymaking in this arena: mainstreaming, linking mitigation and adaptation policy, applying population perspectives, and coordination. We explored California's progress in addressing the public health challenges of climate change in the San Joaquin Valley as an example. We discussed issues of mental health and climate change, and used the San Joaquin Valley of California as an example to explore policy approaches to health issues and climate change. The California experience is instructive for other jurisdictions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304047).

  13. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  14. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  15. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological Perspectives on Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.; Russo, Nancy Felipe

    1987-01-01

    The Supreme Court has relied on psychological assumptions in adolescent abortion cases, but it has failed to consider relevant empirical research. The Interdivisional Committee on Adolescent Abortion provides a model for organized psychology's integration, dissemination, and application of psychological knowledge to promote the public's interest.…

  16. A review of UK housing policy: ideology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to review UK public health policy, with a specific reference to housing as a key health determinant, since its inception in the Victorian era to contemporary times. This paper reviews the role of social and private housing policy in the development of the UK public health movement, tracing its initial medical routes through to the current socio-economic model of public health. The paper establishes five distinct ideologically and philosophically driven eras, placing public health and housing within liberal (Victorian era), state interventionist (post World War 1; post World War 2), neoliberal (post 1979) and "Third Way" (post 1997) models, showing the political perspective of policy interventions and overviewing their impact on public health. The paper particularly focuses on the contemporary model of public health since the Acheson Report, and how its recommendations have found their way into policy, also the impact on housing practice. Public health is closely related to political ideology, whether driven by the State, individual or partnership arrangements. The current political system, the Third Way, seeks to promote a sustainable "social contract" between citizens and the State, public, private and voluntary organizations in delivering community-based change in areas where health inequalities can be most progressively and successfully addressed.

  17. Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy recommendations for Africa's growth and development. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The paper presents an analytical insight into the link between public procurement, governance and economic growth. It shows that ...

  18. Public participation in regional health policy: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; MacKean, Gail; Vollman, Ardene; Casebeer, Ann; Weber, Myron; Maloff, Bretta; Bader, Judy

    2005-09-08

    How best to involve the public in local health policy development and decision-making is an ongoing challenge for health systems. In the current literature on this topic, there is discussion of the lack of rigorous evaluations upon which to draw generalizable conclusions about what public participation methods work best and for what kinds of outcomes. We believe that for evaluation research on public participation to build generalizable claims, some consistency in theoretical framework is needed. A major objective of the research reported on here was to develop such a theoretical framework for understanding public participation in the context of regionalized health governance. The overall research design followed the grounded theory tradition, and included five case studies of public participation initiatives in an urban regional health authority in Canada, as well as a postal survey of community organizations. This particular article describes the theoretical framework developed, with an emphasis on explaining the following major components of the framework: public participation initiatives as a process; policy making processes with a health region; social context as symbolic and political institutions; policy communities; and health of the population as the ultimate outcome of public participation. We believe that this framework is a good beginning to making more explicit the factors that may be considered when evaluating both the processes and outcomes of public participation in health policy development.

  19. The birth of mindpolitics : Understanding nudging in public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Rik; Schuilenburg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the question: 'In what ways have nudging and other behavioural techniques entered the realm of policymaking for public health and what does that mean for the way contemporary society is governed?' In our genealogy of Dutch public health policy, we have identified four periods:

  20. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  1. No Policy for Public Private Partnership? PPP, Collaboration and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten

    The paper examines how the PPP‐policy has developed in a country with low PPP activity. The paper focuses on the following research questions: How does collaboration occur between the public and private sector in relation to the provision of transport infrastructure and public service? How does...... infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...

  2. Romanian Public Expenditures Policy during the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Ştefania SAVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the Romanian public expenditures policy promoted in the context of the economic and financial crisis. Firstly, we present a brief introduction on the effects of public expenditures policy to economic growth and the role of automatic stabilizers in times of economic recessions. Secondly, the paper analyzes the evolution of current and capital public expenditures before and during the economic and financial crisis, according to which unproductive spending prevailed, in detriment of productive investments which can stimulate the economic recovery.

  3. Award of Public Contracts as a Means to Conferring State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanøe Petersen, Cecilie

    The Thesis investigates the interface between State aid law and public procurement law with an emphasis on analysing when the award of public contracts by contracting authorities constitutes State aid within the meaning of Article 107(1) TFEU. Article 107(1) TFEU prohibits any aid granted...... Directives and thus should have happened through a tender procedure. Such situations are referred to as illegal direct award of contracts. This Thesis analyses the extent to which State aid rules apply in the abovementioned situations....

  4. [Methodology for the development of policy brief in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Emily; Carrasco, José Miguel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2018-01-10

    A policy brief is a document that summarizes research to inform policy. In a brief and succinct way, it defines a policy problem, presents a synthesis of relevant evidence, identifies possible courses of action and makes recommendations or key points. The objective of this note is to describe the methodology used to produce a policy brief for communicating public health research. This note is based on the model presented by Eugene Bardach in addition to the authors' own experiences. We describe six steps: 1) identifying the audience; 2) defining the problem; 3) gathering information and evidence; 4) consideration of policy alternatives; 5) projecting results and designing recommendations; and 6) telling the story. We make a case for the use of policy briefs as a part of an overall communications strategy for research that aims to bring together research teams and stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  6. National and state policies influencing the care of children affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K M

    2000-04-01

    The portrait of HIV-affected children and youth that emerges from this policy overview is still one of children obscured from view by the shadow of their parents' and siblings' illness and policies that only address the needs of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the secrecy and stigma that still surround HIV and AIDS make it difficult for HIV-affected children and youth to benefit as fully as they might from policies and programs that provide more generic types of care and assistance. Our failure as a nation to better illuminate the plight of HIV-affected children and youth can only leave us with a generation of children who are at greater risk of psychiatric illness, involvement with the criminal justice system, substance abuse, and contracting HIV. To avoid these consequences, both public and private sectors must place the spotlight on the development of new policies and programs designed to specifically meet their needs. Because the solutions defy traditional disciplinary and administrative boundaries, we also need to become more skilled at interagency planning and collaboration. No one system alone can be responsive to the many social, mental health, legal, and support needs of these children and their caretakers. More specifically, recommendations for improved systems of care to HIV-affected children, youth, and their families are as follows: To promote and fund cross-disciplinary initiatives among agencies that administer child welfare services, income supports, AIDS care, and children's mental health services at the national, state, and local levels to specifically meet the mental health, psychosocial, and permanency planning needs of HIV-affected children and youth. To provide training opportunities for Ryan White Title I, II, and III case managers on assessing the needs of HIV-affected children and youth, developmental theories and concepts, principles of family-centered care, and child welfare issues. To increase funding of the Ryan White CARE Act to

  7. Task shifting of HIV/AIDS case management to Community Health Service Centers in urban China: a qualitative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuchang; Lv, Fan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Dapeng; Meng, Sining; Ju, Lahong; Jiang, Huihui; Ma, Liping; Sun, Jiangping; Wu, Zunyou

    2015-07-02

    The growing number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China points to an increased need for case management services of HIV/AIDS. This study sought to explore the challenges and enablers in shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) to Community Health Service Centers (CHSCs) in urban China. A qualitative method based on the Health Policy Triangle (HPT) framework was employed to gain in-depth insights into four elements of the task shifting strategy. This included a review on published literature and health policy documents, 15 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 30 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with four types of key actors from three cities in China. A total of 78 studies and 17 policy files at the national, municipal and local levels were obtained and reviewed comprehensively. Three semi-structured interview guides were used to explore key actors' views on shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services to CHSCs. It is necessary and feasible for CHSCs to engage in case management services for PLWHA in local communities. The increasing number of PLWHA and shortage of qualified health professionals in CDCs made shifting case management services downwards to CHSCs an urgent agenda. CHSCs' wide distribution, technical capacity, accessibility and current practice enabled them to carry out case management services for PLWHA. However our findings indicated several challenges in this task shifting process. Those challenges included lack of specific policy and stable financial support for CHSCs, inadequate manpower, relatively low capacity for health service delivery, lack of coordination among sectors, PLWHA's fear for discrimination and privacy disclosure in local communities, which may compromise the effectiveness and sustainability of those services. Shifting the HIV/AIDS case management services from CDCs to CHSCs is a new approach to cope with the rising number of PLWHA in China, but it should be

  8. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  9. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA Journal Mission Statement The journal publishes contributions in English and French from all fields of social aspects of HIV/AIDS (care, support, ... culture, faith-based approaches, evidence-based intervention, health communication, structural and environmental intervention, financing, policy, media, etc).

  10. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim of this

  11. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  12. Purged: Undocumented Students, Financial Aid Policies, and Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…

  13. Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge (West Africa). Climate change affects the fishing sector in various ways, by modifying the composition of animal and plant populations, ocean currents, and the frequency and intensity of tropical storms. Over-fishing and ...

  14. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  15. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing

  16. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  17. Checklist "Open Access Policies": Analysis of the Open Access Policies of Public Universities in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This checklist provides an overview of the Open Access policies implemented at Austrian universities and extramural research institutions. Furthermore, the polices adopted at nine public universities are analyzed and the respective text modules are categorized thematically. The second part of the checklist presents measures for the promotion of Open Access following the implementation of an Open Access policy.

  18. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to

  19. Public health metaphors in Australian policy on asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Glenda

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.

  20. Ensuring Integrity in AGU Publications and Compliance With Dual Publication Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Calais, Eric

    2011-03-01

    To ensure the highest standards for publication, AGU has begun screening manuscript submissions using CrossCheck (http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html) for possible verbatim use of previously published material. Water Resources Research and Geophysical Research Letters have tested this technology since summer 2010. It has proven very useful in ensuring the highest integrity in publication standards and compliance with the AGU dual publication policy (http://www.agu.org/pubs/authors/policies/dualpub_policy.shtml). According to Barbara Major, assistant director of journals, other AGU journals will adopt this screening process in the near future.

  1. Urban revitalization and displacement: types, causes, and public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagin, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.

  2. Management of radio-contaminated sites analysis of various public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.; Brenot, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing public implemented in several countries in the field of the management of site contaminated by radionuclides. An analysis of decision-aiding tools will be made with an emphasis on the making of diagnostic, the choice of the radiation protection principles, the possible recommendations on optimization, the quantitative criteria and levels of action set up and the setting-up of long term monitoring. The management of sites contaminated by radionuclides also requires to express qualitatively and quantitatively the two notions of residual health risk and acceptable risk. This comes ahead of the definition of levels and modes of action. The adequacy between the principles announced and their concrete implementation will be studied in depth for some countries. The following questions will be dealt with. Who are the responsibles for such policies? Who are the different actors and operators of the public policy? Is the public involved in the decision making process? How assessment and decision go off? What are the gaps between the expected results and those obtained? What are the hindering points? Are the principles put forward implemented? Presently decision-aiding tools must fit with the reality of any system of risk management in which officials, public representatives and individuals participate in order to define and implement the solutions. This paper will focus on radioactive contamination but it will also address other types of contamination, such as chemical ones, as some countries make no distinction according to the nature of the contamination. (author)

  3. Measuring use of research evidence in public health policy: a policy content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex

    2014-05-23

    There are few Australian studies showing how research evidence is used to inform the development of public health policy. International research has shown that compensation for injury rehabilitation can have negative impacts on health outcomes. This study examined transport injury compensation policy in the Australian state of Victoria to: determine type and purpose of reference to information sources; and to identify the extent of reference to academic research evidence in transport related injury rehabilitation compensation policy. Quantitative content analysis of injury rehabilitation compensation policies (N = 128) from the Victorian state government transport accident compensation authority. The most commonly referenced types of information were Internal Policy (median = 6 references per policy), Clinical/Medical (2.5), and Internal Legislation (1). Academic Research Evidence was the least often referenced source of information. The main purpose of reference to information was to support injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation claims decision-making. Transport injury compensation policy development is complex; with multiple sources of information cited including legislation, internal policy, external policy and clinical/medical evidence. There is limited use of academic research evidence in Victorian state government injury treatment and rehabilitation compensation policies. Decisions regarding compensation for injury treatment and rehabilitation services could benefit from greater use of academic research evidence. This study is one of the first to examine the use of research evidence in existing Australian public health policy decision-making using rigorous quantitative methods. It provides a practical example of how use of research evidence in public health policy can be objectively measured.

  4. Instruments for public environment policies: The negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, S.; Squillacioti, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The negotiation starts from the postulate that environmental conflicts are a standing datum in the future of our societies. Environmental instance is based in deep and not reversible manner inside the attitude and value changes and, consequently, inside the quality of life. The different hopes about the environmental consequences constitute an internal element of democratic development and it is not thinkable to ignore or neglect these diversities. With regard to this last point the inadequacy of the present legal systems must be underlined. They are constructed to settle a controversy about 'the facts' and not about 'the values'. Often some environmental disputes may last quite a few years without facing the real essence of the question. The environmental negotiation intends as a 'consensual approach' that should give more possibilities for the conflict solution. It is based on the presupposition to create the terms for final result. In comparison with the legislative acts, the direct negotiation table permits a best exploration of options and a best mobilization of technical competencies. At last, because the negotiators should live together on the basis of obtained agreement, they will have more sensibility for the problems attached to the application than the laymen, for which the process ends with the publication of the law. The strongest argumentation in favor of environmental negotiation is that it is more difficult to avoid the substantial questions as well as often happens inside the legislative acts. (author)

  5. Publication of the accounting policies in accordance with IAS 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In global economy, accounting policies respectively the notes to financial statements of the enterprise are used as a complement for good quality financial reporting and strategic management. Selected accounting policies aligned with IAS/IFRS, as a key element of the notes complement content of accounting information in financial statements: balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, statement of changes on capital. This paper focuses on: 1. accounting principles and standards as well as origination in accounting policies, 2. choice of accounting policies in the area of long-term assets and inventory, 3. important features of notes to financial statements. In the Republic of Serbia publication of accounting policies must be in accordance with IAS 8. In this paper the autors used following methods of research: an overview relevant literature, the method of analysis, the method of synthesis, the method of induction, method of deduction and mathematical method.

  6. Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44) was put in place to improve and reauthorize provisions relating to the application of the antitrust laws to the award of need-based educational aid. The contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Short Title; and (2) Extension Relating to the Application of the Antitrust Laws to the…

  7. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hübner, Claudia; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Brähler, Elmar; Puhl, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513), public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Public Support for Weight-Related Antidiscrimination Laws and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Weight-related discrimination is prevalent and associated with health impairments for those who are targeted, which underscores the need of antidiscrimination legislation. This study is the first to examine public support of weight-related antidiscrimination laws or policies in Germany, compared to the US and Iceland. Methods: In a representative German population sample (N = 2,513, public support for general and employment-specific weight-related antidiscrimination policies, weight-based victimization, and weight bias internalization were measured through established self-report questionnaires. Results: Half of the German population sample agreed with antidiscrimination policies. General antidiscrimination laws received lower support than employment-specific laws. Support for policies considering obesity a physical disability was greatest in Germany, whereas support for employment-specific antidiscrimination laws was lower in Germany than in the US and Iceland. Total support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies was significantly predicted by lower age, female gender, obese weight status, residence in West Germany, church membership, and readiness to vote in elections. Conclusion: German support for weight-related antidiscrimination policies is moderate. Increasing awareness about weight-related discrimination and laws prohibiting this behavior may help to promote policy acceptance.

  9. Intangible cultural heritage: references, public policies and dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    TOJI, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Presenting historical references of practices inside the cultural heritage field in Brazil, the text aims to provide basic support for the debates concerning the intangible cultural heritage public policy nowadays and tries to point out how the Brazilian State and society endure some dilemmas and challenges of the mentioned public policy Recuperando alguns marcos e referências históricas de ações dentro do campo da cultura e do patrimônio, o presente texto visa trazer subsídios para discut...

  10. Papers of the Public Policy Forum conference : Fueling our future : strategic energy policy opportunities for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Public Policy Forum is a unique organization in Canada which promotes excellence in public policy development due to its firm belief that high quality government is fundamental in the competitive global economy. This conference provided a forum to discuss recent developments in the oil markets and energy policies from a public policy perspective. Trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed with emphasis on issues such as industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. The presentations examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel consumption, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases for sustainable development. This conference featured 20 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  12. Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benjamin Y

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally. This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries. First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response. Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.

  13. Explaining willingness of public professionals to implement public policies: Content, context and personality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Steijn, Bram; Tummers, Lars; Bekkers, Victor

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there is an intense debate on pressures facing public professionals. This debate often focuses on the (un)willingness of professionals - such as teachers and physicians - to implement new policies. In explaining this willingness, scholars often looked at the policy content, using qualitative case-studies. This has not led to a satisfactory explanatory framework. The aim of this research is twofold: (1) building a more all-encompassing, three-factor model (policy content...

  14. Explaining willingness of public professionals to implement public policies: Content, context and personality characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Steijn (Bram); L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there is an intense debate on pressures facing public professionals. This debate often focuses on the (un)willingness of professionals - such as teachers and physicians - to implement new policies. In explaining this willingness, scholars often looked at the policy content,

  15. EXplaining The Willingness Of Public Professionals To Implement Public Policies: Content, Context, And Personality Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe willingness of public professionals to implement policy programmes is important for achieving policy performance. However, few scholars have developed and tested systematic frameworks to analyze this issue. In this study, we address this by building and testing an appropriate

  16. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Exploring Men and Vulnerability Towards Effective HIV/AIDS Policy Interventions and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogochukwu Nzewi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dynamics between HIV/Aids gender policy strategies and the socio-political demands on HIV/Aids interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender in HIV/Aids intervention seems inescapable. Nowhere else is this more marked than in the social dimensions of HIV/Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. This has resulted in prevention strategies, which are encumbered by the reality of poverty, gender, access, power and the various debates on behavioural change. The social constructions of gender roles and power relations play a significant role in the region’s HIV /Aids dynamic. To this end, the mainstreaming of gender issues into national political, social and economic agenda and policies has been championed by international development and economic institutions. In developing HIV/Aids intervention policies, gender has also been mainstreamed, especially where epidemiological data show the disparity in infection rates between men and women, where women are seen as more susceptible to infection. The gendered approach to HIV/Aids appears to typecast women as the vulnerable and suffering face of HIV/Aids, while men, as ‘the other’, are generally regarded as the perpetuators and spreaders of the virus. While there is no doubt that women’s vulnerability in this milieu has been proven within known research evidence to exist, the neglect of institutional (social, cultural and economic and historical vulnerabilities of African men’s realities are sometimes overlooked. Recently, greater focus has shifted to curbing infection rates in men based on new scientific evidence that shows that risk of transmission in circumcised men is reduced. The article argues that such movement towards showing areas of men’s vulnerability as a focus in HIV/Aids policy interventions may have the potential to shift the observed burden that current HIV/Aids policy thrusts inadvertently place on African women. The article will put forward an argument for

  17. Private development aid in Europe: Foreign aid between the public and the private domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebink, P.R.J.; Schulpen, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book which makes a detailed analysis of private aid organizations in Europe, their historical background and current position in six European countries - Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands and Spain. The authors investigate the relation between governments and

  18. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  19. Causality between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Bongsuk; Song, Woo-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the causal relationship between public policies and exports of renewable energy technologies using panel data from 18 countries for the period 1991–2007. A number of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. Time series data on public policies and exports are integrated and cointegrated. The dynamic OLS results indicate that in the long run, a 1% increase in government R and D expenditures (RAD) increases exports (EX) by 0.819%. EX and RAD variables respond to deviations from the long-run equilibrium in the previous period. Additionally, the Blundell–Bond system generalized methods of moments (GMM) is employed to conduct a panel causality test in a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM) setting. Evidence of a bidirectional and short-run, and strong causal relationship between EX and the contribution of renewable energy to the total energy supply (CRES) is uncovered. CRES has a negative effect on EX, whereas EX has a positive effect on CRES. We suggest some policy implications based on the results of this study. - Highlights: ► We model VECM to test the Granger causality between the policies and the export. ► Technology-push policy has a positive impact on export in the long-run. ► There are the short-run causal relationships between market-pull policy and export

  20. The Dutch sentinel practice network: relevance for public health policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, A.I.M.; Fracheboud, J.; Zee, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    The Dutch sentinal practice network: relevance for public health policy, considers the now 20-year history of the Continuous Morbidity Registration Sentinel Stations the Netherlands. The book consists of two parts. In the first part general aspects are discussed: the origin of the project at the end

  1. Classical Stasis Theory and the Analysis of Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    In classical Greece, there was a close tie between rhetoric and the practice and theory of public policy. Gradually, however, rhetoric became increasingly concerned with style and literary criticism, while philosophers began to debate political issues apart from the practical affairs of the polis. Because rhetoric provides a model that can still…

  2. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Those articles will feed into policy development through briefs, website content for the Institute of Development Studies, other online platforms, and the publication of an edited book and/or journal issue. A symposium in India will share research results with key policymakers, researchers, civil society, and the media in order ...

  3. Renewable energies and public policies; Energies renouvelables et politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the full texts of the allocution delivered during the colloquium on the renewable energies and the public policies. It takes stock on the strategical environment and the political will of the renewable energies, the tracks of development in France and the necessity of a law on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  4. Essays on public policy and household decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contains four empirical analyses of household decision making and public policy. We use structural microeconometric methods to evaluate specific aspects of national tax systems which are targeted at partnered households. Our aim is to identify the determinants of household decision

  5. Educational Democracy in Graduate Education: Public Policies and Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos Medeiros, Hugo Augusto; Mello Neto, Ruy de Deus e; Mendes Catani, Afrânio

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a discussion on the possibilities of educational democracy in Brazilian Graduate Education, with a focus on the current Graduate Education Field regulations and the recent affirmative actions and public policies of access. We analyzed laws, decrees, government plans and selections edicts, through categories derived from historical…

  6. The Concepts of Nudge and Nudging in Behavioural Public Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2017-01-01

    , a revised definition of nudge that cleans up conceptual mess and locates nudging amongst three strings of behavioural public policy: push, clear and nudge. Finally, ‘nudging’ is defined as the systematic and evidence-based development and implementation of nudges in creating behaviour change and some...

  7. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  8. Mandatory rules and public policy in international contract law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    -, č. 11 (2010), s. 29-43 ISSN 1612-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/08/0188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : mandatory rules * public policy * Rome Convention Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  9. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  10. Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy. The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) make it possible to work from remote locations, resulting in a reduction of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Food security management Through Public Policy | Amani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To this end, the paper argues that sectors other than agriculture should become prominent, thereby bringing to the fore issue such as employment generation, broad-based economic growth and sustainable development. In all of these good public policy is crucial. (Af. J. Finance and Management: 2002 11 (1): 1-15) ...

  12. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  13. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to shape policies underlying the development of India's proposed National Food Security Act. As well, it will help restructure the public food distribution system and the delivery of social welfare programs that affect food and nutritional security. The project's two streams are led by the National Council for Applied ...

  14. Public Policy Responses to the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to assess the impact of the global fi nancial and economic crisis on two sectors in South Africa, namely, the automobile sector and the textile and clothing sector. It also examines the role of public policy in responding to that crisis. Its main objective is to determine whether or not those responses were ...

  15. The securitisation of pandemic influenza: framing, security and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamradt-Scott, Adam; McInnes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how pandemic influenza has been framed as a security issue, threatening the functioning of both state and society, and the policy responses to this framing. Pandemic influenza has long been recognised as a threat to human health. Despite this, for much of the twentieth century it was not recognised as a security threat. In the decade surrounding the new millennium, however, the disease was successfully securitised with profound implications for public policy. This article addresses the construction of pandemic influenza as a threat. Drawing on the work of the Copenhagen School, it examines how it was successfully securitised at the turn of the millennium and with what consequences for public policy.

  16. Fiscal Consolidation As a Public Policy: Conceptual and Theoretical Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Bakırtaş

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available                         AbstractFiscal consolidation is the implementation of policies to reduce government expenditures and the public debt ratio to GDP. These policies are used to ensure fiscal discipline and minimize the debt stock by either tax or expenditure side. In this respect, the importance of fiscal consolidation policy is to ensure fiscal discipline without making negative effects on economic growth and economic life. Besides the conceptual framework, periods and the success criteria of fiscal consolidation are important factors for evaluating the success or failure of fiscal consolidation. In this study, it has been identified that there is no consensus on these criteria in the literature.Keywords: Fiscal Consolidation, Budget Deficits,Government Spending, Public EconomyJEL Classification Codes: E62, H32, H62

  17. No Policy for Public Private Partnership? PPP, Collaboration and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene; Greve, Carsten

    infrastructure projects and public service provision contracts in the transport sector within roads and busses, bridges and tunnels, rail, airports and aviation and harbors. The projects will be categorized in relation to organizational and financial models and it leads to a. discussion of types of policy...... choices across the sector and the reasons behind whether or not PPP was chosen. The final part of the paper presents an institutional historical account of the Danish case, and focuses on the more general question of how PPP policy planning evolves. There is no direct step from privatization...... policy already, where the PPP policy option did not present itself as the next obvious step, and alternative options were available, the government approach towards PPP is likely to be more reluctant....

  18. Public-policy responsibilities in a restructured electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; Hirst, E.; Bauer, D.

    1995-06-01

    In this report, we identify and define the key public-policy values, objectives, and actions that the US electricity industry currently meets. We also discuss the opportunities for meeting these objectives in a restructured industry that relies primarily on market forces rather than on government mandates. And we discuss those functions that governments might undertake, presumably because they will not be fully met by a restructured industry on its own. These discussions are based on a variety of inputs. The most important inputs came from participants in an April 1995 workshop on Public-Policy Responsibilities and Electric Industry Restructuring: Shaping the Research Agenda. Other sources of information and insights include the reviews of a draft of this report by workshop participants and others and the rapidly growing literature on electric-industry restructuring and its implications. One of the major concerns about the future of the electricity industry is the fate of numerous social and environmental programs supported by today`s electric utilities. Many people worry that a market-driven industry may not meet the public-policy objectives that electric utilities have met in the past. Examples of potentially at-risk programs include demand-side management (DSM), renewable energy, low-income weatherization, and fuel diversity. Workshop participants represented electric utilities, public utility commissions (PUCs), state energy offices, public-interest groups, other energy providers, and the research community.

  19. HIV/AIDS policies, practices and conditions in South African prisons: Criticisms and alternatives. Towards a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, K C; Gow, J

    2002-01-01

    The level of HIV infection in South African prisoners is unknown. However, given that 4.2 million citizens or 20% of the adult population are infected by HIV then the problem of infection within the prison system would seem to be a large and a significant management issue. Policies to treat HIV+ prisoners and prevent HIV transmission have been developed. However, the efficacy of those programmes implemented to prevent HIV transmission is questionable. The reasons for this situation include lack of resources like condoms, lubricant, disinfectants and availability of testing. Prison conditions also militate against success especially overcrowding, poor health care and nutrition. Little research has been undertaken into HIV within the prison system and the lack of transparency in management of the system is a major hindrance in achieving better public policy outcomes. The issues of importance to policy research on HIV/AIDS in prison, which should receive early attention, include: 1) Prevalence rate determination; 2) Treatment of HIV+ prisoners; 3) Education programmes; and 4) Early release policy and practices.

  20. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras.

  1. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries' contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia.

  2. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Rojas Loría

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia.

  3. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  4. Trends in public health policies addressing violence against women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría, Kattia Rojas; Rosado, Teresa Gutiérrez; Espinosa, Leonor María Cantera; Marrochi, Leda María Marenco; Sánchez, Anna Fernández

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of policies and action plans within the public healthcare system that addresses the issue of violence against women. METHODS A descriptive and comparative study was conducted on the health policies and plans in Catalonia and Costa Rica from 2005 to 2011. It uses a qualitative methodology with documentary analysis. It is classified by topics that describe and interpret the contents. We considered dimensions, such as principles, strategies, concepts concerning violence against women, health trends, and evaluations. RESULTS Thirteen public policy documents were analyzed. In both countries’ contexts, we have provided an overview of violence against women as a problem whose roots are in gender inequality. The strategies of gender policies that address violence against women are cultural exchange and institutional action within the public healthcare system. The actions of the healthcare sector are expanded into specific plans. The priorities and specificity of actions in healthcare plans were the distinguishing features between the two countries. CONCLUSIONS The common features of the healthcare plans in both the counties include violence against women, use of protocols, detection tasks, care and recovery for women, and professional self-care. Catalonia does not consider healthcare actions with aggressors. Costa Rica has a lower specificity in conceptualization and protocol patterns, as well as a lack of updates concerning health standards in Catalonia. PMID:25210820

  5. Public-private partnerships as a strategy against HIV/AIDS in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the face of the extreme challenges posed by the South African HIV/AIDS epidemic, collaboration between public and private partners is often called for in an attempt to mobilise additional resources and generate synergies. This paper shows that the ability to successfully use public-private partnerships to address complex ...

  6. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health.

  8. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  9. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  10. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  11. Confronting AIDS: directions for public health, health care, and research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine Staff; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    1986-01-01

    ... PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version heading print the breaks, use been Please has inserted. lengths, word work original line accide...

  12. Building bridges between health economics research and public policy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrand, Thierry; Dourgnon, Paul

    2010-12-01

    The Institut de Recherche et Documentation en Economie de la Santé (IRDES) Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation aims at disseminating health economic research's newest findings and enhancing the community's capacity to address issues that are relevant to public policy. The 2010 program consisted of 16 articles covering a vast range of topics, such as health insurance, social health inequalities and health services research. While most of the articles embedded theoretical material, all had to include empirical material in order to favor more applied and practical discussions and results. The 2010 workshop is to be the first of a series of annual workshops in Paris gathering together researchers on health economics and policy evaluation. The next workshop is to be held at IRDES in June 2011.

  13. Post-Snowden Internet Policy: Between Public Outrage, Resistance and Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Pohle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This editors’ introduction provides a short summary of the Snowden revelations and the paradoxical political and public responses to them. It further provides an overview of the current academic debate triggered by the Snowden case and the documents leaked by him and introduces the articles featured in this issue on post-Snowden Internet policy.

  14. The Politics of Healthy Policies: Redesigning health impact assessment to integrate health in public policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.M. Bekker (Marleen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPublic health issues, such as obesity, lung disease from air pollution or mental health complaints from living in an unsafe neighbourhood, are complex, intractable policy problems. The causes are dispersed at the individual and the collective level among different societal

  15. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  16. Ethnic Identity and Power: Quilombos in Brazilian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Peres Calheiros

    2010-06-01

    Extension Assistance (Pnater, this article examines the relation of power between public policies and ethnic identities. It discusses how the reformulated concept of development influences government activity in rural contexts and the adoption of compensatory actions for excluded portions of the population. It briefly presents the social, legal and conceptual trajectory of the quilombos, localizing the dynamics of power in the construction of quilombola identity, a project in constant re-elaboration by Brazilian society.

  17. Public Investment Policy in Life-Science Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chenggang; Xia, Yin; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Buccola, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents a dynamic model of research investment. This model allows us to examine three important channels through which public investment policy can affect the private sector's research investment, that is, the productivity, replacement, and wage effects. Two alternative empirical approaches are introduced to implement the model. Through a unified examination of the productivity, replacement, and wage effects, the empirical estimation of this model will provide insight into whethe...

  18. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  19. "I'm very visible but seldom seen": consumer choice and use of mobility aids on public transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Carolyn A; Rawat, Vijay; Sullivan, John; Tay, Richard; Naweed, Anjum; Gudimetla, Prasad

    2017-11-28

    The number of mobility aid users continues to rise as the population ages. While mobility aid users rely on public transport due to its affordability, evidence suggests access can be difficult. This study aims to describe people who use mobility aids to access public transport and the role of public transport access in influencing mobility aid choice. Sixty-seven mobility aid users participated in telephone surveys which predominantly used a structured quantitative format. Data were analysed descriptively and any additional comments were simply categorized. Thirty-six participants were female (54%), with a total sample mean age of 58.15 years (SD = 14.46). Seventy-two percent lived in metropolitan areas, 48% lived alone, and the sample experienced a variety of conditions including spinal cord injury (37%) and arthritis (18%). Sixty-four percent of all respondents used two or more mobility aids including powered wheelchairs, scooters and walking frames. The most important features when choosing a mobility aid were reliability, turning ability and size. Fifty-two percent of all respondents strongly agreed that public transport is generally accessible. While work continues to ensure that public transport vehicles and stations are fully accessible, mobility aid users must manage current infrastructure and access a system which has been shown through this research to have many limitations. Mobility aid users, vendors and health professionals need to work together to identify mobility aids that fulfil needs, and are reliable and safe, so that mobility aid users are both "visible and seen" when accessing the public transport network. Implications for rehabilitation Some mobility aid users experience difficulties accessing and using public transport and further research is required to ensure the whole public transport network is fully accessible to people using mobility aids. Many people have more than one seated mobility aid, suggesting people can choose different

  20. Data publication - policies and procedures from the PREPARDE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Murphy, Fiona; Tedds, Jonathan; Kunze, John; Lawrence, Rebecca; Mayernik, , Matthew S.; Whyte, Angus; Roberts, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Data are widely acknowledged as a first class scientific output. Increases in researchers' abilities to create data need to be matched by corresponding infrastructures for them to manage and share their data. At the same time, the quality and persistence of the datasets need to be ensured, providing the dataset creators with the recognition they deserve for their efforts. Formal publication of data takes advantage of the processes and procedures already in place to publish academic articles about scientific results, enabling data to be reviewed and more broadly disseminated. Data are vastly more varied in format than papers, and so the policies required to manage and publish data must take into account the complexities associated with different data types, scientific fields, licensing rules etc. The Peer REview for Publication & Accreditation of Research Data in the Earth sciences (PREPARDE) project is JISC- and NERC-funded, and aims to investigate the policies and procedures required for the formal publication of research data. The project is investigating the whole workflow of data publication, from ingestion into a data repository, through to formal publication in a data journal. To limit the scope of the project, the focus is primarily on the policies required for the Royal Meteorological Society and Wiley's Geoscience Data Journal, though members of the project team include representatives from the life sciences (F1000Research), and will generalise the policies to other disciplines. PREPARDE addresses key issues arising in the data publication paradigm, such as: what criteria are needed for a repository to be considered objectively trustworthy; how does one peer-review a dataset; and how can datasets and journal publications be effectively cross-linked for the benefit of the wider research community and the completeness of the scientific record? To answer these questions, the project is hosting workshops addressing these issues, with interactions from key

  1. Public Interest Activism in Canadian ICT Policy: Blowin’ in the Policy Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Regan Shade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the catalyzing influence of Bill C-61—a proposed amendment to the Canadian Copyright Act—and other recent ICT-related policy developments on activism in Canada is examined. The discussion expounds upon the role of academics and activists in fostering a broader public discourse about ICT policy, with attention being given to three key moments in Canadian communication policy: the development of the “information highway” in the mid-1990s and, in particular, the activities of the Information Highway Advisory Council (IHAC; the creation of the Telecommunications Policy Review Panel (TPRP in 2005; and the current debates regarding the issue of net neutrality. The analysis demonstrates how “esoteric” digital policy issues are now seen by many Canadians as worthy of their energies. This suggests that politicians cannot afford to ignore their constituents’ concerns about such policy issues as traffic shaping, throttling, fair dealings, and anti-circumvention measures. And, likewise, that academics working in the realm of communication policy domain would do well not to overlook the role of citizens, grassroots groups and non-profit organizations in actively seeking a voice in the various structures of policymaking.

  2. Explaining Local Authority Choices on Public Hospital Provision in the 1930s: A Public Policy Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983

  3. Public transport policy and performance: The results of a South African public opinion poll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion plays a vital role in a democracy, as democracies are, by nature responsive to the people. In South Africa, public participation is entrenched in the Constitution. Despite this, the spate of service delivery protests in South Africa in recent years would appear to indicate that the government is out of touch with the opinions of the South African citizens. Public  transport  policy  in  South  Africa  is  described  by  a  number  of  documents,  mainly the  White  Paper  on  National  Transport  Policy,  Moving  South  Africa  and,  more  recently, the National Development Plan. An annual survey of 1000 South Africans is conducted to gauge opinion on transport related matters. The purpose of this article was to compare the current public transport policies (as stated above and the public opinion on public transport (as gauged by the survey in order to determine the extent to which these are aligned. The results  show  that  current  public  transport  policy  is  relatively  strongly  aligned  with  the public transport needs of the South African population, however, concerns regarding public transport such as mobility, accessibility, affordability and safety have not yet to be addressed satisfactorily.

  4. The stigmatization dilemma in public health policy - the case of MRSA in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    to stigmatization of groups of citizens. Discussion The article describes the phenomenon of stigmatization within the health care area by discussing the concept in relation to AIDS and psychiatric diagnosis. It unfolds the ethical aspects of using stigmatization as a public health instrument to affect unwanted......-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within pig production. Summary We argue that using stigmatization as a direct means to achieve public health outcomes is almost always ethically illegitimate. Autonomy and dignity considerations count against it, and the cost-benefit analysis that might by some be taken to outweigh...... these considerations will be fundamentally uncertain. We further argue that interventions where stigmatization is a side-effect need to fulfil requirements of proportionality, and that they may fall prey to ‘the stigmatization dilemma’, i.e. the dilemma that arises when all policy options are potentially stigmatizing...

  5. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included

  6. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included.

  7. Developing policy analytics for public health strategy and decisions-the Sheffield alcohol policy model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel

    This paper sets out the development of a methodological framework for detailed evaluation of public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction to meet UK policy-makers needs. Alcohol is known to cause substantial harms, and controlling its affordability and availability are effective policy options. Analysis and synthesis of a variety of public and commercial data sources is needed to evaluate impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers and industry, so a sound evaluation of impact is important. We discuss the iterative process to engage with stakeholders, identify evidence/data and develop analytic approaches and produce a final model structure. We set out a series of steps in modelling impact including: classification and definition of population subgroups of interest, identification and definition of harms and outcomes for inclusion, classification of modifiable components of risk and their baseline values, specification of the baseline position on policy variables especially prices, estimating effects of changing policy variables on risk factors including price elasticities, quantifying risk functions relating risk factors to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and monetary valuation. The most difficult model structuring decisions are described, as well as the final results framework used to provide decision support to national level policymakers in the UK. In the discussion we explore issues around the relationship between modelling and policy debates, valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions. We reflect on the approach taken and outline ongoing plans for further development.

  8. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  9. Pay Policy Reform : Building a Foundation for Public Sector Performance Through Improved Public Sector Pay Policy by Using a "Single Pay Spine"

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Green

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate public sector remuneration policies are key for performance. They can motivate staff to a limited extent by rewarding performance but more generally by eliminating inequities and avoiding frequent and sudden changes in pay. They can also assist in retaining competent staff one of the most critical drivers of public sector performance. Developing pay policy in the public sector is ...

  10. Public opinion on smoke-free policies among Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, G N; Emam, A H; Maher, K M; Mehrez, M; El-Sayed, N; El-Nahas, G M

    2012-10-01

    A smoke-free law was passed in Egypt in 2007. In 2010 a bylaw was issued, leading to a drive by the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) to launch a smoke-free initiative in Alexandria, the second largest city. To assess public opinion with regard to 100% smoke-free legislation and its implementation in the Alexandria governorate. The Union Middle-East Office, in collaboration with the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics and the MOHP, conducted a cross-sectional survey among 427 randomly selected adults (206 males and 221 females), covering the seven major districts of the Alexandria governorate. The majority of the interviewed subjects (98%) expressed support of the government in enacting 100% smoke-free indoor legislation in all public places and public transport. Respondents endorsed the government plan to implement legislation imposing 100% smoke-free public places. More than one third (33.5%) of all respondents indicated that they would increase visits to restaurants if they were smoke-free, and 63% indicated no impact at all. The results of the poll clearly support results from different countries worldwide that smoke-free policies are popular and supported by the public.

  11. The fit between health impact assessment and public policy: practice meets theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Sainsbury, Peter; Kemp, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    The last decade has seen increased use of health impact assessment (HIA) to influence public policies developed outside the Health sector. HIA has developed as a structured, linear and technical process to incorporate health, broadly defined, into policy. This is potentially incongruent with complex, non-linear and tactical policy making which does not necessarily consider health. HIA research has however not incorporated existing public policy theory to explain practitioners' experiences with HIA and policy. This research, therefore, used public policy theory to explain HIA practitioners' experiences and investigate 'What is the fit between HIA and public policy?' Empirical findings from nine in-depth interviews with international HIA practitioners were re-analysed against public policy theory. We reviewed the HIA literature for inclusion of public policy theories then compared these for compatibility with our critical realist methodology and the empirical data. The theory 'Policy Cycles and Subsystems' (Howlett et al., 2009) was used to re-analyse the empirical data. HIAs for policy are necessarily both tactical and technical. Within policy subsystems using HIA to influence public policy requires tactically positioning health as a relevant public policy issue and, to facilitate this, institutional support for collaboration between Public Health and other sectors. HIA fits best within the often non-linear public policy cycle as a policy formulation instrument. HIA provides, tactically and technically, a space for practical reasoning to navigate facts, values and processes underlying the substantive and procedural dimensions of policy. Re-analysing empirical experiential data using existing public policy theory provided valuable explanations for future research, policy and practice concerning why and how HIA fits tactically and technically with the world of public policy development. The use of theory and empiricism opens up important possibilities for future

  12. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  13. Do Foreclosures Affect Boston Public School Student Academic Performance? Public Policy Brief No. 13-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…

  14. An exploration of the theoretical concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs at the Swedish public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-12-01

    In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources.

  15. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -technical expectations. Engaging and working with stakeholders in a collaborative and consensus-driven way can help realise common goals. The concepts of alignment, shared responsibility and collaboration regarding e-health policy are not new; the fact that they are still being raised in discussion and addressed in recent literature indicates that they are still an issue today. An examination of policy tools to help aid in more cohesive practice can possibly help inform and influence future e-health initiatives. E-health policy development and implementation varies due to differing health system infrastructure, funding and interests. Artefacts such as the summary of the 'meaningful use' policy could be used to leverage the effects of alignment, shared responsibility and collaboration. The next step from this research will be to examine the New Zealand National Health IT Plan's summary diagram (an artefact itself) and what role it plays in aspects of e-health policy development.

  16. Entrepreneurship, Public Policy and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Garba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of entrepreneurship and public policy toward poverty reduction in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship has proven to be a mechanism for poverty reduction through creation of employment opportunities, income as well as wealth. In some occasion entrepreneurs exploit opportunities at the expense of the existing policy to engage in activities that are not economically and socially productive. They neither create wealth nor do they improve on the economic performance of a country. The author conducted survey and interview to solicit for data from small and micro enterprises across Kano state and also used secondary information in analysing the situation in the country. Infrastructural decay, lack of coherent policies and institutional framework were partly responsible for escalating poverty in the Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government while designing a policy toward entrepreneurship attempt should be made to identify and encourage high impact entrepreneurs that will genuinely contribute in creating real jobs and poverty reduction.

  17. National innovation policy and public science in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, I have positioned myself with Kean Birch and explored some of the political-economic actors/actants of policy suites implicated in the biotechnologies and bioeconomy. In particular, I have considered Australia's recent National Innovation and Science Agenda and allied documents and entities (that is, Innovation and Science Australia, the National Science Statement and the 2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap) as one of the National Innovation Strategies in place now in OECD countries and beyond. In overview, these policy suites utilise the same high knowledge creation/low translation and commericalisation arguments as elsewhere to press for particular ideologically based `improvements' to public science. Mapping the terrain of these entities has revealed the innovation, biotechnology and bioeconomy policy space to be inordinately complex and challenging to navigate. Reviewing Australia's position enables the type of comparative work that contributes to a closer understanding of the largely neoliberal global economic imperatives shaping contemporaneity. Moreover, while these policy suites attempt to constitute and circulate particular visions of science education, their complex nature mitigates against science teachers/educators grappling with their implications.

  18. Constructing publics, preventing diseases and medicalizing bodies: HIV, AIDS, and its visual cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizzio Mc Manus

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper we analyze the visual cultures surrounding HIV and AIDS; we are especially interested in tracking the actors, discourses and visual cultures involved in AIDS prevention in Mexico for a period of twenty years: from 1985 to 2005. We use media studies to better comprehend how HIV and AIDS further medicalized human bodies by mobilizing specific discourses, metaphors and visual resources that, though promoting a better understanding of how HIV could be acquired and how it could be prevented, also generated new representations of sexuality, bodies and persons living with HIV or AIDS often biased in favor of different systems of value. Moreover, we try to offer a general characterization of the different publics that were targeted and preconceptions involving ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, geography and membership in different sociocultural groups.

  19. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  20. Reforming primary healthcare: from public policy to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Denis, Jean-Louis; Lamothe, Lise; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; D'amour, Danielle; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Governments everywhere are implementing reform to improve primary care. However, the existence of a high degree of professional autonomy makes large-scale change difficult to achieve. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the change dynamics and the involvement of professionals in a primary healthcare reform initiative carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. An empirical approach was used to investigate change processes from the inception of a public policy to the execution of changes in professional practices. The data were analysed from a multi-level, combined contextualist-processual perspective. Results are based on a longitudinal multiple-case study of five family medicine groups, which was informed by over 100 interviews, questionnaires, and documentary analysis. The results illustrate the multiple processes observed with the introduction of planned large-scale change in primary care services. The analysis of change content revealed that similar post-change states concealed variations between groups in the scale of their respective changes. The analysis also demonstrated more precisely how change evolved through the introduction of "intermediate change" and how cycles of prescribed and emergent mechanisms distinctively drove change process and change content, from the emergence of the public policy to the change in primary care service delivery. This research was conducted among a limited number of early policy adopters. However, given the international interest in turning to the medical profession to improve primary care, the results offer avenues for both policy development and implementation. The findings offer practical insights for those studying and managing large-scale transformations. They provide a better understanding of how deliberate reforms coexist with professional autonomy through an intertwining of change content and processes. This research is one of few studies to examine a primary care reform from emergence to implementation

  1. 75 FR 28622 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U... Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U.S. Food and... relates to FDA's policies on disclosure of information to the public about FDA activities. FDA is...

  2. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  3. Why Estimates of the Impact of Public Opinion on Public Policy Are Too High: Empirical and Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Statistical studies often show public opinion strongly affecting public policy. But the studies may overestimate the effect because they focus on issues--those especially important to the public--on which governments are most likely to be responsive. This article considers what the opinion-policy linkage would be if less-important issues were also…

  4. The National Institute of Public Health: Shaping Public Policy to Advance Population Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican School of Public Health was founded in 1922 by the Mexican government and was the first school of public health in Latin America. It has become one of the largest public health institutions in the developing world and is the leading institution for teaching, research and service to improve public health in Mexico and Latin America. The Institute is an important player in shaping public policy in Mexico through its mission-oriented research. Through its research initiatives, the Institute has influenced policies regarding tobacco, obesity, milk and flour fortification, malaria, cancer, environmental health, and other public health priority areas. The Institute responds to changing health workforce training needs. It currently offers 28 competency-based graduate degree programs and trains annually more than 10,000 in-service public health workers through continuing education courses. The Institute offers multiple educational formats to accomplish its mission, including face-to-face, virtual, and blended learning. It has been accredited by both national and international agencies and collaborates closely with international institutions. The Institute contributes to global health by promoting health equity, strengthening health systems, and generating evidence-based strategies to improve population health in Mexico, the Americas, and around the world.

  5. AIDS Education: Activities Aimed at the General Public Implemented Slowly. Report to the Honorable Barbara Boxer, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to a Congressional concern over delays in implementing a thorough, effective national Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education program, six aspects of the Centers for Disease Control's (CDC) AIDS education program for the general public were reviewed: (1) CDC AIDS education budget and expenditures; (2) delays in the…

  6. Correlates of Job Placement Practice: Public Rehabilitation Counselors and Consumers Living with AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Rhodes, Scott D.; McDaniel, Randall S.

    2005-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation counselors to place consumers living with AIDS into jobs. Participants completed the Rehabilitation Counselor Intention to Place Survey, which was based on 2,089 elicited salient job placement beliefs of 155 public…

  7. Medicine use among HIV/Aids patients in public hospitals, Kwara State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: This study was conducted in seven public hospitals in six local government areas, Kwara State. Exit interviews of 780 eligible HIV/AIDS patients were conducted through use of structured questionnaire. Additionally, there were exit observational checks of medicines dispensed to these patients. Descriptive statistics ...

  8. Energy investments facing market risk and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobtcheff, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual meeting of the Energy Economist Association, held on June 15, 2005, was about the issue of investments in the energy sector. How can companies decide to invest in a project when there are increasing uncertainties, including as to future public policies and to energy market trends? The various speakers at the meeting stressed the significance of describing and gauging the risks specific to each industry as well as the assumptions that decision-making tools available to companies rely on (net value theory updated and actual option theory, inter alia). (author)

  9. Are public policies to school libraries necessary? Latin America situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Cárdenas Zardoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available School libraries are one of te main resources to enhance learning in students in the educational system in any nation. Every country invests important amounts of money in library resources in schools, which have the quality of stay and increase, as time passes, the school library may have an important collection to offer to students. Despite its undeniable value as contributor to the education of millions of citizens studying in the latin american schools, its potencial and ability are far from being used to its maximum. The reason for this is the lack of public policies that incorporate it to the education process.

  10. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  11. Modelling the relationship between antiretroviral treatment and HIV prevention: limitations of the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model in a changing policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2007-08-01

    This paper shows how two publicly available epidemiological modelling packages, namely the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Model, predict very different impacts from rolling out highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on new HIV infections. Using South Africa as a case study, it shows that the ASSA2003 model predicts a significant drop in new HIV infections as HAART is rolled out, whereas the Spectrum model assumes that HAART does not have a preventative impact (and in fact generates a small increase in new HIV infections). Users will thus draw different conclusions about the public health benefits of HAART depending on which modelling package they use. Despite being presented as a policy-oriented modelling tool capable of exploring 'what if' questions about the impact of different policy choices, the Spectrum model is illequipped to do so with regard to a HAART rollout. Unlike Spectrum, ASSA2003 is more flexible and its assumptions are clear. Better modelling and more information (including about the relationship between HAART and sexual risk behaviour) is required to develop appropriate public-policy modelling for the HAART era.

  12. EU’s Humanitarian and Civil Protection Aid. Italy’s Eccentric and ECHO-consistent Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the coherence of the aid to countries in need of humanitarian and civil protection assistance given separately by ECHO and the EU Member States, with an emphasis on Italy that appears as an eccentric case. Section one is about the humanitarian aid burden of the EU and the major European donor countries in the years 1999-2012. The analysis draws attention to the existing coherence at the world level and also to the difference existing in the aid to the countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Section two analyses and shows the consistency of Italy’s aid with the ECHO’s. In the Conclusions, the coherence of the EU’s and states’ aid and the consistency of Italy’s aid are shortly discussed in view of the existing shared powers in the humanitarian and civil protection policy area.

  13. Electoral impact of public policies Case Study: Elections as an instrument of civic participation in public policies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.

  14. Public Transport Service Provisions and Policy Implications for Columbarium Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Szeto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grave-sweeping is one of the popular special events in Asian cities, especially in Chinese societies, in which families express filial piety to their ancestors during two traditional grave-sweeping festivals in a year. The extraordinary high travel demand is often attracted to columbaria within a relative short period around the festivals, and induces severe impacts to the local traffic. It is challenging for the government and private operators to formulate a public transport service setting to satisfactorily cater all the visitors' travel demand. This paper aims to propose an optimization framework to identify the optimal provisions of public transport services for columbarium trips to achieve consumer surplus or profit maximization. Numerical studies are carried out using the travel demand data collected from a selected columbarium, to examine the effects of different public transport service settings to the policy objectives in various cases. The model results show that the current situation is neither consumer surplus nor profit optimum. Improvement schemes are suggested in relation to allow various fares during different visit periods and provide multiple public transport feeder services to serve the visitors during the high travel demand period.

  15. Promotion of healthy eating through public policy: a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Taksler, Glen B; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney B; Dixon, L B

    2013-07-01

    To induce consumers to purchase healthier foods and beverages, some policymakers have suggested special taxes or labels on unhealthy products. The potential of such policies is unknown. In a controlled field experiment, researchers tested whether consumers were more likely to purchase healthy products under such policies. From October to December 2011, researchers opened a store at a large hospital that sold a variety of healthier and less-healthy foods and beverages. Purchases (N=3680) were analyzed under five conditions: a baseline with no special labeling or taxation, a 30% tax, highlighting the phrase "less healthy" on the price tag, and combinations of taxation and labeling. Purchases were analyzed in January-July 2012, at the single-item and transaction levels. There was no significant difference between the various taxation conditions. Consumers were 11 percentage points more likely to purchase a healthier item under a 30% tax (95% CI=7%, 16%, pproduct type, consumers switched away from the purchase of less-healthy food under taxation (9 percentage point decrease, ptax rates proposed in public policy discussions would be more effective than labeling products as less healthy. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  16. Public opinion on policy issues in genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Rene; Gadarian, Shana Kushner

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine public opinion on major policy issues in genetics and genomics, including federal spending on genetic research, the perceived significance of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, and whether clinicians should be involved in direct-to-consumer genetic testing. This was a survey with a nationally representative sample of 2,100 American adults administered by the nonpartisan research firm YouGov in January 2011. The majority of the respondents (57%) believe that the federal government should spend more on genetic research, 82% rank the 2008 antidiscrimination law as "important," and 65% say that clinicians should be involved in explaining genetic test results (contra the practice of some direct-to-consumer companies). On all three policy issues, gender and political party affiliation were statistically significantly associated with respondents' views, whereas race/ethnicity and education were less consistently associated with policy opinions. Americans demonstrate widespread support for scientific research on genetics, laws protecting citizens against genetic discrimination, and the need to involve medical professionals in the process of genetic testing. These results are useful for scientists designing research projects, clinicians interacting with patients, professional organizations lobbying for resources, federal agencies setting budget priorities, and legislators designing regulation.

  17. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  18. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Confluence of Sociology, Statistics, and Public Policy in the Quality Control of the Food Stamps, AFDC, and Medicaid Family Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, S. James; Tanur, Judith M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevance of the intersection of sociology, statistics, and public policy to the study of quality control in three family assistance programs--food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and Medicaid--is reviewed using a study by the National Academy of Sciences of methods for improving quality control systems. (SLD)

  20. 76 FR 2908 - Nonprofit Management LLC and Jeremy Ryan Claeys; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... alleges that the Tested Green certification constituted an express or implied representation that the... Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint and the terms of the consent... record for a period of thirty (30) days. The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms...

  1. United States aid policy and induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Eran; Avila, Patrick; Miller, Grant

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the Mexico City Policy, a United States government policy that prohibits funding to nongovernmental organizations performing or promoting abortion, was associated with the induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Women in 20 African countries who had induced abortions between 1994 and 2008 were identified in Demographic and Health Surveys. A country's exposure to the Mexico City Policy was considered high (or low) if its per capita assistance from the United States for family planning and reproductive health was above (or below) the median among study countries before the policy's reinstatement in 2001. Using logistic regression and a difference-in-difference design, the authors estimated the differential change in the odds of having an induced abortion among women in high exposure countries relative to low exposure countries when the policy was reinstated. The study included 261,116 women aged 15 to 44 years. A comparison of 1994-2000 with 2001-2008 revealed an adjusted odds ratio for induced abortion of 2.55 for high-exposure countries versus low-exposure countries under the policy (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.76-3.71). There was a relative decline in the use of modern contraceptives in the high-exposure countries over the same time period. The induced abortion rate in sub-Saharan Africa rose in high-exposure countries relative to low-exposure countries when the Mexico City Policy was reintroduced. Reduced financial support for family planning may have led women to substitute abortion for contraception. Regardless of one's views about abortion, the findings may have important implications for public policies governing abortion.

  2. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely "cognitive" enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn't presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what "cognitive" enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers

  3. Cognitive Enhancement Kept within Contexts: Neuroethics and Informed Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eShook

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroethics has greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements ascribed to brain science, and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize current neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely ‘cognitive’ enhancement. Where cognitive processing and mental life are concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what is actually cognitively improved. And, what concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. As well, the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements; we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of a nuanced appreciation for the control which performance and public contexts exert over what ‘cognitive’ enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as good for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of hurdles for reliable enhancement through neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications of such hurdles for both sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and development of policy to guide cognitive enhancement. In this essay, we seek to more accurately define and contextualize cognitive performance enhancement, and offer recommendations to ensure that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better

  4. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Design of Public Policy: The Case of the National Health Insurance Law in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISSIM COHEN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available How do policy entrepreneurs implement in practice the things theory suggests they should do? This article suggests various insightsinto the influence of policy entrepreneurs on the formulation of public policy. Using a broad definition of the concept of policyentrepreneur, the article identifies the main characteristics of entrepreneurial activities, describes various strategies that the policyentrepreneur may employ, and develops a model of successful and effective policy entrepreneurship. Using an analysis of the designof the Israel National Health Law of 1994 as a case study, the article emphasizes the importance of policy entrepreneurs in thepublic policy arena and provides several insights into the conditions for their activity, their motivations and main strategies.

  5. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  6. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  7. PUBLIC POLICIES OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton de Oliveira Telles Júnior

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The people are living more. The population is going by great transformations, so much social as technological, that point to the need of specific education processes for senior people. The seniors tend to be separated socially, with damages for his/her health and, consequently, his/her life quality. This study, of qualitative approach, has as objective to describe the public politics for the senior's education interned in hospitals or institutions and to analyze the applicable Public Politics to the education based an express analysis model by Di Giovanni, where there are the actors of this public policy and its related interests. How possible middle for attainment of a program driven to the seniors' education is evidenced in the inclusion possibility in the hospital class and the possibility of the use of education programs for youths and adults, with the initiative of third sector, that in the extent of the education no formal he/she brings great transformations for society and education for the senior.

  8. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  9. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the second). Framework for nuclear energy policy (as of July 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Atomic Energy Commission asked the public to comment on the draft and held Public Hearings at five different venues. The Planning Council finalized the draft, taking the 1717 opinions from 701 citizens thus gathered into the consideration. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed a large percentage of the consent to the policy and, at the same time, the necessity for the nation to make more efforts to communicate with the public in simple and more concise terms or listen to the public, and also to gain the public trust through education and public relations. The pros and cons both commented that the mass media was not fair. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  11. The Final Beneficiaries are Actors Active Little and Influential in Decisions on Public Policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diolina Rodrigues Santiago Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are government programs that directly influence the citizens' lives. In the formulation and implementation of these policies, there is the presence of political and private actors. The final beneficiaries are between different types of private actors. Some laws require the government listen to society at the time of decision-making in public policy and in national conferences and public consultations. The final beneficiaries, actual users of these public policies have to reach some mechanisms of direct participation in the formulation of these policies, but the number of participants is smaller and doesn't influence in making government decisions.

  12. Mental health first aid responses of the public: results from an Australian national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchener Betty A

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of mental disorders is so high that members of the public will commonly have contact with someone affected. How they respond to that person (the mental health first aid response may affect outcomes. However, there is no information on what members of the public might do in such circumstances. Methods In a national survey of 3998 Australian adults, respondents were presented with one of four case vignettes and asked what they would do if that person was someone they had known for a long time and cared about. There were four types of vignette: depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, and chronic schizophrenia. Verbatim responses to the open-ended question were coded into categories. Results The most common responses to all vignettes were to encourage professional help-seeking and to listen to and support the person. However, a significant minority did not give these responses. Much less common responses were to assess the problem or risk of harm, to give or seek information, to encourage self-help, or to support the family. Few respondents mentioned contacting a professional on the person's behalf or accompanying them to a professional. First aid responses were generally more appropriate in women, those with less stigmatizing attitudes, and those who correctly identified the disorder in the vignette. Conclusions There is room for improving the range of mental health first aid responses in the community. Lack of knowledge of mental disorders and stigmatizing attitudes are important barriers to effective first aid.

  13. 48 CFR Appendix I to Chapter 7 - USAID's Academic Publication Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false USAID's Academic... DEVELOPMENT Ch. 7, App. I Appendix I to Chapter 7—USAID's Academic Publication Policy 1. Statement of Policy This is a statement of USAID policy on publication, or release to parties other than those specifically...

  14. The causal flow between public opinion and policy: government responsiveness, leadership, or counter movement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the causal relationship between public opinion and policy. Does opinion affect policy or is it the other way around? Three hypotheses take centre stage. The responsiveness hypothesis postulates that changes in public opinion lead to subsequent changes in policy in the same

  15. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  16. Maintenance Policy in Public-Transport Involving Government Subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, U. S.; Bayuzetra, Y.; Gunawan, L. E.; Husniah, H.

    2018-02-01

    A public transport with government subsidy is considered to encourage the sustainability of the transportation. The transportations revenue is determined by the maximum of the uptimes of the vehicle. In this paper, we study a one-dimensional maintenance policy for new vehicle which is characterized by age parameter. We consider that the degradation of the vehicle is affected by the age of the vehicle, and modelled by using a one-dimensional approach. The owner performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions, and the preventive maintenance action will reduce the vehicle failure rate and hence it will decrease the corrective maintenance cost during the life time of the vehicle. The decision problem for the owner is to find the optimal preventive maintenance time of the vehicle of each subsidy option offered by maximizing the expected profit for each subsidy.

  17. A view, different proposals: Concept of gender and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martín Bardera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the meaning of “gender” as a category of analysis in public policy. The concept has been transferred from the feminist theories and this has meant that the United Nations and European Union have incorporated the inequality as a structural inequality and an issue justice. So, the feminist demands enter the political agenda as an integral project which is characterized by the adoption of the gender perspective and its application from a transversal methodology (“gender mainstreaming”. In this sense, the "gender ideology" is a new paradigm against the “patriarchal ideology”. Now, political actions should be articulated in a double movement of correction and promotion to achieve real equality in societies more democratic and ultimately more just.

  18. The brazilian nuclear policy with respect to the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Brandao Bittencourt, C.

    1988-01-01

    Four decades of the Brazilian nuclear history have been analysed with special emphasis placed on government policy and its repercussion on public opinion. The implications of the new constitutional regulations which rule the issue are discussed. it is also studied the change in the nuclear program structure, enforced in August 1988. At different times, the government decisions on nuclear energy could be classified as miser, extravagant, dissimulated and frank, successively. Their aftermaths, which show little consistency with the expectations laid on them, have led to discredit by part of the society, which is controlled by a scientific - intellectual elite. However, recent successes are likely to reverse this trend, if the government explores them properly. (author) [pt

  19. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasi...

  20. Cultivating public involvement: Going beyond the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Gleason, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Congress, recognizing that States, Indian tribes, and local governments have a unique and vested interest in the siting of high-level radioactive waste facilities, gave these parties special rights to participate in this country's high-level radioactive waste management program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act as amended. However, as the program progresses, it has become increasingly clear that, in addition to these affected parties, many other groups and individuals are interested in what happens to the radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear reactors and defense-related facilities. In an effort to address the interests of these other groups and individuals, the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is expanding its public involvement activities by inviting representatives from a wider range of organizations to join in a dialogue on issues related to high-level waste disposal. Why are we doing this? Because we believe that involving more people in the program will increase understanding of the critical importance of finding a safe and environmentally responsible way to deal with nuclear waste. Furthermore, thoughtful exchanges with the public will increase our awareness of how this program may affect others. Ultimately, our goal is to help build public trust and confidence in the Federal Government's ability to accomplish its mission and in the fairness and competence of the decisionmaking process. This paper explains the rationale and objectives for OCRWM's expanded public involvement efforts; describes the process used to identify and solicit the involvement of additional parties; highlights interactions with several groups contacted to date; and reports on the early results of these consultations

  1. Conjuring medical science: the 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, C P

    1997-12-01

    Medical science occupies a peculiar status in American life. On the one hand, people often view medical science as a privileged and authoritative body of knowledge that transcends other kinds of knowledge. On the other hand, medical-scientific authority can be easily conjured from the popular symbols of science, e.g., credentials, technical terms, and white lab coats. This problem can be converted into an anthropological question of meanings and symbols, based on Geertz's interpretive anthropology and Baudrillard's sociology of hyperreality. This article uses these frameworks to explore the cultural construction of medical-scientific authority in the case of a 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California. The interpretation of that construction raises some difficult problems concerning anthropology's treatment of medical science.

  2. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  3. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  4. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  5. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  6. School food environments and policies in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Daniel M; Hill, Elaine L; Whitaker, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.

  7. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-07-14

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  8. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed.

  9. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How evidence becomes authoritative in public policy implementation : Lessons from three Dutch white ravens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hufen (Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractPolicy scientists and public policymakers are continuously struggling with the troublesome relationship between knowledge and policy. On the one hand, policy and policy processes are generally recognized as having a political nature because they prioritize the generation of will

  11. Health Policy and Cost Containment Laws: Lessons for Public Health Education in Social and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose Joel

    1986-01-01

    From a descriptive model of policy in health care delivery, the author theorizes that government has effectively attained economic and budgetary goals, but policy is creating displacements and attacking the national commitment to social welfare policy. Asserts that public health disciplines must collaborate to strengthen policy and empower…

  12. A Survey of Sex and AIDS Education among Public High School Teachers in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Mari

    2000-01-01

    A survey was conducted among public high school teachers in Bangkok to gather information about their experience with sex and AIDS Education programs and the teaching of these subjects in class. Three hundred eighty-four questionnaires were mailed to 26 schools and 15 questionnaires were distributed to health education, biological science, social studies and science teachers at each school. Two hundred eighty-eight responses were received from 22 schools (75.0%) from February 25 to March 15,1...

  13. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    1982 has resulted in greater diagnostic incidence and reduced mortality, but the reduced mortality carried a significant cost per life saved. I implement the model out to 2028 and demonstrate that the enhanced secondary prevention that began in 1982 becomes increasingly cost-effective over the period 2013-2028. On the other hand, I show that reductions in mortality achieved by significantly enhancing secondary prevention beyond 2013 levels are comparable with those achieved by only modest improvements in late-stage disease survival. Given the ballooning costs of increased melanoma surveillance, I suggest the process of public health policy decision-making-particularly with respect to the public funding of melanoma screening and discretionary mole removal-would be better served by incorporating the results of quantitative modelling.

  14. Clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS patients: differences between public and private hospitals in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiman T. Pohan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study is to determine the demographic data, risk factors, clinical presentations, opportunistic/co-infections and its difference between public and private hospitals. A retrospective -descriptive study was conducted in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital (public hospital and Medistra Hospital (private hospital, Jakarta. The inclusion criteria were new HIV/AIDS cases admitted in year 2002-2003 and positive HIV serology (Elisa method. Secondary data were collected form medical record. Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in this study (public hospital 30 subjects and private hospital 36 subjects, consist of 59 male (89.4% and 7 female (10.6%. Thirty-seven percent subjects were defined as HIV and 62% AIDS. Risk factors obtained include drug user (59.1%, homosexual (13.6%, heterosexual (21.1%, transfusion (1.5% and maternal-child (perinatal (1.5%. The clinical symptoms mainly present as acute fever (56.2%, weight loss (39.4%, cough (38.8%, shortness of breath (27.2%, chronic diarrhea (22.8%, prolong fever (19.7%, loss of conciousness (15.3%, anorexia (15.3%. Significant differences between public and private hospitals were seen in fever and cough symptoms. Clinical presentation of HIV/AIDS patients during admission were : pneumonia (56%, oral trush (22.6%, anemia (56.5%, leucopenia (32.3%, lymphopenia (55.9%, elevated AST/ALT (66.1%, hypoalbuminemia (46.9%, limphadenopathy (10.6%, brain space occuping lesion (7.6%, encephalopathy (6.0%, pulmonary tb and pleural effusion (10.6%. The opportunistic and co-infections present were candidiasis (25.8%, chronic hepatitis C (24.2%, chronic hepatitis B and C (4.5%, pulmonary tb, lymphadenitis and miliary tb. Candidiasis and pulmonary tb were frequently found in public hospital. In conclusion from this study that clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS were young man or woman, with one or more possible risk factor, had fever, respiratory complain, loss of body weight, chronic diarrhea

  15. Socializing the policy on public transportation to the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, A.; Mariana, D.; Sjoraida, D. F.

    2018-03-01

    This article discusses how public policies on transportation can be communicated to the society in Sukabumi City, West Java, Indonesia. It is important for the community because the development of transportation services has a very close relationship with social welfare and economic growth of the region. This can be demonstrated with an indication that the region whose better transportation system tends to have better levels of social welfare and economic growth. The study here used a multiple case method. The cases consist of activities which were the implementation of the government’s program of socialization to the people of Sukabumi City on transportation. This regency is a door to an expansion of West Java development to the Southwest area that there are things new in government services, including in the field of transportation. Interviews, observation and document analyses were used to collect the data. Face to face interviews using a list of questions were also developed for this study. The findings of the study indicate that in addition to its own designing and implementing transportation development plan in Sukabumi City itself, there is also a transportation development involving West Java provincial government, even the national government of Indonesia in the region. All of the transportation plans could be properly communicated to the public because it used a variety of media, including the traditional, the modern, and the social.

  16. A comprehensive model for the implementation of national public policies and guidelines : Empangeni Education District / Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent Mthethwa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthethwa, Bhekefini Sibusiso Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of the public policy process, which encapsulates the public policy implementation, has been in existence long before the political transformation that took place in South Africa in 1994. However, the ushering in of the new dispensation saw the integration of the existing public policies. In addition, it inevitably heralded the introduction of the new public policies and national guidelines across all sectors of the South African public institutions. Public policy implementation...

  17. The role of humanitarian NGO's: impact on South Korean food aid policy towards North Korea from 1995 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, K Y

    2011-01-01

    The existing literature has provided only a partial explanation of the political role of South Korean humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in government food aid policy making towards North Korea between 1995 and 2007. Using a constructivist approach which includes non-state actor and normative factors in the analysis of state policy making, this thesis demonstrates that South Korean humanitarian NGO advocacy was consequential in explaining changes in South Korea’...

  18. A tenacious ethical dilemma in public health policy, not only in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the ethical practice of individual health professionals, bioethical debate about conflict of interest (CoI) must include the institutional ethics of public policy-making, as failure to establish independence from powerful stakeholder influence may pervert public health goals. All involved in public policy processes are ...

  19. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently leading a process to assess the most important steps for public health genomics...

  20. The Model of Open Government in Latin America. Parallelism of Public Policies for Transparency and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martínez, Martín Cutberto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article analyzes public policies of administrative reform and related to the institutionalization of access to public information in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. It analyzes these policies in relation with the modernization and improvement of public administration and the fight against corruption.

  1. 32 CFR 643.34 - Policy-Public utilities on installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Public utilities on installations. 643.34... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.34 Policy—Public utilities on installations. (a) Contracting officers, with the approval of Installation Commanders, are authorized to permit the extension of public...

  2. The National Strategic Plan of South Africa: what are the prospects of success after the repeated failure of previous AIDS policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; van Rensburg, H C J; Meulemans, H

    2010-05-01

    Hitherto, the story of HIV/AIDS in South Africa is, to a large extent, one of lost opportunities. Whereas the country has one of the worst epidemics in the world, consecutive national AIDS strategies have been repeatedly marked by failure over almost three decades. Understandably, South Africa's most recent HIV/AIDS policy, the HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011 (NSP), has been greeted with general acclaim. However, what are its real prospects of success against the backdrop of the repeated failures of the past? The first objective of this review is to systematically identify the core reasons for past policy failures. Using a comprehensive analytical framework, this article presents a systematic review of the literature on postapartheid AIDS policy in South Africa. The analysis demonstrates that a complex interplay among the content, context, actors and process of AIDS policy created a gap between policy making and policy implementation, which rendered near-ideal AIDS policies ineffective. Secondly, we evaluate the chances of success of the current NSP by examining both the policy-making phase and the resulting policy document in light of the reasons for past policy failures. Our analysis shows that the NSP contains dynamic and comprehensive policy content, sensitive to the socio-economic and cultural dimensions of HIV/AIDS. However, many of the political actors that hampered treatment implementation in the past, and who deepened the gap between government and civil society, are still in office. Monetary and human resource shortages also create a policy context that is infertile for the implementation of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, as envisaged in the NSP. Finally, these health system restrictions have a clear negative impact on the process of policy implementation. Without the mobilization of people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities, the NSP will be ineffective in bridging the gap between policy intentions and policy

  3. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  4. Experiences of Knowledge Brokering for Evidence-Informed Public Health Policy and Practice: Three Years of the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen; Geddes, Rosemary; Haw, Sally; Jackson, Caroline A.; Jepson, Ruth; Mooney, John D.; Frank, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature on, and widespread interest in, knowledge translation and exchange in public health, few articles provide an account of the actual experiences of knowledge brokerage organisations. The Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP) was formed in 2008 to: identify public health interventions…

  5. Eco-Education: A Required Element of Public Policies for Sustainable Social and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marţian Iovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author analyzes eco-education from a transdisciplinary perspective, as part of the “new education”, referring to its current dimensions, its goals and its utility in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of contemporary humans towards their environment and towards sustainable living. The goals and content of eco-education are dependent on a new philosophy, on a new axiological and ethical orientation that is, opposed to rationalistic philosophy, which guided the age of machinism and industrialization. The new view regarding humans’ (anthroposphere relations with nature (biosphere and geosphere, is inspired from the fundamental rights of the human being, as part of nature, from universal values which harmonize sociosphere and biosphere, the ecological awareness of contemporary society with regard to the objective laws of nature, biodiversity conservation and environmental protection by juridical laws. These goals are meant for the entire population, especially children and young people, with the aid of schools and other educational factors (church, mass – media, cultural foundations, non-governmental organizations etc., an ecological awareness, positive feelings and attitudes with respect to the environment, skills, abilities and capacities for efficient action in the sense of protecting nature and conserving ecological circuits. The author lays an emphasis on the idea that ecological education, in all its forms, will not yield the results expected by experts and future generations if it is undertaken randomly, fragmentarily, incoherently – regardless of how diversified and quantitatively extended it might be. As a global issue of today’s society – the efficiency of eco-education is dependent on the philosophy of nature and life, materialized in a global strategy, such as that of durable and knowledge-based development, which will facilitate the harmonization of various public policies launched by contemporary

  6. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  7. Public policies and health systems in Sahelian Africa: theoretical context and empirical specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre; Ridde, Val?ry

    2015-01-01

    This research on user fee removal in three African countries is located at the interface of public policy analysis and health systems research. Public policy analysis has gradually become a vast and multifaceted area of research consisting of a number of perspectives. But the context of public policies in Sahelian Africa has some specific characteristics. They are largely shaped by international institutions and development agencies, on the basis of very common 'one-size-fits-all' models; the...

  8. Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

    2007-01-01

    The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

  9. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  10. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  11. The Colonial Strained in Java 1870-1930: Public Spaces Versus Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Akhyat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proses kolonialisasi pada akhir abad XIX dan awal abad XX bukan hanya rnenimbulkan persoalan internal di kalangan pemerintahan Hindia-Belanda, tetapi jugs berdampakpada proses aplikasi kebijakan dengan dalih Etis". Periode 1870-1930-an adalah merupakan periode dalam sejarah politik pembangunan Indonesia yang sangat penting untuk melihat betapa krusialga proses kolonialisme di Indonesia. Pertama, bahwa mekanisme kebijakan lebih diarahkan sebagai bentuk recovering pembangunan akibat Kebijakan Tanam Paksa 1830-1870. Kedua, bahwa dalam praktiknya, kebijakan yang digulirkan justru sangat pradoks pada tingkat publik. Munculnya berbagai ketegangan sosial, ekonomi bahkan politik (Colonial Strained bersamaan proses pembangunan pada awal abad 0( memberikan nuansa lain. Artinya antara kebjakanpublik (public policies dengan ranah publik (public spaces belum menjadi konstruksi kebijakan kolonial secara menyeluruh dan sangat bias kolonial.

  12. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  13. Survey on Public Awareness On AIDS- Role Of Government And Non Government Agencies In A Rural South Indian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balagnesh G

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the ‘ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lions’ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.

  14. Chain-computerisation for interorganisational public policy implementation : A new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve public policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In two articles the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures requires a new approach,

  15. Tuition Discounting: Institutional Aid Patterns at Public and Private Colleges and Universities. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges reveal significant variation in institutional aid patterns among colleges and universities. The undergraduate tuition discount rate--the ratio of institutional grant aid to published tuition and fee charges--is higher at private institutions than at public institutions, but there are…

  16. Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. T.

    2006-12-01

    The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of

  17. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  18. 6th International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Isabel; Paixão, José

    1995-01-01

    This proceedings volume consists of papers presented at the Sixth International Workshop on Computer-Aided Scheduling of Public Transpon, which was held at the Fund~lio Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon from July 6th to 9th, 1993. In the tradition of alternating Workshops between North America and Europe - Chicago (1975), Leeds (1980), Montreal (1983), Hamburg (1987) and again Montreal (1990), the European city of Lisbon was selected as the venue for the Workshop in 1993. As in earlier Workshops, the central theme dealt with vehicle and duty scheduling problems and the employment of operations-research-based software systems for operational planning in public transport. However, as was initiated in Hamburg in 1987, the scope of this Workshop was broadened to include topics in related fields. This fundamental alteration was an inevitable consequence of the growing demand over the last decade for solutions to the complete planning process in public transport through integrated systems. Therefore, the program of thi...

  19. Emission inventory: An urban public policy instrument and benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Avignon, Alexander; Azevedo Carloni, Flavia; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Burle Schmidt Dubeux, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Global concern with climate change has led to the development of a variety of solutions to monitor and reduce emissions on both local and global scales. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), both developed and emerging countries have assumed responsibility for developing and updating national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropic sources. This creates opportunities and incentives for cities to carry out their own local inventories and, thereby, develop air quality management plans including both essential key players and stakeholders at the local level. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of local inventories as an urban public policy instrument and how this type of local instrument may bring advantages countrywide in enhancing the global position of a country. Local inventories have been carried out in many cities of the world and the main advantage of this is that it allows an overview of emissions produced by different municipal activities, thereby, helps decision makers in the elaboration of efficient air quality management plans. In that way, measures aimed at the reduction of fossil fuel consumption to lower local atmospheric pollution levels can also, in some ways, reduce GHG emissions.

  20. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  1. Nuclear accidents and policy. Notes on public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Felix; Steenbeck, Malte; Wilhelm, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik

    2013-07-01

    Major nuclear accidents as recently in Fukushima set nuclear power plant security at the top of the public agenda. Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel we analyze the effects of the Fukushima accident and a subsequent government decision on nuclear power phase-out on several measures of subjective perception in Germany. In the light of current political debates about the strategic orientation of this energy turnaround, such an analysis is of particular interest since non-pecuniary gains in measures of subjective perception might provide further aspects to be taken into consideration when evaluating the economic costs of the policy. We find that the Fukushima accident increases the probability to report greater worries about the environment. Furthermore, we find evidence for a decrease in the probability to be very worried about the security of nuclear power plants as well as for an increase in reported levels of subjective well-being following the government's resolution on nuclear phase-out. Finally we find that the probabilities of reporting very high concerns are related to the distance between the respondents' place of residence and the nearest nuclear power station.

  2. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously.

  3. lawstat: An R Package for Law, Public Policy and Biostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Hui

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new R software package lawstat that contains statistical tests and procedures that are utilized in various litigations on securities law, antitrust law, equal employment and discrimination as well as in public policy and biostatistics. Along with the well known tests such as the Bartels test, runs test, tests of homogeneity of several sample proportions, the Brunner-Munzel tests, the Lorenz curve, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and others, the package contains new distribution-free robust tests for symmetry, robust tests for normality that are more sensitive to heavy-tailed departures, measures of relative variability, Levene-type tests against trends in variances etc. All implemented tests and methods are illustrated by simulations and real-life examples from legal cases, economics and biostatistics. Although the package is called lawstat, it presents implementation and discussion of statistical procedures and tests that are also employed in a variety of other applications, e.g., biostatistics, environmental studies, social sciences and others, in other words, all applications utilizing statistical data analysis. Hence, name of the package should not be considered as a restriction to legal statistics. The package will be useful to applied statisticians and "quantitatively alert practitioners" of other subjects as well as an asset in teaching statistical courses.

  4. ['Judicialization' of public health policy for distribution of medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Ana Luiza; Barata, Rita Barradas

    2009-08-01

    The supply of medicines in response to court orders or injunctions has become a common practice in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This 'judicialization' of the health system clashes with basic principles of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), such as equal opportunity to access health services. The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal action used to obtain medicines through the São Paulo State Health Department, from two main angles: judicialization of public policies and breach of the equity principle. This is a descriptive study of legal action taken to obtain medicines through the São State Health Department, as listed in the Electronic Court Docket System for the year 2006. Most cases were filed through private attorneys; 47% of the patients had obtained their prescriptions through private care; and 73% of the cases involved patients from the three wealthiest areas in the city of São Paulo. The data demonstrate that such legal action violates key principles of the SUS such as equity, thereby privileging individuals with higher purchasing power and more access to information.

  5. Tobacco 21: An Important Public Policy to Protect Our Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Pakhale, Smita; Neptune, Enid R

    2016-12-01

    An important approach to reduce youth tobacco use is the adoption of regulations to prohibit tobacco product sale to individuals younger than 21 years, termed Tobacco 21. In the United States, close to 90% of current smokers started smoking before the age of 18 years, and 99% before age 26 years. Earlier age of tobacco use initiation is associated with lower rates of smoking cessation. Increasing minimum age to purchase has been shown to reduce tobacco product use among youth. The critical determinant is likely the loss of social sources of tobacco products. Enforcement activities are important for age-of-purchase laws to be effective. Raising the minimum legal age to purchase tobacco products to 21 years is highly supported among both the smoking and nonsmoking public. Tobacco sales to those younger than 21 years account for just 2% of total tobacco sales, yet produce 90% of new smokers. The short-term effect on small business of raising the minimum age to purchase would be minimal. Small businesses will have time to adapt to the decrease in tobacco sales as fewer youth grow up nicotine addicted. Raising the minimum age to purchase of tobacco and nicotine products to 21 years, combined with enforcement of those restrictions, will help protect future generations from a lifetime of tobacco dependence and associated morbidity. These regulations should apply to all tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems. Respiratory health care providers should educate their local, state, and federal policy makers on the importance of Tobacco 21.

  6. A Dynamic Linear Modeling Approach to Public Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftis, Matthew; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2017-01-01

    policy. The paper offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of U.S. defense policy from 1957-2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process and the paper concludes with a discussion of how...

  7. DOE role in nuclear policies and programs: official transcript of public briefing, December 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    The record for the first of the public briefings in the Consumer Information Series scheduled by the Department of Energy is presented. The series presents, for public information and discussion, those DOE policies and programs of specific interest to consumers and public interest groups. In the first meeting DOE officials responded to questions from the public on the DOE role in nuclear policies and programs.

  8. DOE role in nuclear policies and programs: official transcript of public briefing, December 13, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The record for the first of the public briefings in the Consumer Information Series scheduled by the Department of Energy is presented. The series presents, for public information and discussion, those DOE policies and programs of specific interest to consumers and public interest groups. In the first meeting DOE officials responded to questions from the public on the DOE role in nuclear policies and programs

  9. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  10. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  11. Using Public AID Programs to Finance Innovation in Multi-Level Governance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel GUISADO-GONZÁLEZ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how different public administrations (regional, national, European and Framework Program allocate public resources to promote innovation among innovative companies in the Spanish manufacturing industry. We incorporate variables that have never been treated in this line of research before, such as exportoriented and Pavitt’s taxonomy among others. In order to know the preferences of each public program aimed at promoting innovation we use two econometric estimation techniques: first, a binary logistic regression and, second, another binary logistic regression corrected for selection bias derived from the lack of consideration of certain relevant characteristics of manufacturing firms that do not innovate. We check if the importance and statistical significance of certain explanatory variables depend on the estimation method used. We found that the four public administrations preferably assign public resources to Spanish companies that cooperate with other domestic companies. We also found that European programs (EU and Framework Program show their allocation preferences towards innovative firms that export outside EU. The public aid from the Spanish central administration seeks to promote the creation of large ‘national champions’.

  12. Public-academic partnerships: a rapid small-grant program for policy-relevant research: motivating public-academic partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research.

  13. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... COMMISSION Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy statement... a draft policy statement on safety culture to include the unique aspects of nuclear safety and...

  14. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies

  15. 76 FR 41178 - Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Pesticides; Policies Concerning Products Containing Nanoscale Materials; Opportunity for Public Comment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed policy statement; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a proposed policy statement in the Federal Register of June...

  16. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  17. How Do Local Governments Decide on Public Policy in Fiscal Federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2008-01-01

    decide on public policy. Unlike the presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result most notably prevails when federal policy subsidizes local fiscal effort. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy...

  18. How do local governments decide on public policy in fiscal federalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko

    2011-01-01

    decide on public policy. Unlike the usual presumption, the paper shows that local governments may choose to optimize over expenditures. The result holds when federal policy subsidizes local taxation. The results offer a new perspective of the efficiency implications of federal policy toward local...

  19. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies.

  20. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  1. Reflexivity, Position, and the Ambivalent Public Space: The Politics of Educational Policy in Taiwan's Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teng; Ou, Yung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The rise of reflexivity and neoliberalism has led to a change in the nature of the public sphere and policy management. Thus, focusing only on analyses of state-initiated policy and the actions of central government is not conducive to understanding the complex process of policy implementation today. Hence, this study aims to analyse the politics…

  2. Alternatives to current HIV/AIDS policies and practices in South African prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, K C; Gow, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Prisoners in South Africa face problems of overcrowding, violence and poor nutrition. Added to this burden in recent times is the increased threat from HIV. The HIV epidemic has been relatively late in coming to South Africa but infection rates are now 20% in the adult population. However, there is no data available on the level of HIV infection in the prison population. Overseas studies suggest that the characteristics of prisoners place them at much greater risk of HIV infection. Factors which contribute to increased levels of HIV infection include poor health care facilities, lack of condoms and lack of disinfectants. Current policies and practices on HIV in prison attempt to balance the constraints of limited resources with the need to preserve prisoner human rights. The outcomes include: mass testing not freely available, HIV education is limited, and early release of prisoners with advanced AIDS is not allowed. Constraints on the implementation of effective HIV prevention strategies include: bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of resources, and a reluctance by prison authorities to address the issue of HIV in prison. These problems can possibly be overcome by addressing the issue from both management and prisoner perspectives. On the management side, increased resources, increased training of prison officials, and increased political commitment to address the issue are required. Outside partnerships are probably required for an effective response. Prisoners require better nutrition, better living conditions, better health care, freely available condoms and disinfectants.

  3. The impact of monetisation policy on public service: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetisation policy on the performance of the public service. A case study of Nigerian Copyright Commission, a public service was carried out, with a view to examining the thrust, implementation, prospects and challenges of the policy. Primary data was gathered through a structured ...

  4. Public transport pricing policy : Empirical evidence from a fare-free scheme in Tallinn, Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Reimal, T.; Susilo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a

  5. Public Policy Exceptions in European Private Law : A New Research Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Public policy exceptions arguably exist in all fields of private and commerciallaw, not only in private international law but also in substantive law. In substantive private law, the term 'public policy exception' could be used to indicate general illegality rules that make an act of private

  6. Public debate and policy-making on family migration in the Netherlands, 1960-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Schrover, M.

    2015-01-01

    Is ‘public opinion’ systematically opposed to immigration? And has this pushed policymakers to implement restrictive migration policies? To answer these questions, we investigate the impact of public opinion, as expressed in media debates, on the making of family migration policies in the

  7. Advancing Public Policy for High-Growth, Female, and Social Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182375102; Stam, F.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370; Terjesen, Siri Ann

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a large and growing body of entrepreneurship research offer insights for public policy and public officials and managers. Entrepreneurship policy is defined as measures undertaken to stimulate entrepreneurship in a region or country. The authors discuss generalizations from empirical

  8. Evaluation of Alabama Public School Wellness Policies and State School Mandate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Alisha B.; Lonis-Shumate, Steven R.; Gropper, Sareen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated wellness policies created by Alabama public school districts and progress made in the implementation of Alabama State Department of Education (ALSDE) school food and nutrition mandates. Methods: Wellness policies from Alabama public school districts were compared to minimum requirements under the Child Nutrition…

  9. Conceptualizing an Agenda for Social Responsibility and Public Policy at Montgomery College. A Briefing Paper. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michelle T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this briefing paper is to conceptualize a social responsibility and public policy agenda for Montgomery College. The briefing paper provides (a) a well researched perspective to embed a College culture to actualize social responsibility and public policy as institutional practices; (b) examines some of the opportunities and…

  10. Continuities in the HIV/AIDS policy debate in South Africa | Fry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wouters et al. (2010) critiqued the prospects of success for South Africa's new National Strategic Plan (NSP) for HIV/AIDS; they stressed the need to mobilize people living with HIV/AIDS and their communities in order to implement the comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy. Utilizing the South African sample from the Fourth ...

  11. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research. NBER Working Paper No. 18710

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. The increasing size and complexity of the nation's student aid system has generated questions about…

  12. Adoption of formal HIV and AIDS workplace policies: An analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sector variations. These results provide an important avenue to scale up company responses to HIV and AIDS by intensifying staff participation in the activities of HIV and AIDS institutions. Such institutions appear to play a vital role of providing up to date HIV and AIDS-related information upon which companies are able to ...

  13. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  14. Social Impact Management Plans: Innovation in corporate and public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Daniel M.; Vanclay, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has traditionally been practiced as a predictive study for the regulatory approval of major projects, however, in recent years the drivers and domain of focus for SIA have shifted. This paper details the emergence of Social Impact Management Plans (SIMPs) and undertakes an analysis of innovations in corporate and public policy that have put in place ongoing processes – assessment, management and monitoring – to better identify the nature and scope of the social impacts that might occur during implementation and to proactively respond to change across the lifecycle of developments. Four leading practice examples are analyzed. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards require the preparation of Environmental and Social Management Plans for all projects financed by the IFC identified as having significant environmental and social risks. Anglo American, a major resources company, has introduced a Socio-Economic Assessment Toolbox, which requires mine sites to undertake regular assessments and link these assessments with their internal management systems, monitoring activities and a Social Management Plan. In South Africa, Social and Labour Plans are submitted with an application for a mining or production right. In Queensland, Australia, Social Impact Management Plans were developed as part of an Environmental Impact Statement, which included assessment of social impacts. Collectively these initiatives, and others, are a practical realization of theoretical conceptions of SIA that include management and monitoring as core components of SIA. The paper concludes with an analysis of the implications for the practice of impact assessment including a summary of key criteria for the design and implementation of effective SIMPs. -- Highlights: • Social impact management plans are effective strategies to manage social issues. • They are developed in partnership with regulatory agencies, investors and community.

  15. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  16. An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lineburg, Mark Young

    2005-01-01

    An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools Mark Y. Lineburg Abstract There were two purposes to this study. First, the study was designed to determine which Virginia public school districts have articulated policies that govern random drug testing of students and if school districtsâ policies aligned with U.S. Supreme Court standards and Virginia statutes. The second purpose was to ascertain the patterns of pract...

  17. PUBLIC POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF A COUNTRY . CASE OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia BUŞMACHIU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of concepts applied in the decision - making process aims to investigate the functioning of mechanisms to develop and implement the central public administration policies. A modern decision - making process includes the whole procedure of decision making: setting the priorities of public policies, choosing options, instruments of public policy implementation, developing and adopting the respective legislative and normative acts, funding to implement these policies, conducting implementation actions and monitoring the impact of public policy decisions. Often the decision - making process in public administration is interpreted as a simple organization of the information and documents circuit. Therefore there arises the need to analyze the concept of decision making and propose solutions to improve it.

  18. Publicity as policy: the changing role of press and public relations at the BMA, 1940s-80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between policy and publicity or public relations (PR) have been questioned since the emergence of professional public relations in the early-twentieth century. In the field of health and medicine organised PR activity began to flourish in the decades following World War Two. Its presence became evident in government departments, in professional associations, voluntary bodies and campaigning groups. Increasingly, policy decisions had to be publicly performed through rituals like the press conference. This chapter documents the development of press and PR activity at the British Medical Association (BMA) from the 1950s to the 1980s. The BMA provides a well-documented case, which can be used to suggest broader shifts in the association between policy and publicity.

  19. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukta; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2012-07-09

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the "Strike- Hard" campaign in China or the "war on drugs" in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam's response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves.The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting "universal access" goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners.The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher political

  20. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  1. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-25

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants--two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia.

  2. The Role of Public Policies in Reducing Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T.; Boyle, Raymond G.; Abrams, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Purpose To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Methods Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. Results SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Conclusions Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota’s smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. PMID:23079215

  3. Changes in alcohol policies and public opinions in Finland 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Esa; Lindeman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    There is a constant and ongoing interplay between public opinions and public policies, alcohol policies being no exception. This article describes the development of public opinions regarding alcohol policy in Finland during a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. Fluctuations in the alcohol policy opinion climate are put in context by looking at concurrent changes in alcohol policies and in total alcohol consumption. The study is based on data from opinion surveys on alcohol policies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Welfare and the Finnish Social and Health Association. The opinion polls include questions about the general acceptance of prevailing alcohol policies, appropriate sales channels of different alcoholic beverage categories and opinions about the legal age limits and prices of alcoholic beverages. In the study, changes in alcohol policy during 2003-2013 are surveyed, and their relationship with changes in alcohol policy opinion is examined. There seem to be a strong positive correlation during the study period between the level of alcohol consumption and the share of those wanting a more restrictive alcohol policy in Finland. It seems that an increased level of awareness of alcohol-related issues among the general public created a more restrictive opinion climate on alcohol policy issues after the big alcohol excise duty decrease in 2004. The reverse seems to happen but in a lesser degree when alcohol excise duties has been increased after the year 2007. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  6. [Fiscal policy and tobacco control: a unique opportunity to benefit public health and the public treasury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendares, Pedro Enrique; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Various studies and analyses show that an increase in tobacco prices through taxation is one of the most efficient tools in the application of integral policies in the fight against tobacco. Increases in taxes contribute to cessation, to reductions in consumption and in the number of deaths among addicts and to decrease the number of people who start to smoke. However, many governments hesitate to apply high taxes to tobacco for fear of possible negative economic results including loss of jobs and a decrease in fiscal revenue as a consequence of smuggling. Both literature and empirical experience indicate that these negative consequences do not occur or have been overestimated, often due to arguments promoted by the tobacco industry itself. Increases in tobacco taxes result in greater fiscal income, even in the presence of smuggling, which can be confronted without eroding tobacco control policies. Numerous countries, including Mexico, still have a wide margin for increasing tobacco taxes, and thereby to take advantage of an exceptional opportunity that benefits both the population's health and the public treasury. To do so, governments must stand up to the powerful tobacco industry, which is aware of the efficiency of taxes to combat tobacco use and therefore resorts to intense ad campaigns, political lobbying and negotiation of voluntary agreements for "self-regulation" in order to avoid stricter legislative or fiscal measures.

  7. Adult Education as Public Policy: A Perspective from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1988-01-01

    Discusses policies concerning adult education which have been designed and carried out in Latin America. Contends that the adult basic education policy does not provide the clientele with better tools to face the challenges of society. Calls for an understanding of the inner rationality of adult education programs. (KO)

  8. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  9. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  11. Using public policy to improve outcomes for asthmatic children in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jewlya; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Zimmer, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    School-based services to improve asthma management need to be accompanied by public policies that can help sustain services, scale effective interventions, create greater equity across schools, and improve outcomes for children. Several national organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have recommended specific public policies the adoption of which in school settings can improve asthma outcomes for children. Although many states and school districts have adopted some of these policies, adoption is not universal, and implementation is not always successful, leaving inequities in children's access to asthma services and supports. These issues can be addressed by changing public policy. Policy change is a complex process, but it is one that will benefit from greater involvement by asthma experts, including the researchers who generate the knowledge base on what services, supports, and policies have the best outcomes for children. Asthma experts can participate in the policy process by helping to build awareness of the need for school-based asthma policy, estimating the costs associated with policy options and with inaction, advocating for the selection of specific policies, assisting in implementation (including providing feedback), conducting the research that can evaluate the effectiveness of implementation, and ultimately providing information back into the policy process to allow for improvements to the policies. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and Multifamily Housing: Reopening of Public... smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. HUD was seeking information from... implementing smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. In the October 4, 2012 notice...

  13. Do driving restriction policies effectively motivate commuters to use public transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunxia; Hong, Zaisheng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Driving restriction policies have been implemented in some large Chinese cities to cope with severe urban smog pollution. We explored the roles of policy acceptance and other factors in commuters' transport mode decisions, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tianjin, China. A structural equation model was developed to test eight hypotheses, two of which were rejected. The results indicate that a driving restriction policy alone cannot effectively motivate commuters to use public transport if the policymakers fail to improve public transport, enhance commuters' awareness of consequences, increase commuters' perceived behavior control, and encourage car owners to change driving behavior. Comparisons between car owners and non-owners indicated that car owners view driving restriction policy and public transport more negatively. These negative views could be a barrier for the promotion of public transport among car owners. In addition, attitude toward public transport was found to have positive correlation with commuting time. - Highlights: • Attitude towards public transport has an impact on policy acceptance. • Driving habit indirectly affects policy acceptance and perceived behavior control. • Driving restriction policy and public transport are not popular among car owners. • Attitude towards public transport correlates positively with commuting time.

  14. Managing networks in the public sector: A theoretical study of management strategies in policy networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klijn, Erik-Hans; Koppenjan, Joop; Termeer, Katrien

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPublic policy usually develops in complex networks of public, quasi-public and private organizations. It is now generally accepted that these networks set limits to the governance capability of the administration. A good deal less is known about the opportunities which policy networks offer for tackling social and administrative problems. This article deals with the way network management enables government organizations to benefit from networks. Building on the theoretical concep...

  15. Human resources policy in the public management: problems and search for their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Ivanova; O. Vasilyev

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the formation of a human resources policy in the public administration: trends of its development, problems and principles of its implementation. Th e article focuses on the formation of the civic and professional identity in public service workers. Experience of Vologda public administration and municipal management bodies is a good example of a successful implementation of the human resources policy. Th ey could fi nd some eff ective ways of solving problems which ...

  16. Increasing leadership capacity for HIV/AIDS programmes by strengthening public health epidemiology and management training in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Donna S; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Woelk, Godfrey; Nsubuga, Peter; Sunderland, Nadine L; Hader, Shannon L; St Louis, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased funding for global human immunodeficiency virus prevention and control in developing countries has created both a challenge and an opportunity for achieving long-term global health goals. This paper describes a programme in Zimbabwe aimed at responding more effectively to the HIV/AIDS epidemic by reinforcing a critical competence-based training institution and producing public health leaders. Methods The programme used new HIV/AIDS programme-specific funds to build on the assets of a local education institution to strengthen and expand the general public health leadership capacity in Zimbabwe, simultaneously ensuring that they were trained in HIV interventions. Results The programme increased both numbers of graduates and retention of faculty. The expanded HIV/AIDS curriculum was associated with a substantial increase in trainee projects related to HIV. The increased number of public health professionals has led to a number of practically trained persons working in public health leadership positions in the ministry, including in HIV/AIDS programmes. Conclusion Investment of a modest proportion of new HIV/AIDS resources in targeted public health leadership training programmes can assist in building capacity to lead and manage national HIV and other public health programmes. PMID:19664268

  17. Democratic Model of Public Policy Accountability. Case Study on Implementation of Street Vendors Empowerment Policy in Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulinawaty Kasmadsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy accountability is a form of manifestation of public officials responsible to the people. One form of policy accountability that is discussed here is street vendors policy accountability, because they are a group of citizens who have the economic activities in public spaces. The existence of this policy how-ever, the number of street vendors from year to year increase in Makassar City. Therefore, this study seeks to uncover and explain the democratic policy ac-countability through the street vendors’ responses and expectations to the implementation of street ven-dors empowerment policy in Makassar City; and to uncover and explain the democratic policy account-ability through the stakeholders’ responses and ex-pectations to the implementation of street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City. To achieve these objectives, the study uses democracy theory, in which this theory focuses on togetherness in dis-cussing solutions to the various problems of street vendors and in the policy implementation as well.This study used a qualitative design and case studies strat-egy. Data collection techniques used was observa-tion, interview, and documentation. Data were ana-lyzed with case description its settings. The results of this study pointed out that the interests and needs of the street vendors are not met through the empow-erment policies vendors. This is caused by the ab-sence of accountability forum as a place of togeth-erness all of street vendors empowerment stakehold-ers’. Street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City are designed base on a top-down approach, so they are considered as objects, which must accept all government programs aimed at them.

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE AID POLICY FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALDAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Competition Council's activity regarding the state aid field has considered Romania's obligations as a member state, and the fulfillment of some specific tasks by the competition authority acquired after January 1, 2007. In this regard, the Competition Council has encouraged the collaboration between institutions to develop projects of state aid schemes. In 2010 there were six major investment projects approved, four of them being in the photovoltaic sector in which three are in Germany, one is in Spain and the rest concern the mechanical industry in Germany and Italy. Also, there were approved five ad hoc aid measures in favor of individual enterprises, for investments in areas that are on the regional aid maps for the period 2007-2013, and ten aid schemes, of which five related to the outermost regions. In accordance with the guidelines on national regional aids for 2007-2013, the Commission developed a statistical evaluation of the situation of state aid and regional aid ceiling which received a transitional assisted area status under Article 107 paragraph 3 letters (a by the end of 2010. The Commission accepted the changes introduced by the three member states (France, Ireland and Italy in state aid maps for certain regions eligible for regional aid under Article 107 paragraph 3letter (c.

  19. Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research program is more ambitions and, in the case of two of the five projects, linked to interventions financed by CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) and the DDC, Switzerland's agency for development cooperation and humanitarian aid. The five research projects will be coordinated and managed by ...

  20. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    OpenAIRE

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination preventio...

  1. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  2. Responding to non-linear internationalisation of public policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The transfer of regulatory authority to international organisations can initiate domestic policy reform. The internationalisation process can be a one-off transfer of authority to international institutions or an ongoing process. In the latter situation, the level of internationalisation may...... the relationship between developments in the GATT and WTO farm trade negotiations and the reform trajectory of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) from the early 1990s to 2013. Until 2008, the EU gradually changed the support instruments of the CAP to limit their trade distorting impact. After the Doha Round...... stalled in 2008, international trade policy concerns were downgraded and domestic concerns took priority in the 2013 reform....

  3. Information, public policy analysis and sustainable development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale secrecy in government business, inadequate incentives to statisticians and grand corruption in many, if not all, public organizations in Nigeria. They promote negative effects, including unreliable data and information, inadequate public ...

  4. An evaluation of public school district tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Colleen; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Bach, Laura E; Cyr, Julianne

    2013-08-01

    One way to address tobacco use by youth is for primary and secondary schools to adopt and implement comprehensive tobacco policies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the comprehensiveness of tobacco policies in St. Louis County, Missouri public school districts. We evaluated the strength of tobacco policies from all 23 public school districts located in the county using the Center for Tobacco Policy Research's School Tobacco Policy Index, a standardized tool for rating school tobacco policies. The districts averaged a score of 24.4 of 40 possible points on the Index. Policies scored highest on the Tobacco-Free Environment domain and lowest on the Enforcement domain. Policies averaged about half of the total possible points for the Prevention and Treatment Services and Policy Organization domains. Despite more than a decade of efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve school tobacco policies, this study shows that policies in St. Louis County districts have yet to meet the standard of comprehensiveness. It is recommended that schools adopt policies that are comprehensive and that address all domains of the School Tobacco Policy Index. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  5. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  6. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  7. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  8. Public health nutrition in Europe : workforce development and policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Kugelberg, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Public health nutrition workforce development is an important prerequisite for developing a nation’s capacity to achieve public health nutrition objectives. Presently, there is a lack of knowledge about public health nutrition workforce development in Europe, in particular, about how governments have developed strategies for promoting a skilled and adaptable public health nutrition workforce and about the current workforce in terms of roles, competencies and functions. The aim of this t...

  9. 'Are we there yet?' - operationalizing the concept of Integrated Public Health Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Habraken, Jolanda; Jansen, Maria W J; Gubbels, Jessica S; De Vries, Nanne K; van Oers, Hans; Michie, Susan; Atkins, L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-02-01

    Although 'integrated' public health policies are assumed to be the ideal way to optimize public health, it remains hard to determine how far removed we are from this ideal, since clear operational criteria and defining characteristics are lacking. A literature review identified gaps in previous operationalizations of integrated public health policies. We searched for an approach that could fill these gaps. We propose the following defining characteristics of an integrated policy: (1) the combination of policies includes an appropriate mix of interventions that optimizes the functioning of the behavioral system, thus ensuring that motivation, capability and opportunity interact in such a way that they promote the preferred (health-promoting) behavior of the target population, and (2) the policies are implemented by the relevant policy sectors from different policy domains. Our criteria should offer added value since they describe pathways in the process towards formulating integrated policy. The aim of introducing our operationalization is to assist policy makers and researchers in identifying truly integrated cases. The Behavior Change Wheel proved to be a useful framework to develop operational criteria to assess the current state of integrated public health policies in practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public-private Partnership in the Context of Realisation of the State Financial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko Victoriia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the result of the study the article analyses modern tendencies of development of economy of Ukraine. It marks out problems connected with realisation of the state financial policy. It considers the essence of the state financial policy, its directions (such as budget-tax and monetary-credit, structural components and tasks. It emphasises the place of the public-private partnership as an instrument of realisation of the financial policy. It justifies tasks in the process of realisation of goals of the modern financial policy, which could be carried out with the help of the public-private partnership. The prospect of further studies in this direction is formation of practical recommendations on the use of the public-private partnership in the process of realisation of the state financial policy. Further improvement of the public-private partnership is connected with development of efficient mechanisms of its introduction and optimisation of its financial structure.

  11. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P

    2017-01-01

    of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. METHODS: The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process......: In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described...

  12. State Policy Snapshot: School District Facilities and Public Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnick, Russ

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges to the health of the public charter school movement is access to adequate facilities in which the schools operate. Public charter school facilities are rarely funded on par with school district facilities. Over the years, more states have come to realize that they have an obligation to ensure that all public school…

  13. Collaboration in public policy and practice: perspectives on boundary spanners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    .... It will be of interest to academics, researchers and students interested in this field of study, and provides learning for policy makers and practitioners active in the fields of collaboration...

  14. Shaping public health education, research, and policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP) program supports the generation of new knowledge to help inform policies and programs that are low cost but can ... University of Beirut (AUB) proposes a comprehensive and long-term ... based on three collaborating academic Centers.

  15. Impacts of public policy on rail development in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Identifying the State policies that most directly affect or advance railroad development begins with an : understanding of how railroads make investment decisions. Railroads are a capital-intensive business, : owning all physical assets, locomotives,...

  16. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  17. Federal policy on criminal offenders who have substance use disorders: how can we maximize public health and public safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The Obama Administration is striving to promote both public health and public safety by improving the public policy response to criminal offenders who have substance use disorders. This includes supporting drug courts, evidence-based probation and parole programs, addiction treatment and re-entry programs. Scientists and clinicians in the addiction field have a critical role to play in this much-needed effort to break the cycle of addiction, crime and incarceration.

  18. The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Johansson, Staffan; Löfström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Estimating the Effect of Student Aid on College Enrollment: Evidence from a Government Grant Policy Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher

    In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid scheme...... and a reform of the student aid scheme to identify the effect of direct costs on college enrollment. To allow for heterogeneous responses due to borrowing constraints, we use detailed information on parents' assets. We find that enrollment is less responsive than found in other studies and that the presence...

  20. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…