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Sample records for ahorrar energia electrica

  1. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  2. Energy saving plan: use of solar energy in the university of Valencia (Spain); Uso de la energia solar en la universidad de Valencia (Espana) para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Gomez Amo, J.L.; Tena, F.; Martinez Lozano, J.A.; Utrillas, M.P. [Grupo de Radiacion Solar, Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-15

    The University of Valencia financed a pilot project that would study the installation's feasibility of a generating station with photovoltaic energy, solar type, in order to replace or complement conventional sources of energy. This paper presents some of the preliminary results of the study's application in an University building, along with the analysis of the initial situation and the proposals for the handling of reactive energy and the outer and inner lighting as solutions for energy saving. This experimental project entitled Study of the Energy Saving Strategies and the Viability of Installing Solar Energy equipment in the Buildings of the University of Valencia throws preliminary data specifying the amount of investment necessary to obtain real annual benefits, as well as the recovery time of the investment and the beneficial ecological impact in quantitative terms of a measurable CO{sub 2} reduction. [Spanish] La Universidad de Valencia financio un proyecto piloto que estudiaria la factibilidad de instalacion de una estacion generadora de energia fotovoltaica de tipo solar para sustituir o complementar fuentes convencionales de energia. Este trabajo presenta algunos de los resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del estudio en un edificio de la Universidad junto con el analisis de la situacion inicial y las propuestas del manejo de energia reactiva, de iluminacion exterior e interior como soluciones para el ahorro de energia. Este proyecto experimental titulado Estudio de las estrategias del ahorro de la energia y de la viabilidad de instalar energia solar en los edificios de la Universidad de Valencia arroja datos preliminares que especifican el monto de la inversion necesaria para obtener beneficios anuales reales, asi como el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion y el impacto ecologico benefico en terminos cuantitativos de una reduccion cuantificable de CO{sub 2}.

  3. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  4. Importance of the lighting systems in commercial establishments and services and some criteria for electric energy saving; Importancia de los sistemas de iluminacion en comercios y servicios y algunos criterios para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala Pimentel, Alicia Isabel [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Among the projects executed by the Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), there are projects for apartment stores, self service stores, office buildings, schools and hospitals. As of now, we have executed 57 projects, from which in 47 of them the correction of the lighting system was a measure to apply. In this paper, we will show the corrective lighting measures that have been feasible to apply from the technical and economical stand point, the saving percentages that have been possible to attain and some additional considerations. [Espanol] Dentro de los proyectos realizados en la Gerencia de Comercios y Servicios del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), se encuentran proyectos en almacenes departamentales, tiendas de autoservicio, edificios de oficinas, escuelas y hospitales. A la fecha contamos con 57 proyectos realizados, en los cuales en 47, la correccion del sistema de iluminacion fue una de las medidas a aplicar. En este trabajo mostraremos las acciones correctivas de iluminacion que han sido factibles de aplicar desde el punto de vista tecnico y economico, los porcentajes de ahorro que han sido posibles obtener y algunas consideraciones adicionales.

  5. Standardization for electric energy saving; Normalizacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Diaz, Arturo [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes shortly the current legislation on the standardization; as well as the participation of the entities Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) and Programa de Ahorro de Energia (PAESE) in the consulting committees, for the elaboration of the Mexican official standards focussed to electric power saving. [Espanol] El presente trabajo, describe brevemente la legislacion actual sobre la normalizacion; asi como la participacion de las entidades Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) y Programa de ahorro de Energia (PAESE) en los comites consultivos, para la elaboracion de normas oficiales mexicanas enfocadas al ahorro de energia electrica.

  6. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  7. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  8. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  9. Wind energy for electricity generation; Generacion electrica con energia del viento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M.; Borja Diaz, Marco Antonio R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-09-01

    A description is made of electricity generation utilizing wind energy (Eoloelectric Generation). The case of Mexico is reviewed in respect to this technology, mentioning a small power plant of 1.5 Megawatts installed by the Comision Federal de Electricidad in the zone of La Ventosa in the State of Oaxaca. Mention is made of the possible causes why Mexico has not advanced in this type of power plants for power generation as in other countries like Germany, Spain and India. The advance in these countries is shown as well as the growth statistics of the wind power in the world. It is concluded that there is not in Mexico a strategy for wind energy utilization for electricity generation in spite of the potential benefits this technology offers [Espanol] Se describe el caso de la generacion electrica utilizando la energia del viento (Generacion Eoloelectrica). Se aborda el caso de Mexico respecto a esta tecnologia, mencionando una pequena central de 1.5 Megawatts (MW) instalada por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en la zona de la Ventosa, Oaxaca. Se mencionan las posibles causas por las que en Mexico este tipo de centrales de generacion de energia no ha avanzado como en otros paises, por ejemplo: Alemania, Espana y la India. Se muestran los avances de estos paises, asi como una estadistica del crecimiento de la generacion eoloelectrica en el mundo. Se concluye en que no existe en Mexico una estrategia para la generacion eoloelectrica a pesar de los beneficios potenciales que ofrece esta tecnologia

  10. The electric energy and the environment in Mexico. Volume 3; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico. Volumen 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document is the third one of three volumes of the 1. Seminar on the Current Conditions and Perspectives of the Electric Sector in Mexico, organized by the Programa Universitario de Energia and the Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas (University Program of Energy and the Institute of Economic Research), both of them agencies of the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The titles of the three volumes are the following: Volume 1.- The opening of the Mexican Electric Sector to foreign investment. Volume 2.- Concrete innovation and technological learning experiences at the Luz y Fuerza del Centro enterprise. Volume 3.- The Electric Energy and the Environment in Mexico. This third volume covers the following subjects: Hydroelectricity, land use and water managing; the electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impact, the nuclear electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; the exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; the energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; potential of electricity generation in large scale with wind power in Mexico; towards a scheme of distributed electric power generation with non-conventional energies and renewable energy sources in Mexico in the 21Century. These documents were elaborated by specialists of the electric sector, from the sector itself as well as from private and public academic entities [Espanol] Este documento constituye el tercero de tres volumenes del Primer Seminario sobre Situacion y Perspectivas del Sector Electrico en Mexico, organizado por el Programa Universitario de Energia y el Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, ambas dependencias de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). Los titulos de los tres volumenes son los siguientes: volumen 1: La apertura externa del sector electrico mexicano, volumen 2: Experiencias concretas de innovacion y aprendizaje tecnologico en la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro, volumen 3: Energia electrica

  11. Electric energy saving in the cellulose and paper industry; Ahorro de energia electrica en la industria de celulosa y papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This paper delineates the results of the demonstration project for electric energy saving, which is one of the twenty four projects in which the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) sponsors the diagnosis as well as the applied measures and the measures currently in application. Also the potential opportunity areas and the measures applied and in course of application, as well as the required investments and their recuperation periods. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describen los resultados del proyecto de demostracion de ahorro de energia electrica que es uno de los veinticuatro proyectos, en los que el Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) financia tanto el diagnostico como la aplicacion de medidas. Se presentan tanto las areas de oportunidad, potenciales y medidas aplicadas y en aplicacion, asi como las inversiones requeridas y los periodos de recuperacion de las mismas.

  12. Management and control of the electrical energy demand; Administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson Controls [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Administrative measures allow a reduction in the energy consumption, but not always in the electrical demand. Control measures allow a reduction in the billing of the electrical demand, but not always in the energy consumption. This is why it is explained in this document what management and control of the electrical demand is, as well as its control strategies, the control alternatives, the billing demand and at the same time graphical representations along with three practical cases on the management of demand in air compressors, air conditioning equipment and in corporative buildings are presented. [Spanish] La aplicacion de las medidas administrativas permite reducir el consumo de energia, pero no siempre la demanda electrica. La aplicacion de medidas de control permiten reducir la demanda electrica facturable, pero no siempre el consumo de energia. Es por eso que en este documento se explica que es la administracion y el control de la demanda electrica, sus estrategias de control, las alternativas de control, la demanda facturable, representaciones graficas y tres casos practicos sobre la administracion de demanda en compresores de aire, la administracion de demanda en aire acondicionado y la administracion de demanda en un edificio corporativo.

  13. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  14. Price models of electrical energy, via stochastic processes; Modelos de precios de energia electrica, via procesos estocasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ramos, Hugo

    2008-12-15

    The electrical energy prices own very particular characteristics that make them different from the prices of any good which are immersed under the fluctuation of the laws of supply and demand. The present work proposes a revision and modification of the model for the prices of electrical energy based on stochastic processes, developed in 2002 by M.T. Barlow. Our model satisfactorily explains the dynamics of the prices, having as an example the case of the energy market of Alberta, CA. The proposed model is based on the power transformation of Yeo-Johnson in 2000, which does not have dominion restrictions. Also, it is assumed that the energy price depends on the demand, which is modeled as a process of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. The proposed model was applied to real data, obtaining corresponding estimations of the interest parameters, as well as their validation. Also simulation results are shown to determine the empirical distribution of the estimators of maximum credibility of the parameters. [Spanish] Los precios de energia electrica poseen caracteristicas muy particulares que los hacen diferentes a los precios de cualquier bien que estan inmersos bajo la fluctuacion de las leyes de la oferta y la demanda. El presente trabajo propone una revision y modificacion del modelo para los precios de energia electrica basado en procesos estocasticos, desarrollado en 2002 por M. T. Barlow. Nuestro modelo explica satisfactoriamente la dinamica de los precios, teniendo como ejemplo el caso del mercado de energia de Alberta, Ca. El modelo propuesto esta basado en la transformacion potencia de Yeo-Johnson en 2000, la cual no tiene restricciones de dominio. Tambien, se asume que el precio de la energia depende de la demanda, la cual es modelada como un proceso de Ornstein-Uhlenbeck. El modelo propuesto se aplico a datos reales, obteniendo estimaciones correspondientes de los parametros de interes, asi como su validacion. Tambien se muestran resultados de simulacion para determinar la

  15. The electric energy in Mexico and the sustainable development; La energia electrica en Mexico y el desarrollo sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Aragon, Leticia [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document explains the importance of the sustainable development in the electric energy, that is, that the technological advances in the electric sector do no hamper the future of the generations to come and generate potential problems such as: environmental pollution, unnecessary expenses in the realization of new technologies already executed. Mention is made of the relationship between nature and society, the ecological crisis, and the electric energy, seven points are given on how to control and treat waste waters, three points are given to handle and dispose of solid wastes, finally four points are given on the noise contamination control. It is concluded that the problem of reducing the environmental impact of the generation of electricity does not depend on the applied technology, since there are technological options for its solution, but on other more complex factors that deal with the generation of wealth, its distribution and the population growing [Espanol] En el presente documento se explica la importancia del desarrollo sustentable en la energia electrica, es decir que los avances tecnologicos en el sector energetico no entorpezcan el futuro de las generaciones venideras y generen posibles problemas como: contaminacion del medio ambiente, gastos innecesarios en la realizacion de las nuevas tecnologias realizadas. Se menciona la relacion entre la naturaleza y la sociedad, la crisis ecologica y la energia electrica, se dan siete puntos de como controlar y tratar aguas residuales, se proporcionan tres puntos para manejar y disponer de residuos solidos, por ultimo se dan cuatro puntos sobre el control de la contaminacion por ruido. Se concluye en que el problema de reducir el impacto ambiental por la generacion de electricidad no depende de la tecnologia empleada pues existen alternativas tecnologicas para su solucion, sino en otros aun mas complejos que tienen que ver con la generacion de la riqueza, su distribucion y el crecimiento de la poblacion

  16. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    this is a system of the non-invasive type, it does not interfere with the operation of the electrical circuits. [Spanish] Las companias de electricidad de todo el mundo sufren, en mayor o menor grado, de perdidas de energia electrica. Un gran porcentaje de estas perdidas se debe, principalmente, a apropiaciones indebidas de energia. Los consumidores, mediante practicas ilicitas como tomas clandestinas y alteracion del funcionamiento de los medidores, llevan a cabo el robo de energia. Para tratar de aliviar la problematica de perdidas de energia electrica, en su mayoria por ilicitos, las companias de electricidad han implementado una o mas acciones. Entre las mas importantes estan: Inspeccion visual de las instalaciones de medicion. Su proposito es verificar el estado de las protecciones tradicionales del medidor, como son sellos y anillos de seguridad. Equipos de deteccion. Son registradores de consumo de energia y de fallas en conductores, se utilizan para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo y derivaciones o conexiones ilicitas a la acometida de energia electrica o a la red secundaria de distribucion. Analisis estadistico de consumos. Muchas companias de electricidad han adaptado sus sistemas de procesamiento de lecturas de consumos para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo de los clientes. Esto pudiera corresponder a situaciones anormales. Dado que este pais no es ajeno a la problematica de perdidas de energia, en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas se desarrollo un Sistema de Medicion y Deteccion de Perdidas de Energia Electrica (SIM-IV) como resultado del conocimiento de la problematica obtenido de los proyectos en el area de medicion y de la interaccion a traves de reuniones de trabajo con personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), en el que se aplicaron conceptos y tecnologia avanzada de medicion de variables electricas. El SIM-IV es un sistema orientado a la medicion de consumos y la

  17. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  18. Research activities in the use of energy; Actividades de investigacion en el uso de la energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio; Garcia Juarez, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The use of energy is intimately related to the development and is found in the human activities of all types, consequently we could say that to a greater usage it must correspond a greater benefit. This paper carries on a comparative analysis of the Mexico`s energy efficiency versus industrialized countries; this analysis shows that while Mexico indicates a growing tendency, in the industrialized countries the tendency is to the drop, unmistakable sign of a better usage of the energy sources. It also makes evident that promoting the energy efficiency in Mexico will stimulate and regulate the energy conservation at National level, in the same way it is mentioned that an appropriate energy demand Management for the users as well as for the service providers, will diminish the peak demand, the adequate application of the electric rates at the actual conditions and the energy saving and the strategic load growth [Espanol] El uso de la energia esta intimamente relacionado con el desarrollo y se encuentra en las actividades humanas de todo tipo, de tal suerte que podriamos decir que a mayor uso debe corresponder un mayor beneficio. En este documento se realiza un analisis comparativo de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico contra paises industrializados; este analisis muestra que mientras Mexico indica una tendencia creciente, en los paises industrializados la tendencia es a la baja, signo inequivoco de un mejor uso de los energeticos, tambien hace ver que la promocion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico estimulara y regulara el ahorro de energia a nivel nacional, de igual manera se menciona que una buena administracion de la demanda energetica tanto por los usuarios como los que prestan el servicio, reducira la demanda pico, la adecuacion de las tarifas electricas a las condiciones reales y el ahorro de los energeticos y el crecimiento estrategico de la carga

  19. Importance of the validation of saving technologies of electric power; Importancia de la validacion de tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valer Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Within the Programs of Energy Saving it is fundamental the search and application of new technologies, with which this saving can be obtained, selected with base in their technical characteristics that allow to reduce to the consumptions and demands of power, without damaging the electric networks nor the transformers of the Comision Federal de Electricidad. It is important that the investments which are made count on attractive periods of capital recovery, in comparison with the useful life of the product, reason why the knowledge and price of the new technologies will be parameters to consider in an important manner, creating the need of conducting tests that verify the veracity of the information of the supplier, resulting in certain cases, the change of design of these technologies, so that thus they fulfill the engaged characteristics. This paper indicates the characteristics that the new saving technologies of electrical energy must fulfill and the tests and parameters to consider their evaluation. [Spanish] Dentro de los Programas de Ahorro de Energia es fundamental la busqueda y aplicacion de nuevas tecnologias, con las que se pueda obtener dicho ahorro, seleccionadas con base en sus caracteristicas tecnicas que permitan reducir los consumos y demandas de potencia, sin danar las redes ni transformadores de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. Es importante que las inversiones que se realicen cuenten con periodos de recuperacion de capital atractivos, comparados con la vida util del producto, por lo que el conocimiento y precio de las nuevas tecnologias seran parametros a considerar de manera importante, creandose la necesidad de realizar pruebas que verifiquen la veracidad de la informacion del proveedor, resultando en determinados casos, el cambio de diseno de dichas tecnologias, para que asi cumplan las caracteristicas prometidas. Este trabajo indica las caracteristicas que deben cumplir las nuevas tecnologias ahorradoras de energia electrica y las

  20. Demand curves of electric energy in domestic sector in two regions of Mexico; Curvas de demanda de energia electrica en sector domestico de dos regiones de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto; Sanchez Viveros, Luis Agustin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, is presented the analysis of residential consumption, regarding the temperature of two areas and types of electrical appliances. A shape characteristic of the load of the electrical energy is obtained for two geographical areas in Mexico. The consumption information was obtained from measurements in residential consumers and from the Mexican Utility. It is also shown the demand profile of the main residential appliances, obtained from smart metering equipment to separate the residential users' load profiles. It is shown the effect of the different variables analyzed on the electrical power consumption, mainly the type of equipment, the geographical localization, the weather (temperature, humidity and vegetation type). With the results attained, the definition of effective energy-saving programs and its effectiveness can be obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el analisis del consumo residencial considerando la temperatura de las dos areas y tipos de aparatos electricos. Se obtiene una forma caracteristica de la carga de energia electrica de dos areas geograficas de Mexico. La informacion sobre el consumo se obtuvo de mediciones en consumidores residenciales y de una empresa electrica mexicana. Tambien se muestra el perfil de demanda de los principales aparatos residenciales, derivado de equipos de medicion inteligentes para separar los perfiles de carga de usuarios residenciales. Se muestra el efecto de diferentes variables analizadas en el consumo de energia electrica, principalmente el tipo de equipo, la localizacion geografica, el clima (temperatura, humedad y tipo de vegetacion). Con los resultados alcanzados pueden definirse programas de ahorro de energia efectivos y lograr implantarlos.

  1. Experimental evaluation of the consumption of electrical energy of domestic refrigerators in Mexico; Evaluacion experimental del consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores domesticos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo Cabanas, Fernando Gabriel [Programa de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this work the experimental methodology developed to carry out tests of the electrical energy of refrigerators consumption as norm NOM-015-ENER-2002 is described. The tests were made in the Laboratory of Controlled Environment of the Iztapalapa Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana to a sample of old domestic refrigerators in operation. The results found show that the consumption of electrical energy of refrigerators of more than 10 years of age can be higher than 60% of what a modern refrigerator of high efficiency would consume, or 30% higher if the refrigerator was made between 1997 and 2002. With these results it is sustained, in a more complete way, the evaluation of the saving potential of the national electrical energy by the substitution of old domestic refrigerators by modern, as reported in a previous work. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describe la metodologia experimental desarrollada para efectuar pruebas del consumo de energia electrica a refrigeradores conforme la norma NOM-015-ENER-2002. Las pruebas se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado de la Unidad Iztapalapa de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana a una muestra de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos en operacion. Los resultados encontrados muestran que el consumo de energia electrica de refrigeradores de mas de 10 anos de antig�edad puede superior al 60% de lo que consumiria un refrigerador moderno de alta eficiencia, o superior en un 30% si el refrigerador fue fabricado entre 1997 y 2002. Con estos resultados se sustenta de manera mas completa la evaluacion del potencial de ahorro de energia electrica nacional por substitucion de refrigeradores domesticos antiguos por modernos reportado en un trabajo anterior.

  2. Power quality. Analysis of the losses related to the tension and current distortion in the electric network; Calidad de la energia electrica. Analisis de las perdidas relacionadas con la distorsion de la tension y corriente de la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch Sitar, Vladimir [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Facultad de Ingenieria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In recent times every day one speaks more about power quality and about the losses produced by the tension and current distortion. The distortion in the electric network and the consumption tend to keep on increasing, and each day there will be the need of applying more resources to handle it inside a reasonable range. In this article the situation of the power quality is analyzed in the most general case and also simplified for special cases. On base on the distortion coefficients of tension and current a matrix is created where the harmonics coefficients of tension as well as the current appear in an organized form an all of the elements of that matrix are analyzed. Some topological rules are created in order to give the simplest orientation in the complex situation. The article is useful to supervise the power quality in all of the typical cases and establish a base for a more detailed analysis. [Espanol] En los ultimos tiempos cada dia mas se esta hablando sobre la calidad de la energia electrica (Power Quality) y sobre las perdidas provocadas con este factor. La distorsion de la red electrica y del consumo tiene la tendencia de seguir aumentando y cada dia mas habra que dedicar mas recursos para manejarla dentro de un rango razonable. En el articulo presentado se analiza la situacion de la calidad de energia en caso mas general y tambien simplificada para los casos especiales. A base de coeficientes de distorsion, de tension y corriente se crea una Matriz donde figuran tanto los coeficientes de armonicas de tension como de corriente en una forma ordenada y se analizan todos los elementos de esta matriz. Se crean algunas reglas topologicas para dar la orientacion mas simple en la situacion compleja. El articulo sirve para dar supervision a la calidad de energia en todos los casos tipicos y establecer una base para el analisis mas detallado.

  3. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    this is a system of the non-invasive type, it does not interfere with the operation of the electrical circuits. [Spanish] Las companias de electricidad de todo el mundo sufren, en mayor o menor grado, de perdidas de energia electrica. Un gran porcentaje de estas perdidas se debe, principalmente, a apropiaciones indebidas de energia. Los consumidores, mediante practicas ilicitas como tomas clandestinas y alteracion del funcionamiento de los medidores, llevan a cabo el robo de energia. Para tratar de aliviar la problematica de perdidas de energia electrica, en su mayoria por ilicitos, las companias de electricidad han implementado una o mas acciones. Entre las mas importantes estan: Inspeccion visual de las instalaciones de medicion. Su proposito es verificar el estado de las protecciones tradicionales del medidor, como son sellos y anillos de seguridad. Equipos de deteccion. Son registradores de consumo de energia y de fallas en conductores, se utilizan para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo y derivaciones o conexiones ilicitas a la acometida de energia electrica o a la red secundaria de distribucion. Analisis estadistico de consumos. Muchas companias de electricidad han adaptado sus sistemas de procesamiento de lecturas de consumos para detectar desviaciones en los patrones de consumo de los clientes. Esto pudiera corresponder a situaciones anormales. Dado que este pais no es ajeno a la problematica de perdidas de energia, en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas se desarrollo un Sistema de Medicion y Deteccion de Perdidas de Energia Electrica (SIM-IV) como resultado del conocimiento de la problematica obtenido de los proyectos en el area de medicion y de la interaccion a traves de reuniones de trabajo con personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), en el que se aplicaron conceptos y tecnologia avanzada de medicion de variables electricas. El SIM-IV es un sistema orientado a la medicion de consumos y la

  4. Electric energy saving and its impact in the mining industry; El ahorro de energia electrica y su impacto en la industria minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga Dufour, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper are shown the most important results of the energy diagnosis performed in some representative industries of the mining industry, where opportunity areas were detected in electric energy saving, starting from those measures that do not require investment up to the ones that require medium investment, recoverable in less than two years terms as a maximum and with electric energy saving ranging from 10% to 25%. [Espanol] En este trabajo, se presentan los resultados mas importantes, obtenidos en el diagnostico energetico realizado en algunas empresas representativas de la rama de la mineria, en donde se detectaron areas de oportunidad de ahorro de energia electrica que van desde aquellas medidas que no requieren inversiones hasta las que requieren medianas inversiones, recuperables en menos de dos anos como maximo y con ahorros de energia que van desde un 10% hasta un 25%.

  5. Energy saving in buildings through the elimination of typical problems; Ahorro de energia electrica en edificios a traves de la eliminacion de problemas tipicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Rivero, Alex G. [Genertek, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The enormous electric energy consumption in buildings represents an important area of saving opportunities. The design of installations without advanced technical illumination criteria, the absence of standardization over energy efficiency, the lack of observation of the existing standards and guides, the continuous load growth in existing installations and the lack of appropriate maintenance, are some of the causes of the inefficient use of electric energy in buildings. Although the problems, and consequently the solutions, are exclusive for each unit, some of the former are frequently repeated. In this paper the problems found along more than 40 audits conducted in large buildings of different types in Mexico city are commented. [Espanol] El enorme consumo de energia electrica en edificios representa una importante area de oportunidad para ahorro. El diseno de instalaciones sin criterios luminotecnicos avanzados, la ausencia de normalizacion sobre eficiencia energetica, la falta de observancia de las normas y recomendaciones vigentes, el continuo crecimiento de carga en instalaciones existentes y la falta de mantenimiento adecuado son algunas de las causas del uso ineficiente de la energia electrica en inmuebles. Aunque los problemas y por tanto las soluciones son particulares para cada unidad, algunos de los primeros se repiten frecuentemente. En este trabajo se comentan los problemas encontrados a lo largo de mas de 40 auditorias realizadas a inmuebles grandes de diversos tipos en la ciudad de Mexico.

  6. Efficient use of electric power in corporative 3M Mexico; Uso eficiente de la energia electrica en el corporativo 3M Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Perez, Alfredo; Quinones Bonilla, Antonio S. [3M Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico); Bustos Antunez, Jorge I.; Reyes Arce, Manuel [Hines Interests, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    It is not enough to count on with the state of the art technology for the daily operation of a building, the challenge is to be able to make a clear analysis and with attainable goals for the optimization of rational use of the electrical energy in the operation of intelligent buildings without affecting the comfort and productivity for users as well as the functionality and profitability for the owner. This went our base to carry out control strategies that helped the efficient use of the electrical energy, obtaining important savings without neglecting the operative part, of services and human within the property. It is thus, that 3M Mexico wanting to reach these purposes, conducted actions to improve the efficiency of the equipment in the following items: electric network, general lighting, air conditioning system, ventilation and extraction, hydropneumatic system, and sumps operation. [Spanish] No basta contar con la tecnologia de punta para la operacion diaria de un edificio, el reto es ser capaces de realizar un analisis claro y con metas alcanzables para la optimizacion de uso racional de la energia electrica en las operaciones de edificios inteligentes sin afectar el confort y productividad para usuarios asi como la funcionalidad y rentabilidad para el propietario. Esta fue nuestra base para llevar a cabo estrategias de control que ayudaron al uso eficiente de la energia electrica, obteniendo ahorros importantes sin descuidar la parte operativa, de servicios y humana dentro de la propiedad. Es asi, que 3M Mexico queriendo alcanzar dichos propositos, realizo acciones para mejorar la eficiencia de los equipos en los siguientes rubros: red electrica, iluminacion general, sistema de aire acondicionado, ventilacion y extraccion, sistema hidroneumatico, y operacion de carcamos.

  7. Saving of electrical energy in educative institutions; Ahorro de energia electrica en instituciones educativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Medina, Gabino [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Campus Estado de Mexico, (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present work looks for integrating the actions of energy saving that can be applied in educative institutions, not concerning the level or size of the same ones. The actions go from questions of making aware the student population until those involved in the change in the operation, migration and implementation of technology. Without overlooking the formative aspect that the educative institutions have and the social commitment of these last ones. It is important that the saving measures have as mission to achieve a culture focussed to make efficient use of the resources, of energy as well as material. This culture must be born from the classrooms and must transform the way to be and act of the student community that will permeate itself with the society. Let us remember that actions are worth more than words, so the educative institutions must preach with the example. [Spanish] El presente trabajo busca integrar las acciones de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en instituciones educativas, no importando el nivel o tamano de las mismas. Las acciones van desde cuestiones de concienciar a la poblacion estudiantil hasta las que involucran el cambio en la operacion, migracion e implementacion de tecnologia. Sin perder de vista el aspecto formativo que tienen las instituciones educativas y el compromiso social de estas ultimas. Es importante que las medidas de ahorro tengan como mision lograr una cultura enfocada a hacer uso eficiente de los recursos, tanto energeticos como materiales. Dicha cultura debe nacer desde las aulas y debe transformar la manera de ser y actuar, de la comunidad estudiantil que se permeara con la sociedad. Recordemos que las acciones valen mas que las palabras, asi que las instituciones educativas deben predicar con el ejemplo.

  8. Development and implementation of a pilot network for continuous monitoring of electric energy; Desarrollo e implantacion de una red piloto de monitoreo continuo de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Cifuentes, A.; Cortes Eslava, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The ``Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE)`` (University Energy Program) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) through the project ``Ecologic Control of The University Campus`` has the objective of instrumenting policies for the rational use of the electric energy in the UNAM installations. The PUE has performed a series of activities aimed at the establishment of an integral program for the electric energy management in the UNAM. This program has to consider the measures for energy saving (MES) of general kind and to promote a series of specific measures to be adequated and implemented for each one of the departments. The success in establishing a series of MES compels to quantify its effects, to register and to analyze them to be in position of enhancing them, since it must be kept in mind that something that can not be measured can not be improved. For this purpose the PUE is developing a continuous monitoring pilot network of electric energy with local and remote access and an automated metering system. Two monitoring schemes are experimented, one commercial metering equipment and another one with own metering technology. In this paper the characteristics of the proposed monitoring schemes are described. [Espanol] El Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), a traves del proyecto {sup C}ontrol Ecologico del Campus Universitario{sup ,} tiene como objetivo instrumentar politicas de uso racional de la energia en las instalaciones universitarias. El PUE ha realizado una serie de actividades encaminadas a establecer un programa integral de administracion de la energia electrica en la UNAM. El programa mencionado debe considerar medidas de ahorro de energia (MAE) de tipo general y promover una serie de medidas particulares, para ser adecuadas e implantadas por cada una de las dependencias. El exito en el establecimiento de una serie de MAE, obliga a cuantificar sus efectos, registrarse y

  9. The satisfaction of developing a project of electrical energy saving; La satisfaccion de desarrollar un proyecto de ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arreola Suarez, Alejandro [Hotel Club Marival, Nuevo Vallarta, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    The projects for the energy saving in hotels represent a great opportunity to reduce the operation costs in the demand and consumption of electrical energy, since the existing facilities can take advantage of new technologies in illumination, air conditioning, refrigeration and heating. By their constitution, the hotels work the year around uninterruptedly and must provide all type of services to the guests and working personnel, which originates that they consume great amounts of energy in air conditioning, lightning, laundry, etc., since the prestige of the installation depends on it. [Spanish] Los proyectos para el ahorro de energia en hoteles representan una gran oportunidad para reducir costos de operacion en la demanda y consumo de energia electrica, ya que las instalaciones existentes pueden aprovechar nuevas tecnologias en iluminacion, aire acondicionado, refrigeracion y calefaccion. Por su constitucion, los hoteles trabajan ininterrumpidamente todo el ano y deben proporcionar toda clase de servicios a los huespedes y personal que labora, lo cual origina que consuman grandes cantidades de energia en aire acondicionado, iluminacion, lavanderia, etc., pues de ello depende el prestigio de la instalacion.

  10. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  11. Electric power saving potential due to domestic refrigerators replacement; Potencial de ahorro de energia electrica por el reemplazo de refrigeradores domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico)]. E-mail: jose.peralta@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Mexico the second most used electrical appliance is: refrigerator. Owing to its use, it would be a promising option for electric power saving. In Guadalajara, Reynosa and Tampico it was performed a study with the aim of launching a project to replace the old refrigerators with new ones which are more effective and less expensive. Since the refrigerators cost and the electrical invoicing saving, the electric appliance change is profitable. To expect with this replacement more than eight million of refrigerators manufactured before 1997 will be changed. [Spanish] El refrigerador es el segundo electrodomestico mas utilizado a nivel nacional, esto permite que debido a su uso sea una opcion prometedora para el ahorro de energia electrica. Se hizo un estudio en Guadalajara, Reynosa y Tampico con el fin de lanzar un proyecto para sustituir los refrigeradores viejos por unos nuevos que sean mas eficaces y menos costosos. Por el costo de los refrigeradores y el ahorro en la facturacion electrica, el cambio de electrodomestico es rentable, de esta manera se espera que los mas de ocho millones de refrigeradores fabricados antes de 1997 que existen en el pais sean cambiados.

  12. Introduction criteria and concepts on energy saving in the technical standards for electric installations; Introduccion de criterios y conceptos de ahorro de energia en las normas tecnicas para instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon Nader, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    The project Introduction Criteria and Concepts on Energy Saving in the Technical Standards for electric installations, is described, whose immediate objective is to recommend and in some cases regulate the use of energy saving equipment and devices and the adoption of attitudes and procedures that convey into saving, and the rational and efficient use of the electric energy. [Espanol] Se describe el proyecto Introduccion de Criterios y Conceptos de Ahorro de Energia en las Normas Tecnicas para instalaciones electricas, que tiene como objetivo inmediato recomendar, y en algunos casos reglamentar el uso de equipos y dispositivos ahorradores y la adopcion de actitudes y procedimientos que conduzcan a un ahorro y uso racional y eficiente de la energia electrica.

  13. Weather impact on the electric energy consumption of domestic users; Impacto del clima en el consumo de energia electrica en los usuarios domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is said that when an energy saving and efficient use of energy program is implemented it must be a business for three: the user, the society and the electric utility. In respect to the user, his decision making is quite simple: is it cheaper or more expensive for me?. Unfortunately in many cases we want a very short return time or the money needed for the initial investment is not available. For instance, and incandescent bulb is several times less expensive than a compact fluorescent lamp, but if we make the calculation on the life-time and on the power consumption reduction of the compact fluorescent lamp, we can conclude that this one is more economic. The benefit for the society can be seen under many different aspects, being the most important the natural resources conservation and the environment. From the stand point of the utility the heavier possible factors are the postponement of the investments and the system reliability. When some of the programs of the Demand Side Management (DSM) are applied, the utilities support or promote non financially profitable but improve their image before the user, on creating a consciousness in the saving and in the efficient use of energy: a short term investment is made and a long term revenue is obtained. For this reason for an optimum selection and implementation the saving and the efficient use of electric energy measures a detailed knowledge of the consumption way is required. In this paper the importance of monitoring the way the different type of users employ the energy in order to make up decisions on DSM programs in many different scenarios: cities, type of users, income level, etc. is shown. [Espanol] Se dice que cuando se implementa un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia electrica, debe ser negocio para tres: el usuario, la sociedad y la empresa electrica. En lo que respecta al usuario, su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro. Desafortunadamente en muchos de los casos

  14. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  15. Energy losses produced by differential currents in the metallic ducts of electric installations; Perdidas de energia producidas por corrientes diferenciales en la tuberia metalica de instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero L, Eduardo; Bratu S, Neagu; Marquez M, Luis; Caballero R, Rafael [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    In this article it is explained what is known as differential currents and the conditions in which they appear in the electrical installations. A short outline is made on the magnetic induction phenomenon that appears in metallic conduits, due to the circulation of differential currents along the inside of the tube and that in turn produces energy losses in the form of heat, that is dissipated in the tube surrounding environment. The results of the measurements performed in the laboratory are shown in order to quantify the energy losses in the metallic conduit. It was found that for certain conditions these losses are significant. [Espanol] En este articulo se explica lo que se entiende por corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se plantea brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que aparece en las tuberias metalicas, debido a la circulacion de corrientes diferenciales por el interior del tubo y que a su vez produce perdidas de energia en forma de calor, que se disipa en el ambiente que rodea al tubo. Se muestran los resultados de las mediciones que se llevaron a cabo en laboratorio para poder cuantificar las perdidas en tuberia metalica conduit. Se encontro que para ciertas condiciones estas perdidas son significativas.

  16. Electrochemical generation of energy: from the portable electronic devices to industrial plants; Generacion electroquimica de energia electrica: de los dispositivos electronicos portatiles a las plantas industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Varela, Javier [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article proposes the electrical energy generation via electrochemistry as substitute of petroleum and discusses on the development of low and high temperature fuel cells fed by diverse types of fuels: electrolyte fuel cells of polymeric membrane, PEM cells H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, cell of direct alcohol consumption, PEM cells and bio-fuel cells, SOFC cells and bio-fuel cells. It presents its constitution, operation principles, and use plausibility, present situation in the market, advantages and disadvantages, as well as already made cell insertion projects. [Spanish] Este trabajo propone la generacion de energia electrica via electroquimica como sustituto del petroleo y discurre sobre el desarrollo de celdas de combustible de baja y alta temperatura alimentadas por diversos tipos de combustibles: celdas de combustible de electrolito de membrana polimerica, celda PEM H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}, celda de consumo directo de alcohol, celdas PEM y biocombustibles, celdas de combustible de oxido solido y biocombustibles. Expone su constitucion, principios de operacion, plausibilidad de uso, situacion actual en el mercado, ventajas y desventajas, asi como proyectos de insercion de celdas ya realizados.

  17. Electrical energy measurement under free market schemes; Medicion de la energia electrica bajo esquemas de libre mercado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata Garcia, Juan A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Vidrio Lopez, Gilberto; Gomez Lopez, Jose M.; Mijarez Castro, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The energy markets deregulation brings new opportunities and challenges, for the companies of electricity as well as for the consumers. The transaction of electricity in an open market requires of well informed participants to analyze the market conditions, they need to know how much energy is consumed, in what time and in what point of the electrical circuits. The lack of a good measurement system is one of the main barriers that prevent the participants to benefit from the opportunities of an open market. In this article the more representative schemes of measurement of the state of art in schemes of free market are exposed, their technological capacities and technologies behind them. It is also mentioned the measurement facilities, control centers, energy quality and technological tendencies. [Spanish] La desregulacion de los mercados de energia trae nuevas oportunidades y retos, tanto para la companias de electricidad como para los consumidores. La compra-venta de electricidad en un mercado abierto requiere de participantes bien informados para analizar las condiciones del mercado, estos necesitan conocer cuanta energia se consume, en que tiempo y en que lugar de los circuitos electricos. La falta de un buen sistema de medicion es una de las principales barreras que impide a los participantes beneficiarse de las oportunidades de un mercado abierto. En este articulo se exponen los esquemas de medicion mas representativos del estado de la practica en esquemas de libre mercado, sus capacidades y tecnologias detras de ellos. Tambien se habla sobre las instalaciones de medicion centros de control, calidad de energia y tendencias tecnologicas.

  18. The use of reflecting paints on building`s roofs for energy saving; Uso de pinturas reflejantes en los techos de las edificaciones para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Jose Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez Soto, Ramon [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Termoenergia de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper shows the effects of the use of reflecting paints in different colors on the buildings roofs and the results in energy saving obtained in a field test carried on in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon State of Mexico using aluminum paint. [Espanol] El presente trabajo muestra los efectos del uso de pinturas reflejantes de diferentes colores en los techos de edificaciones, y los resultados de ahorro de energia electrica obtenidos en una prueba de campo efectuada en Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, utilizando pintura de aluminio.

  19. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  20. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  1. Measuring the electric energy services for the World Trade Center in Mexico city; Medicion de los servicios de energia electrica del World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Nunez, Humberto; Robledo Vera, Humberto [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In conforming the project of measuring the electric power for the World Trade Center of Mexico City, the use of top technology has been considered that in its field represents the application for the first time in our country the automatic reading of the electric energy meters. In this paper the network for the supply of electric power to the World Trade Center is described as well as the measuring systems of this building and mention is made of the characteristics of the system components and the advantages of remote reading. General data is provided on this collection of buildings, the connections in its tower and a feeding one line diagram of the tower itself [Espanol] En la conformacion del proyecto de medicion de la energia electrica para el edificio World Trade Center de la Ciudad de Mexico, se ha considerado el uso de tecnologia de punta que en su campo representa la aplicacion por primera vez en nuestro pais de la lectura automatica de medidores de energia electrica. En esta ponencia se describen la red de suministro al World Trade Center, los sistemas de medicion de este edificio y se mencionan las caracteristicas de los componentes del sistema y las ventajas de las lecturas remotas. Se proporciona datos generales sobre el conjunto de este edificio, las derivaciones en su torre y un diagrama unifilar de alimentacion de la torre del mismo

  2. Hydraulic speed variators for electrical energy saving; Variadores de velocidad hidraulicos para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (PAESE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This paper shows the characteristics and applications of the hydraulic speed variators, where because of the conditions of the industrial processes it is necessary to vary the operation parameters, obtaining therefore an energy saving besides improving the control of these processes. In addition, the technical and economic evaluation is presented of a project of the Mazatlan Fossil Power Plant, in which it is intended to invest in the installation of a hydraulic speed variator connected to the forced draft fan of unit number three, which operates with an induction motor of 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), with a Voltage of 4,180 V at 1,180 rpm. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra las caracteristicas y aplicaciones de los variadores de velocidad hidraulicos, donde por las condiciones de los procesos industriales sea necesario variar los parametros de operacion, obteniendose asi un ahorro de energia ademas de mejorar el control de dichos procesos. Se presenta ademas la evaluacion tecnica y economica de un proyecto de la Planta Termoelectrica Mazatlan, en donde se pretende invertir en la instalacion de un variador de velocidad hidraulico acoplado al ventilador de tiro forzado de la unidad numero tres, el cual opera con un motor de induccion de 1,865 kW (2,500 H.P.), con un voltaje de 4,180 V y una velocidad de 1,180 rpm.

  3. Energy saving by means of air conditioning equipment replacement and the household application of thermal insulation; Ahorro de energia electrica por reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y aplicacion de aislamiento termico en viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta Solorio, Jose Luis [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de la Energia (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    An extension study of the Financing Program for Energy Saving looked for the evaluation of the electric energy saving potential obtained by the replacement of air conditioning equipment and the application of thermal insulation in 30 houses of two Mexican cities with warmth climate. In a joint effort with Comision Federal de Electricidad the consumption files of the users were analyzed and field measurements of electric demand and of refrigeration were made. As a following step the change of the refrigeration necessities derived from the application of thermal insulation were evaluated as well as the energy efficiency improvement obtained by the substitution of the air conditioning equipment and the favorable results obtained by the implementation of both measures - thermal insulation and change of air conditioning equipment in a joint form. This way, as a conclusion, the optimum sequence of application of these measures is revealed. [Spanish] Un estudio extension del Programa de Financiamiento para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica busco evaluar el potencial de ahorro de energia electrica alcanzado por el reemplazo de equipos de aire acondicionado y la aplicacion de aislamiento termico en 30 viviendas de dos ciudades mexicanas con clima calido. En un esfuerzo conjunto con la Comision Federal de Electricidad se analizaron los historiales de consumo de los usuarios y se efectuaron las mediciones de campo de demanda electrica y de refrigeracion. Como paso siguiente se valoro el cambio en las necesidades de refrigeracion derivado de la aplicacion de aislamiento termico al igual que la mejora en eficiencia energetica obtenida por la sustitucion de aire acondicionado y se identificaron los resultados favorecedores arrojados por la implementacion de ambas medidas -aislamiento termico y cambio de equipo de aire acondicionado- en forma conjunta. De esta manera, como conclusion, se devela la mas optima secuencia de aplicacion de estas medidas.

  4. Energy conservation programs of Pemex exploration and production, south region; Programas de ahorro de energia en Pemex exploracion y produccion, region sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Alarcon Aleman, Jose Mauricio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The technological developments of energy economizing equipment constitute a powerful tool for the conservation and saving of the electric energy in new or existing installations. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploration and Production initiated in 1997 a program for energy economizing in the South region, for which the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, through its Unit for the Use of Energy, collaborated performing energy assessments in 115 buildings of the above mentioned region. This paper describes the employed methodology to carry on the energy assessment, which consisted in an analysis of each building and different options for energy economizing were presented, which was accompanied with cost-benefit studies. The results obtained show that the air conditioning equipment and lighting represent the most important loads permanently connected, therefore the study was concentrated in these two loads [Espanol] Los desarrollos tecnologicos de equipos ahorradores de energia constituyen una poderosa herramienta para la conservacion y el ahorro de energia electrica en instalaciones nuevas o existentes. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) Exploracion y Produccion inicio en 1997 un programa para el ahorro de energia en la region sur, para lo cual el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, a traves de la Unidad de Uso de Energia, colaboro realizando diagnosticos energeticos en 115 edificios de dicha region. En este documento se describe la metodologia utilizada para realizar el diagnostico energetico, el cual consistio en un analisis de cada edificio y se presentaron diversas opciones para ahorrar energia, lo cual se acompano de estudios de costo-beneficio. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los equipos de aire acondicionado e iluminacion representan la parte mas importante de las cargas conectadas permanentemente, por lo que el estudio se concentro en estas dos cargas

  5. End uses of electric energy in homes of a group of dwellings; Usos finales de la energia electrica en hogares de un conjunto habitacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J.; Alarcon Maldonado, E.; Silva Oliver, J.; Ortiz Segura, J.; Vargas Rubio, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    ). El analisis de la informacion permite conocer la capacidad de consumo de energia electrica que tienen las viviendas de la muestra y a hacer inferencias de la capacidad de consumo de la unidad habitacional.

  6. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    integrado (CCGI). El segundo, examina la incorporacion de un reactor shift en el cual el gas de sintesis se transforma en CO{sub 2} y H{sub 2} el cual se usa para mover la turbina a gas, adaptada para hidrogeno puro. Finalmente se estudia la cantidad de otros subproductos que se pueden obtener de estos ciclos de cogeneracion tales como CO{sub 2} para ser usado en recuperacion secundaria de pozos petroleros, N{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria de fertilizantes o en la propia produccion petrolera y H{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria petroquimica o en la generacion con celdas de combustible. Todos los casos son estudiados en forma cuantitativa, realizando los balances de masa y energia de cada uno de ellos. Para darle mas sentido practico a los calculos, se han tomado como base los datos tecnicos de la Central Valladolid de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo proporciona una idea basica, pero muy practica, para estimar el consumo de combustible de los diferentes modos de arreglo de una central CCGI, asi como los volumenes de los diferentes gases que se pueden producir y las modificaciones al tamano de los equipos que se requieren.

  7. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  8. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  9. Towards a distributed electric generation scheme with non-conventional energies; Hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Several factors contributed to the existence of large electric systems as we know them today, such as: the increase of the electric demand by the advancement of the industrial development, the appearance of electric equipment, and household devices and by the advancement in the engineering systems, just to mention a few of them. With all this, the third part of the World population still does not have access to the electricity service. The efforts that the small electric enterprises perform to carry the service up to the site where it is required, every day time becomes more expensive and less effective. Exhausted by the weight of a huge economic debt, many electric utilities of the developing countries find each time more difficult to obtain financing to extend the power lines. This situation becomes still more serious with the present privatization scheme of the electric utilities. Although new technologies are being developed to counteract the negative effects caused by the large electricity generation power plants, the society seems to begin to show preferences for more benign to the environment options. The scheme of distributed generation can be given in to modalities: By means of isolated systems in remote sites, where there is not access to the conventional services; and with systems interconnected with the electric network where this is available [Espanol] Varios factores contribuyeron a la aparicion de los grandes sistemas electricos como los conocemos hoy en dia, tales como: el crecimiento de la demanda electrica por el avance del desarrollo industrial, la aparicion de equipos electricos y aparatos electrodomesticos y por avances en la ingenieria de los sistemas, por mencionar algunos. Con todo ello, la tercera parte de la poblacion mundial no tiene aun acceso al servicio electrico. Los esfuerzos que realizan las companias electricas para llevar el servicio hasta donde se requiere, resultan cada vez mas costosos y menos efectivos. Agobiadas por el peso

  10. Energy saving in the pumping of drinking water, Municipality of San Felipe, Guanajuato; Ahorro de energia electrica en bombeo de agua potable, en el municipio de San Felipe, Gto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz Sanchez, Lorenzo [Applied Technology Center de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    This paper shows the results attained in energy saving through a project of potable water pumping, which took an investment of $433,043.00 and an internal rate of return of 126%. This project puts into evidence that it is possible to reduce between 15 and 30% of the total invoicing for energy consumption in potable water pumping if an equipment of poor efficiency is replaced by another of high efficiency. The project was requested by the Guanajuato's State Water Comision and the Municipal Bureau of Sewage and Potable Water, with the double intention of reducing the energy consumption along with the corresponding invoicing and incrementing the output of the wells in order to improve the potable water supply. In the site two high efficiency submersible motor-pumps were installed previously to the energy diagnosis that triggered profitable operation results and a convenient invoicing. [Spanish] Se documentan los resultados obtenidos en un proyecto de ahorro de energia en el bombeo de agua potable realizado con una inversion de $433,043.00 y con una tasa interna de retorno de 126%. Este proyecto pone en evidencia que es posible reducir entre el 15 y 30% de la facturacion total por consumo de energia electrica en el bombeo de agua potable si se sustituye un equipo poco eficiente por otro de alta eficiencia. El proyecto fue solicitado por la Comision Estatal del Agua de Guanajuato y la Junta Municipal de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado del municipio, con un doble proposito, reducir el consumo de energia junto con la facturacion correspondiente e incrementar la capacidad de produccion de los pozos con la intencion de mejorar el abasto de agua potable. En el lugar se instalaron dos motobombas sumergibles de alta eficiencia previo diagnostico energetico que desencadenaron rentables resultados operativos y de facturacion.

  11. Homogeneous grouping of residential users of electric power in accordance with the variables that affect the consumption; Agrupamientos homogeneos de usuarios residenciales de energia electrica en funcion de las variables que impactan el consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, E.; Romero Cortes, J. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the monthly consumption of electric power and the capacities in watts of the electric household appliances and domestic lighting performed in a sample of users of the residential tariff. To carry out this task, the information obtained in the answers to the inquiry applied to a group of dwellings, was used (the results of the inquiry are presented in another paper of this Seminar). The correlation variables were obtained from the nominal capacities or through the actual measurements of the energy consumption of the electric household appliances similar to the ones found in the visited homes. At the end of this paper the result of the application of the cluster analysis technic to obtain homogeneous groups of users, is presented, so as to be in position of estimating the shape of the hourly demand curve by means of the recording of the demand (watts) of a small sample of users. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta el resultado de correlacion del consumo mensual de energia electrica y las capacidades en watts de los electrodomesticos e iluminacion realizado a una muestra de usuarios de tarifa residencial. Para este trabajo se utilizo la informacion obtenida en las respuestas de una encuesta aplicada en un conjunto habitacional (los resultados de la encuesta se presentan en otro articulo en este Seminario). Las variables de la correlacion se obtuvieron a partir de las especificaciones de capacidades o a traves de mediciones en electrodomesticos similares a los encontrados en los hogares. Al final se presenta el resultado de la aplicacion de la tecnica de formacion de agrupamientos `Cluster Analysis` para obtener grupos homogeneos de usuarios, de forma que se pueda estimar el perfil de demanda electrica mediante el registro de la demanda (watts) de una pequena muestra de usuarios.

  12. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  13. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  14. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R.; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  15. Electric power saving in the drinkable water, sewage and sanitation system, La Piedad; Ahorro de energia electrica en el sistema de agua potable, alcantarillado y saneamiento de La Piedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistema de Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento de la Piedad (Mexico). E-mail: sapaslapiedad@prodigy.net.mx

    2006-04-15

    In Michoacan, Mexico, a project who seeks to benefice the Municipal public resources was crated in 1994. It would be achieved trough the electric power saving in the public lighting system, and drinkable water pumping and black water, since those activities required the budget biggest part. The program could be developed recently and the saving was significant. In addition the electromechanical efficiency increased in the equipment installation. This work is an example for other States to do something similar that can improve their conditions. [Spanish] En el estado de Michoacan, Mexico se creo un proyecto en el ano de 1994, el cual buscaba beneficiar los recursos publicos municipales, a traves del ahorro de la energia electrica en los sistemas de alumbrado publico y bombeo de agua potable y aguas negras, ya que estas actividades son las que requieren la mayor parte del presupuesto. El programa pudo llevarse a cabo en anos recientes y el ahorro fue significativo, ademas de que aumento la eficiencia electromecanica en los equipos que se instalaron, y esta obra ha servido de ejemplo a otros estados para que realicen algo similar que pueda mejorar su situacion.

  16. Renewable energies: A real option for the electrical generation in Mexico?; Energias renovables: opcion real para la generacion electrica en Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The renewable energies offer additional benefits to the kilowatts (kW) and kilowatts-hour (kWh) that they produce, because they include the creation of new jobs, a cleaner mean of generation and power assurance, among others. In view of this, most of the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and several developing nations have established goals for the renewable energies in their power plans. Many of these countries also have fomented the local development of industries of renewable energy and are penetrating aggressively in this new technology market. [Spanish] Las energias renovables ofrecen beneficios adicionales a los kilowatts (kW) y kilowatts-hora (kWh) que producen, pues incluyen la creacion de nuevos empleos, un medio mas limpio de generacion y seguridad energetica, entre otros. En vista de ello, la mayoria de los paises de la Organizacion de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y varias naciones en desarrollo han establecido metas para las energias renovables en sus planes energeticos. Muchos de estos paises tambien han fomentado el desarrollo local de industrias de energia renovable y estan penetrando agresivamente en este nuevo mercado de la tecnologia.

  17. Control voltage of the generator of auto-excited induction for applications on micro/mini generation o electric power; Control de voltaje del generador de induccion auto-excitado para aplicaciones de micro/mini generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Montalvo, Emmanuel

    2006-09-15

    literature, since in this one it is only mentioned that the dynamics of the voltage and frequency change, but it is not shown how. In base of the dynamic behavior of the GIAE a scheme of simple control is proposed to regulate the generator voltage with the minimum of necessary elements, which is translated into a reduced cost, greater reliability and in addition provides a satisfactory voltage regulation. The control strategy is simple but functional, which permits its implementation without major complications. Finally an analysis is realized of the harmonic distortion produced by the proposed control. [Spanish] Aunque solamente una parte de la potencia mini/micro hidraulica ha sido explorada en nuestro pais, este tipo de generacion de energia electrica puede ser considerada como una forma viable de generacion de electricidad, principalmente por lo que respecta a los aspectos ecologicos, economicos y sociales. El impacto que pueden tener estas plantas en las regiones en las que son instaladas es siempre positivo: reduccion de costo de la energia, derrama economica, y principalmente un bienestar social. La energia electrica es uno de los pilares para el desarrollo economico de un pais y proporciona una mejor calidad de vida. En la actualidad la investigacion y la tecnologia orientada a la operacion y control de las micro/mini plantas de generacion ha despertado el interes de muchos investigadores en diversos paises del mundo como China, la India, Canada, USA, por mencionar algunos. El generador de induccion juega un papel crucial en la utilizacion de estas tecnologias. El trabajo de Basset y Potter en 1935, es la piedra angular sobre la posibilidad de generar energia haciendo uso de la maquina de induccion y un banco de capacitores conectado a las terminales de la maquina. Esta configuracion se conoce como generador de induccion auto-excitado (GIAE). Se han realizado diversas investigaciones que tratan sobre el principio de funcionamiento y el comportamiento dinamico de un

  18. Nissan Mexicana. First place in national prize of electrical energy saving 1998; Nissan Mexicana. Primer lugar en premio nacional de ahorro de energia electrica 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez S, Enrique [Nissan Mexicana, S.A. de C.V., Planta Civac, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    For Plant CIVAC of Nissan Mexicana, the energy saving began in the year of 1990. From then, different programs have been developed using different strategies for energy saving until arriving at the Benchmarking with other Plants of Japan, which represents a new challenge, since it opened up an area of opportunity of saving in processes that generally were known in detail as far as to its main function (to make vehicles with quality, cost and opportunity of delivery), but the parameter of energy consumption of by unit and its benefits in relation to the cost was unknown. This was endorsed by the high Direction and began with the optimization of training for the operation of each equipment with the involvement of the user (Production), the engineering area (that establishes the process) and the maintenance area. We designed a general program where the basic activities were included, such as the general and special activities. Each one of them fulfilled its objective, but the special activities took us to the optimization of the processes, finding excess of energy in the design conditions. [Spanish] Para Planta CIVAC de Nissan Mexicana, el ahorro de energia se inicio en el ano de 1990. A partir de entonces se han desarrollado programas de ahorro de energia usando estrategias diferentes hasta llegar al Benchmarking con otras Plantas de Japon, el cual representa un reto nuevo, ya que puso al descubierto una area de oportunidad de ahorro en los procesos que por lo general se conocian a detalle en cuanto a la funcion principal (hacer vehiculos con calidad, costo y oportunidad de entrega), pero se desconocia el parametro de consumo de energia por unidad y sus beneficios en relacion con el costo. Esto fue avalado por la alta Direccion y se inicio con la capacitacion de la optimizacion de la operacion de cada equipo y se involucro al usuario (Produccion), al area de ingenieria (que establece el proceso) y al area de mantenimiento. Elaboramos un programa general donde se

  19. Modeling and control of an electric power generation hybrid system; Modelado y control de un sistema hibrido de generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Guzman, D; Aguilar Mejia, O; Tapia Olvera, R; Santiago Tepantlan, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Huapalcalco, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: omar.aguilar@upt.edu.mx

    2013-03-15

    With growing concerns on energy subject, the development of renewable energy sources is becoming more attractive. This paper presents the output power control of a wind energy conversion system based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The currents from voltage source inverter are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal dqo frame using a decoupled feed-forward control. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory. [Spanish] Con la creciente preocupacion en materia de energia, el desarrollo de fuentes de energia renovables es cada vez mas atractivo. Este trabajo presenta la regulacion de la potencia de salida de un sistema de generacion eolica basado en un generador sincrono de imanes permanentes. Las corrientes de la fuente inversora de voltaje son controladas en un marco de referencia ortogonal dqo usando un compensador por retroalimentacion en adelanto. Las simulaciones realizadas en MATLAB / Simulink, demuestran que los controladores presentan un excelente desempeno en estado transitorio, asi como en estado estacionario.

  20. Energy saving programs and renewable energies in Chihuahua, Mexico; Programas de ahorro de energia y energias renovables en Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra Noris, Jose Luis [Gobierno del Estado de Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The high index of economic and technological growth registered in the border zone of northern Mexico in the last years, has simultaneously caused an annual growth in the electrical energy demand in a percentage higher than 6%. In this document are included the economic and environmental impacts caused by the projects developed in the Chihuahua State on energy efficiency and on the available potential of renewable energies. In order to evaluate the environmental impact that is caused when saving electrical energy in the diverse projects in process, the emission of CO{sub 2} is the only emission taken into account (even though also emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Hg exist) for being this polluting agent the one that contributes in greater amount to the global warming and the greenhouse effect. The emission index of CO{sub 2} that we considered in this presentation is of 600 kg/mwh, on the basis of the type of fuel and volume of generation of the plants in operation of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in the Chihuahua State. [Spanish] El alto indice de crecimiento economico y tecnologico registrado en la zona fronteriza del norte de Mexico en los ultimos anos, ha ocasionado paralelamente un crecimiento en la demanda de energia electrica superior al 6% anual. En este documento se incluyen los impactos economicos y ambientales de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el estado de Chihuahua en eficiencia energetica y en el potencial que se tiene de energias renovables. Para evaluar el impacto ambiental que se obtiene al ahorrar energia electrica en los diversos proyectos en proceso, se toma en cuenta unicamente emisiones de CO{sub 2} (aun cuando tambien existen emisiones de SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} y Hg) por ser este el contaminante que en mayor cantidad afecta al calentamiento global y al efecto invernadero. El indice de emisiones de CO{sub 2} que consideramos en esta presentacion es de 600 kg/mwh, en base al tipo de combustible y volumen de generacion de las

  1. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  2. Technical and economical assessment of the options for energy saving in the library of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco; Evaluacion tecnico economica de opciones para el ahorro de energia en la biblioteca de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu, N.; Campero, E.; Dorantes, R.; Fuentes, V.; Figueroa, A.; Garcia, R.; Zekkour, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents a diagnosis of the electrical energy consumption in the library of the Azcapotzalco Unit of the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, to determine the actions that can be implemented for energy conservation. This without disturbing the lighting and thermal comfort. The analysis showed that, by changing the reflecting surfaces of the lighting lamps, the number of units can be reduced, without lowering the illumination level below the recommended values. The saving was estimated for replacement of the fluorescent lamps for others of metallic halogenides in the areas where the ceiling is high; for the installation of switches to improve the selectivity in turning on and turning off the lamps, achieving this way a better usage of the natural light; for the reduction of the electric load of the air conditioning units which will be obtained in incorporating induced draft shafts; and for an improvement in the electric and ballast installation. For the actions that turned out to be redeemable in three years the assistance of the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE) of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has been available. It is expected that the execution of the modifications will be carried out in the November and December months of 1993, and the results will be evaluated in 1994. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un diagnostico del consumo de energia electrica en la biblioteca de la Unidad Azcapotzalco de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana para determinar las acciones que se pueden llevar a cabo para ahorrar energia electrica. Esto sin deteriorar el confort luminico y termico. El analisis mostro que, cambiando las superficies reflectoras de las luminarias, se puede reducir el numero de lamparas, sin que el nivel de iluminacion quede debajo de los valores recomendados. Se estimaron ahorros: por la sustitucion de las lamparas fluorescentes por otras de halogenuros metalicos en las partes donde el

  3. Potential large scale generation of electricity with wind energy in Mexico; Potencial de generacion electrica en gran escala con energia eolica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldera Munoz, Enrique

    1997-12-31

    The technology of wind-electric stations for the conversion of wind-power into electricity massively generated and interconnected to the National electric systems is nowadays a mature technology. By the end of 1995 the world had an installed capacity in operation of 5,000 MW and what had been planned for year 2000 was to complete an installed capacity in operation 13,800 MW, in accordance with a Riso National Laboratory of Denmark study of 1995. This document describes the current status of this technology in Mexico, as well as the historic evolution of the electric sector [Espanol] La tecnologia de centrales eoloelectricas para la conversion de energia eolica a electricidad, generada masivamente e interconectada a los sistemas electricos nacionales, es en la actualidad una tecnologia madura. A finales de 1995 en el mundo habia una capacidad instalada en operacion de 5,000 MW y lo que se habia planificado para el ano 2000 eran completar en operacion 13,800 MW, segun encuesta realizada por Riso National Laboratory de Dinamarca en 1995. Este documento describe el estado actual de esta tecnologia en Mexico, asi como la evolucion historica del sector electrico

  4. Measurement of electrical energy and typification of end uses in the domestic sector; Medicion de energia electrica y tipificacion de usos finales en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Juarez, Francisco; Maqueda Zamora, Martin Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work the advantages in using modern measuring equipment that allows the segregation of load curves of the domestic users using a single measuring equipment are presented, some samples of the measurements that have been obtained during measurements made to diverse domestic users are presented. Also, some other complementary technologies of recent development are mentioned that help in the application of power efficiency measures in the diverse sectors, the use of these equipment serves as a support for measuring the effectiveness of the programs of of energy saving and of the demand management that are desired to implement. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the use of the modern measuring equipment for the typification and measurement of the end uses in the domestic sector, and to present the advantages of using these equipment in the power efficiency studies. [Spanish] En este trabajo se exponen las ventajas de usar equipos de medicion modernos que permiten la desagregacion de curvas de carga de los usuarios domesticos utilizando un solo equipo de medicion, se presentan algunas muestras de las mediciones que se han obtenido durante mediciones realizadas a diversos usuarios domesticos. Tambien, se mencionan algunas otras tecnologias complementarias de reciente desarrollo que ayudan en la aplicacion de medidas de eficiencia energetica en los diversos sectores, el uso de estos equipos sirve de soporte para medir la efectividad de los programas de ahorro de energia y de administracion de la demanda que se desean implementar. El objetivo de este articulo es demostrar el uso de los equipos de medicion modernos para la tipificacion y medicion de usos finales en el sector domestico, y presentar las ventajas de usar estos equipos en los estudios de eficiencia energetica.

  5. Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the reactive compensation of transmission networks of electrical energy planning; Aplicacion de un algoritmo evolutivo en la planificacion de la compensacion reactiva de redes de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio A.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the present work it is considered the mathematical formulation of the problem of the reactive compensation planning, The solution technique based on evolutionary programming is described and the results of compensation in the Northwest subsystem of the Mexican electrical system are shown. A technique of optimization based on the Evolutionary Programming is proposed to solve the problem of the Planning of the Reactive Compensation in transmission of electrical energy networks. The problem consists in determining how much compensation to add and where to locate it in such a way that the investment cost of the compensation equipment is diminished, plus the operation costs associated to the transmission losses, plus a penalty function associated to the violations of the operative limits of voltage. The compensation that is determined must allow that the network operates in normal conditions before any contingency of a pre-established assembly. The problem considered is non-linear and whole compound. Tests made to a representative system of the Northwest area of the Mexican electrical system of 171 nodes and 284 branches are reported. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea la formulacion matematica del problema de planificacion de la compensacion reactiva, se describe la tecnica de solucion basada en programacion evolutiva y se muestra resultados de compensacion en el subsistema Noroeste del sistema electrico mexicano. Se propone una tecnica de optimizacion basada en la Programacion Evolutiva para resolver el problema de la Planificacion de la Compensacion Reactiva en redes de transmision de energia electrica. El problema consiste en determinar cuanta compensacion agregar y donde ubicarla de tal manera que se minimice el costo de inversion del equipo de compensacion, mas los costos de operacion asociados a las perdidas de transmision, mas una funcion de penalizacion asociada a la violaciones de los limites operativos de voltaje. La compensacion que se determine

  6. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    institutional procedures, the standards, the commercial programs and the programs developed by the Management of Planning, used in the CFE to make the electric distribution systems planning. In the same way, in Chapter 4 a methodology for the optimization of the electrical grids in low tension is proposed, standing out some errors that are commonly committed in the design of these types of networks, doing recommendations to correct them with low cost investments. Because of the importance in the design of medium tension lines, in Chapter 3 the set of economic conductors for 23 kV was determined for urban and rural areas, system type A (3F-4H, 2F-3H, 1F-2H), by means of the Modified Method. With this information we will be able to select the conductor that offers the best economy in the time, in each extension of the network. In Chapter 5 the proposed methodology in the planning of the electrical system of distribution of the Zapotlan Zone was applied, as much in substations as in the high and medium tension network. In this chapter analyses of optimization of the network were performed, capacitor banks application, attention to the incremental demand, power losses, contingencies by fault and reliability of the provision. Finally the obtained conclusions of the investigation and the work carried out are presented; as well as the recommendations for future facilities. [Spanish] Las 13 Divisiones de Distribucion en las cuales la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene estructurada, administrativa y tecnicamente, la distribucion de la energia electrica en su territorio atendido, estan constituida a su vez por un total de 120 Zonas de Distribucion, clasificadas conforme al producto de su numero de clientes, por su volumen de ventas anuales, en media y baja tension, como zonas tipo I, II y III. Ejemplos de zonas tipo III son las Zona Guadalajara y la Zona Metropolitana Monterrey Norte, Oriente y Poniente (metropolis), la tipo II son zonas predominantemente urbanas como Queretaro

  7. ECOEFICIENCIA DE LA PROPUESTA DE GENERAR ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA EN EL FUNDO DE LA UCSM IRRIGACION MAJES PARA SU AUTOABASTECIMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    DESCRIPCION DEL FUNDO CONSUMO DE ENERGÍA ELECTRICA EN EL FUNDO PROPUESTA DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO DIMENSIONAMIENTO DEL SISTEMA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICO INVERSION REQUERIDA METODOLOGIA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA PROVENIENTE DE LA RED EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA AISLADA EMISIONES DE GASES - ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA CON INTERCONEXION A LA RED ANALISIS DE ECOEFICIENCIA EVALUACION DE LA ECOEFICIENCIA - RESULTADOS

  8. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  9. Program integration at JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V./Electric energy saving/Environmental management system /ISO 14001 standard; Integracion de programas en JVC Industrial de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Ahorro de energia electrica/Sistema de administracion ambiental/Estandar ISO 14001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote Molina, Martin [JVC Industrial de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Tijuana (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    It is possible, and besides logic, the integration of programs such as the electric energy saving and an environmental management system. In managing the consumption and the demand of the electric service, there is an effect on the pollutants emitted for the generation. It is clear that the user in not, and can not be, responsible for the type of fuel used but its importance in project planning is out of question. In its turn the central point of the environmental management system, consists in identifying the main effects on the environment caused by its activities, services and products, as well as the current or potential control level of the enterprise on them. Such identification and further evaluation took us at JVC Industrial de Mexico, to integrate conceptually and operationally such programs. The commitment with the Management was concentrated and strengthened resulting in a fuller consciousness of resource administration. [Espanol] Es posible, ademas de logica, la integracion de programas tales como el ahorro de energia electrica y un sistema de administracion ambiental. Al administrar el consumo y la demanda del servicio electrico tenemos un efecto en los contaminantes emitidos para la generacion. Es claro que el usuario no es, ni puede ser, responsable del tipo de combustible utilizado pero su importancia en la planeacion de proyectos es indiscutible. A su vez el punto central del sistema de administracion ambiental, consiste en identificar los principales efectos en el medio ambiente causados por sus actividades, servicios o productos, asi como el nivel de control actual o potencial de la empresa sobre ellos. Dicha identificacion y la posterior evaluacion nos llevo, en JVC Industrial de Mexico, a integrar tanto conceptual como operacionalmente dichos programas. El compromiso de la Gerencia se vio concentrado y fortalecido dando como resultado una conciencia mas plena de la administracion de recursos.

  10. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  11. Improvement in using steam for electric generation at the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Mejora en el aprovechamiento del vapor para generar energia electrica en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Rodriguez, Marco A.; Flores Armenta, Magaly; Mendoza Covarrubias, Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: magaly.flores@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    eficiente el aprovechamiento del recurso geotermico, que consiste en la sustitucion de esas siete unidades a contrapresion, que ademas de su consumo especifico elevado ya han cumplido o estan proximas a cumplir sus periodos de vida util, por dos nuevas unidades a condensacion, de menor consumo especifico: una de 50 MW, ubicada en la zona norte, y otra de 25 MW en la zona sur, sin necesidad de perforar nuevos pozos para empezar su operacion. De esta manera el consumo especifico se reduciria a entre 8.8 y 7.2 t/h por MW (un ahorro del 47%), incrementando los ingresos por generacion de energia sin requerir aumentos en la extraccion de masa del yacimiento.

  12. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  13. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  14. Proceedings of the 24. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services and 7. Binational seminar on energy saving [Selected Papers]; 24. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios y 7. Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document contains the technical briefings of the 24. National Seminar on the rational use of energy, and exhibition of the equipment and services and the 7. Binational seminar on energy saving, organized by the Asociacion de Profesionistas y Tecnicos en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, from November 9 to 11, 2005. This seminar dealt with subjects such as: electrical energy saving, energy distribution, solar energy, energy saving in compressed air, biomass, administration and control of the demand of the electrical energy, bioclimatic architecture, use of the compressed natural gas, renewable energy, co-generation, qualification and consultancy for the intelligent use of the energy in PyMES. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 24 Seminario Nacional sobre el uso racional de energia, y exposicion de los equipos y servicios y el 7 Seminario binacional de ahorro de energia, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, del 9 al 11 de noviembre del 2005. Este seminario trato temas tales como: ahorro de energia electrica, distribucion de la energia, energia solar, ahorro de energia en aire comprimido, biomasa, administracion y control de la demanda de la energia electrica, arquitectura bioclimatica, uso del gas natural comprimido, energia renovable, cogeneracion, capacitacion y consultoria para el uso inteligente de la energia en las Pymes.

  15. Technological tendencies and their relation with energy markets; Tendencias tecnologicas y su relacion con mercados de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Castro, Salvador [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article some associate technological tendencies with areas of interest of the Control Systems Division of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are presented. Here the relations or influence that these tendencies have and will continue having in the future with the definition and implantation of energy markets are mentioned. [Spanish] En este articulo se presentan algunas tendencias tecnologicas asociadas con areas de interes de la Division de Sistemas de Control del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Aqui se mencionan las relaciones o influencia que dichas tendencias tienen y continuaran teniendo en el futuro con la definicion e implantacion de mercados de energia.

  16. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  17. Methodology for the prediction and solution of the harmonic distortion in the distribution power lines; Metodologia para la prediccion y solucion de la distorsion armonica en las redes electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1994-03-01

    The harmonic distortion in the distribution electric systems, caused by the increment in the utilization of power electronics, presents a growing problem for the power supply enterprises, as well as for their users. The distortion of the voltage wave shape in the distribution electric systems can produce additional heating in transformers, damage in motors, faults in capacitor banks, frequent fuse capacitors banks operation and inadequate operation of controllers and protecting schemes. This paper presents a general overview on the harmonics problem in distribution systems. The sources of harmonic currents, their effects in the electric system and the methodology implemented in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for their detection, measurement and control, are described. [Espanol] La distorsion armonica en los sistemas electricos de distribucion, ocasionada por el incremento en la utilizacion de la electronica de potencia, presenta un problema creciente tanto para las empresas suministradoras de energia electrica como para sus usuarios. La distorsion de la forma de onda del voltaje en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica puede producir calentamiento adicional en transformadores, dano en motores, fallas en bancos de capacitores, operacion frecuente de fusibles de bancos de capacitores y operacion inadecuada de controladores y esquemas de proteccion. En este trabajo se presenta un panorama general sobre el problema de armonicas en redes de distribucion. Se describen las fuentes de corrientes armonicas, sus efectos en el sistema electrico y la metodologia implantada en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para detectarlas, medirlas y controlarlas.

  18. Seismic damage in the electrical substations of the Colima state; Dano sismico en las subestaciones electricas del estado de Colima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena H, Ulises; Lopez L, Alberto; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    On the 21 of January of 2003, at 20:06:36 hrs (Mexico center time) an earthquake occurred at the Pacific coast with a magnitude of 7.6 degrees in the Richter scale, whose epicenter was located near the state of Colima and it was felt in a large extent of the Mexican Republic. The earthquake caused numerous material damages in the structures (houses, churches, offices, etc) and vital lines, mainly in the infrastructure of the electrical sector of the region, leaving without electrical energy a large part of the nearby populations and some colonies of distant zones such as in Mexico City. The cause of the interruption of the electrical energy was due to the collapse of some of the equipment of 400 and 230 KV of the electrical transmission substations, among which are Manzanillo II and Colima II. With the experience acquired in the earthquake of October 9, 1995 in Manzanillo, in which also the facilities and equipment of the electrical substations were affected considerably, and as a part of the infrastructure project on the analysis of seismic risk of vital lines that is being developed at this moment at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), it was decided to inspect the electrical substations of the zone, where the greater damages in the facilities and equipment were reported, to analyze and to determine the main causes of their failure. [Spanish] El 21 de enero de 2003, a las 20:06:36 hrs (hora del centro de Mexico) ocurrio un sismo en la costa del Pacifico con una magnitud de 7.6 grados en escala Richter, cuyo epicentro se localizo cerca del estado de Colima y se percibio en gran parte de la republica mexicana. El sismo causo cuantiosos danos materiales en las estructuras (viviendas, iglesias, oficinas, etc) y lineas vitales, principalmente en la infraestructura del sector electrico de la region, dejando sin energia electrica a gran parte de las poblaciones cercanas y algunas colonias de zonas lejanas como es la ciudad de Mexico. La causa del corte de

  19. Interconnection of industrial centers with the electric network of the public service; Interconexion de centros industriales con la red electrica del servicio publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sedano, Inocente; Lopez Velazquez, Juan Jose; Garcia Paredes, Job; Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Alvarez, David; Guzman Camacho, Benigno [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The large industrial centers that have continuous production processes and consume high amounts of electrical energy, generally have their own power generation. The petrochemical complexes, the paper and steel factories and the sugar mills are examples of this type of centers. On the other hand, the new regulation for the generation of electrical energy that allows to the electrical energy interchange between private companies and the public network, has originated the necessity of connecting systems that formerly operated isolated. Since the original design of the isolated electrical systems was to operate in an independent form, making the interconnection can generate technical problems that must be analyzed and solved. In this paper, some experiences related with the behavior of electrical equipment when connected to operate with the public network, are presented. [Spanish] Los grandes centros industriales que tienen procesos de produccion continua y consumen altas cantidades de energia electrica, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Los complejos petroquimicos, las fabricas de papel y acero y los ingenios azucareros son ejemplos de este tipo de centros. Por otro lado, la nueva reglamentacion de generacion de energia electrica que permite el intercambio de energia electrica entre las companias privadas y la red publica, ha originado la necesidad de conectar sistemas que antes operaban aislados. Debido a que el diseno original de los sistemas electricos aislados fue trabajar en forma independiente, el realizar la interconexion puede generar problemas tecnicos que tienen que analizarse y resolverse. En este articulo, se presentan algunas experiencias relacionadas con el comportamiento del equipo electrico al operar conectado con la red publica.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of the main factors that influence the growing of the electrical power consumption in the national electrical sector, period 2000-2005; Analisis y evaluacion de los principales factores que influyen en el crecimiento del consumo de energia electrica en el sector electrico nacional, periodo 2000-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Luna, Luis Miguel

    2008-06-15

    de potencia (CUFP). Ademas, se desarrolla en esta tesis las ecuaciones utilizadas en el Jacobiano del metodo Newton-Raphson, para resolver flujos de potencia incluyendo los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Se muestra diferentes aplicaciones que se tienen al instalar un dispositivo, tales como prevencion de flujos en anillo, barrera electronica, incremento en la capacidad de transmision y especificacion del flujo de potencia en lineas de transmision. Por otra parte, se desarrolla en la tesis un analisis de sensibilidades de un sistema de potencia en estado estacionario. Tambien se proponen en la tesis los parametros de control para los cuales se calcula las sensibilidades. Asimismo, se utiliza un indice de desempeno para medir el grado de congestion de un sistema electrico. Al calcular las sensibilidades se utiliza los resultados obtenidos de los flujos de potencia. Se usa 4 redes electricas para encontrar donde se debe situar cada dispositivo SIFLETCA para reducir la congestion en el sistema. Tambien, se compara el metodo desarrollado en la tesis con un metodo de sensibilidades que emplea flujos de CD para validacion y mostrar las ventajas de usar el metodo Newton en flujos de potencia.

  1. Energy management system. Opti-dmaX Control; Sistema de administracion de energia. Control Opti-dmaX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The electrical energy is an essential element in the activities of the present world. Optimizing its consumption represents a competitive advantage for the companies, since the operation costs would be reduced as well as the negative impact to the environment. In billing the electrical energy the tariffs consider: the consumption, the demand, the power and the schedule of use for the medium and large companies. With the Opti-dmaX system the necessary information for the correct administration of the electrical energy consumption is obtained from the measurement in the strategic points of the installation. At the same time, the processes and services are controlled, maintaining an efficient power operation that diminishes operative costs. [Spanish] La energia electrica es un elemento indispensable en las actividades del mundo actual, y optimizar su consumo, representa una ventaja competitiva para las empresas, ya que se consigue reducir los costos de operacion y el impacto al ambiente. En la facturacion de la energia electrica las tarifas consideran: el consumo, la demanda, la potencia y el horario de uso para las medianas y grandes empresas. Con el sistema Opti-dmaX se obtiene la informacion necesaria para la correcta administracion del consumo de energia electrica a partir de la medicion en los puntos estrategicos de la instalacion. A su vez, se controlan los procesos y servicios, manteniendo una operacion energetica eficiente que minimiza los costos operativos.

  2. Energy saving in the management of the BIMBO group distribution fleet; Ahorro de energia en la operacion de la flotilla de distribucion del grupo BIMBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIMBO Mexico

    2005-07-01

    In this work BIMBO demonstrates that in order to save energy it is necessary to invest in equipment, parts, research and people. This is why they got involved in the task of developing the projects of fuel cells participating with universities, associations, Secretaria de Energia, Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia (National Commission for Energy Saving) (CONAE) and the National Council for Science and Tecnologia (CONACYT), through financial supports with projects of mechanisms of clean development (Kyoto Protocol). For doing it they had to prove different types of fuels: biodiesel, hydrogen, alcohol and hybrids; for them to determine the most profitable and practical thus reducing the energy consumption. With the saving of fuels and lubricants in our vehicles, a greater yield in the company is obtained. [Spanish] En este trabajo BIMBO demuestra que para ahorrar energia hay que invertir en equipo, partes, investigacion y gente. Es por eso que se dieron a la tarea de desarrollar los proyectos de celdas de combustible, participando con universidades, asociaciones, la Secretaria de Energia, la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) y el Consejo Nacional para la Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), a traves de apoyos financieros con proyectos de mecanismos de desarrollo limpio (protocolo de Kyoto). Para ello tuvieron que probar diferentes tipos de combustibles: biodiesel, hidrogeno, alcohol e hibridos, para determinar los mas rentables y practicos y asi reducir el consumo de energia; con el ahorro de combustibles y lubricantes en nuestros vehiculos, logrando una mayor rentabilidad en la empresa.

  3. Strategies for energy saving in warm climate dwellings; Estrategias de ahorro de energia para viviendas en clima calido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia -CONAE (Mexico); Morillon, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Oskam, A. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The domestic sector consumes almost one quarter of the national electrical energy. In order to reduce in an important manner the power consumption in dwellings there is an integral alternative based on three elements: the bio-climatic design, the saving and efficient use of the energy in equipment and apparatuses, and the use of centralized air conditioning systems. Besides saving the electrical and thermal power consumption, with this scheme, comfort conditions are pretended to be reached in dwellings and, contributing at the same time, to the diminution of polluting emissions. [Spanish] El sector domestico consume casi una cuarta parte de la energia electrica nacional. Con objeto de reducir de manera importante el consumo de energia en las viviendas, se presenta una alternativa integral, basada en tres elementos: el diseno bioclimatico, el ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en equipos y aparatos, y la utilizacion de sistemas de climatizacion centralizados. Ademas del ahorro en el consumo de energia electrica y termica, con este esquema se pretende alcanzar condiciones de confort en las viviendas y, al mismo tiempo, contribuir a la disminucion de emisiones contaminantes.

  4. Renewable energies in the national power supply; Energias renovables en la oferta energetica nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Mexico is a country endowed with abundant power resources. By the magnitude of its reserves and the installed production capacity. This article presents the different nonconventional energy resources which Mexico has, with the purpose of using them for the generation of electric energy. [Spanish] Mexico es un pais dotado de abundantes recursos energeticos. Por la magnitud de sus reservas y por la capacidad instalada de produccion. Este articulo presenta los diferentes recursos energeticos no convencionales con los que cuenta Mexico, con el fin de utilizarlos para la generacion de energia electrica.

  5. Estimated losses of energy in a power system using a semi-statistical methodology; Estimacion de perdidas de energia en un sistema electrico de potencia mediante una metodologia semi-estadistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Martinez, D [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: david_2mtz@hotmail.com; Martinez Lendech, J.F [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores del Oriente del Estado de Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: mrtzlendech@hotmail.com; Garcia Herrera, C; Olvera Ricano, J.G. [Centro Universitario UAEM, Valle de Teotihuacan (Mexico)]. E-mails: cozobi_garcia@yahoo.com.mx; jgolverar@uaemex.mx

    2013-03-15

    Determination of electrical losses is one of the most important tasks for any enterprise dedicated to generation, transmission, transformation and/or distribution of electric energy. Any enterprise dedicated to these activities does continuously energy balances in order to estimate whole electrical losses of specific processes. However, it is necessary to classify the whole electrical losses into technical and non-technical losses. This paper presents a proposal for estimating technical and non-technical losses in an electrical power system. [Spanish] La determinacion de las perdidas de energia electrica es una de las labores mas importantes en cualquier empresa dedicada a la generacion, transmision, transformacion y/o distribucion de energia electrica. Es indudable que toda empresa dedicada a cualquiera de las actividades mencionadas anteriormente realiza periodicamente balances de energia que permiten estimar el valor de las perdidas totales de energia del proceso considerado. No obstante, para poder realizar un mejor analisis de la problematica de las perdidas de energia, es necesario separar el valor total de perdidas obtenido mediante un balance de energia, en perdidas tecnicas y perdidas no tecnicas. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta para la estimacion de perdidas tecnicas y no tecnicas en un sistema electrico de potencia.

  6. The Mexican electric industry under an opening triangle; La industria electrica mexicana bajo un triangulo de apertura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Guevara, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document analyzes the electric industry in Mexico in its opening phase, which must be qualified as a strategic activity within the present and future becoming of the Mexican economy. The Mexican electric sector was framed within the National Project born out in the country`s Politic Constitution; where the State economic intervention is driven and induced, with its exclusive duty in strategic activities through public enterprises created for that purpose and as a support of Mexico`s economic and social welfare. Within the opening it should be pointed out the participation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Energy Program, the Development Program and Restructure of the Energy Sector 1995-2000 [Espanol] En el presente documento se analiza la industria electrica en Mexico en su fase de apertura, la cual debe calificarse como una actividad estrategica dentro del devenir presente y futuro de la economia mexicana. El sector electrico mexicano se enmarco dentro del Proyecto Nacional que nace en la Constitucion Politica del pais; donde se impulsa e induce la intervencion economica del Estado, con su quehacer exclusivo en actividades estrategicas, por medio de empresas publicas creadas para tal fin y en apoyo del bienestar economico y social de Mexico. Dentro de la apertura hay que senalar la participacion que tiene el Tratado de Libre Comercio, el Programa de Energia y el Programa de Desarrollo y Reestructuracion del Sector Energia 1995-2000

  7. The rebranding of Electrica Soluziona SA - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica GOMOESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to present the design and implementation stages of a rebranding campaign that took place in the Electrica Soluziona SA company. The rebranding targets a company that provides consultancy services and software solutions and that underwent a change of its main shareholders structure, as it was taken over by Indra Group. After being taken over by Indra, Electrica Soluziona has considerably enlarged its product portfolio and the market segments targeted. Thus, it was mandatory to define a complex rebranding campaign. The rebranding process was not determined only by the broadening of activity, but also by the change of visual identity elements, along with the desire of repositioning.

  8. The PBMR electric power generation plant; La planta de generacion de energia electrica PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C. [FI-UNAM, 04500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: gabriela_perez@engineer.com

    2003-07-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  9. Electric power and environment in Mexico; Energia electrica y medio ambiente en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla, J. [ed.] [UNAM IIE-PUE, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This volume is one of the three resulting volumes about the project named Document analysis and prospective organized by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) through it University Energy Program (PUE). It is a non-periodical publication collection of the variable content and extent that as a whole constitutes an information heritage and an original contribution about the energy problematic as International level as at the country context and the University activities. In this book the manners of producing electrical energy are discussed, so how satisfying the growing necessities of this energy in Mexico without contaminating environment and how doing rational and efficient use of energy. The content of each document of this book is however exclusive responsibility of authors, as in the information as in their told opinions. The following papers were presented: 1) Hydroelectricity, soils use and water management. 2) The electric generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future. 3) The nucleo electricity and the radioactive materials management. 4) Exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with leukemia in children. 5) The electric power in Mexico and the supportable development. 6) Potential of electric generation at great scale with eolic energy in Mexico. 7) Toward an electric generation scheme distributed with non-conventional energies. 8) Renewable sources of energy in Mexico at the Century 21. (Author)

  10. Electrical energy: what is in game; Energia electrica: lo que esta en juego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda Robredo, R.

    2004-07-01

    In the occasion of the inauguration of the Academic Course in the Spanish Club of the Energy, the Endesa president made these reflections on the main factors that actually affect the development of the electrical energy.

  11. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas fluidized bed combustor; El combustor de lecho fluidizado del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milan Foressi, Julio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most important aspects of the combustion technology in fluidized bed, the experimental combustor developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described, as well as the test results of the experiences carried out with coal from Rio Escondido, Coahuila. [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas importantes de la tecnologia de combustion en lecho fluidizado, se describe el combustor experimental desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como los resultados de las experiencias realizadas con carbon proveniente de Rio Escondido, Coahuila.

  12. Scenarios simulation for the conservation and efficient use of energy, using passive control measures; Simulacion de escenarios de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia, utilizando medidas de control pasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, G.; Heard, Ch.; Sanchez Viveros, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas,Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Every one involved with the conservation and efficient use of electric energy, has listened in reiterative occasions to the causes that changed the conventional mentality at the beginning of the seventies. Nevertheless, there are many persons that still ignore that by using the energy rationally, their costs are significantly reduced, their comfort is enhanced and the environmental problems are minimized. Specifically, in the domestic sector, from the figures reported by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in 1996, the electric energy sold was 28,410 Gwh, that is, 23.4% of the total consumption (121,579 Gwh). Table 1 presents the average by tariff in the national domestic sector, which shows that 20% of the electricity consumed was required for environmental conditioning (air conditioning, evaporative coolers and electric fans). The above figures quantitatively show that there is a strong impact in the consumption of electric energy due to weather conditions. For this reason, currently the Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) and the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) are promoting standards and projects to propitiate the rationalization in the use of energy, besides of achieving the improvement of thermal comfort conditions. One more case would be the Fideicomiso para el Aislamiento Termico de la Vivienda en Mexicali (FIPATERM), which promotes the financing of saving measures and efficient energy use in cities with extreme climate. This paper describes the strategy that was followed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the development of the human and material infrastructure, that has allowed the sustainment of several projects in the saving and efficient use of energy in CFE, CONAE, FIDE, FIPATERM and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), concretely in relationship with the thermal analysis of dwellings. [Espanol] Todos aquellos relacionados con el ahorro y el uso eficiente de la energia electrica, han

  13. Wind power prognosis statistical system; Sistema estadistico de pronostico de la energia eoloelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Garcia, Alfredo; De la Torre Vega, Eli [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The integration of the first Aeolian farm of large scale (La Venta II) to the National Interconnected System requires taking into account the random and discontinuous nature of the Aeolian energy. An important tool, for this task, is a system for the prognosis of the Aeolian energy in the short term. For this reason, the Instituto of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) developed a statistical model to realize this prognosis. The prediction is done through an adaptable linear combination of alternative competing models, where the weights given to each model are based on its more recent prognosis quality. Also, the application results of the prognoses system are presented and analyzed. [Spanish] La integracion de la primera grana eolica de gran escala (La Venta II) al Sistema Interconectado Nacional requiere tomar en cuenta la naturaleza aleatoria y discontinua de la energia eolica. Una importante herramienta, para esta tarea, es un sistema para el pronostico de la energia eolica a corto plazo. Por ello, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) desarrollo un modelo estadistico para realizar este pronostico. La prediccion es hecha a traves de una combinacion lineal adaptable de modelos competidores alternativos, donde los pesos dados a cada modelo estan basados en su mas reciente calidad de pronostico. Tambien se presentan y analizan los resultados de la aplicacion del sistema de pronosticos.

  14. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. Second Part: Technologies for the advantage of the solar energy (Annexe 6-II in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Segunda Parte: Tecnologias para el aprovechamiento de la energia solar (Anexo 6-II en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Usually one distinguishes two main types of systems of advantage of the solar energy: the photovoltaic and the photo thermal ones. The first ones are those based on the photovoltaic effect, which allows the direct conversion of the energy of the solar radiation in electrical energy. The second ones transform the solar energy into heat, which can be used in a large variety of processes. By the degree of development of both technologies it is advisable to present them in different sections. Also, there is a great variety of technologies of photo thermal systems that we have classified as technologies for the termosolar generation of electrical power, whose temperatures of operation are high, technologies the solar heating at low temperatures and technologies for industrial heat process. [Spanish] Se suele distinguir dos tipos principales de sistemas de aprovechamiento de la energia solar: los fotovoltaicos y los fototermicos. Los primeros son aquellos basados en el efecto fotovoltaico, que permite la conversion directa de la energia de la radiacion solar en energia electrica. Los segundos transforman la energia solar en calor, el cual puede ser utilizado en una gran variedad de procesos. Por el grado de desarrollo de ambas tecnologias es conveniente presentarlas en secciones diferentes. Asi mismo, existe una gran variedad de tecnologias de sistemas fototermicos que hemos clasificado en tecnologias para la generacion termosolar de potencia electrica, cuyas temperaturas de operacion son altas, tecnologias para el calentamiento solar a bajas temperaturas y tecnologias para calor de proceso industrial.

  15. Analytical study of the prospectives published by the Secretaria de Energia; Estudio analitico de las prospectivas publicadas por la Secretaria de Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Since 1997 the Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publishes an annual report named Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, in which detailed information on the situation of the Mexican electrical sector is included, the information is related to the technological, economic and environmental aspects of all the organisms involved in the matter of electrical energy, within which stand out the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) and the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). In the prospectives the tendency of the modifications that will undergo the sector in a period of 10 years is analyzed. All the prospectives of the electrical sector, agree in that the growth of this sector is determined by the construction of power stations that use natural gas as primary energy, reason why we made an analysis of the prospectives of the natural gas market, with the purpose of observing the interaction between both sectors. At the moment seven prospectives of each sector have been published, given the conditions at the moment of their publication, they present differences and agreements between each other for periods of intersection. The present work shows the comparison between the expectations of growth reported by each one of the Prospectives. [Spanish] Desde 1997 la Secretaria de Energia (SENER) publica un reporte anual llamado Prospectiva del Sector Electrico, en el que se incluye informacion detallada sobre la situacion del sector electrico mexicano, la informacion esta relacionada con los aspectos tecnologicos, economicos y medioambientales de todos los organismos involucrados en materia de energia electrica, dentro de los cuales destacan la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) y la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE). En las prospectivas se analiza la tendencia de las modificaciones que sufrira el sector

  16. Mis on Roheline Energia? / Kadi Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Kadi, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Tuule- ja vee-energia kasutamisest Rohelise Energia osalussüsteemiga liitunud kuues Hiiumaa ettevõttes ning Kärdla linnavalitsuses. Kommenteerivad Toomas Jõõts, Ari Hannula ja Ants Vahtras. Lisa: Rohelise energia ostjad Hiiumaal praegu

  17. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment for the waste water from the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas installations; Tratamiento anaerobio-aerobio de las aguas residuales de las instalaciones del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The waste water treatment plant of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is analyzed. This plant originally was a plant of the activated sludge type (aerobic development), process that consumes large amounts of energy and that produces residual sludge 5 or 6 times greater than the anaerobic processes. The methodology and the techniques utilized were base in the analysis of the existing plant introducing an anaerobic treatment and performing laboratory experimentation. The plant design parameters considered are described. The results show the benefits of treating by anaerobic means the waste waters since depuration are obtained on the order of 75%, as well as the reduction of resulting residual sludge and in energy consumption. A reduction of 60% to 70% can be attained if a combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes is utilized [Espanol] Se analiza la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta planta era originalmente una planta de lodos activados (desarrollo aerobio), proceso que consume mucha energia y genera lodos residuales de 5 a 6 veces mas que los procesos anaerobios. La metodologia y las tecnicas utilizadas se basaron en el analisis de la planta de tratamiento existente en el IIE; en la caracterizacion residual del IIE; en la modificacion de la planta de tratamiento introduciendo un tratamiento anaerobio y efectuando experimentacion en laboratorio. Se describen los parametros de diseno de la planta considerados. Los resultados muestran los beneficios de tratar por medios anaerobios las aguas residuales ya que se obtienen depuraciones del orden del 75%, asi como la reduccion de lodos residuales resultantes y el consumo de energia, pueden reducirse de un 60% a un 70% si se utiliza la combinacion de los procesos anaerobios y aerobios

  18. Projeto de pesquisa Energia Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Barbosa Fiori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Esse  projeto tem como intuito mostrar como pode se útil a utilização da energia nuclear para o abastecimento elétrico de uma escola. Mostrando que a energia nuclear é sim uma fonte viável de produção de energia “[...] meio quilo de urânio, do tamanho da ponta do meu dedo se você conseguir liberar toda a energia equivale a 5.000 barris de petróleo”.

  19. UNESA annual statistical report 1995; Memoria estadistica electrica UNESA 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1995 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production, demand and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1995 are presented.

  20. Annual statistical report UNESA 1994; Memoria Estadistica Electrica UNESA 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    UNESA (Unidad Electrica, S.A.) comprises 14 Spanish electric utilities. This review summarises activities and achievements during the year. It presents statistics for the years 1988 to 1994 on the national economy and the finances of the electricity sector; operating capacity and transmission and distribution lines; and electricity production and consumption. Financial statements of the electricity industry as of 31 December 1994 are presented. The report is also available in English.

  1. Prospective of the solar thermal technologies through concentration for the generation of electrical energy (Annexe 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de las tecnologias termosolares a concentracion para la generacion de potencia electrica (Anexo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this document are presented the technical-economical the present state of the technologies with electricity generation purposes at worldwide level and the technological prospective for the next years. At present it is estimated that in most of the power scenarios at worldwide level the situation will continue with a strong dependency in fossil fuels. The future dynamics of the energy procurement will depend on diverse factors such as energy efficiency, the international norms and regulations derived of the environmental impact and prices of the primary energy sources. The countries of the first world are developing new technologies of compatible character with the environment, with self-consumption intentions and with the vision of establishing new markets of export towards developing countries. In this context, several countries have established R y D programs for the generation of electricity through solar systems using the thermodynamic conversion. [Spanish] En este documento se presenta el estado actual tecnico-economico de las tecnologias con propositos de generacion de electricidad a nivel mundial y la prospectiva tecnologica para los proximos anos. En la actualidad se estima que en la mayoria de los escenarios energeticos a nivel mundial la situacion continuara con una fuerte dependencia de los combustibles fosiles. La dinamica futura del suministro de energia dependera de diversos factores como la eficiencia energetica, las normas y regulaciones derivadas del impacto ambiental y los precios internacionales de los energeticos. Los paises del primer mundo estan desarrollando nuevas tecnologias de caracter compatible con el medio ambiente, con propositos de autoconsumo y con la vision de establecer nuevos mercados de exportacion hacia paises en desarrollo. En este contexto, varios paises han establecido programas de Investigacion y Desarrollo para la generacion de electricidad a traves de sistemas solares utilizando la conversion termodinamica.

  2. Eesti Energia unustas Toomas Lumani andmed / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia jurist Heili Raudkivi palus rahandusministeeriumilt infot, mis tähtajaks on rahandusminister nimetanud Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmeks Toomas Lumani. Eesti Energia pressiesindaja selgitus

  3. Asymptotic energies and sustainable electrical development; Energias asintoticas y desarrollo electrico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez O, Carlos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A review is made of the energy resources in use existing at the moment for the electricity production (hydraulic, coal, oil, gas and uranium). The asymptotic energies (solar, geothermal and nuclear fission and fusion) are described and the state of development in which they are up to the moment. One concludes that in the case of Mexico it would be convenient to make flexible and to reinforce the electrical systems in forecast of a greater participation of the distributed generation and to orient the extensions of the electrical generation to make a greater use of the three asymptotic energies already used: the solar (in its forms hydraulic and wind power), geothermal and the nuclear fission. [Spanish] Se pasa revista a los recursos existentes en las energias actualmente en uso para la produccion de electricidad (hidraulica, carbon, petroleo, gas y uranio). Se describen las energias asintoticas (solar, geotermia y fision y fusion nucleares) y el estado de desarrollo en que se encuentran hasta el momento. Se concluye que en el caso de Mexico convendria flexibilizar y reforzar el sistema electrico en prevision de una mayor participacion de la generacion distribuida y orientar las ampliaciones de la generacion electrica para hacer un mayor uso de tres de las energias asintoticas ya utilizadas: la solar (en sus formas hidraulica y eolica), la geotermia y la fision nuclear.

  4. Application of unimodal optic fiber to communications among electric substations; Aplicacion de fibra optica unimodal a comunicaciones entre subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Pinon, Fernando; Hernandez Juarez, Taide [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-07-01

    The utilization of the unimodal fiber optics technology in the electric power systems, represents one of the best communication options because of its multiple advantages, that results in a better coordination of the technical and administrative activities, needed to carry the electric energy from its generation site to the most remote locations. In this document a study, in accordance with the available options for the design of communication systems via unimodal optic fiber, is presented. With this technology, ties of more than 100 kilometers without the need of repeating stations, can be made. [Espanol] La utilizacion de la tecnologia de fibra optica unimodal en los sistemas electricos de potencia representa una de las mejores alternativas de comunicacion por sus multiples ventajas que se traducen en una mejor coordinacion de las acitividades tecnicas y administrativas necesarias para llevar la energia electrica desde el lugar de generacion hasta los puntos mas distantes. En este documento se presenta un estudio de acuerdo a las opciones disponibles para el diseno de sistemas de comunicacion por fibra optica unimodal. Con esta tecnologia se pueden realizar enlaces mayores que 100 km sin necesidad de repetidores.

  5. Eesti Energia esindused = Eesti Energia branches / Andres Labi, Janno Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Labi, Andres, 1977-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Energia klienditeeninduse kontorite sisekujundusest. Autorid: Janno Roos, Andres Labi ja Liisa Põime (Ruumilabor). Visuaalne identiteet: Tank.Teenuste disain: Urmas Pastarus. ESLi aastapreemiate žürii esimehe Kaido Kivi ning žürii liikme Raivo Puusepa arvamused

  6. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  7. Eesti Energia teenis rekordkasumit / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. apr. lk. 2. Eesti energia teenis 31. märtsil lõppenud majandusaastal rekordilise 2,1 miljardi kroonise kasumi. Diagramm: Eesti Energia viimased kolm majandusaastat ja tulevikuplaanid

  8. Photovoltaic systems interconnected to the electric network; Sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    . Enseguida, se muestra la solucion que le encontro el Gobierno del Estado a este problema para lo que fue necesaria la participacion del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Esta participacion, se traduce en un proyecto que muestra la viabilidad de instalar sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en casas habitacion. Despues, se presenta una descripcion no solo de los elementos que conforman el sistema, sino tambien de la metodologia y el funcionamiento del mismo. Posteriormente, se presenta el efecto positivo, economicamente y ambientalmente hablando, que tuvo la instalacion del sistema en las 220 casas habitacion del fraccionamiento Valle de las Misiones, asi como las caracteristicas generales del mismo. Ademas, se presenta la manera de alcanzar un mayor impacto y cobertura del sistema. Finalmente, se presentan los auspiciadotes del proyecto: la Secretaria de Energia (SENER), la CFE, la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE), la Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), el IIE, el Banco de Desarrollo de America del Norte (BDAN) y el Gobierno del Estado de Baja California.

  9. Magnetic losses and reactance change by the use of metallic conduit in electrical installations; Perdidas magneticas y cambio de reactancia por la tuberia metalica en instalaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campero Littlewood, Eduardo; Castaneda D, Miguel; Castulo A, Roberto; Bratu Serban, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the results obtained in the measurement of magnetic losses in metallic conduits in electric installations. The losses for parasitic currents and by hysteresis were obtained in different conditions of magnetic density, caused by the net current resulting from the sum of all the currents of all the conductors that travel along the conduit. These currents are named differential currents, and the conditions in which they appear in the electric installations are described. The magnetic induction phenomenon that occurs in metallic conduit is briefly described and the basic concepts that describe it. A theoretical-experimental methodology is offered to quantify the energy losses by parasitic currents and by the metal magnetization in these metallic conduits. At the same time, the impact of these differential currents impact in the reactance of the electric installation is quantified. The obtained results for twelve conduits of different diameters and different wall thickness are shown. A comparison analysis is made with the reported results in a previous article, where the losses were estimated by means of the temperature rise measurement of the metallic wall. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la medicion de perdidas magneticas en tuberias conduit (metalicas) en instalaciones electricas. Las perdidas por corrientes parasitas y por histeresis se obtuvieron para diferentes condiciones de densidad magnetica, provocada por la corriente neta resultante de la suma de las corrientes de todos los conductores que viajan por la tuberia. A estas corrientes se les designa corrientes diferenciales y se describen las condiciones en las que estas aparecen en las instalaciones electricas. Se explica brevemente el fenomeno de induccion magnetica que se presenta en las tuberias metalicas y los conceptos basicos que la describen. Se plantea una metodologia teorico-experiemental para cuantificar las perdidas de energia, por

  10. Energy saving in office buildings through cheap bioclimatic design measures; Ahorro de energia en edificios de oficinas a partir de medidas de diseno bioclimatico de bajo costo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    This article shows the study performed in a building of Campus Uni dad Azcapotzalco in order to evaluate some bioclimatic design strategies. And to reach the higrothermic comfort and the appropriate lighting to favor employees to increase their performance in work activities. There are some strategies in order to solve this problem: the skylight area reduction, existing lights change, ventilation increase, fixed partition door implementation, etc. The obtained outcomes make possible the beginning of bioclimatic design use to save energy in other buildings, because sometimes edifications possess a design that cause the energy waste. [Spanish] En este articulo se muestra el estudio que se hizo en un edificio en el Campus Unidad Azcapotzalco, el fin de esta labor es evaluar ciertas estrategias de diseno bioclimatico para que las personas que operan en este edificio puedan tener confort higrotermico y una iluminacion pertinente, que den como resultado un mejor desempeno en las tareas que realizan. Algunas de las estrategias para darle solucion a esta problematica son: disminuir del area de lucernarios, cambiar las luminarias existentes, aumentar la ventilacion, implementar canceleria, etc. Con los resultados obtenidos nace la esperanza de que se utilicen estrategias de diseno bioclimatico para ahorrar energia en otros edificios, ya que muchas veces las edificaciones poseen un diseno que unicamente provoca el uso imprudente de la energia.

  11. Calculate the high solar radiation for photovoltaic panels in Chile; Aproximacio al calculo de la oferta de energia por paneles fotovoltaicos en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Beatriz; Roth, Pedro; Stolz, German [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Bonneschky, Alexis [Cottbus University, Cottbus (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method which permits to calculate and predict the theoretically possible electrical energy which can be obtained in different places in Chile with photovoltaic panels used in solar home systems. Chile is a country with a high solar radiation, specially in its northern part, between parallels 18 degrees with a daily mean energy of 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} over the year and 37 degrees, with 3700 Wh/m{sup 2}. Therefore, the use of photovoltaic power is an interesting alternative to be studied and used. Nevertheless, the photovoltaic possibilities have not been studied and no evaluation of real possibilities exist. In a previous paper, the absence of an installation guide for solar home systems have been mentioned. And also the lack of information regarding the real electrical energy needs of people. This work pretends to be the first approximation to a detailed chart and list of possible electric supplies using photovoltaic panels in different locations of Chile. It is made with a computer program which permits to calculate the solar radiation on a tilted surface, on a hourly bases. It uses geographical data and the daily average of monthly radiation. Therefore, the hourly energy, harnessed by the panel can be established and the total energy for some place calculated. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo, es el de mostrar a traves de un listado y un mapa nacional, la cantidad teorica de energia electrica que puede ser obtenida a traves del uso de paneles fotovoltaicos principalmente destinados a Solar Home System (SHS) en Chile. Chile es un pais con una alta oferta de energia solar ubicada principalmente en la zona norte y centro del pais, aproximadamente entre los paralelos 18 grados (sobre 4600 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual) y 37 grados Sur (sobre 3700 Wh/m{sup 2} dia promedio anual). Por lo que el uso de paneles fotovoltaicos representa una alternativa interesante de ser estudiada y aprovechada. Sin embargo, no existe una evaluacion

  12. Lahtimuukimata tume energia / Dennis Overbye

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Overbye, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Salapärase tumeda energia avastamisest on möödas kümme aastat, ent teadmatus, millega on tegu ja kuidas seda üldse teada võiks saada, ajab teadlased endiselt meeleheitele. Lisaks joonis: Laiali kihutavad galaktikad

  13. Electric energy saving using natural illumination, in educational spaces; Ahorro de energia electrica utilizando iluminacion natural, en espacios educativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche, Maria G; Marincic, Irene; Ochoa, Jose M [Programa de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    In this article the natural illumination in a space pertaining to the building of Architecture of the University of Sonora, in the city of Hermosillo is analyzed, Located towards the Northeast facade. This same space is repeated in the South facade, and paradoxically the space has the same dimensions and the same luminance design. Also the simulation of natural illumination by means of the Ecotec program is realized, and the levels of natural illumination in educational spaces, corresponding to the facilities of the University of Sonora are analyzed, where most of the year there is a completely clear sky. [Spanish] En este articulo se analiza la iluminacion natural en un espacio correspondiente al edificio de Arquitectura de la Universidad de sonora, en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Ubicado hacia la fachada Noreste. Este mismo espacio se repite en la fachada Sur, y el espacio tienen las mismas dimensiones y paradojicamente, el mismo diseno luminico. Tambien se realiza la simulacion de iluminacion natural mediante el programa Ecotec, y se analizan los niveles de iluminacion natural en espacios educativos, correspondientes a las instalaciones de la Universidad de Sonora, donde la mayor parte del ano se cuenta con un cielo completamente despejado.

  14. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  15. Energy saving in illumination using sensorial presence devices; Ahorro de energia en iluminacion utilizando sensores de presencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Eslava, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    This is an analysis and evaluation of electrical energy saving that a system of illumination controlled by presence sensors provides in an enclosure with low transit within the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) that is one of the libraries of the Institute of Anthropological Investigations. The data on which the analysis is sustained and the results deducted come from a time counter located at the site. [Spanish] Este es un analisis y evaluacion de los ahorros de energia electrica que suministra un sistema de iluminacion controlado por sensores de presencia en un recinto con bajo transito dentro de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) que es una de las bibliotecas del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas. Los datos de donde se sustenta el analisis y se deducen los resultados provienen de un contador de tiempo de uso localizado en el sitio.

  16. Eesti Energia tahab elektrit toota Pihkvas / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia ja Venemaa ettevõte RAO Rossija võivad koos rajada Pihkvasse ühise gaasielektrijaama. Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Lembit Vali kommentaare. Lisa: Fortum ja Eesti Energia otsivad koostöövõimalusi

  17. Eesti Energia gets lower than hoped for price hike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Konkurentsiamet ja Eesti Energia leppisid kokku elektritariifi tõusu põhimõtetes. Elektri hinna tõus on kolm korda väiksem kui Eesti Energia lootis. Eesti Energia on huvitatud tuumaelektrijaamast

  18. Opportunities for energy conservation detected in a diagnosis made for the smelting industry; Oportunidades de ahorro de energia detectadas en un diagnostico efectuado en la industria de la fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Bautista, Rolando; Magana Castro, Rogelio [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    The smelting industry is one of the main industrial branches in the utilization of electric power at national level, for this reason an energy diagnosis was made in representative industries of this process in which excellent results were obtained regarding opportunity areas, with potentials ranging from 15% up to 40% of energy saving in relation to the energy consumption, with actions recoverable in less than 15 months. [Espanol] La industria de la fundicion es una de las principales ramas industriales en la utilizacion de la energia electrica a nivel nacional, por esta razon se realizo un diagnostico energetico en empresas representativas de este proceso y en las cuales se obtuvieron excelentes resultados en cuanto a areas de oportunidad, teniendo potenciales que van desde un 15% hasta un 40% de ahorro con relacion al consumo de energia, con medidas que se recuperan en menos de 15 meses.

  19. Importance of the development of a data base on final uses of energy in the domestic sector; Importancia del desarrollo de una base de datos de usos finales de energia en el sector domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The saving and rational use of the energy is integral part of our life. This concept is seen already reflected in economic, technological, social and environmental factors in our country. The options of energy saving are seen like an alternative of investment as much for the user as for the electrical companies; nevertheless, to determine the saving potential in a sector it is necessary to understand how and for what purpose is the energy used. The domestic sector in our country consumes more than 20% of the demanded electrical energy and exist several factors that can cause that this percentage is increased. In spite of this, there is a great potential of energy saving in this sector, nevertheless specialized studies are required on the final uses of energy. But to be able to make these studies it is necessary to have a great amount of data on energy, climatologic, economic and financial, and social type. If these were found in a single data base, they could be used to plan, implement, evaluate and improve energy saving programs. This article focuses towards the importance of the knowledge of the real final uses of electrical energy in the domestic sector and presents as a result the conformation of a data base of household-electric final uses of electrical energy as well as the development of a tool that takes advantage of this data base to evaluate measures of change of equipment for a more efficient one. [Spanish] El ahorro y uso racional de la de energia es parte integral de nuestra vida. Este concepto se ve ya reflejado en factores economicos, tecnologicos, sociales y ambientales en nuestro pais. Las opciones de ahorro de energia son vistas como una alternativa de inversion tanto para el usuario como para las empresas electricas; sin embargo, para determinar el potencial de ahorro en un sector es necesario entender como y para que se emplea la energia. El sector domestico en nuestro pais consume mas del 20% de la energia electrica demandada y existen varios

  20. Application of Geographic Information Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy: IntiGIS Model. Case of Study: Zapara Island, Zulia State. Venezuela; Aplicaciones de Sistemas de Informacion Geografica para la Electrificacion Rural con Energias Renovables: Modelo IntiGIS. Caso de Estudio: Isla Zapara, Estado Zulia. Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, L.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo, I.

    2011-07-01

    This project started as an educational exercise for the Renewable Energy and Environment Master, taught by the Polytechnic University of Madrid, with the purpose of analyze in a real context GIS application in rural electrification with renewable energies. It was developed in collaboration with CIEMAT, ENELVEN (C.A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela), FUNDELEC (Fundacion para el Desarrollo del Servicio Electrico), CORPOLEC (Corporacion Electrica Nacional de Venezuela) and the UPM. The final aim is to define the technology that suits best to Zapara Islands electrification needs. This improvement will make possible the sustainable development of the population. In order to compare electrification technologies to decide which is the most suitable to Zapara Island, using IntiGIS model, will be required a geographic resources analysis, a population distribution and an electricity demand study. Also, it will be necessary to establish the technical parameters of the facility and economic factors that could affect the study. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  2. Energy education; Pedagogia da energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Rafael Ninno, e-mail: rafaelninno@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    'Pedagogia da Energia' (energy education) is a qualification course that has as intention to unite ambient education with renewable energies through the art-education and of the long-distance education. Collective made up of theoretical and practical activities through group dynamic and works, with intention to integrate and to enable the participants as a whole, aiming to form potentials to agreement and diffusion of energy concepts of the subjects environment - energy - residues. It possess the structure of an actual course with support of long-distance education with a platform of available web education in the Internet, where the participants have access the all content used in the course (texts, presentations and figures), virtual library, colloquy room, thematic list of quarrel and forum, beyond guardianship accompaniment. A structure constructed in classroom for the participants uses as pedagogical tool titled 'Mandala das Energias' where the concepts studied are worked in. The politics characteristics presented are, ambient and social of the use of the power plants and its implications in the daily one of the humanity. It understands the education as a reciprocal process, that understands the intention to teach and to learn in a set of exchanges of necessary information to the curious nature of the human beings. This article explains the structure and methodology of functioning of the course with a summary of the worked chapters. It also presents the pedagogical tool 'Mandala das Energias' and its respective flowchart of energies that originated it in annex at the end of the text. (author)

  3. Renewable sources of energy in Mexico in the twenty first century; Fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico en el siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Vera, Jorge [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In Mexico, more than 75% of the electric energy generated by the electric sector comes from power plants that burn fossil fuels such as fuel oil, natural gas, diesel and coal and regarding the transportation industry, the great majority of the automotive vehicles are driven by gasoline and diesel and exceptionally, gas LP is used for this purpose. This means a non-discriminated use of a non-renewable natural resource, as well as high degree emission pollutants to the atmosphere. [Espanol] En Mexico, mas del 75 por ciento de la energia electrica generada por el sector electrico proviene de centrales electricas que usan combustibles fosiles, tales como combustoleo, gas natural, diesel y carbon y por lo que se refiere a la industria del transporte, la gran mayoria de los vehiculos automotores son propulsados con gasolinas y diesel y excepcionalmente se usa para este proposito gas LP. Lo anterior significa un uso indiscriminado de un recurso natural no renovable asi como elevados grados de emision de contaminantes a la atmosfera.

  4. Municipal hydraulic planning for energy saving; Planeacion hidraulica municipal para el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, Enrique [PTF S.C. Consultores, Leon, Gto. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The efficient handling of the economic and natural resources of the municipalities, is nowadays so much complex, that it requires a formal planning. In the public service of potable water supply, two fundamental approaches are conjugated to consider: the rational use of the water resource and the efficient use of the electrical energy, for its extraction from the underground deep reservoirs. In the paper that is presented, the individual features of the previous matters are described and the positive results in a municipality of the Guanajuato's Low Lands (Bajio ), where already the dual objectives are obtained and that with a more professional municipal hydraulic planning, these will be permanent, with the inherent benefit towards the population. [Spanish] El manejo eficiente de los recursos economicos y naturales de los municipios, es hoy en dia cada vez mas complejo, que requiere una planeacion formal. En el servicio publico de abastecimiento de agua potable, se conjugan dos enfoques primordiales a considerar: el uso racional del recurso agua y la utilizacion eficiente de la energia electrica, para su extraccion de los acuiferos subterraneos profundos. En el trabajo que se presenta, se describen las particularidades de lo anterior y los resultados positivos en un municipio del Bajio guanajuatense, donde ya se logran los objetivos duales y que con una planeacion hidraulica municipal mas profesional, estos seran permanentes, con el beneficio inherente hacia la poblacion.

  5. Supervisory fussy control for an electric generating hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas Mendoza, Javier

    2004-11-15

    the fuzzy supervisory controller were compared with a conventional controller. The results shows that the supervisory controller fulfills the three main objectives of the system operation: I) to reduce the fuel consumption of the back-up system, II) to reduce the depth of the discharge of the battery bank, and III) to keep fully charged the battery bank as much as possible in order to make a better use of the available free renewable energy sources. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica (SHGE). En este trabajo se definio la configuracion y los elementos que componen el SHGE a utilizar, producto de la revision de configuraciones de sistemas hibridos propuestas actualmente. La configuracion del SHGE incluye: arreglos fotovoltaicos y aerogeneradores como fuentes de generacion renovable, una maquina de combustion interna como sistema de respaldo, un banco de baterias como medio de almacenamiento de energia, cargas electricas en corriente alterna y un inversor CD/CA para poder alimentarlas. Tambien a partir de la configuracion propuesta se buscaron y seleccionaron los modelos matematicos de los diferentes elementos del sistema. Se llevo a cabo la validacion de los modelos a traves de la comparacion de la salida contra datos reales obtenidos en un SHGE instalado en Pachuca. Con los modelos se llevo a cabo el desarrollo de un programa de simulacion para un SHGE en Matlab. Se determino la funcion principal del controlador supervisorio dentro del SHGE. La funcion es satisfacer el o los objetivos de operacion del sistema. La filosofia de operacion del controlador supervisorio se definio a partir de la configuracion electrica propuesta y de los objetivos de operacion del sistema. Por lo que respecta al desarrollo del controlador supervisorio, se llevo a cabo una revision de los controladores supervisorios actuales que utilizan alguna tecnica de control inteligente. A partir de

  6. Eesti Energia õline naeratus / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Autor on seisukohal, et valitsuskabinetis kokku lepitud Eesti Energia rahastamise toetusskeem oleks maksumaksjale halvim võimalikest variantidest, kõige suurema küsimuse püstitab plaan arendada hiiglaslik õlitööstus

  7. Procedures to enter the international market of the carbon and PEMEX electrical generation projects; Procedimientos para ingresar al mercado internacional del carbono y proyectos de generacion electrica de PEMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeferino Abundis, Yolanda [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The consumption and production of the electrical energy contribute to the gas emission that has the property of retaining heat in the atmosphere, giving rise to an increment in the global average temperature of the Earth, and causing a climatic change that the international scientific consensus describes as important alterations in the meteorological patterns. As a result of this, international actions were taken. The most ambitious agreement and by its quantified and obligatory character is presented the Kyoto Protocol, that forces the countries listed in Annex 1 to reduce their emissions through national measures and flexible mechanisms, within these last ones is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) that contemplates the mutual cooperation between developed and developing countries in the participation of projects tending to the reduction of gas emissions of greenhouse effect. Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has large necessities of electrical energy and steam, and counts on projects with characteristics that under the CDM cover the characteristics to be technical and economically viable. [Spanish] El consumo y produccion de la energia electrica contribuye a la emision de gases que tienen la propiedad de retener calor en la atmosfera, dando lugar a un incremento en la temperatura promedio global de la Tierra, y provocando un cambio climatico que el consenso cientifico internacional describe como alteraciones importantes en los patrones meteorologicos. A raiz de esto, se tomaron acciones internacionales. El acuerdo mas ambicioso y por su caracter cuantificado y obligatorio lo representa el Protocolo de Kyoto, quien obliga a los paises listados en el Anexo 1 a reducir sus emisiones a traves de medidas nacionales y mecanismos flexibles, dentro de estos ultimos se encuentra el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) que contempla la cooperacion mutua entre paises desarrollados y en vias de desarrollo en la participacion de proyectos tendientes a la reduccion de emisiones

  8. The presence of harmonics in electric installations and some of its consequences; La presencia de corrientes armonicas en instalaciones electricas y algunas de sus consecuencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratu Serban, Neagu; Campero Littlewood, Eduardo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a short introduction to how the sinusoidal voltage waves are generated. A revision is made on the way of representing a distorted wave and the way of quantifying its harmonics content (harmonics distortion). An overview is made of the non-lineal consuming elements that produce distortion of the current waves. A revision is made on the concept of a power factor in conditions of waves with harmonic distortion. The consequences of feeding with distorted waves the different devices such as motors (particularly for the distortion originated by the rectifiers and the velocity electronic controls), transformers and capacitors. Mention is made of some of the methods for not to produce or for reducing the harmonic effect in the electric networks. The purpose of this article is to review the consequences on energy consumption by the presence of harmonics. [Espanol] En este articulo se hace una breve introduccion de la forma en que se generan las ondas senoidales de voltaje. Se revisa la manera de representar una onda distorsionada y la manera de cuantificar su contenido de armonicas (distorsion armonica). Se repasan los elementos consumidores no lineales que producen la deformacion de las ondas de corriente. Se revisa el concepto de factor de potencia en condiciones de ondas con distorsion armonica. Se analizan las consecuencias de alimentar con ondas distorsionadas a diferentes equipos como motores (particularmente por la distorsion originada por los rectificadores y los controladores de velocidad electronicos), transformadores y capacitores. Se mencionan algunos metodos para no producir, o reducir el efecto armonico en las redes electricas. El proposito de este articulo es revisar las consecuencias sobre el consumo de energia por la presencia de armonicas.

  9. Online monitoring of accessories for underground electrical installations through acoustics emissions; Monitoreo en linea de accesorios de instalaciones electricas subterraneas mediante emisiones acusticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals-Torrens, P. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)]. E-mail: p.casals@upc.edu; Gonzalez-Parada, A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: gonzaleza@salamanca.ugto.mx; Bosch-Tous, R. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Espana)

    2012-04-15

    The acoustic waves caused by Partial Discharges inside the dielectric materials, can be detected by acoustic emission (AE) sensors and analyzed in the time domain. The experimental results presented, show the online detection capability of these sensors in the environment near a cable accessory, such as a splice or terminal. The AE sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference and constitute a detection method non-intrusive and non-destructive, which ensures a galvanic decoupling with respect to electric networks, this technique of partial discharge detection can be applied as a test method for preventive or predictive maintenance (condition-based maintenance) to equipment or facilities of medium and high voltage in service and represents an alternative method to electrical detection systems, conventional or not, that continue to rely on the detection of current pulses. This paper presents characterization tests of the sensors AE through comparative tests of partial discharge on accessories for underground power cables. [Spanish] Las ondas acusticas provocadas por las descargas parciales en el interior de un dielectrico pueden ser detectadas por sensores de Emisiones Acusticas (EA) y analizadas en el dominio del tiempo. Los resultados experimentales que se presentan, evidencian la capacidad de deteccion en linea de estos sensores, en el entorno proximo a un accesorio de cable, empalme o terminal. Los sensores EA son inmunes a las interferencias electromagneticas, son un metodo de deteccion no destructivo y garantizan desacople galvanico respecto a la red electrica; esta tecnica de deteccion de descargas parciales puede ser aplicada como metodo de prueba para mantenimiento preventivo o predictivo (mantenimiento basado en la condicion), en equipos o instalaciones de media y alta tension en servicio, y representa una alternativa a los sistemas electricos de deteccion, convencionales o no, que continuan basandose en la deteccion del impulsos de corriente. En el

  10. Theoretical model to determine the energy behavior of test modules at scale of constructions for the efficient use of energy; Modelo teorico para determinar el comportamiento energetico de modulos de prueba a escala de edificaciones para el uso eficiente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi, Higinio; Alvarez, Gabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work a theoretical model of the energy behavior of test modules and its experimental verification is presented. The model determines the history of electrical energy consumption to maintain the comfort conditions in the interior of the modules, with respect to the variation of the materials of ceilings and windows with the purpose of establishing criteria of application of these materials in the construction industry. The measured results of the consumption of the accumulated energy are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un modelo teorico del comportamiento energetico de modulos de prueba y su verificacion experimental. El modelo determina la historia del consumo de energia electrica para mantener las condiciones de confort al interior de los modulos, respecto a la variacion de los materiales de los techos y ventanas, con el objeto de establecer criterios de aplicacion de dichos materiales en la industria de la edificacion. Se presentan los resultados medidos del consumo de energia acumulada.

  11. Qualitative aspects in the projects that are developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Aspectos cualitativos en los proyectos que se desarrollan en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Neblina, Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The globalization of markets has generated more options of purchase of all type of goods and services, these options have generated opportunities and threats for all the companies and have looked for the satisfaction of the client as a strategy to remain or incursion into the global market. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is not the exception and therefore it looks for the identification of the qualitative aspects and to systematize its application in the projects that executes by means of the implantation of a system of quality assurance based on the series of ISO 9000 Standards. Some examples are described to identify the qualitative aspects of the projects that are developed in the Institute. [Spanish] La globalizacion de los mercados ha generado mas opciones de compra de todo tipo de bienes y servicios, dichas opciones han generado oportunidades y amenazas para todas las empresas y se ha buscado satisfacer al cliente como estrategia para permanecer o incursionar en el mercado global. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) no es la excepcion y por lo tanto busca identificar los aspectos cualitativos y sistematizar su aplicacion en los proyectos que realiza mediante la implantacion de un sistema de aseguramiento de la calidad basado en la serie de normas ISO 9000. Se describen algunos ejemplos para identificar los aspectos cualitativos de los proyectos que se desarrollan en el instituto.

  12. Eesti Energia hakkab Jordaanias varsti ehitama / Alyona Stadnik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnik, Alyona

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia loodab, et Jordaania esimese põlevkivielektrijaama ehitus algab juba 2012. aastal. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul on Jordaani puhul tegemist Eesti võimalusega, Eesti Energia on Jordaania projekti kaasanud juba rahastajaid

  13. Eesti Energia loovutas Estlinki energiabörsile / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia otsustas rentida Estlinki merekaabli välja Soome ja Eesti põhivõrkudele, kellel on omakorda kohustus anda see üle vabaturu kasutusse. Eesti Energia finantsdirektori Margus Kaasiku kommentaar

  14. Eesti Energia, vara veel! / Väino Sarnet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarnet, Väino, 1952-

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskonsultant avaldab arvamust, millised on argumendid Eesti Energia kiireks börsiletulekuks, kes sellega võidaksid ja kes kaotaksid ning miks pole praegu õige aeg Eesti Energia aktsiate avalikuks müügiks

  15. Eesti Energia tulu kuivab kokku / Ralf-Martin Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Ralf-Martin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. sept. lk. 6. Eesti Energia prognoosib 2008. aastaks kolm korda väiksemat kasumit. Diagramm: Kasum. Vt. samas: Ansip kritiseeris Eesti Energia hinnaküsimist; Taust; Reiting

  16. Analysis and design of a dish/Stirling system for solar electric generation with a 2.7 kW air-cooled engine; Analisis y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar con concentrador de disco parabolico y motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado por aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran-Chacon, R.; Velazquez-Limon, N. [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mails: rbeltran1@uabc.edu.mx; nicolas.velazquez@uabc.edu.mx; Sauceda-Carvajal, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Baja California, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: dsaucedac@upbc.edu.mx

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical modeling, simulation and design of a solar power system of a parabolic dish with an air-cooled Stirling engine of 2.7 kW. The model used for the solar concentrator, the cavity and the Stirling engine were successfully validated against experimental data. Based on a parametric study, the design of the components of the engine is carried out. The study shows that as system capacity increases, the overall efficiency is limited by the power required by the fan, since the design of the cooler needs greater amounts of heat removal by increasing the air flow without affecting the internal conditions of the process (mass flow of working gas and internal dimensions of the same). The system was optimized and achieves an overall efficiency of solar to electric energy conversion of 26.7%. This study shows that the use of an air-cooled Stirling engine is potentially attractive for power generation at low capacities. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelado matematico, la simulacion y diseno de un sistema de generacion electrica termosolar de disco parabolico con motor Stirling de 2.7 kW enfriado directamente por aire. El modelo utilizado para el concentrador, la cavidad y el motor Stirling, fueron validados satisfactoriamente con datos experimentales. Con base en un estudio parametrico se realizo el dimensionamiento de los componentes del motor. El estudio realizado muestra que conforme se incrementa la capacidad del sistema, la eficiencia global se ve limitada por la potencia requerida por el ventilador, dado que el diseno del enfriador necesita retirar mayores cantidades de calor aumentando el flujo de aire, sin afectar las condiciones internas del proceso (flujo masico del gas de trabajo y dimensiones internas del mismo). El sistema fue optimizado obteniendo una eficiencia global de conversion de energia solar a electrica de 26.7%. Este estudio muestra que el uso de un motor Stirling enfriado directamente por aire es potencialmente

  17. Electric grid in Spain: a private network of optical fiber with national coverage; Red electrica de Espana: una red privada de fibra optica con cobertura nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.

    1995-12-31

    Red Electrica constructed a grid with optical fiber in 1989 for the grids of 400-220 Kv. In 1995 the length of the grid will be of 6.600 Km. This grid supplies the telecommunication advanced services and contributes in the efficiency and quality of different tasks of Red Electrica.

  18. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    that is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  19. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  20. Daylight saving time (summer 2001) for a culture of energy care; Horario de verano 2001 por una cultura del cuidado de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    As in other headings, such as the care of water and the environment, in what corresponds to energy care, we must take a foresighted attitude so that in a near future we not only can continue covering our energy needs, but also that we do not lack of it, because it is an indispensable service for modern life, practically in any field of the human activity. In this article it is mentioned how the daylight saving time works, the impact in the consumption and demand of electrical energy, resulting from the daylight saving time program 1996-2000. Energy impact, certification of the energy impact due to the application of the program in Mexico, the environmental impact, how the organism adapts harmonically to the summer schedule, the daylight saving program in the world, the daylight saving time program in Mexico, the adjustment in the period of application, and the accumulated results 1996-2000 by the establishment of the daylight saving time program. [Spanish] Al igual que en otros rubros, tales como el cuidado del agua y del medio ambiente, en lo que corresponde al cuidado de la energia, debemos tomar una actitud previsora para que en un futuro cercano no solo podamos continuar cubriendo nuestras necesidades de energia, sino para que esta no nos falte, porque se trata de un servicio indispensable para la vida moderna, practicamente en cualquier campo de la actividad humana. Este articulo se habla sobre como funciona el horario de verano, el impacto en el consumo y la demanda de energia electrica, resultados del horario de verano 1996-2000, Impacto energetico, certificacion del impacto energetico debido a la aplicacion del horario de verano en Mexico, el impacto ambiental, el organismo se adapta armonicamente al horario de verano, el horario de verano en el mundo, el horario de verano en Mexico, el ajuste en el periodo de aplicacion, y resultados acumulados 1996-2000 por el establecimiento del horario de verano.

  1. Eesti Energia: veel vee peal / Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2009-01-01

    Valitsus hakkab arutama Eesti Energia rahastamiseks moodustatud komisjoni ettepanekuid. Esimene variant on täiendavate aktsiate väljalaskmine ja nende müümine 2010. aastal börsi kaudu erainvestoritele, teine variant: vajaliku raha paneb Eesti Energiasse riik

  2. Intelligent use of the energy; Uso inteligente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Ahedo, Carlos [Director General de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) is an administrative agency independent of the Secretaria de Energia that serves as a technical agency for consultancy in matters of efficient use of energy and advantageous use of renewable energies. This document searches to inform the population how to satisfy the necessity of energy in an intelligent way. For this purpose some useful actions to be performed were detected: the making of a balance between the supply and the energy demand, the consultancy on how the saving of energy is performed in order to reduce its waste, to count on equipment and efficient systems, to use domestic renewable energies and to use the solar energy and the biomass. [Spanish] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) es el organo administrativo desconcentrado de la Secretaria de Energia que funge como organismo tecnico de consulta en materia de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia y aprovechamiento de energias renovables. Este documento busca informar a la poblacion acerca de como satisfacer la necesidad de energia a cambio de su utilizacion de manera inteligente, para ello se detectaron areas de oportunidad como: un balance entre la oferta y la demanda energetica, informar a la gente sobre como se efectua el ahorro de energia para con ello reducir el desperdicio de esta, contar con equipos y sistemas eficientes, usar energias renovables domesticas y utilizar la energia solar y la biomasa.

  3. The Mexico`s energy sector: Restructure and challenges; Sector de la energia en Mexico: Reestructuracion y retos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo Soberon, Francisco [Sindicato Mexicano de Electricistas (SME), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In our country, the electric energy sector restructure is deeply permeated by the idea that the efficiency, the reduction of costs, the competitiveness and the modernization in general will only be feasible in the context of incorporation to the logistics of the functioning of the market rules. A historic revision is made of the elements that made possible the deterioration of a nationalized enterprise as it is today the enterprise Luz y Fuerza del Centro. The legal, regulatory, and organizational changes in this enterprise are discussed; the social sense of the electric industry and the limits of the private interests and the restructure as a democratic experience are also analyzed [Espanol] En nuestro pais, la reestructuracion del sector de la energia esta profundamente permeada por la idea de que la eficiencia, la reduccion de costos, la competitividad y en general la modernizacion, solo seran factibles en contextos de incorporacion a la logica de funcionamiento de las reglas del mercado. Se hace una revision historica de los elementos que hicieron posible el deterioro de una empresa nacionalizada como lo es hoy la empresa Luz y Fuerza del Centro. Se analizan los cambios legales, regulatorios y organizativos en esta empresa; el sentido social de la industria electrica y los limites de los intereses privados y la reestructuracion como una experiencia democratica

  4. Economic and environmental study for the wind power generation in the region of Bajio; Estudio economico y medio ambiental para la generacion de energia eolica en la region del Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Patino, Jesus; Hernandez Figueroa, Miguel A.; Ireta Moreno, Fernando [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesusmp23@salamanca.ugto.mx; mahf@salamanca.ugto.mx; fireta@salamanca.ugto.mx; Rubio Maya, Carlos; Galvan Gonzalez, Sergio Ricardo [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmaya@umich.mx; srgalvan@umich.mx

    2010-11-15

    The presented study is divided into two main issues for wind energy generation: the economical scope, and the environment. A comparison from different perspectives is made between both costs. The study is focused in the Mexico central region called Bajio, where the wind data is obtained. The usage of different types of wind turbines is planned to generate electricity, and a comparison is made between them in different aspects. An invest of 20 years is expected for this equip. While comparing the costs, the estimated by emissions of CO{sup 2} by kW/h generated (environmental cost), with these cost it is showed the quantities of CO{sup 2} that can be stopped of emitting to the atmosphere by the use of fossil fuels. The data encourages the use of renewable energy in relation with the wind potential in the region. This is how the presented study shows the options of decision making to implement and viability of the usage of wind turbines for the production of electric energy under the wind conditions provided by the Bajio region. [Spanish] El estudio que se presenta se divide en dos principales puntos para la generacion de energia eolica: el ambito economico y el medio ambiental. Se realiza un comparativo entre ambos costos desde diferentes perspectivas. El estudio se concentra en la region del Bajio donde se obtienen los datos del viento. Se plantea el uso de diversos tipos de aerogeneradores para la generacion de energia electrica comparandolos entre si en varios aspectos. Para estos equipos se tiene contemplada una inversion a 20 anos. En la comparativa de costos resalta el estimado por la emision de CO{sup 2} por kW/h generado (Costo medioambiental), con este costo se pone de manifiesto las cantidades de CO{sup 2} que se pueden dejar de enviar a la atmosfera por el uso de combustibles fosiles, los datos alientan el uso de la energia renovable en relacion tambien al potencial de viento que se tiene en la region. De esta manera, el estudio presentado en el trabajo

  5. Technological Prospective (Chapter 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva tecnologica (Capitulo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter it is described how the prospective analysis is carried on in: the trash and its transformation into energy that is made through thermal or biological processes; geothermal, where the relation with low and intermediate temperature resources will be differentiated from those of high temperature for electrical power generation; thermo-solar, that is a high temperature system for electrical power generation and low temperature systems for space heating or process heat; photovoltaic, that is the direct conversion of solar radiation into electricity; the wind energy is the advantage of the kinetic energy of the wind; the use of the biomass or its derivatives requires of transformations on the basis of processes of direct combustion; the gasification or pyrolysis to produce, either in direct form or through the production of a synthetic gas, process heat or electricity in facilities and, mini-hydro energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se describe como es llevado el analisis prospectivo en: la basura y su transformacion en energia que se realiza a traves de procesos termicos o de procesos biologicos; la geotermia donde se distinguira la relacion con los recursos de temperatura baja e intermedia y los de alta temperatura para generacion electrica; la termosolar que es un sistema de alta temperatura para generacion electrica y sistema de baja temperatura para acondicionamiento de espacios o calor de proceso; fotovoltaico que es la conversion directa de la radiacion solar a electricidad; la energia eolica es el aprovechamiento de la energia cinetica del viento; la utilizacion de la biomasa o sus derivados requiere de transformaciones en base a procesos de combustion directa; la gasificacion o pirolisis para producir, o bien en forma directa o a traves de la produccion de un gas sintetico, calor de proceso o electricidad en instalaciones y, la minihidroenergia.

  6. Application of scale test modules for model the electrothermal performance in buildings for the efficient use of energy; Aplicacion de modulos de prueba a escala para modelar el funcionamiento electrotermico de edificios para el uso eficiente de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio

    2000-10-01

    and small vault pottery with glass sun reflector (34% in the experimental model and 37% in the theoretical model). [Spanish] La investigacion para acondicionamiento de espacios por enfriamiento en edificios de tamano real tiene un costo elevado por la cantidad de materiales y la variedad de parametros que intervienen. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se utilizan modulos de prueba a escala acoplados a sistemas de aire acondicionado para obtener su respuesta electrotermica; es decir, cuantificar la cantidad de energia electrica que consumira un modulo en funcion de los materiales de prueba. Se analiza un modelo termico teorico transitorio y las pruebas experimentales del comportamiento termico de modulos de prueba a escala por la variacion de los materiales de los techos y ventanas, desarrollado con el objeto de establecer criterios de aplicacion de dichos materiales en las industrias de la edificacion. Adicionalmente se presenta el desarrollo de un modelo electrotermico teorico en estado permanente, que define el comportamiento del consumo de energia electrica, para mantener las condiciones de confort al interior de los modulos de prueba respecto a la variacion de los materiales mencionados. Se presenta tambien el diseno y el desarrollo de las pruebas experimentales utilizando los modulos de prueba a escala para validar el modelo electrotermico. La experimentacion se desarrolla exponiendo los modulos de prueba a escala, acoplados a los equipos de aire acondicionado, a la radiacion solar directa, registrando el consumo de energia electrica de los equipos de aire acondicionado, la radiacion solar sobre techo y ventanas de prueba, la temperatura interior de los modulos, la temperatura interior y exterior en la superficie de los techos de prueba, la temperatura ambiente, y la velocidad del viento. Los resultados obtenidos comparando las mediciones en campo y el modelo electrotermico teorico desarrollado, presentan diferencias promedio de 16%. Los ahorros de energia

  7. Energy saving in the house of social interest by means of the application of the power efficiency standard:NOM-020; Ahorro de energia en la vivienda de interes social mediante la aplicacion de la norma de eficiencia energetica: NOM-020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Jimenez, Rodolfo; Morillon Galvez, David [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In face of the urgent necessity of saving and of using in an efficient way the energy, the Secretariat of Energy (Sener) through the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) has promoted the design and application of different measures and programs of energy efficiency. The elaboration of standards of energy efficiency has been a subject of great importance to foment the adequate use of the energy resources. For the residential sector the standard first draft exists: NOM-020-ENER-1998 energy efficiency in constructions: Standard for the covering of buildings for housing up to three floors. In this study the thermal analysis of the cover of one of the house models more used in the construction of houses of social interest in Mexico. By applying the methodology proposed by the first draft of the Standard the thermal gains by conduction in roof and walls, and by radiation in windows were determined. The analysis was performed for several cities of the country with different climates, the results were compared with the values proposed in the Standard, the viability of application of this Standard in the sector of the house of social interest was analyzed and finally the energy saving in ceasing using air conditioning systems for interiors. [Spanish] Ante la imperiosa necesidad de ahorrar y usar de forma eficiente la energia, la Secretaria de Energia (Sener) a traves de la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, (CONAE) ha promovido el diseno y aplicacion de diferentes medidas y programas de eficiencia energetica. La elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica ha sido un rubro de gran importancia para fomentar el uso adecuado de los recursos energeticos. Para el sector residencial existe el anteproyecto de norma: NOM-020-ENER-1998 ficiencia energetica en edificaciones: Norma para la envolvente de los edificios para uso habitacional hasta de tres pisos. En este estudio se presenta el analisis termico de la

  8. Utilization of sites of final disposition of municipal wastes for electrical power generation; Aprovechamiento de sitios de disposicion final de residuos municipales para generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, Felipe; Sarmiento Bleicher, Conrado [Departamento del Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Mexico confronts very comprehensive environmental problems, and the solid wastes and their control are not the minor of the preoccupations on the matter. The present work tries to demonstrate the usefulness or the economic advantages and the use of a sanitary land fill as a power source, outlining the necessity and convenience of planning and of designing the future sanitary land fills, specially those of the important urban centers, thinking of its usefulness beyond a confinement of the materials that lack use or commercial value. [Spanish] Mexico afronta una problematica ambiental muy amplia, y los residuos solidos y su control no son la menor de las preocupaciones al respecto. El presente trabajo trata de demostrar la utilidad o rentabilidad del aprovechamiento de un relleno sanitario como fuente energetica, perfilando la necesidad y conveniencia de planear y disenar los futuros rellenos sanitarios, especialmente los de los centros urbanos importantes, pensando en su utilidad mas alla de un confinamiento de los materiales que carecen de uso o valor comercial.

  9. Estimated potential of energy saving and reduction of the demand commercial buildings illumination; Potencial estimado de ahorro de energia y reduccion de la demanda en iluminacion de edificios comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Gomez, Victor Hugo; Morillon Galvez, David [Posgrado en Energetica de la DEPFI-UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the estimated energy saving potential in illumination, the energy end use and the technology used in commercial buildings of different use is analyzed. Estimation that departs from information of the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) demonstrative cases, presents the energy saving and the demand reduction in a sample of 29 buildings, among which are shopping malls, hospitals, schools, hotels, restaurants and public buildings in which energy saving programs have been carried out, with measures such as the cleaning of the luminaries and its replacement for more efficient ones. The average saving obtained is of 21.81%, in the following areas: illumination, air conditioning and others. In addition, in a sample of 4 buildings, it was observed that before applying the energy saving programs, two of them did not fulfill with the norm NOM-007-1995 (electric power density in interior lighting systems W/m{sup 2}) and later did fulfill the values and criteria of the norm. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se analiza el potencial estimado de ahorro de energia en iluminacion, el uso final de la energia y la tecnologia empleada en edificios comerciales de uso distinto. Estimacion que parte de la informacion de los casos demostrativos del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia (FIDE), se presenta el ahorro y reduccion de la demanda en una muestra de 29 edificios, entre los que se tienen centros comerciales, hospitales, escuelas, hoteles, restaurantes y edificios publicos en los cuales se ha llevado a cabo programas de ahorro de energia, con medidas como la limpieza de las luminarias y su remplazo por otros mas eficientes. El ahorro promedio obtenido es de 21.81%, en las siguientes areas: iluminacion, aire acondicionado y otros. Ademas, en una muestra de 4 edificios, se observo que antes de aplicar los programas de ahorro de energia, dos no cumplian con la norma NOM-007-ENER-1995 (densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado interior W/m{sup 2}) y

  10. Härra Eesti Energia lahkus haruldase kaevurikirkaga / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2005-01-01

    30. novembril oli Eesti Energia juhi kohalt lahkuval Gunnar Okil viimane tööpäev, kuigi Eesti Energia juhatus pakkus Gunnar Okile korralise lepingu lõppemise järel aastast lepingut, keeldus juhatuse esimees selle sõlmimisest. Lisa: Oki-ajastu

  11. Eesti Energia pakuks börsil boonusaktsiaid / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium valmistub Eesti Energia aktsia avalikuks pakkumiseks. Riik soovib, et aktsionäride hulgas oleks rohkelt tavakodanikke, aktsiate ostmise motiveerimiseks lubatakse, et aasta pärast kingitakse lisaaktsiaid. Rahandusministeerium peab otsima alternatiive, kuidas Eesti Energia saaks lisaraha börsile minemata

  12. Parts harvendas ootamatult Eesti Energia nõukogu / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas 1. juulil päevapealt Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts

  13. Eesti Energia juht ihkab teavet / Sandor Liive ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liive, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 10. Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Peterburi uue tuumajaama mõju Eesti Energia tuumaprojektile, tuumajaama eeluuringut, uue Soome-Vene elektrikaabli rajamise tõenäosust ning võimalikku rahvahääletust tuumaprojekti küsimuses

  14. Energy saving in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V.; Ahorro de energia en Bellota Mexico S.A de C.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar Lopez, Jose Albeiro [Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article intends to make a general description of the different activities that were developed in Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. during year 2001 and which lead to obtaining the national prize of energy saving granted by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). In the executed actions stands out an entirely coordinated program that includes: lighting systems, motors, refrigeration systems, transformers, special projects (settling tanks), capacitors, compressed air pipeline, induction furnaces, machinery in general, maximum demand control, preventive maintenance, measuring systems, operational and organizational systems. In all these subjects a fast description is made of the performed actions and the obtained results. It is mentioned in addition the importance of making a power diagnosis and the use of historical data for the planning of the strategies to follow. Also reference is made of the use of appropriate technology that considers the use of high-energy efficiency equipment, such as motors, lamps, compressors, etc. Finally an evaluation is made of the obtained results where the improvement of the electrical parameters stands out such as: reduction of the power index in 35.06%, reduction of the maximum demand in 11.94%, increase of the power factor from 93.53% in 98.21%. The obtained results demonstrate that investing in energy saving it is a good business. [Spanish] El presente trabajo tiene por objeto hacer una descripcion general de las diferentes actividades que se desarrollaron en Bellota Mexico S.A. de C.V. durante el ano 2001 y que condujeron a la obtencion del premio nacional de ahorro de energia otorgado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). En las acciones ejecutadas se destaca todo un programa coordinado que abarca: sistemas de iluminacion, motores, sistemas de refrigeracion, transformadores, proyectos

  15. Economic risks of the capacity expansion of electric power generation: impact of the nuclear energy; Riesgos economicos de la expansion de la capacidad de generacion de energia electrica: impacto de la energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva G, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Uncertainty and risks are inherent to the electric systems planning. The long period of construction that is characteristic of the electric sector works, as well as the long useful life of the generation assets and electric power transmission, they force to plan the expansion of the electric systems along horizons from 10 to 25 years. In periods so long of time it is impossible to predict with certainty the elements of the environment that could influence in the taking of decisions, like they are: the growth and the distribution of the electric power demand, the readiness and fuel prices; the investment costs of the technological options of generation and transmission, as well as the duration of the construction of future projects of new capacity addition. All expansion plan that will be propose, will be exposed to the uncertainty of the environment, gives place to risks or undesirable consequences. The nature of the risks, the strategies to delimit them and the outlines to assign them between the different interested parts and the diverse economic agents, depend in great measure of the legal and normative mark of the sector. In this work these topics are approached inside the reference mark of the Mexican public service of electric power. (Author)

  16. Estimation of the resource and technological prospective of geothermal energy in Mexico (Annexe 3 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estimacion del recurso y prospectiva tecnologica de la geotermia en Mexico (Anexo 3 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias R, Eduardo; Arellano G, Victor; Torres R, Rodolfo Joaquin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    Due to its individual geologic-structural characteristics, Mexico counts on abundant geothermal resources. At the moment we count on a database that includes 2,332 geothermal manifestations distributed in 27 of the 32 Mexican states, the geothermal resources are classified as high temperature and intermediate or low temperature resources. Those of high temperature can be used for the generation of electrical energy. Those of intermediate to low temperature are more appropriate for direct applications of the geothermal heat. As of today, in Mexico exist four geothermal fields of high temperature that are being exploded for the electrical generation. [Spanish] Debido a sus particulares caracteristicas geologico-estructurales, Mexico cuenta con abundantes recursos geotermicos. Actualmente contamos con una base de datos que incluye 2,332 manifestaciones geotermicas distribuidas en 27 de los 32 estados mexicanos, los recursos geotermicos se clasifican en de alta temperatura y recursos de temperatura intermedia a baja. Los de alta temperatura pueden utilizarse para la generacion de energia electrica. Los de temperatura intermedia a baja son mas apropiados para aplicaciones directas del calor geotermico. Actualmente en Mexico existen cuatro campos geotermicos de alta temperatura que estan siendo explotados para la generacion electrica.

  17. Raoultella electrica sp. nov., isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Chung, Kyung Mi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Hiraishi, Akira; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 1GB(T), was isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell. Strain 1GB(T) was facultatively anaerobic and chemo-organotrophic, having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism, and utilized a wide variety of sugars as carbon and energy sources. Cells grown aerobically contained Q-8 as the major quinone, but excreted Q-9 and a small amount of Q-10 when cultured with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of 1GB(T) was 54.5 mol%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that strain 1GB(T) represented a distinct lineage within the genus Raoultella (98.5-99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 94.0-96.5 % sequence similarity based on the three concatenated housekeeping genes gyrA, rpoB and parC. Strain 1GB(T) exhibited DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness of 7-43 % with type strains of all established species of the genus Raoultella. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, the name Raoultella electrica sp. nov. is proposed for strain 1GB(T). The type strain is 1GB(T) ( = NBRC 109676(T) = KCTC 32430(T)).

  18. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  19. Eesti Energia õlitehase plaan võib paisuda / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia peab võimalikuks algsest suurema õlitehase ehitamist. Alternatiivvariantide kohaselt ehitataks tehasesse üks või kaks Enefit-280 seadet lisaks ja õli tootmine suureneks aastas üle 1,5 korra. Diagramm

  20. Eesti Energia tahab julgeolekumaksu / Sandor Liive ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liive, Sandor

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liivega ettevõtte pikaajalise investeerimisplaani teemal. Sandor Liive tahab kehtestada energiajulgeolekumaksu, mis lisanduks iga inimese ja ettevõtte elektriarvele. Vt. samas: Arengukava; Valitsus pumpab energiahiidu miljardeid; Eesti mattis Ignalina maha

  1. Asjatundjad : poliitikud hävitavad Eesti Energia / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 10. sept. lk. 5. Peaminister Andrus Ansip ja valitsuspoliitikud mõistavad hukka Eesti Energia kavandatud elektrienergia 23%-lise hinnatõusu, kuid energiafirma vajab lisaraha põlevkivijaamade vananeva sisseseade uuendamiseks

  2. Eesti Energia pikaajaline investeeringuplaan vajab raha / Helga Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helga, 1945-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energi juht Sandor Liive küsis valitsuskabinetis tulevikuplaane esitledes ettevõtte aktsiakapitali laiendamiseks juurde 500 miljonit eurot. Eesti Energia on koostanud investeerimisplaani aastateks 2009-2018, lisaks tahab ta kehtestada energiajulgeolekumaksu

  3. Hinnatõus kasvatas Eesti Energia kasumit / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia esimese poolaasta puhaskasum oli 2004. aasta sama perioodiga võrreldes 3,5 korda suurem ehk 200 miljonit krooni. Kuue kuuga investeeris energiakontsern 1,3 miljardit krooni, millest 70% läks elektrivõrkudesse

  4. Tidal power plant energy estimation; Cuantificacion de energia de una planta mareomotriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, J.; Hiriart Le Bert, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (mexico)]. E-mail: JlopezGo@iingen.unam.mx; gerardo367@yahoo.com.mx; RSilvaC@iingen.unam.mx

    2010-04-15

    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of flow tide and the other flow-ebb tides, with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in flow tide, ebb tides or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia que permite estimar de manera rapida y sencilla el potencial de energia que puede ser extraido a traves de una planta mareomotriz. La evaluacion se realiza utilizando un nomograma normalizado que es funcion del area del embalse versus la capacidad electrica instalada, para asi obtener el potencial energetico en una zona en particular. Los resultados contemplan dos formas de operacion, una llamada en flujo y otra en flujo-reflujo, dos esquemas de embalse (sencillo y doble embalse). Para la elaboracion del nomograma normalizado se utilizaron resultados numericos de la simulacion de multiples plantas mareomotrices bajo diferentes escenarios durante un ano de operacion. Los escenarios

  5. Eesti Energia sihib hiiglaslikku hinnatõusu / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 5. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Eesti Energia taotleb 2007. aasta märtsikuust 23%-list hinnatõusu. Energiaturu inspektsiooni (ETI) juhi Märt Otsa sõnul pole teada, mis otsuse inspektsioon hinnatõusu küsimuses langetab. Diagramm: Elektri hind tõuseb jõudsalt. Vt. samas intervjuud Eesti Energia juhatuse liikme Tiit Niguliga

  6. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  7. Parts ja Tiivas peavad aega Eesti Energia börsile tulekuks heaks / Jaana Pikalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tuleks Eesti Energia aktsiat müüa soodustingimustel. East Capital Exploreri juhi Gert Tiivase hinnangul pole paremat aega Eesti Energia börsile toomiseks kui praegu

  8. "Oravad" tõmbavad Eesti Energia börsileminekule piduri peale / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigikogu Reformierakonna fraktsiooni kohtumisest Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi esindajatega. Fraktsiooni esimees Peep Aru räägib küsimustest, mis on seotud Eesti Energia börsilemineku kavaga

  9. Sõnnikust elektri tootmine on Eesti Energia otsustada / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Seakasvatusfirma Ekseko tahab hakata seasõnnikust elektrit ja soojust tootma, kui Eesti Energia finantseerib projekti. Taani konsultatsioonifirma Energy Consulting Network soovitab rajada koostootmisjaama maksumusega umbes 50-60 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Eesti Energia teeb otsuse lähiajal

  10. Eesti Energia tegi esimesed tehingud elektribörsil / Kerli Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Kerli

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Energia ei avalikusta NordPoolil sõlmitud tehingute mahtu ärisaladuse tõttu. NordPooli börsil hajutavad riske energia tootjad, suurtarbijad ja hulgikauplejad, kes peavad end energia hinnatõusu vastu kaitsma. Järgmise aasta tulevikutehingute hinda mõjutavatest teguritest. Lisa: NordPool

  11. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    forma de produccion de electricidad es al dia de hoy una opcion bastante madura, en razon de los beneficios que esta modalidad de produccion de electricidad aporta tanto al usuario como a la red electrica. En Mexico cada vez son mas los usuarios del servicio electrico que se ven motivados a invertir en este tipo de sistemas. En este articulo se analiza el caso particular de un usuario de tarifa DAC (Demanda de Alto Consumo) en la ciudad de La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS), quien cuenta con un SFVI monofasico de 6 kWp instalado en el techo de su casa. Los resultados que se reportan provienen de datos obtenidos por el IIE durante un periodo de monitoreo de tres anos de la operacion del sistema. Los resultados incluyen informacion climatologica, balances de energia y potencia, potencias maximas, produccion y perdidas normalizadas, eficiencia del generador fotovoltaico y de los inversores; entre otros indices de desempeno. El documento resalta el impacto que tiene el SFVI sobre el consumo electrico en el inmueble y en el monto de la factura que el usuario finalmente paga a la compania suministradora del servicio electrico.

  12. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    observacion cientifica, ha demostrado su eficacia en la modernizacion de cientos de procesos industriales, comerciales, de comunicacion y de servicios, asi como de los materiales y metodologias utilizadas para la proteccion de diversos equipos y procesos; desde la proteccion en sistema y equipos en alta tension hasta sistemas que manejan muy baja energia, entre los que incluyen electronicos y digitales. Sin embargo, existen leyes fundamentales como la ley de Ohm, la ley de gravedad o la ley universal de gases que, pese a que fueron descubiertos hace muchos anos, siguen vigentes y su validez proporciona elementos invaluables para el desarrollo de nuevos metodos, procesos y desarrollos tecnologicos. Uno de los casos mas relevantes que amalgama la aplicacion de criterios fundamentales y el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias y su aplicacion en los llamados dispositivos de proteccion no convencionales lo constituye la proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas en edificios y estructuras. La aplicacion de estos dispositivos en el ambito mundial ha generado escepticismo de una gran parte de la comunidad cientifica, reacciones diversas entre los usuarios y un postura firme por parte de los fabricantes para que dichas tecnologias sean incluidas en normas internacionales. El objetivo de este articulo es ofrecer al lector la informacion basica sobre los inicios de la proteccion, la evolucion que los metodos de proteccion contra las tormentas electricas han tenido desde el siglo XVIII, la aplicacion de los criterios fundamentales de proteccion en estructuras o edificios modernos y su contenido, asi como la situacion que prevalece actualmente en los comites de las diversas organizaciones normativas nacionales e internacionales en lo referente a la inclusion de las nuevas tecnologias en las guias de diseno.

  13. The technical-economic potential of thermal energy saving in hospitals; El potencial tecnico-economico de ahorro de energia termica en hospitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Islas, J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arriola, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    cantidad representa un porcentaje importante de los gastos totales del hospital (29.367 millones de dolares) es importante determinar posibilidades tecnico - economicas de ahorro de energia termica del hospital. El HGZ N 1 - IMSS Ags. Esta ubicado en un conjunto mas amplio en donde se localizan las unidades del IMSS, tales como, la lavanderia regional, la unidad deportiva, el centro de seguridad social, la unidad de medicina familiar N 1 y el hospital. Sin embargo a partir de las instalaciones electricas y de suministro de vapor y agua caliente del hospital se distribuyen los fluidos electricos y termicos de todo este conjunto. Debido a esta situacion, en este trabajo nos referiremos al consumo global del conjunto del IMSS de Aguascalientes en donde el hospital es el principal consumidor de energia termica. En el presente trabajo calcularemos el potencial tecnico - economico de ahorro de energia termica del conjunto del IMSS a traves de la tecnica termodinamica de punto de pliegue o tecnica pinch.

  14. Research and technological development on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy; Investigacion y desarrollo tecnologico sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso; Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) carried out in the past an extensive work of research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP). The systems tried on include heat pumps by mechanical compression, thermal absorption and thermal transformers. This paper briefly describes the main aspects of R&D on heat pumps and presents a more detailed description of three of the main studies: a) a Heat Pump (HP) by mechanical compression water-water type, designed for brine purification, operating with low pressure geothermal steam at the geothermal field Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico; b) a HP by absorption for cooling and refrigeration, operating with ammoniac/water and low enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Michoacan and Cerro Prieto, Baja California, and c) a thermal transformer by absorption, named Heat Pump by Absorption Type 2, which was tested to evaluate the behavior of diverse ternary solutions as working fluids. To date, there are plans to install and test a geothermal heat pump (connected to the subsoil), in Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) y la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) realizaron un trabajo extenso de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas que se probaron incluyen bombas de calor por compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: a) una Bomba de Calor (BC) por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua, disenada para purificacion de salmueras, operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan; b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion, operando con amoniaco/agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia

  15. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  16. Proceedings of the 7 Annual conference of the Mexican association for the energy economy. The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions. [Selected papers]; 7. Conferencia anual de la asociacion mexicana para la economia energetica. El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Mexican Association for the Energy Economy (AMEE) had its VII annual conference, The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions, in October, 2004. Some of the expounded topics are: technical and environmental aspects of the combined cycle power stations; analysis of the generation of electric power across biogas from sanitary landfills in Mexico; cogeneration in large power plants; methodologies for the calculation of relative efficiency: description and application of natural gas distributors in Latin American and others. [Spanish] La Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. (AMEE), llevo acabo su VII conferencia anual El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones, en octubre del 2004. Algunos de los temas tratados son: Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso; Metodologias para el calculo de eficiencia relativa: descripcion y aplicacion para distribuidores de gas natural en Latinoamerica y otros.

  17. Avaliação da conversão da energia fotovoltaica em sistemas isolados

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Oliveira, Kleber

    2007-01-01

    Esta dissertação apresenta a importância do uso da energia solar fotovoltaica em relação ao impacto ambiental causado pelas fontes de energia convencionais. O fato da energia solar fotovoltaica ser uma energia livre de poluentes e crescente devido à diminuição dos preços dos painéis fotovoltaicos a deixa em condições de competir com as outras fontes de energia. São apresentados aspectos gerais sobre geração fotovoltaica e são discutidos o princípio de funcionamento, o processo ...

  18. Energy conservation and contribution to the sustained development through action in the bioclimate design; Ahorro de energia y contribucion al desarrollo sustentable a partir de acciones de diseno bioclimatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, J. R.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    , construction and monitoring of the functioning of cooling passive systems. The results obtained to date point out that the energy consumption has diminished and improved the environmental comfort conditions for the library building users. [Espanol] La crisis mundial de energia de 1973, ademas de los problemas de abastecimiento y elevacion de precios, propicio tambien diversos paises, una reaccion orientada al uso eficiente y conservacion de la energia, y a la aplicacion de una arquitectura con sentido comun: la ARQUITECTURA BIOCLIMATICA, misma que se basa en la utilizacion en las edificaciones de las energias alternativas, tales como la solar eolica, etc. Obtencion de condiciones de confort natural ambiental y ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en los edificios, son los objetivos fundamentales de la ARQUITECTURA BIOCLIMATICA. Bajo estas consideraciones, se han planteado diversos sistemas pasivos para control termico de edificios, los cuales se han aplicado en diferentes regiones climaticas del planeta. En el presente trabajo, se presenta y analiza el potencial de medidas para ahorro de energia, tales como sistemas de iluminacion artificial de alta eficiencia y sistemas pasivos de enfriamiento para el control termico de un edificio educativo, la biblioteca central de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, ubicada en la ciudad de Mexico. El objetivo de este estudio se orienta a la reduccion del consumo de energia en la biblioteca, y a la obtencion de condiciones de confort ambiental higrotermico para sus ocupantes. Estudios realizados durante la primera etapa de investigacion, han permitido identificar un excesivo consumo de energia y condiciones de falta de confort higrotermico y de la necesaria calidad del aire interior en la biblioteca. Estas acciones se han enfocado en dos aspectos. El primero se refiere al mejoramiento de la operacion de la instalacion electrica y el alumbrado de la biblioteca. Estas acciones se basaron en la sustitucion de lamparas

  19. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  20. Analysis of the potencial of natural illumination for the savings and efficient use of the energy in buildings located in hot climates; Analisis del potencial de la iluminacion natural para ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en las edificaciones en climas calidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, J. R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Division de Ciencias y Artes para el Diseno, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Daylight is an essential factor in lightening buildings. Its use is not only oriented to supply illumination to the spaces to provide adequate lightening levels for the optimum execution of their occupants` tasks, but also to supply the appropriate illumination level required in each case for specific functions, as well as to contribute to the psychophysiological health of its users and provide a favorable ambient and the germicide action in the ultraviolet component of the sunlight and besides a portion of vitamin {sup D,} that is needed for people`s health. On the other hand, the rational and efficient use of daylight can contribute to the diminish the consumption of electric power, that is used for the artificial lightning of buildings. This situation is particularly important in hot climates, where the consumption of electricity for lightening interior spaces is huge, mainly in non-dwelling buildings. In this paper the possibilities of the utilization of daylight are explored and analyzed for the purpose of achieving energy savings and the visual thermal and lightning comfort in buildings. [Espanol] La luz natural diurna es un factor indispensable en los edificios. Su uso no solamente esta orientado a proveer de iluminacion a los espacios para proporcionar niveles de iluminancia adecuados para la optima realizacion de las tareas visuales de los ocupantes, sino tambien para proporcionar la calidad luminica que se requiere para cada caso y funcion especificas, asi como contribuir a la salud psicofisiologica de los usuarios al brindarles un ambiente favorable y la accion germicida en la componente ultravioleta luminica y ademas, un contenido de vitamina {sup D,} necesario para la salud de las personas. Por otra parte, el uso sensato y eficiente de la luz natural diurna puede contribuir a reducir el consumo de energia electrica que se utiliza para el alumbrado artificial de los edificios. Esta situacion es de particular importancia en climas calidos, donde los

  1. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The physical design of electric substations involves a variety of activities, such as developing, reviewing and performing modifications to different design proposals, estimating costs and producing documents to be integrated into an executive project. These activities are usually conducted at the Distribution Divisions of the Federal Electric Commission (CFE) through two separate processes: the development of engineering plans with computer-aided design software (CAD) and volumetric calculations for the initial budget using conventional spreadsheets. The documents are manually developed on an individual basis, without the existence of any functions to allow for automatically updating the design modifications of any of the plans. The corresponding initial budget becomes a lengthy and laborious process with the likelihood of inconsistencies among the documents. In order to optimize the design process for the public and electromechanical works of electric substations (ES) in a three-dimensional (3D) graphic environment, the IIE's Management of Process Supervision, in coordination with the CFE Distribution Subdivision, developed the System for the Design of Electric Substation Distribution (SDESD). This system makes use of the advantages of CAD3D technology to develop detail engineering, cost engineering to calculate initial budgets and virtual reality for three-dimensional interactive navigation. It is worth mentioning that this system is currently in the implementation phase at the CFE Distribution Subdivision. This article briefly describes the main stages in the development of the project, as well as the functioning and principal components of the system. [Spanish] El diseno fisico de subestaciones electricas implica una variedad de actividades, tales como elaborar, revisar y efectuar modificaciones de diferentes propuestas de diseno, estimar costos y producir documentos, para integrarlos como parte de un proyecto ejecutivo. Estas actividades usualmente se

  2. Energia avastuskeskus = Energy discovery center / Margit Aule ; kommenteerinud Kristiina Raid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Energia avastuskeskuse (Põhja pst 29/31, Tallinn) interjöörist ja ekspositsiooni kujundusest. Autor Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid); ekspositsiooni kujundus Margit Argus, Margit Aule; arhitektid Sander Aas, Margit Aule, Pelle Sten Viiburg (KAOS Arhitektid). Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima ajaloolise interjööri eest

  3. Eesti Energia astub Lätis Latvenergo varvastele / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2007-01-01

    1. juulil 2007 avaneb EL-i elektriturg konkurentsile, mida Eesti Energia kasutab ära Läti turule sisenemiseks, lootes haarata 15% sealsest turust. Kommenteerib Aivar Tihane. Vt. samas: Sirje Rank. Euroopa Liidu ühtne energiaturg edeneb visalt

  4. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  5. Eesti Energia vajab rohkem põlevkivi / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia börsileminek tingib vajaduse senisest suuremas koguses põlevkivi kaevandada, põlevkivi riiklik arengukava seab aga eesmärgiks vähendada põlevikivi aastane kaevandamismaht 15 miljoni tonnini juba 2015. aastaks

  6. Eesti Energia tahab Liivi lahes broneerida hiigeltuulepargid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia taotleb valitsuselt viie ala broneerimist Liivi lahes, et analüüsida seal üle 300 meretuuliku püstitamise võimalikkust. Nende koguvõimsus oleks 1500 MW, Eleringi uuringu kohaselt võiks Eestis probleemideta töötada tuuleparke koguvõimsusega 600 MW

  7. Konverents "Turg. Tööstus. Energia." / T Tiidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiidemann, T

    1993-01-01

    Rootsi organisatsioon SWENESCO (Swedish Network of Engineers and Seientists for Conversion - Rootsi inseneride ja teadlaste võrk konversiooni eest) korraldab konverentsi praktilistest kogemustest Rootsi - Eesti tööstuse ja energia tehnikaalastes projektides 18-20 juuni 1993 Pirita Purjespordikeskuses

  8. Eesti Energia salajased uuringud / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 2. märts nr. 9 lk. 160. Hoitakse salajas Briti konsultatsioonifirma Lexicon Partners poolt koostatud uuringut, mida peaks Eesti riik peale hakkama oma osalusega monopoolses elektriettevõttes Eesti Energia. Majandusminister Edgar Savisaar lasi uuringu ministeeriumisse tuua ning andis juristidele ülesande analüüsida, kui palju saab dokumendist avaldada. Vt. samas: Elektri hind

  9. BALANÇO DE ENERGIA EM UMA CULTURA DE MILHETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma cultua de milheto forrageiro (Pennisetum americanum, Leek cv. pérola, em Eldorado do Sul, com coordenadas de 30°05'22"S e 51°40'18"W e 40m de altitude, foram determinados os componentes do balanço de energia na ano agrícola de 1988/89. O fluxo de calor latente de evaporação utilizou a maior porção da energia disponível no sistema, sendo uma função direta da disponibilidade hídrica no solo. O fluxo de calor sensível foi o segundo termo no consumo de energia disponível, variando segundo uma função inversa da disponibilidade hídrica. O fluxo de calor no solo variou inversamente ao índice de área foliar, utilizando a menor fração do saldo de radiação. Em geral, os fluxos de calor sensível no ar e no solo foram positivos somente nas primeiras horas da manhã e ao final da tarde. Em alguns horários houve aporte de energia por advecção, invertendo o gradiente térmico vertical do ar e incrementando o fluxo de calor latente de evaporação.

  10. Operation of the matrix converter as energy sources link of variable voltage; Operacion del convertidor matricial como enlace de fuentes de energia de voltaje variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Garcia, J. M; Hernandez-Figueroa, M. A; Estrada Garcia, H. J; Martinez-Patino, J [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Irapuato-Salamanca, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mails: jm.lozano@ugto.mx; mahf@ugto.mx; hestrada@ugto.mx; jesusmp23@ugto.mx

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy technologies, as wind turbines, have had a remarkable penetration in power systems worldwide, causing that actual power grids became dependent and vulnerable to the variability of the energy generated by this type of resource. In that sense, power converters provide a crucial function in the performance of the overall electrical system when they are used as links between this type of generators and the power system. In this paper, a matrix converter is proposed as link device, to cope with distorted and variable voltages as the ones found in wind turbines operation where generated voltages are directly dependent on wind's speed. An analysis of its main functional characteristics when it operates subject to distorted input-voltage condition, in order to synthesize a set of output voltages with constant magnitude and frequency and without harmonic distortion, is presented. Numerical simulations and experimental results from a laboratory-scale prototype are presented to validate the converter performance. [Spanish] La gran penetracion que ha tenido la generacion de energia mediante recursos renovables, como los generadores eolicos, en el mercado energetico, han ocasionado que las redes electricas sean mas dependientes y vulnerables a la variabilidad de la energia que se genera con este tipo de recursos. En ese sentido, los convertidores de potencia utilizados como enlace entre este tipo de generadores y el sistema electrico son determinantes en el comportamiento final que se tendra en el sistema electrico. En el presente trabajo se propone la utilizacion del convertidor matricial como dispositivo de enlace y se analizan sus caracteristicas operativas en casos donde se requiere la generacion de senales de voltaje sinusoidales y con valores constantes tanto en magnitud como en frecuencia a partir de senales variables, situacion que se presenta comunmente en los aerogeneradores donde el voltaje generado depende directamente de la velocidad del

  11. Energy saving in hotels by means of heat pumps application; Ahorro de energia en hoteles mediante la aplicacion de bombas de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    The thermal energy is presented as an alternate saving technology for utilities by means of the acute implementation of heat pumps. The objective is to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of the application of commercial heat pumps to installations where the handling of opposite temperatures for the conditioning of a space and/or of a fluid is required. In this article it is described the functioning of a heat pump, its different operation principles or types as well as the large diversity of applications they can have in industry, utilities and residential buildings. As an application example the substitution of an electric boiler by a heat pump is presented in a hotel installation and its differences in performance regarding the environmental conditioning of a nearby area and the heating of swimming pool water are analyzed. [Spanish] Se presenta la energia termica como una tecnologia de ahorro alterna para empresas de servicios valiendose de la implementacion agudizada de bombas de calor. El objetivo es demostrar la factibilidad tecnica y economica de la aplicacion de bombas de calor comerciales a instalaciones donde se requiere la manipulacion de temperaturas opuestas para el acondicionamiento de un espacio y/o un fluido. Se describe el funcionamiento de una bomba de calor, sus diferentes principios de operacion o tipos, asi como la gran diversidad de aplicaciones que pueden tener en la industria, empresas de servicios y edificios residenciales. Como ejemplo de aplicacion se presenta la sustitucion de una caldera electrica por una bomba de calor en una instalacion hotelera y sus diferencias de rendimiento en el calentamiento de agua de alberca y el acondicionamiento ambiental de un area cercana.

  12. Thermal solar energy - application in industrial heat processes; Energia solar termica - aplicacion en procesos industriales de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneschky, Alexis [Universidad Tecnica de Brandenburgo/Cottbus (Germany); Roth, Pedro; Cancino, Beatriz [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Kanig, Thomas [Germany, (Georgia)

    2000-07-01

    agua en la industria, integrando a las empresas a traves de alguna estrategia que signifique una finalidad comun que beneficie a ambas. En este informe se presenta un proyecto realizado con dos empresas vecinas en la region de Branderburgo Alemania, que se benefician mutuamente por la instalacion de la energia solar, pero que son independientes en cuanto a sus propositos y capitales. La primera empresa es la fabrica FK-Solartchnik Kleinkoschen que produce colectores solares para agua caliente y le interesa desarrollar publicidad en este sentido, por lo que puso a disposicion de la segunda industria el area necesaria para instalar los colectores solares. La segunda empresa, es la FGT Glaswerk Kleinkoschen que produce planchas de vidrio de alta calidad, pero no cuenta con fachada disponible para la instalacion de ningun equipo solar. En esta industria, para la fabricacion del vidrio, se utiliza agua caliente. Las planchas de vidrio, ya cortadas, pasan a un proceso de lavado y secado. El lavado, requiere de un volumen de 1 m{sup 3}/dia agua caliente, a 600 grados Celsius y se realiza entre las 6:30 y las 15:30 h. El calentamiento del agua era efectuado con dos calentadores electricos (alrededor de 12 kW cada uno). Se diseno un equipo solar que permite disminuir las perdidas de energia en la acumulacion en las horas siguientes al proceso, donde se calienta el agua, y adicionalmente se cubre parte de los requerimientos del agua consumida. Este equipo tiene una superficie de colector de 27 m{sup 2}. Con este sistema, mas el aporte realizado por los trabajadores de la empresa, disminuyo la temperatura del agua de lavado en 20 K, sin afectar la calidad del producto y se redujo ademas el consumo anual de energia electrica de la empresa en 15,000 kWh, utilizando los recursos de la energia solar en un 50% del consumo total.

  13. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  14. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  15. The new financing techniques and the reorganization of the Mexican electric industry; Las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y la reorganizacion de la industria electrica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas Samperio, Jorge; Rodriguez Viqueira, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The exhaustion of the financing model of the Mexican Electric Industry based on foreign credits, the State contribution and in a small part from auto-financing, has determined the search for new financing sources for the investment in this capital intensive sector. The main characteristic of the State new strategy to increase the investment capacity is to incite the private capital to make massive investments in the electric production segment. Nevertheless, there are different modalities to make the private capital participate in this sector`s segment. In this paper we make an analysis of the new financing techniques and their relationship with the regulations and the electric industry structure. Finally, the role of the conservation and the appropriate use of the energy is discussed as a mechanism for the modulation of the pressures coming from the financial sphere over the reorganization process of the National electric industry. [Espanol] El agotamiento del modelo de financiamiento de la industria electrica mexicana que tiene como base los creditos extranjeros, los aportes del estado y una pequena parte de autofinanciamiento, ha determinado la busqueda de nuevas fuentes de financiamiento de las inversiones de este sector intensivo en capital. La caracteristica principal de la nueva estrategia del estado para aumentar la capacidad de inversion es la de incitar al capital privado a realizar inversiones masivas en el segmento de la produccion electrica. Existen sin embargo diferentes modalidades para hacer participar al capital privado en este segmento del sector. En el presente trabajo hacemos un analisis de las nuevas tecnicas de financiamiento y sus relaciones con la reglamentacion y la estructura de la industria electrica. Por ultimo, se discute el papel del ahorro y uso eficiente como mecanismo para modular las presiones provenientes de la esfera financiera sobre el proceso de reorganizacion de la industria electrica nacional.

  16. Asjatundja soovitab Eesti Energia kiiresti börsile viia / Tiit Nigul ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nigul, Tiit

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia endine juhatuse liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad riigi energiapoliitikat ja -varustust, elektrienergia hinnatõusu, energiafirma börsileminekut, tasakaalu konkurentsiameti ja Eesti Energia vahel, ettevõtte tulusid, Narva Elektrijaamade tootmisvõimsust, koostööd Leedu tuumajaama projektiga, elektriturgu, ettevõtja Urmas Sõõrumaa süüdistamist siseinfo kasutamises, Eesti Energia strateegilist eesmärki saavutada aastaks 2015 kaks miljonit klienti

  17. Analüütikud soovitavad Eesti Energia börsile viia / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Kohalikud analüütikud soovitavad viia Eesti Energia börsile, kuna see elavdaks aktsiaturgu ja tõmbaks ligi välisinvestoreid. Vt. samas: Raivo Vare: raske aeg töötab Eesti Energia börsiletoomise kasuks; Analüüs ootab pääsu valitsuskabinetti; Juhid ei püsi enam Eesti Energias. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad; Varade maht

  18. Applications of the renewable energies; Aplicaciones de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rocha, Luis Martin [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The solar energy manifests itself in different forms and its application has been fundamental for the humankind development. These forms are known as renewable energies, since they are energy forms that are renewed or remade with time or that are so abundant on Earth, that they will last for hundreds or thousands of years, either we use them or not. The main advantage of the utilization of the renewable energies in comparison with hydrocarbons is the one of having smaller impact on the environment, which brings about the conservation of nonrenewable resources, and to postpone its exhaustion. They allow the distributed generation, diminishing the power losses in the transmission and distribution systems, which increases the overall efficiency. In addition they can be the drive for regional development and generation of employment, because when having applications in remote zones and being a field still not completely developed in Mexico, the possibility exists of enabling professionals and technicians. From the point of view of the power sector, the renewable energies extend the supply and availability of energy, making more flexible and independent the operation and reliability of the national power system. [Spanish] La energia solar se manifiesta de diversas formas y su aplicacion ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo de la humanidad. A estas formas se les conoce como energias renovables, ya que son formas de energia que se van renovando o rehaciendo con el tiempo o que son tan abundantes en la tierra, que perduraran por cientos o miles de anos, las usemos o no. La principal ventaja del aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en comparacion con los hidrocarburos es la de tener menor impacto al medio ambiente, lo que trae consigo la conservacion de recursos no renovables, y posponer su termino. Permiten la generacion distribuida, disminuyendo las perdidas energeticas en los sistemas de transmision y distribucion, lo que incrementa la eficiencia general. Ademas

  19. Kätega ravimine ehk me kõik oleme energia / Kerttu Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Kerttu, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Erinevatest energia vahendamisel põhinevatest psühhotehnikatest ja ravimeetoditest: reiki, Silva ultra, maagiline maatriks ehk MM, elektromagnetvälja tasakaalustamise tehnika EMF, kvantpuudutus, bioenergeetika

  20. L'energia nuclear: pot resoldre el problema de l'escalfament global?

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Josep

    2006-01-01

    Sovint es diu que l'energia nuclear pot ser la solució pel problema de l'escalfament global: l'article presenta dades i raonaments per concloure que, si tota l'electricitat mundial fos d'origen nuclear, l'escalfament global es reduiria tan sols en un 12%. També s'analitzen els subproductes militars de la indústria de l'energia nuclear "civil" i la problemàtica dels residus radioactius de l'energia nuclear de fissió. També s'analitza l'alt grau de dificultats que presenta l'energia nuclear de ...

  1. Dispositivo de armazenamento de energia utilizando polianilina e eletrolito polimerico

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Cilene R. Catharino

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: Recentemente, os capacitores eletroquímicos têm merecido muita atenção na área de armazenamento de energia, devido a sua possível aplicação em veículos elétricos e aparelhos eletrônicos. O desenvolvimento nessa área requer um armazenamento de energia com alta densidade e tempos curtos de carga e descarga. Polímeros condutores tem a vantagem sobre óxidos, como eletrodos para capacitores, porque são fáceis de processar e tem baixo custo de produção. Neste trabalho são mostrados resultad...

  2. Eesti Energia senine juhatus jätkab veel vähemalt aasta / Anneli Ammas, Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas jätta ettevõtte juhatuse veel aastaks ametisse, juhikonkursi korraldamise kohta otsust ei langetatud. Nõukogu liikmete kommentaare. Lisa: Eesti Energia kasvatas eksporti

  3. O espaço da energia nuclear no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Francisco de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo repassa a história e descreve a experiência acumulada em energia nuclear no Brasil, mostrando que as aplicações biomédicas, industriais e agrícolas desenvolveram-se bem no país, a partir dos anos 1950. Em seguida, o artigo demonstra que o país pode cobrir seu consumo de energia elétrica apenas com fontes renováveis de energia, sem recorrer a usinas nucleares de potência. Por fim, são analisados os argumentos comuns na imprensa, a favor e contrários às centrais nucleares, e são discutidos alguns aspectos comerciais e políticos do problema. São também examinadas as estratégias de vendas da indústria nuclear no Brasil.This article reviews the history and describes the experience on nuclear energy in Brazil, showing that nuclear technology applied to biomedical sciences, industry and agriculture has been largely developed in this country, from the year 1950 on. Then the paper shows that Brazil can cover its electricity consumption with only renewable energy sources, without nuclear power plants. Finally the arguments usually employed in the press, pro and against nuclear power plants are analyzed and some commercial and political aspects of the problem are commented. The sales strategy of the nuclear industry in Brazil is also commented.

  4. Energy of our planet; La energia de nuestro planeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alvarado, Ignacio; Santoyo Gutierrez, Edgar [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The total heat flowing from the Earth's interior to the surface is estimated at {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) of which 19% comes from the crust, the 76% comes from the mantle and the 5% comes from the nucleus. The ability to drive the heat of the rocks is very low, causing the need of hundreds of millions of years to exhaust this energy resource. Based on the properties of the renewable heat flow and the long geological times required for its exhaustion, the Earth energy is considered by many scientists as a source of inexhaustible renewable energy, and by its natural availability in all parts of our planet, perhaps the best distributed, together with solar energy. One of the most important advantages of geothermal energy is that its energy can be used not only to generate electric power, but in a large number of applications or direct uses: the heating of buildings, greenhouses or incubators; aquaculture; in various industrial processes (drying products, food packaging, paper manufacturing, chemicals, etc.); balneology for recreational purposes and medicines, and many other applications. In fact, geothermal applications can be integrally one after another or in processes in cascade to fully utilize its energy content. [Spanish] El calor total que fluye del interior de la Tierra hacia la superficie se estima en {approx}42 TW (1012 watts) del cual 19% proviene de la corteza, el 76% proviene del manto y el 5% proviene del nucleo. La capacidad para conducir el calor de las rocas es muy baja, lo que ocasiona que se necesiten cientos de millones de anos para agotar este recurso energetico. Basado en las propiedades renovables del flujo de calor y los largos tiempos geologicos requeridos para su agotamiento, la energia de la Tierra es considerada por muchos cientificos como una fuente de energia renovable, practicamente inagotable, y por su disponibilidad natural en todo nuestro planeta, quizas la mejor distribuida, junto con la energia solar. Una de las ventajas mas

  5. Eesti Energia nõukogu liikmed Jaotusvõrgu hinnatõusutaotlust kommenteerima ei kipu / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu liige Kalle Palling kommenteerib peaminister Andrus Ansipi öeldut, et Eesti Energia investeeringud tuleb üle vaadata. Nõukogu liikme Rein Kilgi sõnul tunduvad talle rünnakud Eesti Energia vastu ülekohtused

  6. Roheline energia läheb müüki topelthinnaga / Ervin Soon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soon, Ervin

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Energia on märtsi keskel käivitanud Rohelise Energia kampaaniaga leidnud võtte, kuidas kaks korda kõrgema elektri müügihinnaga katta alternatiivenergia kohustusliku kokkuostu järjest kasvavaid kulusid

  7. Eesti Energia börsile! Argus riputaks ta meile kiviks kaela / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimalikust börsileviimisest. Autori sõnul poleks börsikavagi täieliku riskita, peaküsimus võib hakata puudutama nn. rahvaaktsia kava. Kõige halvem oleks Eesti Energia puhul otsustamatus

  8. Eesti Energia kärpis elektrihinna tõusu / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. veebr. 2004, lk. 1. Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas vähendada taotletavat elektrienergia hinnatõusu 15%ni ja lükkas hinnapakettide lõpliku kinnitamise edasi nädala võrra. Riigikogu ja Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme Janno Reiljani arvamus

  9. Eesti Energia juhi küsimus jäi ajapuudusel lahendamata / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu jättis otsustamata, kas ettevõtte juhatuse esimehe kohale kuulutatakse välja avalik konkurss. Vt. samas: Oki valulaps on elektri hind; Kronoloogia: Eesti Energia on Gunnar Oki juhtimisel kõvasti kosunud

  10. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  11. Ülikoolihõnguline personalikoolitus Eesti Energias / Annika Kaseorg ; küsitlenud Kadri Kiigema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaseorg, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Energia alustatud uuest projektist "Nädalalõpu Ülikool" räägib Eesti Energia Jaotusvõrgu personali arendamise projektijuht Annika Kaseorg. Avaseminaril tegi ettekande töövõime säilitamisest TLÜ terviseteaduste ja spordi teaduskonna dekaan Kristjan Port

  12. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... Renovable) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to...

  13. Design and analysis of an intelligent public FV lighting system; Diseno y analisis de un alumbrado publico FV inteligente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanessian D, Ana V.; Gordon, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In the Mexico's National Energy Balance of 2008, it is considered that of the total of the electrical power consumption in our country, 18% is dedicated to lighting. Conscious of the necessity of saving energy in public lighting in this article is presented the design, construction and analysis of the power consumption of a public light fed with electricity of photovoltaic cells and the control of intensity on the light in inverse way of the natural light. A lamp constructed based in light emitting diodes (LEDs) is used. This has the quality of consuming very little energy that could be provided by the sun and be stored to use it at night. With this system, proven at scale, energy savings are obtained superior to 50% of the conventional one and, in relation to the commercial photovoltaic (FV) luminaries up to 30%. [Spanish] Del Balance Nacional de Energia, de Mexico, de 2008, se considera que del total del consumo de energia electrica en nuestro pais, el 18% esta dedicado a la iluminacion. Conscientes de la necesidad de ahorrar energia en alumbrado publico, en este articulo se presenta el diseno de construccion y analisis del consumo energetico de una luminaria publica alimentada con electricidad de celdas fotovoltaicas y el control de intensidad de la luz de manera inversa a la luz natural. Se utiliza un foco construido a base a los diodos emisores de luz (LEDs, por sus siglas en ingles). Estos tienen la cualidad de consumir muy poca energia que podra ser suministrada por el sol y almacenada para utilizarla en la noche. Con este sistema, probado a escala, se logran ahorros de energia superiores al 50% del convencional y, en relacion a las luminarias fotovoltaicas (FV) comerciales, hasa el 30%.

  14. Avaliação económica de um investimento em geração de energia das ondas e energia solar térmica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo efectuar a avaliação económica e determinar a viabilidade com e sem os incentivos fiscais de duas tecnologias de conversão de duas fontes distinta e emergentes de energia renovável, o Concentrador Cilindro-parabólico e a Torre Solar para a energia solar termoeléctrica e a Coluna de Água Oscilante e o Pelamis para a energia das ondas. Realiza-se uma curta abordagem à energia Solar e à energia dos Oceanos, e às tecnologias existentes para estes tipos de en...

  15. TTÜ energia- ja sisekliimalabor : energiasääst passiivse arhitektuurilise jahutuse ja/või küttemeetodite kavandamise abil / Hendrik Voll, Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia- ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  16. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  17. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  18. The Spanish energetic mix; prevision and historic evolution of the electric production structure; El mix energetico espanol; evolucion historica y prevista de la estructura de produccion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revuelta, J.; Lopez Sanz, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the past and forecasted evolution of the electric production of the Spanish system (excluding the Spanish isolated systems), according to the records of the System Operator, Red Electrica de Espana, and the studies of its Network Planning department. The behaviour of the demand is analysed, as well as the evolution of the generation mix. The article expose the main recent changes the sector has undergone and points out the main future challenge it will face regarding the forecasted evolution of the demand, the integration of renewable energy sources, and the energy objectives established at European and national level. (Author)

  19. Lighting systems control; El control en los sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga Alpizar, Eric [Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Mexico)]. E-mail: eric_aa@hotmail.com

    2006-04-15

    In any workplace the illumination systems are very important, nevertheless, it is essential to control them in order to save energy. This article presents the six following control strategies for the efficient electric power use: programming, lights only will be on when it is necessary; natural light use, illumination will be replaced by using sunlight; lumens level maintenance, average level illumination can be measured utilizing this method; adjustment, the lowest illumination average is required avoiding to affect the performance and adaptation-compensation, decreasing the system variation. In addition there are also control devices which will operate the system, such as automatic devices, presence sensors and photo sensors. [Spanish] Los sistemas de iluminacion son muy importantes en cualquier lugar de trabajo, no obstante, es necesario que tengan un control, para lograr ahorrar energia. Este articulo presenta seis estrategias de control para el uso eficiente de la energia electrica: la programacion, con esta medida solo se encenderia la luz cuando sea necesario; uso de luz natural, asi se puede prescindir de la iluminacion pues la luz solar cumple con su funcion; mantenimiento del nivel de lumenes, de esta manera se mantiene un nivel promedio de iluminacion; ajuste, se ocupa el nivel de luz mas bajo posible sin afectar el rendimiento y adaptacion-compensacion, reduce la variacion del sistema. Por otro lado tambien hay dispositivos de control, que haran el trabajo, tales como dispositivos automaticos, sensores de presencia y fotosensores.

  20. Estimation of charges for services of transmission of electrical energy between regions of the national electrical system; Estimacion de cargos por servicios de transmision de energia electrica entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda Ruiz, Adrian; Flores Alba, Dora Elia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Escobar Lopez, Akihito [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In order to facilitate the answer of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to the requests of services of transmission of authorized or potential licensees, this organism devised the construction of matrices of charges that allow in a fast and direct way for specific transactions, to know the charges in which different types of transmission services incur classified by transport levels and by tension levels in which the service is asked for. These tables could be published in the media that might be judged advisable, in order that the applicant licensees have access to a preliminary estimation of the charges for the required services, without the need of going, for one first estimation, directly to the CFE for their calculation. This article presents the results of the development of a calculation tool that allows estimating, in a fast and efficient way, charges for transmission services between regions of the national electrical system. [Spanish] Para facilitar la respuesta de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a las solicitudes de servicios de transmision de permisionarios autorizados o potenciales, esta ideo la construccion de matrices de cargos que permitan de manera rapida y directa para transacciones especificas, conocer los cargos en que incurren diferentes tipos de servicios de transmision clasificados por niveles de transporte y por niveles de tension en los que se solicita el servicio. Dichas tablas podran ser publicadas en los medios que se juzguen convenientes, con el fin de que los permisionarios solicitantes tengan acceso a una estimacion preliminar de los cargos por los servicios requeridos, sin necesidad de acudir, para una primera estimacion, directamente a la CFE para su calculo. Este articulo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de una herramienta de calculo que permite estimar, de manera rapida y eficiente, matrices de cargos por servicios de transmision entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional.

  1. 15 years of production of electric energy of the Laguna Verde power plant, its plans and future; 15 anos de produccion de energia electrica de la Central Laguna Verde, sus planes y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the year 2005 Laguna Verde power plant reaches 15 years of producing electric power in Mexico arriving to but of 100 million Megawatts-hour from their beginning of commercial activities. The Unit 1 that entered at July 29, 1990 and the Unit 2 at April 10, 1995, obtaining the Disposability Factors from their origin is: 84.63% in Unit 1 and 83.67% in Unit 2. The march of the X XI century gives big challenges of competition to the Laguna Verde Central, with the possible opening of the electric market to private investment, for their Goals and Objectives of a world class company, taking the evaluation system and qualification of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) that promotes the Excellence in the operation of the nuclear power stations in all their partners. This Association supports the development of programs that allow the monitoring of the behavior in Safety Culture, Human fulfilment, Equipment reliability, Industrial Safety, Planning, Programming and Control, Personalized Systematic Training, and the use of the Operational experience in the daily tasks. The present work tries to explain the system of evaluation/qualification of WANO, the definition of Goals and Objectives to reach the excellence and of the programs, it will present the Program of the Reliability of Equipment with its main actions the productivity. (Author)

  2. The efficient use of the electric energy in underground water pumping systems in the Bajio (lowlands); El uso eficiente de la energia electrica en los sistemas de bombeo de agua subterranea en el Bajio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E. [Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the Bajio region the underground water is the main source of drinking water and approximately constitutes 50% of the water used for agricultural purposes. From the energy standpoint pumping represents 33% of the electricity consumption and a wastage of 35% is estimated. In order to take care of this problem a methodology was designed for an energetic appraisal of the well pumping systems, with the basic objective of knowing the electro-mechanical efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the auxiliary equipment and the well hydraulic response. The analysis of the results of 221 diagnoses performed demonstrates the profitability of the equipment rehabilitation, plus other advantages of collective character . [Espanol] En la region del Bajio, el agua subterranea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable y aproximadamente, el 50% del agua para riego agricola; desde el punto de vista energetico, el bombeo de ella representa el 33% de la electricidad que se consume y se estima un desperdicio del 35%. Para atender la problematica, se diseno una metodologia para un diagnostico energetico de los sistemas de bombeo de los pozos, con el objetivo basico de conocer la eficiencia electro-mecanica de los equipos, el comportamiento de los equipos auxiliares y la capacidad de respuesta hidraulica del pozo. El analisis de los resultados de 221 diagnosticos realizados, pone de manifiesto la redituabilidad de la rehabilitacion de los equipos, ademas de otras ventajas de caracter colectivo.

  3. Conditions of a new development of the nuclear energy: the new imperatives of the electric competition; Condiciones de un nuevo desarrollo de la energia nuclear: los nuevos imperativos de la competencia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environment et le Developpement, CNRS, Campus du Jardin Tropical 45 bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle 94736, Nogent-sur-Marne Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    In this work firstly, it is present a panorama that it makes mention to the energy and environmental aspects of long term for which the reactivation of the nuclear sector could be one of the main answers in the electric industry. Next, we will determine the specific imperatives that weigh on the nuclear investment in a market environment. Later on we will examine the way in that the general problem of the investments in the liberalized electric industries takes progressively to abandon the competitive pattern of reference in diverse countries, that which allows to establish a field most favorable for the nuclear investment. Finally, we will analyze the viability of the public areas that the states could apply to create a specific mark dedicated to organize the nuclear investments in the electric industries where the competition continued being very strong. (Author)

  4. Analysis of Methodologies for Identifying Exclusion Zones for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP); Analisis de Metodologias de Identificacion de Zonas de Exclusion para Estudios de Potencial de Energia Electrica Termosolar (CSP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, P.; Ramirez, L.; Navarro, A. A.; Polo, J.; Zarza, E.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is the proposal of a valid and unique methodology to any territory of the potential for solar power generation, reducing subjectivity and enabling comparison of results from the examination of several existing methodologies for CSP, particularly those developed by the Institute for diversification and saving of Energy (IDAE), Greenpeace, National renewable energy laboratory (NREL) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Subsequently, we apply and compare the results obtained with those already installed CSP plants, giving an idea of the suitability of each methodology to locate plants in areas considered suitable. (Author)

  5. Estimation of requirements of eolic energy equivalent to the electric generation of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Estimacion de requerimientos de energia eolica equivalente a la generacion electrica de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia V, M.A.; Hernandez M, I.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: maiki27@yahoo.com; Martin del Campo M, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, UNAM, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The advantages are presented that have the nuclear and eolic energy as for their low environmental impact and to the human health. An exercise is presented in the one that is supposed that the electric power generated by the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant (CNLV), with capacity of 1365 M W, it should be produced by eolic energy when in the years 2020 and 2025 the units 1 and 2 of the CNLV reach its useful life and be moved away. It is calculated the number of aero generators that would produce the electric power average yearly of the CNLV, that which is equal to install eolic parks with capacity of 2758 M W, without considering that it will also be invested in systems of back generation to produce electricity when the aero generators stops for lack of wind. (Author)

  6. Fussy control for the operation of an electric energy generation system based in type PEM fuel cells; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Roman, Miguel

    2004-10-15

    In this work, the design of a control system with fuzzy PID controllers is reported. It combines the techniques of multimode control and gain scheduling as well as the design of a compensator that will reduce the interaction effects among control loops in a multivariable system. The simulated system is based on a non-lineal mathematical model. Its validity range supports up to 1440 watts, for a nominal design of 1 KW power. To carry out the fuzzy PID Controller's design, firstly the PID conventional controllers were designed for three operating points of power demand: 0 W, 500 W and 1000 W. The methodology adopted for the determination of the conventional PID controller's parameters was poles cancellation. This methodology demanded the lineal identification of the process for the three mentioned operating points: low, medium and high power. With the information obtained from the adjusted conventional controllers in the three operating points, the design of fuzzy PID controllers based on the TSK system was achieved. For this work, this method is equivalent to the technique of gain scheduling since only conventional PID controllers with the same structure are used. In addition, a control scheme using a compensator that had the function of reducing the interaction effects among the control loops was designed. The compensator was located between the controller and the plant and only introduces compensation factors among control signals, maintaining the direct path of the control loop in the original control scheme. Several tests of the whole operating range, in order to make a performance analysis of both the conventional PID controller and the fuzzy PID controller were carried out, introducing step form signals in the power demand. The performance of the generation system was validated as a function of an error based index minimization as well as on the actuator control signal shape. The dynamic coupling degree among the control loops was analyzed, as well as static interaction compensators with the most common methods found in the bibliography: ideal, simplified and inverse were designed. Simulation tests for the analysis of the compensator with reference changes for anode pressure, cathode pressure changes as well as for cell temperature carried out. Also, a fuzzy compensator to carry out the analysis in the whole operation range were designed. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reporta el diseno de un sistema de control integrado por controladores PID difusos, que conjunta las tecnicas de control multimodo y de ganancias programadas, y el diseno de un compensador que reduce los efectos de interaccion entre los lazos de control del sistema multivariable. El modelo matematico que se simulo en este trabajo de tesis tiene la caracteristica de ser un modelo no lineal. Su rango de validez abarca hasta 1440 watts, para un diseno nominal de 1 KW de potencia. Para llevar a cabo el diseno del Controlador PID difuso, primero se disenaron controladores PID convencionales en tres puntos de operacion de demanda de potencia: 0 W, 500 W y 1000 W. La metodologia de ajuste empleada para la determinacion de las ganancias del control PID convencional fue la de cancelacion de polos. Esta metodologia requirio de la identificacion lineal del proceso en los tres puntos de operacion mencionados: baja, media y alta potencia. Con la informacion obtenida de los controladores convencionales ajustados en los tres puntos de operacion, fue posible el diseno de controladores PID difusos basados en el sistema TSK. Para este trabajo de tesis el metodo es solo equivalente a la tecnica de ganancias programadas ya que solo se usan controladores PID convencionales con la misma estructura. Se diseno tambien un esquema de control con un compensador el cual tiene como funcion el reducir los efectos de interaccion entre los lazos de control. Dicho compensador se localizo entre el controlador y la planta y solamente introduce factores de compensacion entre las senales de control conservando la via directa del lazo de control del esquema de control original. Se realizaron pruebas en todo el rango de operacion, para el analisis del desempeno del controlador PID convencional y el controlador PID difuso, introduciendo senales en forma de escalon en la demanda de potencia. Se valido el desempeno del sistema de generacion en funcion de la minimizacion de un indice de error y de la forma suave de la senal de control hacia los actuadores. Se analizo el grado de acoplamiento dinamico entre los lazos de control y se disenaron compensadores de interaccion estaticos con los metodos mas comunes encontrados en la bibliografia: ideal, simplificado e inverso. Se realizaron pruebas para el analisis del compensador ante cambios en la referencia para la presion del anodo, presion del catodo y temperatura de la celda, se diseno tambien un compensador difuso para llevar a cabo el analisis en todo el rango de operacion.

  7. Implementation of portfolio theory to the analysis of electricity generation in Mexico; Implementacion de la teoria del portafolio para el analisis de la generacion de energia electrica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    As part of the activities of economic analysis to the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027 of Mexico has been developed a computational platform to support decision-making based on the risk and performance in obtaining the optimum combination of technologies involved in the electricity generation. To this end, they consider five technologies: combined cycle, thermal coal, nuclear, hydro and wind. Each technology has been analyzed independently based on the total cost of generation level (given in dl s/KWh or dl s/MWh), leaning on documents as the Poise 2012-2026 and COPAR 2013. Subsequently by portfolio theory proposed by Markowitz, that combination of technologies that provide a greater benefit in the electricity generation is determined. In this study we consider two base work areas on which the proposed portfolios are reflected. The conformation of work areas is derived from the National Energy Strategy 2013-2027, considering a scenario with fossil technologies (combined cycle, thermal coal and nuclear) and other, making greater emphasis on the use of renewable technologies (combined cycle, hydro and wind). Finally, four portfolios are presented, each one with different percentages of ownership of technology in electricity generation, verifying the risk and performance of each combination. Of the analyzed portfolios, one corresponds to the mix of technologies which are currently in the country. The remaining derive the percentage share of combined-cycle technology, by subtracting 10% of their contribution and distributing it in three ways: by increasing the 10% share of nuclear technology; increasing 10% contribution of thermal coal technology and finally, extending the 5% of the electricity generation of nuclear technology and 5% increase in the electricity generation by wind technology. (Author)

  8. Evolution of electric power quality in the electricity distribution networks of Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area; La evolucion de la calidad de la energia en las redes de distribucion electrica de la zona metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnoni, Mario [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Grupo Energia y Ambiente. E-mail: mbrugno@aleph.fi.uba.ar

    1998-07-01

    The standards adopted for technical service quality in the Metropolitan Buenos Aires Concession Area and the results obtained in the application of the quality improvement during its first phase is analyzed. (author)

  9. The need of a systematic approach for developing training programs in electrical power plants; Necesidad de un enfoque sistematico para el desarrollo de planes de capacitacion de centrales generadoras de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendizabal, Jose L.; Blesa, Pedro [TECNATOM SA, Madrid (Spain); Saiz, Maria Carmen [Central Nuclear de Almaraz, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The work and tasks analysis process application based on the job position as a starting point for training plans design, gives accomplished answer to the first of the demands. The training, instrumentalized, in the job position tries to solve the second one. (author).

  10. Ecologic Generation on electricity during the transport and distribution of natural gas; Generacion ecologica de energia electrica en los procesos de transporte y de distribucion de gas natural canalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The pipeline transmission and distribution of natural gas is carried out at high pressure. However, the pressure has to be reduced to supply the natural gas to local networks. The decrease of the pressure take place in the so-called Regulating an Metering Gas Stations. Currently, it is possible to make use of this gas expansion process to generate electrical energy by means of Gas Expanders. These technologies do not consume chemically natural gas to generate electricity and, consequently do not producer air-pollutants such as CO. SO2, and NOx in comparison with the fuel driven combustion technologies. Environmentally, the Gas Expanders are clean energy devices and should be legally kept in mind as the renewable energies are considered. (Author)

  11. Minema kupatatud nõukoguliikmed: Eesti Energia projektid kukkusid läbi / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts otsustas Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi kutsuda Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku, kes olid vastu Eesti Energia üle viie miljoni euro suurusele investeeringule Weroli rapsiõlitehase juurde rajatavasse elektri- ja küttejaama. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium peab tagandatud nõukoguliikmete väiteid, et Eesti Energia juhtkond käitub omanikust riigiga omatahtsi ja peab endiselt plaani siirduda börsile, absurdiks. Ministeerium: ei mingit IPO-t

  12. Wind power in Mexico: simulation of a wind farm and application of probabilistic safety analysis; La energia del viento en Mexico: Simulacion de un parque eolico y aplicacion de analisis probabilistica de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo Marquez, C.; Nelson Edestein, P.F.; Garcia Vazquez, M.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com; pnelson_007@yahoo.com; maiki27@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. In particular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100MW wind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs. [Spanish] Se presentan los aspectos mas importantes referentes a la energia eolica en Mexico, su potencial de aprovechamiento y los proyectos planeados. Se comparan sus costos de generacion electrica con los de otras fuentes de energia. Se presentan los resultados de la simulacion con el programa WindPro, de un parque eolico de 100 MW localizado en el Istmo de Tehuantepec. Asimismo, se analizan algunos de los impactos ambientales relacionados con la instalacion de paquetes eolicos en la zona mencionada. Finalmente, se discuten las ventajas que pueden aportar los analisis probabilisticas de seguridad para evaluar los riesgos asociados a eventos que pueden ocurrir en los parques eolicos, sino de los resultados de este analisis de utilidad para el diseno y mantenimiento de los parques y de los propios aerogeneradores. Especificamente se desarrollo un arbol de eventos con el

  13. Analysis of passive systems as a tool for energy saving in buildings: solar control; Analisis de sistemas pasivos como herramienta para el ahorro de energia en edificaciones: Control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Maricela; Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A bioclimatic study of El Salvador is presented, with the purpose of using window eaves as elements of passive solar control and to determine the optimal angles of orientation, in order to diminish the thermal gains by direct solar radiation and to manage to get close to the comfort conditions. The former with the intention of integrating measures that help to obtain energy efficiency and comfortable buildings, for the conditions of warm humid climate, characteristic of a Central American country like El Salvador. Besides offering a document of consultation among the professionals dedicated to the design and as base of bioclimatic considerations that must have the construction regulations. As a conclusion the optimal angles of eaves for each orientation are presented and a quantitative estimation of the savings that would imply not to consume electrical energy in cooling systems using these elements as a protection to the direct solar radiation. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio del bioclima de El Salvador, con el fin de utilizar aleros de ventana como elementos de control solar pasivo y determinar los angulos optimos por orientacion, para disminuir las ganancias termicas por radiacion solar directa y lograr acercar a las condiciones de confort. Lo anterior con el objeto de integrar medidas que coadyuven a lograr edificios energeticamente eficientes y confortables, para las condiciones de clima calido humedo, caracteristico de un pais centroamericano como El Salvador. Ademas de brindar un documento de consulta entre los profesionales dedicados al dise y como base de consideraciones bioclimaticas que debe tener el reglamento de construcciones. Como conclusion se presentan los angulos optimos de alero por cada orientacion y una estimacion cuantitativa del ahorro que implicaria el no consumir energia electrica en sistemas de enfriamiento utilizando estos elementos como una proteccion a la radiacion solar directa.

  14. Eesti Energia korraldas OSELCA projekti raames Tallinnas rahvusvahelise seminari / Reigo Lehtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtla, Reigo

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia AS korraldas 12.-13. septembrini 2005. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli energeetikahoones rahvusvahelise seminari olelusringi hindamise (Life Cycle Assessment) metoodika hetkeseisust Ida-Euroopa regioonis

  15. Energia ja sisekliima labor aitab parandada arhitektide ja inseneride koostööd / Hendrik Voll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voll, Hendrik, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    TTÜ ehitusteaduskonna kütte ja ventilatsiooni õppetoolis valmis energia ja sisekliima labor, mille spetsiaalsed päikesekiirguse ja hajuvalguse stendid aitavad inseneridel ja arhitektidel parandada energiasimulatsiooniprogrammide kasutusoskusi

  16. Energy conservation and contribution to the sustained development through action in the bioclimate design; Ahorro de energia y contribucion al desarrollo sustentable a partir de acciones de diseno bioclimatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, J. R.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    , construction and monitoring of the functioning of cooling passive systems. The results obtained to date point out that the energy consumption has diminished and improved the environmental comfort conditions for the library building users. [Espanol] La crisis mundial de energia de 1973, ademas de los problemas de abastecimiento y elevacion de precios, propicio tambien diversos paises, una reaccion orientada al uso eficiente y conservacion de la energia, y a la aplicacion de una arquitectura con sentido comun: la ARQUITECTURA BIOCLIMATICA, misma que se basa en la utilizacion en las edificaciones de las energias alternativas, tales como la solar eolica, etc. Obtencion de condiciones de confort natural ambiental y ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en los edificios, son los objetivos fundamentales de la ARQUITECTURA BIOCLIMATICA. Bajo estas consideraciones, se han planteado diversos sistemas pasivos para control termico de edificios, los cuales se han aplicado en diferentes regiones climaticas del planeta. En el presente trabajo, se presenta y analiza el potencial de medidas para ahorro de energia, tales como sistemas de iluminacion artificial de alta eficiencia y sistemas pasivos de enfriamiento para el control termico de un edificio educativo, la biblioteca central de la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, ubicada en la ciudad de Mexico. El objetivo de este estudio se orienta a la reduccion del consumo de energia en la biblioteca, y a la obtencion de condiciones de confort ambiental higrotermico para sus ocupantes. Estudios realizados durante la primera etapa de investigacion, han permitido identificar un excesivo consumo de energia y condiciones de falta de confort higrotermico y de la necesaria calidad del aire interior en la biblioteca. Estas acciones se han enfocado en dos aspectos. El primero se refiere al mejoramiento de la operacion de la instalacion electrica y el alumbrado de la biblioteca. Estas acciones se basaron en la sustitucion de lamparas

  17. The Ciudad Universitaria and the energy; La ciudad universitaria y la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola Valdes, Eduardo; Villanueva Moreno, Carlos; Alvarez Watkins, Pablo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    The fundamental intention of the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia is to turn to the university campus of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) into a model of intelligent use of the different necessary forms of energy for the satisfaction of its necessities. In order to do so, the macro project is sustained in six lines of investigation and development: Solar energy, energy from biomass; hydrogen energy; diagnosis and energy saving; use and energy saving; and energy culture. The macro project is framed in an effort of the UNAM to foment the trans-disciplinary collaboration and therefore, under the coordination of the Faculty of Engineering the following university dependencies participate in this persistence: Faculty of Sciences; Faculty of Chemistry; Faculty of Architecture; Faculty of Accountants and Administration; Faculty of Economy; FES Aragon; Institute of Engineering; Institute of Geophysics; Institute of Physics; Research Center in Energy; Center of Applied Sciences and Technological Development. For that intention, in the period the 2005-2007 the Trans-disciplinary Program in Investigation and Development for Faculties and Schools of the UNAM will contribute with 30 million pesos to the macro project La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia. [Spanish] El proposito fundamental del macroproyecto La Ciudad Universitaria y la Energia es el convertir al campus universitario de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) en un modelo de utilizacion inteligente de las diferentes formas de energia necesarias para la satisfaccion de sus necesidades. Para lograrlo, el macroproyecto se sustenta en las seis lineas de investigacion y desarrollo: Energia solar, energia de biomasa; energia del hidrogeno; diagnostico y ahorro de energia; utilizacion y ahorro de energia; y cultura energetica. El macroproyecto se enmarca en un esfuerzo de la UNAM por fomentar la colaboracion transdisciplinaria y por tanto, bajo la coordinacion de la Facultad

  18. Eesti Energia kuulutas naabritele elektrisõja / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia plaanib Läti ja Leedu kohtusse anda, kui läbirääkimised ei too lahendust. Sandor Liive peab oluliseks, et EL kehtestaks tollimaksu Vene elektrile. Käimas on lobitöö Põhjamaade elektribörsi laiendamiseks Eestisse 2009. aastast, mis tooks siia avatud turu läbipaistva hinnakujunduse; peetakse reaalseks, et Eesti Energia võib saada äriosaluse kavandatavas Olkiluoto 6. reaktoris. Lisa: Elektri hind võib 1. jaanuarist kahekordistuda

  19. Communicación sobre lineas de suministro de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigueira, M.D.; Gerald, José A. B.; Inácio, José A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Informacion Tcnológica, vol. 11, nº6 Proponemos un sistema para la comunicación sobre líneas de la energia eléctrica usando DS/BPSK con un régimen binario de 300 bits/s. La señal de ensanchado tiene una secuencia máxima de longitud 7 como código de “chip”, repetida 30 veces para cada dígito binario del código de la información BPSK. La sincronización entre la señal del receptor y la secuéncia PN localmente generada es obtenida por un nuevo acercamiento basado en un filtro adaptado....

  20. Russian RSC Energia employees inspect DM in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia prepare to conduct final inspections of the Russian-built Docking Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  1. Russian RSC Energia employees attach trunnions to DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia attach trunnions to the Russian-built docking module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC so that it can be mounted in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  2. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barragán-Alturo, Ancízar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos: los costos elevados, las fluctuaciones de voltaje, los cortes de energía, los daños en los electrodomésticos

  3. EL ALTO MAGDALENA- COLOMBIA DE LA MANO CON ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS

    OpenAIRE

    ANCÍZAR BARRAGÁN-ALTURO

    2013-01-01

    El afán por destruir un paradigma, que mantiene encadenados a los habitantes de Girardot y la región, a una compañía de distribución de la energía eléctrica con sus altos precios para el kilowatt-hora, ha inspirado la investigación CUNDINAMARCA DE LA MANO DE LAS ENERGIAS ALTERNATIVAS, demostrando por diversos caminos que el montaje de paneles solares para generación de energía eléctrica en las cubiertas de las casas es la energía alternativa para la solución de diversos problemas, entre ellos...

  4. PERSPECTIVAS DE INSERÇÃO DA ENERGIA SOLAR FOTOVOLTAICA NA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Fialho Wanderley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A geração de energia elétrica no Brasil é predominantemente renovável, com a geração interna hidráulica sendo superior a 74% do total de sua matriz energética. O racionamento de energia elétrica ocorrido em 2001, devido à falta de chuvas, levou o país a incrementar a participação de fontes alternativas de energia. Esta necessidade por novas fontes de energia faz com que as potencialidades regionais sejam aproveitadas, o que configura a mudança do modelo de geração, passando de geração centralizada para geração distribuída. Dentre as fontes alternativas de energia, a solar apresenta-se como uma fonte bastante promissora para o Brasil, tendo em vista que a maior parte do seu território está localizada próximo à linha do equador, o que acarreta em um dia de maior duração solar. O Rio Grande do Norte (RN tem um dos maiores índices de incidência solar do território brasileiro, o que o torna apto a receber investimentos para a instalação de usinas solares fotovoltaicas. Este artigo analisará o potencial de geração da energia solar fotovoltaica no RN através de medições solarimétricas realizadas em Natal, capital do estado.

  5. Influência da Transferência de Momento-Energia na Interação entre Matéria e Energia escura

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Collis Olivari

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, estudamos modelos cosmológicos em que a energia escura foi tratada como um campo de matéria que interage com a matéria escura. Três modelos distintos foram considerados. O primeiro trata tanto a matéria escura fria quanto a energia escura como fluidos perfeitos. O termo de interação entre eles é dado por uma expressão com origem fenomenológica que postulamos existir na equação de balanço entre esses dois fluidos. Dadas as equações no universo plano de Friedmann-Robertson-Walke...

  6. INTEGRAÇÃO DE PILHAS DE CÉLULAS A COMBUSTÍVEL COM OUTRAS FONTES ALTERNATIVAS DE ENERGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Porto de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação refere-se ao desenvolvimento de um sistema de integração entre uma pilha de células a combustível (CaCs), e outros módulos geradores de energia alternativa utilizando gerador eólico, gerador fotovoltaico e um acumulador de energia formado por um banco de baterias. Este sistema foi implementado no Centro de Estudos em Energia e Meio Ambiente-CEEMA, no Centro de Tecnologia da UFSM. As fontes alternativas de energia foram conectadas de forma a injetarem corrente CC em um barr...

  7. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  8. A microwave technique for electrical conductivity measurements in semiconductors; Un procedimiento en frecuencia de microondas para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Zehe, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Starostenko, O [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, (Mexico); Perez, L [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    In the present paper a theoretical approach is given together with the description of the experimental technique for electrical conductivity measurements of semiconductors in frequency range of 10 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of {lambda}= 3 cm. It is shown, that the sample conductivity, measured without the need of electrical contacts, Is practically identical with results obtained by direct current methods. The potential use of the method for dielectric measurements in samples of general shape is included in the discussion. Given that the local electrical field is known only in bodies of ellipsoidal shape, one has to apply approximation methods for sample shapes of practical relevance (cylinders, cubes, disks). Finally, the measuring range and corresponding errors are explained on the base of measurements realized with silicon samples. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la teoria junto con la descripcion del arreglo experimental para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en muestras semiconductoras, utilizando un campo de microondas de {lambda}= 3 cm, correspondiente a una frecuencia n de 10 GHz. Se demuestra que la conductividad electrica medida sin la necesidad de contactos electricos es practicamente identica con resultados obtenidos por el metodo comun utilizando corriente directa (d.c.). Se incorpora en la discusion ademas el potencial del metodo para el estudio de propiedades dielectricas en muestras de geometria general. Dado que solamente en cuerpos con geometria elipsoidal se conoce bien el campo electrico local, y con esto el momento bipolar inducido, para muestras de geometrias mas practicas (cilindros, cubos, discos) se acude a metodos de aproximacion. Finalmente, se discute el rango de mediciones y errores, y se presentan mediciones concretas, utilizando muestras de silicio.

  9. Gunnar Okk jääb vähemalt aastaks Eesti Energia etteotsa / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu otsustas, et Eesti Energia juhi kohale korraldatakse konkurss aasta pärast ning nõukogu esimees Urmas Sõõrumaa sai volituse juhatuse liikmetega läbi rääkida ja nende lepinguid aasta võrra pikendada. Lisa: Gunnar Oki töö

  10. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for...

  11. Book Presentation: “L’Energia del vuoto” by Bruno Arpaia

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    “It is nighttime on a Swiss highway. A car travels at high speed, heading to Marseilles. Pietro Leone, UN Geneva civil servant, is at the wheel. His son Nico is asleep next to him. The two are fleeing from something unknown...   ... Pietro only knows that, for the past few days, someone has been discreetly following him and his family, and that his wife Emilia, a CERN researcher, vanished from home a few days before…” Would you like to know what happens next? The Library, in cooperation with the association “Cultura Italia”, is organizing a presentation of “L’energia del vuoto”. A brief introduction to this book will be followed by a debate among the participants. Bruno Arpaia, journalist, writer and translator, has written 3 novels and 4 political essays. “L’energia del vuoto” is his latest novel, inspired by a visit he paid to CERN.   “L’energia del...

  12. Interactive applications for energy saving; Aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adame Gonzalez, Alejandro; Ramirez Anaya, Cesar; Gutierrez, Hector; Dominguez Ojeda, Xerxes; Aguilar Galvan, Alfredo [Ingenieria Energetica Integral S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A series of ideas are presented that can help in the development of interactive applications for energy saving. Emphasis is made on the Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE)`s Interactive Course on Demand Management and Power Factor Compensation, in order to demonstrate how far one can go with the multimedia development. [Espanol] Se presenta un conjunto de ideas que pueden auxiliar en la elaboracion de aplicaciones interactivas para ahorro de energia. Se hace principal enfasis sobre el curso interactivo Administracion de la Demanda y Compensacion del Factor de Potencia del Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) con la finalidad de mostrar hasta donde puede llegarse con un desarrollo multimedia.

  13. Energy saving, social and government communication; Ahorrro de energia, sociedad y comunicacion gubernamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo

  14. Inovação e sustentabilidade na produção de energia: o caso do sistema setorial de energia eólica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cavalcante Nascimento

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo verificar como as ações do sistema setorial brasileiro de energia eólica se relacionam com as perspectivas econômicas, sociais e ambientais que caracterizam inovações sustentáveis. Argumenta que as questões energéticas estão no cerne do desenvolvimento humano ao longo de sua história e que, em decorrência do atual cenário de mudanças climáticas, o desenvolvimento de fontes alternativas de energia é de vital importância na contemporaneidade. Metodologicamente, o estudo pode ser considerado exploratório e descritivo em relação aos fins e bibliográfico no que diz respeito aos meios. Foram utilizados dados primários de agências nacionais, regionais e mundiais de energia eólica para aumentar a consistência das informações coletadas e do trabalho como um todo. Os resultados evidenciam que o sistema setorial de energia eólica está estruturado em torno de uma série de instituições públicas, autarquias, associações de pesquisa e outros stakeholders que demonstram crescente interesse no desenvolvimento do setor no país. Os dados indicam, ainda, que os valores alcançados ao longo dos últimos leilões de energia eólica têm evidenciado o potencial de competitividade dessa fonte energética em comparação com as demais. Conclusivamente, é possível verificar que os pilares da sustentabilidade podem ser visualizados ao longo de praticamente todas as questões envolvendo a implantação de novas usinas eólicas, mas que a dimensão econômica ainda é a de maior destaque, tornando as dimensões sociais e ambientais dependentes da capacidade dessa modalidade de energia competir com outras.

  15. Technical economic feasibility study for the implementation of a nuclear power plant for the production of electricity in Colombia; Estudio de factibilidad tecnico economica para la implementacion de una central de energia nuclear para la produccion de energia electrica en Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, David E.; Bolanos, Hernan G.; Mayorga, Manuel A.; Rodriguez, Edwin A., E-mail: david_egO@yahoo.es, E-mail: hernanbolaos@yahoo.com.ar, E-mail: alejo_mayorga@yahoo.com, E-mail: edwin.rodriguez@distoyota.com.co [Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales (ECCI), Bogota (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion GIATME

    2013-07-01

    A study on the technical and economic feasibility will be used to implement a nuclear power in Colombia to generate electricity. To this will be searched if there are previous studies on this topic and what they concluded. The manner in which power is supplied will be discussed in a national level nowadays, its strengths and weaknesses. It will be investigated the legal norms that exists in the country on nuclear power and renewable energy sources, the standards established at world level, the nuclear accidents and the great examples. Providers will be sought on the world market nuclear equipment which serve to this purpose and the technical characteristics of these equipment will be discussed. The type of fuel used in nuclear reactors, its origin, method of production, specifications, availability and long-term and safe handling and final disposal are considered. safe handling of this technology and policy or international rules that will studied.

  16. Energy from garbage; Energia a partir de la basura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu Fernandez, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The subject of energy generation from garbage is discussed. A description is made of the sanitary fill, which is a system for the conversion or stabilization of garbage encompassing gas generation and lixiviates, these are collected to be used as fuels or a treatment process is applied to them avoiding this way the soil, water and air pollution; also a description is made of the utilization of a biogas recovery well, which recovers the biogas, cleans it from particles and condensates and afterwards feeds an internal combustion motor coupled to an electric generator. It is concluded that if the biogas generated by the buried garbage in the sanitary refills is utilized, the effects that cause the polluting emissions would be diminished and at the same time an additional energy resource would be on hand [Espanol] Se analiza el caso de la generacion de energia a partir de la basura. Se describe la tecnologia de relleno sanitario, la cual es un sistema de conversion o estabilizacion de la basura en el que existe generacion de biogas y lixiviados, estos se capturan para usarlos como combustibles o se les da un proceso de tratamiento y asi se evita la contaminacion del suelo, agua y aire; tambien se describe la utilizacion de un pozo de recuperacion de biogas, el cual recupera el biogas, lo limpia de particulas y condensados y despues alimenta a un motor de combustion interna acoplado a un generador. Se concluye en que si se aprovecha el biogas generado por la basura enterrada en rellenos sanitarios se diminuiran los efectos que causan las emisiones contaminantes y al mismo tiempo se tendria un recurso energetico adicional

  17. KIT EDUCACIONAL PARA ESTUDO DE GERAÇÃO ELÉTRICA A PARTIR DE ENERGIA EÓLICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos desenvolvidos nos últimos anos apontam para as implicações e impactos sócio-ambientais do consumo de energia. Fontes de energias renováveis são apresentadas como alternativa para atender as demandas da sociedade com qualidade, segurança e redução dos danos ambientais decorrentes do consumo de energia. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de kit educacional para ensino do uso de energia eólica na geração de energia elétrica. Inicialmente, o artigo descreve a evolução do aproveitamento da energia eólica. Depois, o artigo apresenta algumas experiências sobre o ensino desse tipo de energia no ensino médio e superior. O kit educacional é apresentado, mostrando-se resultados obtidos com o aerogerador tais como tensão gerada e circuitos eletrônicos utilizados. Algumas práticas são sugeridas. Por fim, as principais conclusões acerca do sistema são apresentadas.

  18. A energia elétrica da Termodinâmica, a entalpia elétrica da Mecânica Estatística e as energias livres elétricas

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Ferreira,G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nota-se que os conceitos de energia elétrica empregados usualmente em Termodinâmica e em Mecânica Estatística não são os mesmos e mostra-se que, de fato, estão relacionados por uma transformação de Legendre, aquele originário da Mecânica Estatística sendo o análogo da entalpia em relação à energia interna no esquema P-V-T. As energias livres elétricas são também definidas.

  19. Renewable energy: Political momentum and technology for a sustainable Mexico; Energias Renovables: Impulso politico y tecnologico para un Mexico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Hernandez, Sergio; Romero Hernandez, Omar; Wood, Duncan [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico (ITAM) (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    The renewable energy sector in Mexico, as shown in this book, is alive and in good condition, prospers and has great potential. In this regard, it is essential that Mexico sees itself as a country with an energy future beyond Cantarell, beyond Pemex and beyond oil. The future of renewable energy offers great hope for the country and the region, and the time is right for a consensus government, business and social more strongly boost the development of this sector. This book discusses the following topics: Renewable energy and sustainable economic development, the regulatory framework for the use of renewable energy, hydropower, bioenergy, Part I: biomass and biogas, bioenergy, Part II: Liquid biofuels; elements for promotion of wind energy in Mexico, geothermal energy, solar PV, solar thermal and micro. [Spanish] El sector de la energia renovable en Mexico, como se muestra en este libro, esta vivo y en buenas condiciones, prospera y tiene gran potencial. En ese sentido, resulta indispensable que Mexico se vea a si mismo como un pais con un futuro energetico mas alla de Cantarell, mas alla de PEMEX, mas alla del petroleo. El futuro de la energia renovable ofrece una gran esperanza para el pais y la region, y el tiempo es adecuado para que una concertacion gubernamental, empresarial y social impulse con mas fuerza el desarrollo de este sector. En este libro se analizan los siguientes temas: Energias renovables y desarrollo economico sustentable; el marco normativo de la utilizacion de las energias renovables; energia hidroelectrica; bioenergia, parte I: biomasa y biogas; bioenergia, parte II: biocombustibles liquidos; elementos para la promocion de la energia eolica en Mexico; energia geotermica; energia solar fotovoltaica; energia solar termica, y la microgeneracion.

  20. Eesti Energia surus konkurendid oma prügijaamaga nurka / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia kiitis heaks Irusse rajatava prügipõletusjaama ehituslepingu. Jäätmekäitlusettevõtete hinnangul koondaks Iru jaama rajamine kogu Eesti prügikäitlemise Tallinna ja senine süsteem tuleks suurte kuludega ümber korraldada

  1. Energia jäävuse seadus / Janek Mäggi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäggi, Janek, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia börsileminekust. Autori hinnangul on ettevõtte eeliseks ja puuduseks ühtaegu tema stabiilsus. Tavakodanikule on riigi enamusosalusega ettevõttesse oma raha paigutamine suhteliselt turvaline, aktsiate omandamine raha teenimise eesmärgil tõenäoliselt vähetulus

  2. Eesti Energia salatseb IPO eeltööde hinnaga / Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgis-Laats, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia juhatuse esimehe Sandor Liive väitel oli ettevõtte börsilemineku ettevalmistamise kulude suurusjärk kümnetes miljonites kroonides, suurimad kulutused tehti õigus- ja majandusanalüüsile. Eesti Energiat nõustanud firmad

  3. Eesti Energia kapitalisüsti 2011. aastal ei tule / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Riigieelarve eelnõu kohaselt saab valitsus õiguse järgmisel aastal väljastada võlakirju või võtta laenu 7,8 mld. krooni ulatuses, see võimalus on mõeldud peamiselt riigieelarve defitsiidi rahastamiseks. Riik ei kavanda 2011. a. Eesti Energia aktsiakapitali suurendamist

  4. Eesti Energia mõtleb liiga palju suurele ärile / Anto Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raukas, Anto, 1935-

    2011-01-01

    Autori hinnangul on Eesti Energia juhid seadnud äritegevuse esiplaanile ja seda kaheldava väärtusega piirkondades, nagu Jordaania kõrbes, Utah' mägedes USA-s ja Marokos. Ta nimetab probleeme, millega ettevõte peaks eksootiliste maade asemel tegelema

  5. Eesti Energia juht lubab hinnatõusu / Sandor Liive ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liive, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 13. märts lk. 9. Eesti Energia juhatuse esimees Sandor Liive vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte laienemisplaane, investeeringute mõju elektrihinnale, Ignalina tuumajaama, energiaturu avamist, põlevkivienergeetika tulevikku. Lisa: 3 mõtet

  6. Technological advances in zero energy buildings; Avances tecnologicos en edificios de energia cero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Milla, Guillermo; Perez Rebolledo, Hugo; Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Buildings use a large amount of energy to operate and are one of the main sources of contaminating emissions. A building is a complex system and all of their components contribute to the total energy demand. The technology to construct zero-energy buildings is already available, but obstacles exist such as the lack of information and technical training of architects and engineers to design highly energy efficient buildings. The present article describes the progress to-date and the future prospects for the design and construction of zero-energy buildings, as well as the problems involved in its implementation. [Spanish] Los edificios usan una gran cantidad de energia para operar y son una de las principales fuentes de emisiones contaminantes. Un edificio es un sistema complejo y todos sus componentes contribuyen a la demanda total de energia. La tecnologia para construir edificios de energia cero ya esta disponible, pero existen barreras como falta de informacion o capacitacion tecnica a arquitectos e ingenieros, para disenar edificios de alta eficiencia energetica. El presente articulo muestra los avances a la fecha y la prospectiva para el diseno y construccion de edificios de energia cero, asi como la problematica para su implementacion.

  7. Agreements for energy and environment; Patto per l'energia e l'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In this paper are reported in ambit of italian national conference of energy and environment, an agreement undersigned by deputy of political and social forces. [Italian] In questo documento e' illustrato il patto per l'energia e l'ambiente cui hanno aderito forze sociali e politiche del paese.

  8. Eesti Energia ehtis end võõraste kuresulgedega / Nils Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Nils, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Eesti traadita internetituru liider Kernel on üllatunud, et Eesti Energia tütarfirma Televõrk traadita internetivõrk Kõu kasutas reklaamiks nende kurepilti. Lisa: Eilseks kadunud kurejutt. Ilmunud ka: Postimees, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 4

  9. Eesti Energia : investeerimata oleme varsti hädas / Krista Taim, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taim, Krista

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu kinnitas ettevõtte investeeringutekava aastani 2018, 15 aasta jooksul tuleb investeerida 46 miljardit krooni, rahastamisallikatena nähakse välislaenu, riigi abi või hinnatõusu. Kommenteerivad Eiki Nestor ja Marika Tuus

  10. Eesti Energia : Leedu projektis osalemine Eestis hinnatõusu ei too / Tarmo Riisenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riisenberg, Tarmo

    2003-01-01

    Selgumas on Eesti Energia võimalik osalemine Leedu jaotusvõrgu RST erastamisläbirääkimistel. Ettevõtte juhtkond kinnitab, et võimalik erastamiskonkursi võit kohalikule tarbijale elektrienergia hinnatõusu kaasa ei too. Vt. samas: Käsil ka Ignalina ja merekaabel Soome

  11. Didáctica da física : a energia

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares, Jorge

    1991-01-01

    Formação - Professores O programa aborda o conceito de Energia. Recurso a animação gráfica, experiências e exemplos. Disciplina “Didáctica da Física e da Química “, do Curso de Profissionalização em Exercício.

  12. The electric power generation in Mexico and its environmental impacts: Past, present and future; La generacion electrica en Mexico y sus impactos ambientales: Pasado, presente y futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution, past and present of the installed capacity and of the electric power generation, as well as the fuel consumption and the associated green-house gases emission. Also, under the technique of economic scenarios and future towns (in short and mediate terms) the potential needs of installed capacity, generation, mix and fuel consumption and associated green gases emissions is analyzed. Later on a comment is made on the energy implications of the substitution of fuels policies and the environmental Standards. Finally, a series of comments is established on the possible technological directions for the sector, from the stand point of generation efficiency and its effects in the reduction of emissions [Espanol] El proposito del presente trabajo es analizar la evolucion historica, pasada y presente, de la capacidad instalada y de la generacion electrica, asi como el consumo de combustibles y las emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Tambien se analiza bajo la tecnica de escenarios economicos y poblaciones a futuro (en el corto y mediano plazo) las posibles necesidades de capacidad instalada, generacion, mezcla y consumo de combustibles y emisiones de gases de invernadero asociadas. Posteriormente se comenta sobre las implicaciones energeticas de las politicas de sustitucion de combustibles y estandares ambientales. Por ultimo se establecen una serie de comentarios sobre las posibles direcciones tecnologicas para el sector, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia de generacion y sus efectos en la reduccion de las emisiones

  13. Educational software tool for protection system engineers: distance relay; Herramienta educativa para la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas: relevador de distancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo-Guajardo, L.A.; Conde-Enriquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mail: luistrujillo84@gmail.com; con_de@yahoo.com

    2012-04-15

    In this article, a graphical software tool is presented; this tool is based on the education of protection system engineers. The theoretical fundaments used for the design of operation characteristics of distance relays and their algorithms are presented. The software allows the evaluation and analysis of real time events or simulated ones of every stage of design of the distance relay. Some example cases are presented to illustrate the activities that could be done with the graphical software tool developed. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una herramienta computacional grafica para apoyar la formacion de ingenieros en protecciones electricas. Los fundamentos teoricos para el diseno de caracteristicas de operacion de relevadores de distancia, asi como las rutinas de programacion de un relevador de distancia son presentados. La herramienta desarrollada permite la evaluacion de las etapas de diseno de relevadores y el analisis de la operacion ante eventos reales o simulados. Se presentan algunos casos de ejemplo para ilustrar las actividades didacticas que son posibles de realizar con la herramienta presentada.

  14. Börs nutab taga Eesti Energia loobumist / Jaana Pikalev ; kommenteerinud Jürgen Ligi, Sandor Liive

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    SEB privaatpanganduse osakonna strateeg Peeter Koppel, LHV Panga analüütik Sten Pisang, investor Stefan Andresson avaldavad arvamust seoses otsusega Eesti Energia veel mitte börsile viia. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi arvamus

  15. Eesti Energia börsile minek aitaks sündida tugeval rahvaaktsial / Raigo Neudorf ; kommenteerinud Heldur Meerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Börsi hinnangul aitaks Eesti Energia bösile toomine kaasa tugeva rahvaaktsia sündimisele, sest suur ja tuntud firma meelitaks investeerima ka neid inimesi, kes seda seni veel teinud ei ole

  16. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2003 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous.

  17. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia

  18. Eesti Energia: valitsus võtab aja maha ja laseb börsimõttel veel settida / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Täna valitsuskabinetis toimuv arutelu ei paista keskenduvat mitte sellele, kas Eesti Energia börsile viimise plaan on hea või halb, vaid pigem sellele, kui kiire Eesti Energial oma plaanide rahastamisega on ning kas kõik ettevõtte soovid lähevad riigi eesmärkidega kokku. Eesti Energia investeeringute kava tekitab praegu rohkem küsimusi kui rahastamine

  19. Avaliação de empresas utilizando a teoria das opções reais : o caso de uma geradora de energia eólica

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Alfredo Luna

    2011-01-01

    Esta dissertação tratará do tema da geração de energia elétrica no Brasil e a análise financeira de projetos. Mais especificamente será abordada a energia eólica a qual é o aproveitamento dos ventos para a geração de energia. Nos últimos 10 anos, a capacidade instalada mundial de energia eólica cresceu em média 28% ao ano sendo que na Europa 3% da energia consumida já tem origem nos ventos. No Brasil, esse tipo de aproveitamento atinge apenas 0,3% de participação no fornecimento de energia el...

  20. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  1. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  2. A Índia e a África-Subsariana: O Paradigma da Energia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Leila Sofia Barros

    2015-01-01

    Com aproximadamente 1.2 mil milhões de habitantes, a Índia é o segundo país e a democracia mais populosa do mundo. Em termos energéticos, é o quarto maior consumidor de energia e o quarto maior importador mundial de petróleo. O desenvolvimento económico que se verificou na década de 90 fez acentuar um dos principais desafios com que a Índia se depara actualmente que é o de garantir fontes de energia para atender às necessidades da sua população. Para fazer face à dependência das importa...

  3. Materiais e energia: conversão termoquímica de combustíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Dulcínea; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Os combustíveis fósseis são responsáveis pelo fornecimento de três quartos da energia consumida no mundo. Importantes desenvolvimentos têm sido e continuam a ser feitos na área da conversão termoquímica de combustíveis visando a produção e fornecimento seguro de energia a preços acessíveis e com reduzido teor de emissões para a atmosfera. Assim, a procura de materiais capazes de serem usados a temperaturas cada vez mais elevadas tem crescido continuamente nas últimas décadas. Neste trabalho é...

  4. Energy saving and efficiency in building; Ahorro de energia y eficiencia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Sanchez, Maria M. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Pacheco Aguilar, Francisco [Comision Federal de Electricidad, (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    High energy consumption is one of the serious problems in the world today. Newly, this question has taken on not only economic, but also social and ecological importance. In order to reduce the amount of fossil energy, energy diagnosis are one of the most useful tools for increasing the energy efficiency in buildings. In the Faculty of Engineering, dependency of the Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Mexico a program of energy diagnosis was developed under an ongoing project entitled energy savings program, which begun in 1996. This paper describes a methodology about diagnosis building energy consumption building shell and energy efficiency in a case study. No doubt future developments are likely to lead to changes in the estimates. We hope that, nevertheless, this study will contribute to increased energy efficiency in this Faculty. [Spanish] En el mundo actual, uno de los problemas mas serios que se tienen es el elevado consumo de energia, que no solamente representa un problema economico sino que tambien abarca aspectos de indole social y ecologica. Con el fin de reducir el alto costo de la energia fosil, el diagnostico de energia es una de las herramientas mas poderosas para promover la eficiencia de los edificios. En la Facultad de Ingenieria, dependencia de la Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Mexico se esta llevando a efecto un diagnostico energetico perteneciente al programa de ahorros de energia que comenzo en el ano de 1996. En este estudio se describe una metodologia de diagnostico de ahorro energetico y eficiencia energetica de la envolvente termica en un estudio del caso, aplicado a los edificios de la Facultad de Ingenieria (FIUADY).

  5. Europa, energia e geoeconomia: infraestruturas prioritárias e novas soluções

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, José Félix

    2012-01-01

    Em 2010 a Comissão Europeia avançou com a proposta de um conjunto de corredores e interconexões europeias na área da energia, que culmina um processo de definição gradual de uma estratégia geoeconómica para garantir maior segurança energética e sustentabilidade

  6. Techniques of thermal energy conservation; Tecnicas de conservacion de la energia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caltenco Estevez, Juan Luis; Roblez Lopez, Francisco; Ceballos Serna, Andres Alberto [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    In modern industry the thermal energy is the energy more intensely used, which implies that in the processes and equipment that operate based on it, rely the greatest opportunities for saving . In this paper some saving and conservation techniques of thermal energy, which nowadays have been developed, are presented, whose application has helped to the successful attainment of the objectives of increased productivity of industrial plants, with the additional benefit of reducing the environmental impact of the production activities. [Spanish] En la industria moderna la energia termica es la forma de energia mas intensamente utilizada, lo cual implica que en los procesos y equipos que operan basandose en esta, residan las mayores oportunidades de ahorro. En este trabajo se presentan algunas de las tecnicas de ahorro y conservacion de energia termica, que hoy en dia se han desarrollado, cuya aplicacion ha coadyuvado a la consecucion exitosa de los objetivos de incremento de la productividad de plantas industriales, con el beneficio adicional de reducir el impacto ambiental de las actividades productivas.

  7. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  8. APLICAÇÃO DE UMA FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE ENERGIA TERMELÉTRICA A GÁS NATURAL VISANDO REDUZIR O CUSTO COM ENERGIA ELÉTRICA EM UM EDIFÍCIO COMERCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Antonio Ochoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica de um Edifício Comercial, através da utilização de uma unidade termelétrica (grupo gerador que opera com gás natural. A unidade termelétrica servirá como uma fonte alternativa de energia na matriz energética do empreendimento. O custo de energia elétrica representa um impacto considerável nos custos operacionais do edifício. A análise quantitativa dos dados de consumo de energia do Edifício Comercial estudado, associado ao conhecimento do sistema tarifário hora-sazonal foi fundamental para determinar a viabilidade do projeto. Além disto, foi verificada a viabilidade econômica do projeto, tendo como base dois parâmetros financeiros de tempo de retorno (payback e critério do valor presente líquido (CVPL. Os resultados permitiram demonstrar, que realmente é tecnicamente e economicamente viável a aplicação do investimento neste projeto, obtendo uma redução de consumo de energia elétrica de aproximadamente 20% a. m., o equivalente a R$295.000,00 menos do valor pago mensalmente. Outro ganho é que o Edifício Comercial diversificou suas fontes de energia elétrica e assim permanecerá com alimentação elétrica quando houver interrupção no fornecimento da rede pública.

  9. Energy balance of the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico, methodology and the entailment energy-air quality; Balance de energia de la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico metodologia y la vinculacion energia - calidad del aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present document raises a methodology for the elaboration of the Energy Balance of the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico (ZMVM), in order to unify criteria and to facilitate the work of entities and investigators, mainly of those that require the entailment of energy and environment. The applied methodology, the consolidated format and the caloric unity facilitates the insertion of the Energy Balance of the ZMVM within the National Balance of Energy. The regional balances of energy have the intention of knowing the energy consumption patterns in the ZMVM and the indexes of energy intensity by sector. They establish the relationship of the indexes of energy intensity with the local and global air quality of the region, performing studies of incidence with the main polluting agents and with the greenhouse effect gases. [Spanish] El presente documento plantea una metodologia para la elaboracion del Balance de Energia de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Mexico (ZMVM), con el proposito de unificar criterios y facilitar el trabajo de organismos e investigadores, sobre todo de aquellos que requieren vincular energia y medio ambiente. La metodologia aplicad, el formato consolidado y la unidad calorica facilitan la insercion del Balance de Energia de la ZMVM dentro del Balance Nacional de Energia. Los balances regionales de energia tienen el proposito de conocer los patrones de consumo de energia en la ZMVM y los indices de intensidad energetica por sector. Establecen la relacion de los indices de intensidad energetica con la calidad del aire local y global de la region, realizando estudios de incidencia con los principales contaminantes y con los gases de efecto invernadero.

  10. Viabilidade económica da implementação de um reactor nuclear para a produção de energia eléctrica em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Miguel António de Morais

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo avaliar economicamente e determinar a viabilidade da implementação de um reactor nuclear para produção de energia eléctrica. Faz-se uma abordagem a aspectos da energia nuclear no mundo e em particular a energia nuclear na união europeia, faz-se uma análise sobre a estrutura do sector nuclear em Espanha e o futuro da energia no mundo. É realizada uma análise sobre a energia nuclear em Portugal, são abordados aspectos como o planeamento energético, a local...

  11. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases discharges associated to the production and use of the energy in the metropolitan zone of the valley of Mexico; Inventario de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero asociados a la produccion y uso de la energia en la zona metropolitana del valle de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia [Secretaria del Medio Ambiente, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    . [Spanish] La ZMCM consumio en 1996 cerca de 635 de PJ en combustibles y 76 PJ en energia electrica. Del consumo de combustibles, el sector transporte participo con el 51.4%, seguido por el sector industrial (21.6%), el residencial (16.6%), la generacion electrica (9.5%), el comercio (0.8%) y el agropecuario (0.2%). Esta proporcion se hace patente en los combustibles ya que, la gasolina representa el 48.7% del consumo de combustibles de la region, seguido por el gas natural (21.4%), el gas licuado (16.8%), diesel y gasoleo (10.3%) y el resto se divide entre combustoleo, petroleo diafano, kerosinas y turbosinas. La emisiones totales de este CO{sub 2} asociadas al consumo de combustibles en la ZMCM ascendieron en 1996 a 34.9 Mton de CO{sub 2}, lo que equivale a cerca del 13% de las emisiones nacionales para ese ano. De manera similar a la energia, el transporte representa el 54.9% de las emisiones de CO{sub 2}, seguidas por la industria (21.3%), el sector residencial (15.6%), la generacion electrica (8.2%) y el sector comercial y agropecuario (1%). En el sector transporte, destaca la importancia del vehiculo privado con el 38.4% de las emisiones de este sector. Con excepcion de los oxidos de azufre, el transporte es el sector que contribuye de manera mas importante a las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. Asimismo, con excepcion de los oxidos de nitrogeno, el vehiculo particular es el que mas contribuye a todas las emisiones. Los vehiculos anteriores a 1991 contribuyen con las emisiones de este subsector en 24.5% de la emisiones de CO{sub 2}, entre 54 y 59% de las de CO, entre 22 y 25% a las de NO{sub x}, 50 y 51% a las de CH{sub 2}, 49 y 58% a las de NMVOC, 39 a las de N{sub 2}O y 24% a las de SO{sub 2}. En el caso de los oxidos de nitrogeno, llama la atencion los vehiculos de carga de mas de dos ejes a diesel, que contribuyen entre el 46 y 50% de las emisiones totales de este subsector.

  12. CONSUMO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA: UMA ANÁLISE DE FONTE ALTERNATIVA DE COLETOR SOLAR DE BAIXO CUSTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Alves de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento do consumo de energia elétrica e tarifas, a procura por geração de energias alternativas vem crescendo gradativamente, principalmente que sejam de baixo custo, assim possibilitando uma maior inclusão social beneficiando também as residências de baixa renda. Com o espírito de inovação a pesquisa buscou ideias simples que possam contribuir para a sociedade buscando alternativas sustentáveis e de baixo custo para a economia de energia elétrica Esse artigo teve como objetivo desenvolver um Coletor Solar de baixo custo. A metodologia utilizada foi quantitativa descritiva de caráter exploratório. Os procedimentos adotados foram uma pesquisa bibliográfica e desenvolvimento de um protótipo como procedimento experimental para coleta de dados. Dados os resultados nota-se que os testes realizados com o coletor solar de baixo custo, obteve um resultado com a temperatura da água para o banho de 37,1°C superior ao do chuveiro elétrico de 35,5°C. Com esse resultado o coletor solar se mostra, eficiente no quesito temperatura de banho e uma alternativa eficiente para a geração de energia térmica para aquecimento da água, além de reduzir a energia elétrica consumida em uma residência ao substituir o chuveiro tradicional que tem mais de 5000W , que é considerado um vilão para o consumo de energia elétrica.

  13. Trabalho de jornalismo científico para conservação de energia: fundamentos de uma proposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Vânia Mattozo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata dos fundamentos de um trabalho de jornalismo científico aplicado na área de conservação de energia: a relação entre desenvolvimento, energia e ambiente. Novas tecnologias e políticas que buscam fornecer os serviços energéticos necessários com menor custo social e ambiental permanecem desconhecidas para o grande público, impedindo o acesso a informações sobre um novo tipo de desenvolvimento.

  14. Trabalho de jornalismo científico para conservação de energia: fundamentos de uma proposta

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Vânia Mattozo; Lic. C. Celso Brasil Camargo; Lic. Nilson Lemos Lage

    2000-01-01

    Este artigo trata dos fundamentos de um trabalho de jornalismo científico aplicado na área de conservação de energia: a relação entre desenvolvimento, energia e ambiente. Novas tecnologias e políticas que buscam fornecer os serviços energéticos necessários com menor custo social e ambiental permanecem desconhecidas para o grande público, impedindo o acesso a informações sobre um novo tipo de desenvolvimento.

  15. Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997; 1. ed.; Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Fuentes, Adrian; Ylizaliturri Ridriguez, Jose Carlos; Aguilar Alejandre, Vicente; Gomez Chiu, Rebeca [Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The planning of the energy sector requires a detailed knowledge of the relations that exist among the International markets of energy and the position of Mexico with respect to these. The Handbook of the energy sector 1992-1997 analyzes the tendency of the International markets of energy and the relative importance of the countries in relationship to its resources, production volumes, energy demand, fuel prices and foreign trade. It allows to know how and to what extent the energy sector has responded to the new economic conditions of the country and to the global tendencies, presenting statistics of easy consultation, updated information at International level on the reserves, installed capacity, production, consumption, prices and commerce of the main energy sources, and of the position of Mexico within this context. The information consists of seven chapters: First, analyzes the world-wide balance of energy, detailing the consumption of primary energy by region and source; in the second, the main crude petroleum statistics are analyzed, of selected countries; the third analyzes the refined products of petroleum, the fourth analyzes the world-wide natural gas reserves; the fifth the world-wide coal reserves and the sixth, the installed capacity of electricity generation in several countries. [Espanol] La planeacion del sector de energia requiere un conocimiento detallado de las relaciones que existen entre los mercados internacionales de energia y la posicion de Mexico con respecto a estos. El Prontuario del sector de energia 1992-1997 analiza la tendencia de los mercados internacionales de energia y la importancia relativa de los paises en relacion con sus recursos, volumenes de produccion, demanda de energia, precios de combustibles y comercio exterior. Permite conocer como y en que medida el sector de energia ha respondido a las nuevas condiciones economicas del pais y a las tendencias globales, al presentar estadisticas de facil consulta, de informacion

  16. Estratégias no uso da energia luminosa por plantas jovens de Genipa spruceana Steyerm submetidas ao alagamento

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,José Francisco de Carvalho; Melo,Emanuele Gurgel de Freitas; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Moura da; Ferreira,Marciel José; Justino,Gilberto Costa

    2012-01-01

    Na tentativa de elucidar estratégias de utilização da energia luminosa em plantas jovens de Genipa spruceana Steyerm submetidas ao alagamento, nós investigamos a capacidade de captura e uso de energia luminosa em G. spruceana sob três condições de crescimento: 1- ausência de alagamento (SA), 2- plantas parcialmente alagadas (PA) e 3- plantas totalmente alagadas (TA). Medidas de área foliar específica, teores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e fluorescência da clorofila a foram feitas em interval...

  17. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  18. The privatised energy as an imperialist picklock; La energia privatizada como ganzua imperialista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger Vazquez, Emilio [Asociacion Nacional de Abogados Democraticos (ANAD), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this document an analysis is made of the energy privatization in Mexico, in which the obstacles that the Mexico`s Energy Sectors have gone through are mentioned, beginning with the 1910 revolutionary movement in Mexico, where the nationalization of energy sources sprang up, until the arrival of the Salinas-Zedillo phase. This in order to see if it is feasible or not the energy privatization, since as it must be remembered the various decades of the 19 and part of the 20 century in which an ideological debate and an economic battle was held among those who thought that the energy regime incorporated into the system of private property and those who thought that the economic and strategic importance of the hydrocarbons and the electricity justified a special regime [Espanol] En este documento se realiza un analisis de la privatizacion de la energia en Mexico, en el cual se mencionan los obstaculos que el Sector Energetico de Mexico ha tenido que pasar, iniciando por el movimiento revolucionario de 1910 en Mexico, de donde surgio la nacionalizacion de las fuentes de energia, hasta llegar a la fase Salino-Zedillo. Esto con el fin de ver si es factible o no la privatizacion de la energia, ya que como se debe de recordar las varias decadas del siglo 19y parte del siglo 20en las cuales se mantuvo el debate ideologico y la batalla economica, entre quienes pensaban en un regimen energetico incorporado al sistema de propiedad privada y quienes pensaban que la importancia economica y estrategica de los hidrocarburos y de la electricidad justificaban un regimen especial

  19. Fluxos de energia e desenvolvimento da cultura do abacaxizeiro Energy fluxes and development of pineapple crop

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber B. de Souza; Bernardo B. da Silva; Pedro V. de Azevedo; Vicente de P. R. da Silva

    2008-01-01

    O dossel vegetativo do abacaxizeiro varia consideravelmente desde o plantio das mudas até a cobertura completa, no final do ciclo produtivo. Um experimento agrometeorológico foi desenvolvido nos tabuleiros costeiros do estado da Paraíba, com o cultivo do abacaxi, cv. Pérola, de março de 2001 a julho de 2002, com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos dos componentes do balanço de energia sobre os diversos estágios de desenvolvimento do abacaxizeiro cultivado em condições de irrigação suplementar. ...

  20. Crise financeira, energia e sustentabilidade no Brasil Financial crisis, energy and sustainability in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Lucon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recente crise financeira global traz consigo efeitos como a redução da atividade econômica e, consequentemente, do consumo de energia. Essa pode ser uma importante oportunidade para reorganizar o sistema energético em bases mais sólidas e sustentáveis: a eficiência, a maior participação das fontes renováveis e a descentralização da produção de energia. O Brasil e outros países em desenvolvimento podem aproveitar a experiência dos países desenvolvidos em eficiência energética, complementando com um programa vigoroso em energias renováveis, particularmente as "modernas" (eólica, solar, biomassa e pequenas hidrelétricas. Entretanto, preocupa o cenário inercial nacional, baseado num aumento da participação das fontes fósseis de energia na matriz, na priorização dos recursos à exploração de petróleo e gás natural e na manutenção de padrões insustentáveis de produção e consumo.The recent global financial crisis brings about effects such as a reduction in the economic activity and consequently in energy consumption. This may be an important opportunity to reorganize the energy system under more solid and sustainable foundations: efficiency, higher share of renewables and decentralized energy production. Brazil and other developing countries can leapfrog the experience acquired by developed nations in energy efficiency, complementing with a vigorous program in renewables, particularly the "modern" (wind, solar, biomass and small hydros. However, there is a concern about the inertial Brazilian scenario, based on an increasing share of fossil fuels in the matrix, in prioritizing resources to oil and gas exploration and in the continuing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

  1. The scenario of power generation in Brazil; O cenario da geracao de energia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupim, Ivaldete da Silva [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abreu Junior, Otavio Castor de; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Carajilescov, Pedro; Leite, Patricia Teixeira; Cicogna, Marcelo A.

    2008-07-01

    The values concerning to the production of national power today, the evolution of composition and the installed capacity of electric matrix between the years 1980-2005, the outlook for demand and supply of energy according to the 'Plano Decenal de Energia' (2006-2015) were used as information basis for this study and analysis of some peculiar characteristics of the management of the energy sector in Brazil. The main objective was to highlight the importance of hydroelectric generation in Brazil. Finally we tried to make the comparison of the costs of hydroelectric generation in relation to other alternative sources available in the country.

  2. Fontes de energias alternativas e os desafios para a cadeia produtiva automotiva

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Marcelo Ivanildo dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A indústria automotiva sempre esteve envolta num processo permanente de inovações e mais recentemente ela vem passando por várias e importantes mudanças. Essas mudanças decorrem de três fatores fundamentais: motivações ambientais, preço do petróleo e novos mercados. Num cenário de aperfeiçoamento dos padrões atuais de propulsão veicular, percebe-se o surgimento de fontes de energias alternativas. Onde o etanol surge como alternativa e poderá ser adotado em determinados mercados, como ...

  3. Northern Division. Distribution Zone. Juarez.; Division norte. Zona de distribucion. Juarez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, J. M. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The public service law of electrical energy, its regulation and the manual of services to the public in the matter of electrical energy govern the sale of electrical energy. The Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico altogether with the participation of the Secretarias of Energia, de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, and to the proposal of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), fixes the tariffs, their adjustment or restructuring. The CFE mission is to satisfy the electrical energy necessities and expectations of the clients, through a profitable and competitive organization, guaranteeing the integral development of its collaborators. Its product, electrical energy, is received from other areas within the CFE. The electrical tariffs simultaneously fulfill three functions: financial, economical and social. [Spanish] La venta de energia electrica se rige por la ley del servicio publico de energia electrica, su reglamento, el manual de servicios al publico en materia de energia electrica. La Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito Publico con la participacion de las Secretarias de Energia, de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, y a propuesta de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), fija las tarifas, su ajuste o reestructuracion. La mision de CFE es satisfacer las necesidades y expectativas de energia electrica de los clientes, a traves de una organizacion rentable y competitiva, garantizando el desarrollo integral de sus colaboradores. Su producto, la energia electrica, la reciben de otras areas dentro de la CFE. Las tarifas electricas cumplen simultaneamente tres funciones: financiera, economica y social.

  4. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  5. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  6. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  7. Medidas reguladoras, normas e legislação portuguesa aplicável às energias renováveis e sugestões

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, M. Fernanda T.; Júlio S Martins; Afonso, João L.

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta e explica, de forma breve, a legislação portuguesa aplicável às energias renováveis e os mecanismos de apoio para investimento e aquisição de equipamentos no território lusitano. Apresenta também sugestões para incentivar pequenos e médios consumidores, públicos e privados, a instalar nas suas propriedades pequenos parques para produção de energia eléctrica a partir de fontes de energia renovável, nomeadamente eólica e solar. Estes parques deveriam cumprir os requisitos ...

  8. ANÁLISE EXPERIMENTAL DA INFLUÊNCIA DA TECNOLOGIA HOMEPLUG NA QUALIDADE DA ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Pereira de Siqueira Campos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Trabalhos recentes têm estudado características do meio elétrico para a transmissão de dados, ruídos e técnicas empregadas na comunicação pela rede elétrica. A maioria dos trabalhos limita-se a fazer testes de desempenho do protocolo. Diversos pesquisadores têm se preocupado com a influência das transmissões de dados na rede elétrica sobre as comunicações sem fio, mas ninguém tem se preocupado com a influência dessas transmissões na qualidade da energia elétrica. Este trabalho apresenta resultados preliminares sobre o efeito produzido por redes de computadores que utilizam a tecnologia Homeplug 1.0 na qualidade da energia elétrica. Para isso, foram escolhidos parâmetros apropriados para análise da qualidade da energia elétrica, bem como, foram definidas as formas de se obter esses parâmetros. Foi montada uma rede de computadores, com modem’s PLC, no CEFET-RN e realizados testes iniciais para medição da qualidade de energia elétrica. Resultados numéricos são apresentados.

  9. Adoção da energia solar fotovoltaica em hospitais: revisando a literatura e algumas experiências internacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Barbosa dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O Sol possui um papel de extrema importância para a existência dos seres humanos e o Brasil possui uma posição geográfica privilegiada para explorar a luz solar. A união desses dois fatores favorece o uso de células solares para conversão de energia solar em energia elétrica por meio da tecnologia fotovoltaica, tornando-se ótima alternativa de energia, principalmente por ser uma fonte limpa, gerando menores danos ao meio ambiente. Este trabalho tem por objetivo abordar a tecnologia fotovoltaica tendo como foco analítico os hospitais, por meio de casos de sucesso encontrados na literatura internacional. Os hospitais, mesmo executando serviços de total importância à sociedade, apresentam potencial poluidor capaz de causar danos à saúde das pessoas e ao meio ambiente que se localiza ao seu redor. Há estimativas de que as reservas brasileiras de petróleo sejam suficientes para 22 anos, tornando-se necessária a busca por novas fontes alternativas para a geração de energia.

  10. Interazione onda struttura in un dispositivo di conversione dell'energia da onda a tracimazione e probematiche progettuali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, D.; Margheritini, Lucia; Zanuttigh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Il presente lavoro riassume i risultati inerenti l’interazione delle onde con un innovativo cassone frangiflutti per la produzione d’energia elettrica denominato Seawave Slot-cone Generator (SSG). Il funzionamento dell’SSG é basato sul noto principio della tracimazione e della conservazione dell’...

  11. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  12. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  13. Eesti Energia lubab võlgades paberivabriku elektrita jätta / Eiris Teeveere, Päären Mardiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teeveere, Eiris

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Energia lülitab välja elektri Kehras asuvas Horizon Tselluloosi ja Paberivabrikus, kui võlgu tähtajaks ei maksta. Tehase sulgemine tooks kaasa 500 inimese töötuks jäämise ning reovee puhastuse lõppemise

  14. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  15. Energy consumption in the mexican iron and steel industry; Consumo de energia en la industria siderurgica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, A.; Garcia Pelaez, J.; Lopez Panadero, L.; Bauer Ephrussi, M.; Quintanilla Martinez, J. [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    An overview of the mexican iron and steel industry is presented, including the analysis of the sector's energy consumption by energy source (exogenous and endogenous) and by siderurgical process (basic oxygen conversion and electric arc furnace). The specific industry's energy consumption is shown, by both kind of enterprise (integrated and semi-integrated) and by siderurgical process (BOF and EAF). Finally, its international standing is examined in terms of overall specific energy consumption, specific coke consumption in high furnace, Siemens Martin furnace participation, and utilization degree of continuous casting. [Spanish] Se presenta un panorama actual de la industria siderurgica mexicana. Se analiza el consumo de energia en el sector por fuente de energia (exogena y endogena) y por proceso siderurgico (convertidor basico al oxigeno y horno electrico de arco). Se muestra ademas el consumo especifico de energia en la industria siderurgica por tipo de empresa (integrada y semi-integrada) y por proceso siderurgico (convertidor basico al oxigeno y horno electrico de arco). Finalmente, se situa a nivel internacional al sector, mediante comparaciones de consumo especifico de energia, consumo especifico de coque en el alto horno, participacion del horno Siemens Martin y grado de utilizacion de colada continua.

  16. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  17. Sensor óptico de temperatura baseado no processo de conversão ascendente de energia em vidros fluorofosfatos dopados com Er3+

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    O processo de conversão ascendente de energia (infravermelho ao visível) é amplamente estudado em materiais dopados com íons terras raras trivalentes (TR3+) devido as várias possibilidades de aplicações tecnológicas. Tal processo consiste na emissão de fótons de maior energia (usualmente no visível) mediante excitação com fótons de menor energia (infravermelho) via mecanismo de absorção de dois fótons e/ou transferência de energia entre os íons TR3+. Entre os materiais estudados destacam-se v...

  18. Energia Avastuskeskus : Tallinna Elektrijaama restaureerimine = Energy Discovery Centre : restoration of Tallinn Power Plant / Pelle-Sten Viiburg, Margit Argus, Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viiburg, Pelle-Sten

    2015-01-01

    Energia Avastuskeskus endises Tallinna Elektrijaama hoones Põhja pst 29, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Sander Aas, Margit Aule, Pelle-Sten Viiburg (KAOS Arhitektid), sisearhitekt Margit Argus (KAOS Arhitektid), ekspositsiooni kujundus Margit Argus ja Margit Aule. 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  19. Análise e evolução da tarifa social de energia elétrica no Brasil, 1985/2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Lopes Tavares

    2004-01-01

    Esse estudo teve como objetivo descrever de forma sistemática a evolução da política de preços da Tarifa Social de energia elétrica no período 1985/2002, de forma que fosse possível sua análise, superando as análises fragmentadas até então realizadas. A Tarifa Social consiste em um programa implementado pelo Ministério de Minas e Energia (MME), de barateamento do preço da energia elétrica para consumidores residenciais de energia elétrica, especialmente para famílias de baixa renda. A impleme...

  20. Uma abordagem sobre a energia eólica como alternativa de ensino de tópicos de física clássica

    OpenAIRE

    Picolo,Ana Paula; Rühler,Alexandre J.; Rampinelli,Giuliano Arns

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre os princípios teóricos básicos envolvidos na energia eólica e sua conversão para energia elétrica. E realizada uma abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa sobre a energia eólica de forma a relacionar os conteúdos apresentados com diversos tópicos estudados em física clássica. A energia eólica representa uma área do conhecimento rica em conteúdos que podem ser usados diretamente no ensino de física, contribuindo para um ensino mais contextualizado e atraent...

  1. Renewable energy to produce electricity; Nuevas fuentes de energia para producir electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    There are several new energy sources to produce electricity. One of them is the wind energy, which has reached huge commercialization in worldwide. There are in Mexico some zones with high speed wind, which can be used in a short term. This has been proved by the wind pilot power plant of La Venta, Oaxaca, where production costs of US 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) have been obtained. These costs are among the lowest in the world. By the other hand, among the main uses of solar energy, including both thermal and photovoltaic techniques, the biggest thermo-solar utility, with 350 megawatts (MW) of capacity, is remarkable. This is the plant located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. In Mexico there is big potential, which can make an important contribution to supplies of electricity. Biomass is another important renewable source, particularly the use of solid municipal waste, the livestock and the wood waste. Finally, other alternate technique is represented by the fuel cells, though it is not properly renewable. However, considering its modular and low environmental impact characteristics, it can get a wide commercial development in the next decade. [Espanol] Existen diversas fuentes nuevas de energia para generar electricidad. Entre ellas, la energia eolica es una de las tecnologias alternas que mayor comercializacion ha alcanzado a nivel mundial. Mexico posee zonas con vientos de velocidades altas en las que su aplicacion puede ser inmediata, como lo prueba la experiencia obtenida con la central piloto de La Venta, Oaxaca, en donde se han alcanzado costos de produccion de 4.3 centavos de dolar por kilowatt-hora (kWh), de los mas bajos a nivel internacional. Por otra parte, entre las principales aplicaciones de la energia solar, en sus tecnologias termica y fotovoltaica, destaca el mayor de los aprovechamientos termosolares, con 350 megawatts de capacidad (MW), localizado en el desierto de Mojave, en California, EUA. En Mexico hay un gran potencial

  2. The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los

  3. Variancia intrapessoal da ingestao de energia e nutrientes em adolescentes: correcao de dados em estudos epidemiologicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Verly Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo objetiva fornecer valores de componentes de variância intrapessoal da ingestão de energia e nutrientes que possibilita estimar a ingestão habitual em adolescentes, em inquéritos dietéticos quando há disponível somente um recordatório de 24 horas para cada indivíduo. Também será fornecido um exemplo de sua aplicação na correção da distribuição da ingestão de nutrientes proveniente de adolescentes de outro estudo. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados recordatórios de 24 horas de 215 adolescentes do município de São Paulo. Os componentes de variância foram estimados utilizando o Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (PC-SIDE. Para cada nutriente foi construído um modelo, estratificado por sexo, que inclui o dia e o mês da coleta, e variáveis de ponderação. RESULTADOS: Os componentes de variância intrapessoal variaram de 0,55 para gordura mono-saturada (sexo feminino a 0,96 para o folato (sexo masculino. Entre os macronutrientes e energia foram observados valores mais elevados para o sexo masculino. No exemplo da aplicação do componente de variância, foi estimada a distribuição da ingestão de vitamina B6 com menos viés comparada à distribuição sem a correção. CONCLUSÃO: Estes dados podem ser utilizados na estimativa da ingestão habitual de energia e nutrientes e cálculo da prevalência de inadequação em adolescentes de populações semelhantes, quando há disponível somente um recordatório de 24 horas para cada indivíduo do estudo.

  4. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  5. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  6. Avaliação da correção da energia pelo balanço de nitrogênio em alimentos para frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Andrade

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar valores de energia metabolizável aparente e de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio de alimentos para frangos de corte, bem como avaliar os efeitos da correção da energia sobre seu desempenho, foram conduzidos dois experimentos: I determinação da energia do milho, do farelo de soja, da farinha de carne e ossos, da farinha de vísceras e da farinha de penas, pelo método de coleta total de excretas, utilizando-se 450 pintos de corte com um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, sendo seis tratamentos e cinco repetições; II desempenho de 960 frangos de corte, distribuídos ao acaso, em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. As aves que receberam os tratamentos A (matriz energética de acordo com Rostagno et al. (2011 e E (energia sem correção com ajuste pela idade apresentaram melhor desempenho, e as aves do tratamento E tiveram melhor conversão alimentar. Portanto, formulações com energia sem correção pelo balanço de nitrogênio e ajustadas pela idade são viáveis tanto sob o ponto de vista zootécnico, quanto econômico.

  7. Project of renewable energy for agriculture; Proyecto de energia renovable para la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montufar Avilez, Octavio [FIRCO (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The document presents a general design of the hydraulic system, a hydraulic design of cattle ranch and a hydraulic design by dripping. It also discusses the components of the energy project, which are: institutional fortification, promotion and diffusion, market development (studies), specifications and certification, investments, technical support and direction of the project. The objective of this project is to diminish ignorance in the sector, to reduce the investment costs and to obtain a long term-sustainable effect. [Spanish] En este documento se describe un diseno general del sistema hidraulico, un diseno hidraulico de ganaderia, un diseno hidraulico por goteo y los componentes del proyecto de energia que son: fortalecimiento institucional, promocion y difusion, desarrollo del mercado (estudios), especificaciones y certificacion, inversiones, asistencia tecnica y direccion del proyecto. El objetivo de este proyecto es minimizar el desconocimiento en el sector, reducir los costos de inversion y que el efecto sea sostenible a largo plazo.

  8. Energy conservation in ice manufacturing; Ahorro de energia en la fabricacion de hielo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This paper shows the results of the energy diagnosis study for ice manufacturing industries. The identified opportunities for conservation and efficient use of energy have allowed the reduction of the electric bill, modernizing at the same time, its installations and addressing inherent aspects of the use of energy producing items; in which the estimated investments are recovered in its major part in a period of a year, the goodness of the investments propitiate the growth and competitiveness required in these days. [Espanol] En este documento se exponen los resultados del estudio del diagnostico energetico para industrias productoras de hielo. Las oportunidades de ahorro y uso eficiente de energia identificadas, han permitido reducir la facturacion energetica, a la par de modernizar sus instalaciones y atender aspectos inherentes al uso de energeticos; en lo cual las inversiones estimadas se recuperan en su mayoria en un ano, las bondades de las inversiones propician un crecimiento y competitividad requerida en estos dias.

  9. Estudo da dispersão de poluentes, aplicado a um parque de energia das ondas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho resultou da minha colaboração na Martifer Energy Systems no âmbito do projecto FLOW. Ao longo deste projecto foi necessário a compreensão da dinâmica da região de instalação de um dispositivo para extracção da energia das ondas, com especial importância para o regime de correntes. Para tal foi implementado o modelo numérico oceanográfico ROMS AGRIF e que foi utilizado para o estudo de diversos parâmetros, como temperatura e a salinidade. Um estudo de movimento de flutua...

  10. Carbon Bonds and the saving of energy; Bonos de carbono y el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [NovaEnergia (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the development of the carbon bond project, the energy saving and the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol at a world-wide level. In this project Mexico opts for a development model in which the economic growth brakes ties with the discharge of greenhouse effect gases and in which the progress does not mean more damages to our planet. [Spanish] Este documento trata sobre el desarrollo del proyecto de bonos de carbono, ahorro de energia y la entrada en vigor del Protocolo de Kyoto a nivel mundial, en el cual Mexico opta por un modelo de desarrollo en el que el crecimiento economico esta desvinculado de la emision de gases de efecto invernadero y en donde el progreso no signifique mas danos a nuestro planeta.

  11. Requerimentos de energia e nutrientes da população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estimados os requerimentos de energia, proteínas, vitamina A, B1, B2, C, D, B12, ácido fólico e dos minerais ferro e cálcio da população brasileira. Foi utilizada a metodologia recomendada nos relatórios técnicos dos Comitês de Peritos FAO/OMS. Partindo-se da pressuposição de que, até 19 anos de idade, o indivíduo tem um potencial de desenvolvimento a ser atingido, as recomendações de energia foram estabelecidas tomando-se como referência o percentil 97 da população. Os requerimentos dos adultos foram estimados para o homem-tipo e mulher-tipo representativos da população brasileira do percentil 50. As recomendações de proteínas e dos demais nutrientes foram calculadas para atender as necessidades de 95% da população.The requirements for energy, proteins, vitamins - A, B1, B2, C, D, B12 - Folie acid, and iron and calcium were estimated and for this purpose the method recommended by the FAO/OMS committees was used. Based on the presupposition that an individual achieves a development potential by the age of 19, energy requirements were established using as references the 97th percentile of the population. Adult requirements were estimated for the typical-man and typical-woman, representative of the 50th percentile of the Brazilian population. The protein requirements and those of the other nutrients were calculated to meet the needs of the 95th percentile of the population.

  12. Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

  13. Energia Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Dias de Borba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto trata da implantação de células fotovoltaicas na forma de postes independentes na área externa da escola Oswaldo Cruz em Sinop- MT, mais especificamente no estacionamento do local, e também a implantação de placas solares nas guaritas e nos estacionamentos cobertos, tornando-os semi-sustentáveis.

  14. Compact fluorescent lamps, innovation for electricity saving; Lamparas fluorescentes compactas, innovacion para el ahorro de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Fernando [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (Mexico); Camacho P, Wendolin E; Villalobos Alarcon, German [Phillips Lighting Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    An extremely important resource is electricity because it has provided illumination for homes, buildings and cities in the absence of natural light. Therefore, the human being is considering to save this valuable resource by using sophisticated light bulbs. At the end of the 70's the compact fluorescent lamps appeared. In this article we can disclose the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, and how some years later of its invention, those lamps satisfied the client expectations, due to its cost, electricity saving, longer lifetime, use possibilities, and technological improvements. We can also know how Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and The Trust Fund for Electric Energy Savings (FIDE) supported a project to favor these lamps to be in the Mexican market. [Spanish] La electricidad es un recurso de suma importancia porque ha contribuido a la iluminacion de casas, edificios y ciudades, ante la ausencia de luz natural, es por ello que se ha buscado ahorrar este recurso tan preciado con el uso de lamparas sofisticadas. Una tecnologia que aparecio a finales de los anos 70 fueron las lamparas fluorescentes compactas. En este articulo encontramos sus ventajas y desventajas, y como despues de algunos anos de su creacion comenzaron a llenar las expectativas del cliente gracias a su costo, ahorro de electricidad, mayor tiempo de vida, posibilidades de aplicacion y mejoras tecnologicas. Asi mismo podemos conocer, el proyecto que se hizo para que esta tecnologia entrara al mercado mexicano, con el apoyo de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y del Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE).

  15. Reliability of electric generation units by evaluating the loss of power and efficiency of turbines; Confiabilidad de las unidades de generacion electrica mediante la evaluacion de la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de las turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the specialized technical service to evaluate the loss of power and efficiency of an open steam turbine is to quantify these losses caused by the deterioration of internal seals, deterioration of the steam path geometry components (nozzles and blades) and increased roughness of the blades and nozzle surface due to erosion (steam, humidity and impacts) and, also, due to salts deposition. In the same way, to establish a set of recommendations, in order of importance by the attention of the Power Plant with the purpose of recovering the major quantity of power and efficiency lost by the steam turbine and assurance, by means of technical supervision of the activities set in the recommendations, and in accordance with CFE rules, international standards and the personal experience of the Instituto de Investogaciones Electricas (IIE), staff, an acceptable quality in rehabilitation of mechanical components such as the maintenance of the steam turbine itself. Using an application example, this paper describes, the methodology of execution of this kind of services. Also, the quality of the maintenance and the rehabilitation of the steam turbine components are quantified. [Spanish] El objetivo del servicio tecnico especializado para evaluar la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor abierta es cuantificar dichas perdidas a causa del deterioro de los sellos internos, del deterioro la geometria de referencia de los componentes del canal de vapor (alabes fijos y alabes moviles) y del aumento de la rugosidad de la superficie de los alabes a causa de la erosion (marcas de vapor, de humedad y de impactos) y de la deposicion de sales. Asimismo, establecer una serie de recomendaciones en orden prioritario para la atencion de la central, con el fin de recuperar la mayor parte de la potencia y eficiencia perdidas por la turbina y asegurando, mediante la supervision tecnica de las actividades resultantes de las recomendaciones y conforme a la normativa de la

  16. INVESTIGAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DA GERAÇÃO DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA SOLAR FOTOVOLTÁICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz P. S. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis solares fotovoltaicos são dispositivos desenvolvidos para a geração de energia elétrica. Este trabalho aborda conceitos envolvidos na fabricação e funcionamento desses dispositivos tais como: histórico da energia solar fotovoltaica, tipos de painéis solares e aplicação de painéis solares em sistemas isolados. Foi feito um estudo de eficiência de geração elétrica de um painel solar existente no Campus Natal – Zona Norte do IFRN. Nesse estudo, foram levadas em consideração a incidência solar e a hora do dia. Por fim, são apresentadas conclusões sobre o estudo desenvolvido.

  17. Energia eólica, geração de empregos e desenvolvimento sustentável

    OpenAIRE

    Moana Simas; Sergio Pacca

    2013-01-01

    A energia eólica no Brasil passou por um período de lento crescimento, porém, os projetos contratados nos últimos três anos deverão quintuplicar a capacidade instalada. É a tecnologia limpa que mais tem crescido na última década, trazendo benefícios ambientais e sociais para diversos países. Nosso trabalho buscou quantificar a geração de empregos diretos e indiretos pela energia eólica no país. Até 2020, serão gerados 195 mil empregos, e 70% desses são diretos, a maioria na construção civil, ...

  18. Densità di energia di deformazione locale e resistenza a fatica di giunti saldati di geometria complessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Un recente criterio basato sul valore medio della densità di energia di deformazione (SED inun volume di controllo è applicato a diverse serie di dati sperimentali tratti dalla letteratura, relativi a giuntisaldati di geometria complessa realizzati in acciaio. Il volume di controllo è rappresentato da un settore circolare di raggio pari a 0.28 mm, centrato sul piede o sulla radice dei cordoni di saldatura. Entrambe le regioni sono modellate come intagli V non raccordati con differenti angoli di apertura. La densità di energia di deformazione viene valutata direttamente da modelli agli elementi finiti tridimensionali. I dati sperimentali, riconvertiti in termini energetici, si posizionano all’interno di una banda di dispersionerecentemente proposta in letteratura. La banda sintetizzava più di 650 dati sperimentali relativi a giunti saldati con cordone d’angolo, con rotture innescate indifferentemente al piede o alla radice dei cordonidi saldatura.

  19. Níveis de energia líquida e ractopamina na qualidade da carne suína

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Melissa; Kiefer, Charles; Feijó,Gelson Luís Dias; Gonçalves,Liliane Maria Piano; Souza,Karina Márcia Ribeiro de; Rodrigues,Gabriela Puhl

    2014-01-01

    Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar qualitativamente a carne de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de energia líquida e suplementadas com 10ppm de ractopamina. Foram utilizados 100 suínos, machos castrados, de alto potencial genético, com peso médio inicial de 73,62 ± 4,76kg e peso médio final de 97,31 ± 1,12kg. Os animais foram distribuidos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5x2 (cinco níveis de energia líquida: 2.300; 2.42...

  20. Actions done by SAGARPA to foster renewable energies; Acciones realizadas por la SAGARPA para el fomento de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez de Sollano Elcoro, Rodrigo [Fideicomiso de riesgo compartido, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly focused on all the projects carried out in order to boost renewable energies. Such projects have not only good results for the environmental sphere but also for the economic one. In the first part, there are found the general targets, which are going to foster the use of these sort of energies. Then, there are shown different kinds of photovoltaic systems. The implementation of these systems have a double target: to improve both activities: stock breeding and agriculture, and to foster the use of renewable energy. Next, there are mentioned the project investors. Similarly, there are described some of the components that are part of such projects along with their corresponding results. Finally, it is given a succinctly explanation about the conclusions as well as the future plans. [Spanish] Esta presentacion principalmente se enfoca en todos los proyectos que se han realizado para el fomento de las energias renovables, teniendo un impacto no solo ambiental sino tambien economico. En la primera parte, se encuentran los objetivos generales que se tienen para fomentar el uso de este tipo de energia. Enseguida, se muestran los diferentes sistemas basados en el uso de energia renovable. La implementacion de estos sistemas tiene un doble objetivo: mejorar de alguna manera la actividad de la ganaderia o de la agricultura, y fomentar el uso de energias renovables. Enseguida, se mencionan los inversionistas que participaron en la realizacion de los proyectos; asimismo, se describen algunos de los elementos, que forman parte de los proyectos, acompanados de sus respectivos resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, se da una breve explicacion de las conclusiones a las que se llegaron, asi como de los planes a futuro.

  1. See, millest Parts Eesti Energia börsileviimise puhul ei räägi / Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia börsileviimise ettevalmistamisega on seotud sadakond inimest - pankurid, advokaadid, juristid jne., börsileviimine läheb maksma sadu miljoneid kroone, erastamise kasuks käib jõuline PR-töö. Samas on vähe räägitud alternatiivsetest võimalustest ja börsileviimisega kaasnevatest riskidest. Alternatiivsest kavast, et rahasüsti Eesti Energiale teeb erainvestorite asemel Eesti riik

  2. Didáctica da química : a energia na química : I

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Duarte Costa

    1991-01-01

    Formação - Professores Programa apresentado pelo professor Duarte da Costa Pereira, sobre o conceito de Energia na Química, com destaque para a descrição estrutural da Química. Disciplina “Didáctica da Física e da Química“, do Curso de Profissionalização em Exercício.

  3. First discussion for fostering the photovoltaic energy in Mexico; Primer coloquio para el fomento de la energia fotovoltaica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The varied spheres (political, environmental, economic, scientific and social) day by day are looking for the key issues, which are going to make them to preserve or disappear either in the present or in the future. Therefore, it was carried out the first conversation in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Here there were shown different advances related to the renewable energies by those spheres. Generally speaking, it was in this event where there were gather together private and government organs in order to present every issue related to the use and to the promotion of the renewable energies. By these means, it was probed that the renewable energies are: the current market, the groundbreaking technology, the best option friendly-environment, the panacea for the society and for the improvement of the economy of many countries both developing countries and developed countries. The renewable energy topic is seen from different point of views. [Spanish] Las diferentes esferas que rigen el dia a dia; es decir, la politica, el medio ambiente, la economia, las ciencias y la sociedad, siempre estan en busca de cuestiones que las hagan crecer y evolucionar para asi seguir ocupando un espacio no solo en el presente sino tambien en el futuro. En esta ocasion fue en el primer coloquio, realizado en el Estado de Zacatecas, Mexico, donde dichas esferas se reunieron con el fin de mostrar sus diversos avances acerca de las energias fotovoltaicas. En otras palabras, fue en este coloquio donde se reunieron organos privados y gubernamentales con el fin de mostrar todo lo relacionado con el uso y la promocion de las energias renovables. Comprobando que las energias renovables son tanto: el mercado de hoy, la tecnologia de punta, la mejor opcion ambiental, la panacea para la sociedad y para la mejora de la economia de muchos paises en vias de desarrollo y de primer mundo. En estas ponencias no solo se habla de las energias renovables desde un aspecto cientifico, sino tambien financiero

  4. Renewable energies. 25 years of UNAM in Temixco; Energias renovables. 25 anos de la UNAM en Temixco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    At the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), the research in renewable energy began since the decade of 70's. In 1985 the Laboratory of Solar Energy (LES) of the Institute for Research in Materials in Temixco, Morelos was inaugurated, and in 1996 this became the Energy Research Center (CIE) of the UNAM. Currently, CIE is the only research center of the UNAM devoted mainly to the study and development of applications of renewable energies in Mexico. In its 25 years of existence, the LES-CIE has shown to be a university entity with a high academic performance: both in the scientific and technological production, as in the formation of high quality human resources, its outreach activities and more recently with the linkage. This commemorative book for the 25 years was made with the intention of leaving constancy of the origins and evolution of what today is done in this University Research Center. [Spanish] En la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), se iniciaron las investigaciones en energias renovables desde la decada de los anos 70's. En 1985 se inaugura el Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) del Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales en Temixco, Morelos y en 1996 este se transforma en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM. Actualmente, el CIE es el unico centro de investigacion de la UNAM dedicado principalmente al estudio y desarrollo de aplicaciones de las energias renovables en Mexico. En sus 25 anos de existencia, el LES-CIE ha mostrado ser una entidad universitaria con un alto rendimiento academico: tanto en la produccion cientifica y tecnologica, como en la formacion de recursos humanos de alta calidad, sus actividades de difusion y mas recientemente con la vinculacion. Este libro conmemorativo por los 25 anos se realizo con el proposito de dejar constancia de los origenes, evolucion y de lo que hoy es y se hace en este Centro Universitario de Investigacion.

  5. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  6. Methodology to determine the consumption and potential of saving of electrical energy in the systems of air-conditioning in the residential sector: case the Northwest of Mexico; Metodologia para determinar el consumo y potencial de ahorro de energia electrica en los sistemas de climatizacion en el sector residencial: caso Noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work there are studied the characteristics of the consumption of electrical residential energy due to the systems of air conditioning and to cos mell, in the region Northwest of Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, and Nayarit) and the North region (Coahuila, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon). Between the principal results one finds that the potential saving of electrical energy, with base in the use of passive systems as the isolation of the housings, decided in 3,356 GWh (similar to the electrical annual supply that there needs the state of Durango or Guerrero). (Author)

  7. Quality studies of the energy in the electric net of the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils of the nuclear power plant Laguna Verde; Estudios de calidad de la energia en la red electrica del almacen de acopio de partes reusables y aceites contaminados (CCAC) de la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijerina S, F.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In the industry exist the high costs by faults of electronic and electric equipment s, due to during the design process, installation, tests and operation of these equipment s, is not had appropriate detection equipment to carry out quality studies of the energy. These studies give an important support to know that occurs in an electric net, the cause of the anomalous behavior of the equipment s and this way to avoid the expensive faults carrying out necessary engineering adaptations in an electric net. The elements of the electricity that are determined are the tension, current and frequency that are inside acceptable operational parameters that facilitate the operation and constant operation of the equipment s, free of interruptions and failures. The application of the quality studies of the energy is growing little by little in Mexico for the problems solution in the equipment s. This field is also developing new techniques and technologies integrated in the equipment s for its monitoring detection and protection. The present work offers the results of the first Quality Study of the Energy in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde to solve the problem in the gathering warehouse of reusable parts and contaminate oils, in which the failure of the two radiation monitors of the gassy effluent of ventilation HVAC of the warehouse took place. (Author)

  8. Análise da comercialização de energia elétrica cogerada pelo setor sucroalcooleiro no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda da Penha Teixeira Nagaoka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil viveu, em 2001, uma crise de oferta de energia elétrica sem precedentes que coincidiu com o processo de reestruturação do setor elétrico brasileiro e possibilitou aos autoprodutores de energia elétrica,como o setor sucroalcooleiro, comercializarem o excedente de energia, obtidos pelo processo de cogeração, que apesar do elevado potencial de comercialização, não está sendo devidamente aproveitado. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o mercado de energia elétrica cogerada e analisar os obstáculos à comercialização da energia cogerada, à luz da existência dos custos de transação e econômicos, enfrentados pelo setor sucroalcooleiro e distribuidoras. Para a coleta de informações, foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com o responsável pela área de cogeração das usinas e distribuidora de energia, que consistiam em perguntas pré-determinadas que foram lidas na mesma ordem e da mesma maneira para todos os entrevistados para assegurar a comparabilidade dos resultados. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e examinadas por meio da análise de conteúdo. Os resultados indicaram que poderiam ser estabelecidos contratos de longo prazo, mas os custos de transação e econômicos entre os agentes podem estar superando os benefícios da comercialização de energia elétrica cogerada, fazendo os agentes atuarem preferencialmente no mercado spot

  9. Tendencies and perspectives of the residential energy in Mexico; 1. ed.; Tendencias y perspectivas de la energia residencial en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    production of electricity. In the fifth chapter the saving potential is presented and the conservation policies and energy efficiency of the of the OCED countries. The second part exposes the tendencies in the use of the residential energy in Mexico from 1980 to 1990 and analyzes and evaluates the possible applications of the experience of the OECD countries to the case of our country. This part is initiated in the sixth chapter and in it the tendencies of the use of residential energy in Mexico at aggregated level from 1970 to 1990 are studied and for end uses from 1980 to 1990, in this chapter is also included a calculation of the elasticities demand-price and demand income, and an aggregated analysis of the change indices. In the seventh chapter the associated emissions of the main polluting agents and green house gases associated to the use of residential energy in Mexico are presented. In the eighth chapter the conservation potential is analyzed and the necessary energy policies to achieve it. In the ninth chapter the conclusions and recommendations are presented.. Finally three appendices are presented: the first one shows the source of the data for the countries of the OECD, the second shows the procedure of auto regression and the third one the prices of the residential energy in Mexico and the present average and minimum wage. [Espanol] Este trabajo es un estudio comparativo del uso de la energia residencial en Mexico y nueve paises fundadores de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE). Su principal objetivo es conocer las causas de la tendencias en el uso de la energia residencial en dichos paises, sus efectos ambientales, el potencial tecnico de conservacion y las posibles politicas de ahorro y eficiencias energeticas. El trabajo se divide en dos partes: La primera parte presenta el analisis de las tendencias observadas durante el periodo de 1973 a 1990 asi como las perspectivas del uso de la energia residencial en Estados Unidos

  10. Windows with selective covering to the solar radiation based in copper for saving energy; Ventanas con recubrimiento selectivo a la radiacion solar basado en cobre que permiten el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Genaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    transmitancias de hasta 30%, en el IR cercano, con una tendencia decreciente hacia mayores longitudes de onda. La transmitancia visible para los dos tipos de peliculas se traduce en gran luminosidad y, por lo tanto, resulta atractiva para su uso en viviendas o edificios. La incorporacion del sulfuro confiere a la ventana una coloracion cafe-grisacea, que sube o baja de tono, segun sea el espesor. Con el fin de comprobar la viabilidad de estas ventanas, se les hicieron pruebas de resistencia al medio ambiente. Finalmente, se esta simulando como seria el comportamiento termico a lo largo del ano de un departamento de 70 m{sup 2} que incorpore estas ventanas (se tomo el diseno y los materiales utilizados en la construccion de casas de interes social) y bajo climas caracteristicos de la Republica Mexicana: templado, con mediana oscilacion termica, como el que predomina en el centro del pais y extremoso como el que se presenta en el norte. Para la simulacion se empleo el programa ENERGY-10 con el que se calcularon los comportamientos de la habitacion a lo largo del ano y establecer criterios para lograr un confort aceptable. Se cuantifico el ahorro de energia electrica posible y las estrategias necesarias para tal fin, en funcion de la region geografica. Los resultados son variados segun las variables bioclimaticas y arquitectonicas consideradas como son la orientacion y el tipo de material de construccion utilizado.

  11. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    carburos organicos volatiles que no son metano (NMVOC, por sus siglas en ingles) y son productos secundarios y nocivos que se obtienen de los procesos que convierten los combustibles en energia (combustion). Las principales fuentes de GEI son: fuentes fijas (industrias, residencias, comercios, servicios publicos y transformacion de energia, como la produccion de electricidad); fuentes moviles (que incluyen todo tipo de transporte que use combustible). Los combustibles que, por su volumen y eficiencia, generan mas emisiones de GEI son el petroleo crudo, gas natural y biomasa solida (lena - bagazo de cana). Cualquier esfuerzo por reducir estas emisiones es muy importante y notable si incide en estos combustibles.

  12. Jüri Käo: Eesti Energia jääb isegi börsil poliitikute kontrolli alla / Jüri Käo ; intervjueerinud Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käo, Jüri, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu esimees ei poolda mitte Eesti Energia suuremahulist börsile viimist, vaid vähemusaktsiate börsil noteerimist. Tema sõnul on IPO suurim oht, et sellest saab poliitilise valimisvõitluse objekt ning unustatakse, et energeetikas tehakse otsuseid 30 ja 50 aasta perspektiivis

  13. Advantage of the renewable energies in isolated zones; Aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en zonas aisladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Zazueta, Jose Antonio [Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido de la SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The present article has as objective to present the experiences obtained for more than ten years, in the development and implementation of actions that in the matter of renewable energy have been orchestrated in the Mexican field by the Secretariat of Agriculture, Animal Industry, Rural Development, Fishing, and Nutrition, trough the Shared Risk Trust Fund. The activities began in 1994; the most common applications realized are the water pumping for the drinking trough of cattle and the automation of the irrigation in small surfaces with fruit trees, vegetables, forages and the operation of greenhouses. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de diez anos, en el desarrollo e implementacion de acciones que en materia de energia renovable se han instrumentado en el campo mexicano por la the Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural Pesca y Alimentacion, a traves del Fideicomiso de Riesgo Compartido. Las actividades se iniciaron en 1994, las aplicaciones mas comunes realizadas son el bombeo de agua para el abrevadero de ganado y la tecnificacion del riego en pequenas superficies con frutales, hortalizas, forrajes y la operacion de invernaderos.

  14. Energy and the exercise of the power; Energia y ejercicio del poder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Maraven S.A. (Venezuela)

    2007-07-15

    In different periods of the history, the central spot of the power game, played among nations, has been occupied by certain specific topics for a while. Among the occupants there are found: ground, food, religion, treasure and trade. Despite the fact that his arrival was unnoticed, there have been already 20 years since the energy -more specifically by the crude oil- has become the new occupant of such spot. Although, this occupant is not going to be the last one, it still has a long way to cover on the spot of the worldwide forces. [Spanish] En diferentes periodos de la historia, ciertos temas especificos han llegado a ocupar durante algun tiempo una posicion focal en el juego de poder entre naciones, grupos o individuos. Entre esos temas estan la tierra, los alimentos, la religion, el tesoro y el comercio. En los ultimos 20 anos, y de manera inadvertida en un principio, la energia -mas especificamente el petroleo- ha pasado a ocupar este papel central. Si bien no se puede esperar que lo retenga para siempre, en los proximos anos seguira en el centro de la interaccion de las fuerzas mundiales.

  15. Project of energy saving in compressed air; Proyecto de ahorro de energia en aire comprimido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Automatizacion, Productividad y Calidad S.A. de C.V. Puebla, (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this project is to reduce the operation costs by means of the energy saving through the use of the compressed air system. For this purpose the solenoid valves controlled per time and the manually acted valves of sphere must be replaced by pneumatic purges that remove from the system the condensed humidity without discharging air and which act automatically when the water reaches the level of unloading in its deposit. The pressure level is the reduction of the operation rank of pressure in the compressors, satisfying the operation requirements of the process equipment. [Spanish] El objetivo de este proyecto es reducir el costo de operacion mediante el ahorro de energia en la utilizacion del sistema de aire comprimido. Para ello se tienen que remplazar las valvulas solenoides controladas por tiempo y valvulas de esfera actuadas manualmente por purgas neumaticas que remueven del sistema la humedad condensada sin descargar aire y que actuan en forma automatica al alcanzar el agua el nivel de descarga en su deposito. El nivel de presion es la reduccion del rango de operacion de presion de los compresores, satisfaciendo los requerimientos de operacion de los equipos de proceso.

  16. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?; Pollina: utilizzo agronomico o fonte di energia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration. [Italian] Nel primo decennio del 2000 in Italia potrebbero sorgere tre impianti di incenerimento in grado di produrre energia utilizzando quale combustibile le deiezioni avicole. In tale lavoro sono stati considerati i vantaggi e gli svantaggi di tale scelta, sia dal punto di vista ambientale che economico, sottolienando come sia necessario tenere presente innanziutto la qualita' agronomica di tale biomassa organica. L'analisi effettuata suggerisce che il settore agricolo recuperi le deiezioni avicole in maniera preponderante, attraverso l'utilizzo immediato quale fertilizzante organico ed a seguito di processi alternativi in grado di esaltarne le caratteristiche agronomiche, rimandando al settore energetico il compito di smaltirne l'eventuale surplus mediante l'incenerimento.

  17. Análise do retorno econômico com a conservação de energia : caso da Usina de Paulo Afonso IV

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Maria José de

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação é o de analisar os retornos econômicos obtidos com investimentos aplicados na conservação de energia elétrica, com relevância ao que a conservação pode proporcionar às empresas, à sociedade e ao setor elétrico, além de outras vantagens agregadas com a minimização de custos, redução nos níveis de desperdício de energia e a compensação dos gastos através de retornos positivos. O estudo foi baseado no levantamento de dados do programa de conservação de energia de uma...

  18. Avaliação da eficiência do uso da energia elétrica no Perímetro Irrigado de Pirapora, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Salomão de S.; Soares,Antônio A.; Márcio M. Ramos; Everardo C. Mantovani; Souza,José A. A. de

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se, através deste trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de uso de energia elétrica no Perímetro Irrigado de Pirapora, no período de 1999 a 2000. A demanda anual de água de irrigação para o perímetro foi simulada com base no balanço de água no solo, para condições de um manejo de irrigação ideal. O índice médio anual de consumo de energia no perímetro foi determinado com base no volume de água aplicado e no consumo de energia das estações de bombeamento. Com o volume de água simulado e o ín...

  19. Integral programs of energy conservation (exergy) in the petroleum industry; Programas integrales de ahorro de energia (exergia) en la industria petrolera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero Rodriguez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents some of the fundamental issues related to energy conservation programs in general and to the petroleum industry in particular with the purpose of integrating them both, that is, considering not only the energy issues, but also the ecological and economical aspects. This is achieved by using the two fundamental laws of thermodynamics (the science that studies energy, its characteristics, and its transformations) through the use of the exergy concept, which is a measure of the energy quality and of its withdrawal with respect to the environment. The origins of the present-day technologies, regarding energy conservation, the short, medium and long term general strategies and the implementation stages of the integral programs of energy conservation are presented, and it concludes with a series of general policies aimed at making the energy conservation programs more congruent with the maintenance of a sustainable development. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos fundamentales relacionados con los programas de ahorro de energia en general, y en la industria petrolera en particular, con objeto de lograr que los mismos sean integrales, es decir que consideren no solo los aspectos puramente energeticos, sino tambien los aspectos ecologicos y economicos. Esto se logra utilizando conjuntamente las dos leyes fundamentales de la termodinamica (la ciencia que estudia la energia, sus caracteristicas y sus transformaciones), mediante la utilizacion del concepto de exergia, que es una medida de la calidad de la energia y de su alejamiento con respecto al medio ambiente. Se presentan los origenes de las tendencias tecnologicas actuales en materia de ahorro de energia, las estrategias generales a corto, mediano y largo plazos y las etapas en la implementacion de programas integrales de ahorro de energia, para concluir con una serie de politicas generales tendientes a lograr que los programas de ahorro de energia sean congruentes con el

  20. Valor nutricional e energia metabolizável de subprodutos do trigo utilizados para alimentação de suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rui Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e energético de subprodutos do trigo, em dietas para suínos em crescimento, e obter equações de predição da energia metabolizável. Foram utilizados 36 suínos machos, castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais. Realizou-se a coleta total de fezes e urina em dois períodos de dez dias: cinco para adaptação e cinco para coleta. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, tendo-se considerado o período de coleta como bloco, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições. A dieta referência foi substituída em 30% por um dos subprodutos testados: farinheta, farelo fino, farelo de trigo, farelo grosso e farelo grosso moído; este último usado para avaliar a influência da granulometria na digestibilidade. A fibra bruta foi a variável que proporcionou a melhor estimativa da energia metabolizável. O farelo fino foi superior em energia digestível e metabolizável, em comparação ao farelo grosso moído. O farelo grosso moído apresentou os menores coeficientes de digestibilidade, e a diminuição de seu diâmetro geométrico médio não aumentou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da energia. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, a farinheta apresenta maior energia digestível, energia metabolizável e proteína digestível, o que mostra elevado potencial para utilização em dietas para suínos em crescimento.

  1. Criteria for the provision and assembly of the rotor blades of a 300 MW low pressure steam turbine for electrical generation; Criterios para el suministro y ensambles de la alabes de rotor de turbina de vapor de 300 MW baja presion para generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Galo; Felix, Jorge A.; Quijano, Octavio [Especialistas en Turbopartes, S.A. de C.V., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents some of the main criteria to consider from the inspection, disassembling and assembly of blades with different root types of a turbine rotor of steam turbines for power generation, having as an aim to count on a reliable rotor, fulfilling with the equipment original design and norms and international standards. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta algunos de los criterios principales a considerar desde la inspeccion, desmontaje y montaje de alabes de diferentes tipos de raiz de un rotor de turbinas de vapor de generacion electrica, teniendo como finalidad contar con un rotor confiable, cumpliendo con el diseno original del equipo y con normas y estandares internacionales.

  2. APLICAÇÃO DA ENERGIA HIDRELÉTRICA EM UMA SALA DE AULA BUSCANDO A ECONOMIA NA FORMA DO CONSUMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mateus Rieger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Após a revolução industrial, com o êxodo rural, houve um grande crescimento populacional urbano trazendo consigo o aumento no consumo elétrico e consequentemente necessitando de uma maior demanda de produção de energia. Em meio a essa evolução, tornou-se essencial a construção de mais fontes geradoras de energia elétrica, causando diversos impactos ambientais. Atualmente a criação de programas de conservação buscando métodos para a redução do consumo de energia, visa adotar novos estilos de vida e padrões de consumo o que vem sendo um grande desafio a todos. Segundo PUCRS (2010, p.05. um programa de conservação e uso racional de energia consiste em uma série de ações e medidas de caráter técnico, gerencial e comportamental, que visam a diminuir o consumo de energia e buscam a sustentabilidade. Neste projeto serão citadas algumas maneiras de redução de consumo de energia elétrica em uma sala de aula da escola Osvaldo Crus, sendo esta energia proveniente de usina hidrelétrica. “[...] A maior e mais potente usina hidroelétrica do mundo, é a Usina Itaipu, localizada na fronteira entre Brasil e Paraguai, ela é capaz de produzir 90000 giga watts por ano, o suficiente para alimentar a cidade de Londres por 3 anos.” ( GIGANTES DA ENGENHARIA, 2009. A conscientização de todo o corpo acadêmico do colégio Osvaldo Cruz é de fundamental importância para a realização desse projeto, desde um simples gesto como desligar as luzes quando o ambiente não estiver sendo utilizado, fechar todo o ambiente ao ligar o condicionador de ar, entre outros, sendo que isto trará melhorias e benefícios para todos, já que reduzindo o consumo de energia, indiretamente estaremos reduzindo os níveis de impactos ambientais.

  3. Nou enfocament per a l’anàlisi de la controvèrsia no resolta sobre l’energia nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Maurin, François; Kovacic, Zora

    2015-01-01

    Un equip d’investigadors de l’ICTA-UAB ha desenvolupat un nou enfocament per estudiar les controvèrsies sobre la governança de les tecnologies, centrant-se en el cas de l’energia nuclear, una de les tecnologies més controvertides i, al mateix temps, més desplegades dels últims 60 anys. Segons els investigadors, la controvèrsia sobre l’energia nuclear pot ser entesa com una sèrie de desajustos entre les expectatives i l’experiència, resultat del desafiament de fer front als alts nivells d’ince...

  4. Altervative energy sources, principles, applications, state of the art and perspectives; Fuentes alternativas de energia, principios, aplicaciones, estado del arte y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana Flores, R; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Ramos Berumen, C.; Agredano Diaz, J.; Arvizu Fernandex, J.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Saldana Flores, R.; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Ramos Berumen, C.; Agredano Diaz, J.; Arvizu Fernandez, J.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    All over the world, the energy availability has turned out to be one of the most important problems. The greatest majority of countries, developing as well as industrialized countries are being affected by the increasing demand of energy to satisfy their social and economic development goals and the need of complementing the conventional sources of energy with the non-conventional sources has become imperative for most of them. Beginning the last decade, it has been recognized the inevitability that in a non too far future the energy supply will suffer a transitional change from its present oil dependency towards more diversified energy combinations. This transition that involves the development of a variety of energy sources, with preference to the renewable sources, represents an important technological challenge that has to be attained in a gradual and orderly fashion. Among the new energy forms and the new technologies to obtain energy that have been considered to become a part of the energy supply in the future are the so called non-conventional sources of energy (NCSE) or alternative sources of energy, such as solar, biomass, wind power and small hydro stations. [Espanol] A nivel mundial, la disponibilidad de energia se ha convertido en uno de los problemas ms importantes. La gran mayoria de los paises, tanto en desarrollo como industrializados, se ven afectados por demandas crecientes de energia para satisfacer sus metas de desarrollo econonico y social, y la necesidad de complementar las fuentes comerciales con fuentes no convencionales se ha vuelto imperativa para la mayoria de ellos. A partir de la ultima decada, se ha reconocido como inevitable que en un futuro no muy lejano la oferta de energa debera sufrir una transicin desde su actual dependencia de los hidrocarburos hacia combinaciones energeticas mas diversificadas. Esta transicion que implica lograr el aprovechamiento de una variedad de fuentes de energia, prestando particular atencion a los

  5. Fronteiras paramétricas de eficiência para o segmento de transmissão de energia elétrica no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Estuda a eficiência de custo de empresas de transmissão de energia elétrica brasileiras por meio de análise por fronteira estocástica, com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de metodologia justa e imparcial, a ser aplicada pela Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica - ANEEL, na regulação por incentivo da indústria de transmissão. Para isso, desenvolve metodologia de coleta e tratamento das informações de custos mensais das transmissoras, obtidas em banco de dados disponível na ANEE...

  6. Optimization in the use of energy in a petrochemical process; Optimizacion del uso de la energia en un proceso petroquimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, L. [Tecnopinch, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Torres Reyes, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to reduce the energy consumption in a section of a dimethyl terephthalate plant. A thermal analysis was performed to evaluate the opportunities in energy saving. It was found that the plant operates with a high level of energy integration, that is, the maximum amount of heat is recovered by the generation of steam that is utilized in other sections of the plant. Nevertheless, the process design is such that an important part of the heating potential of this steam is lost due to the expansion it is subjected to adjust its pressure to the distribution header pressure which in this way limits its optimum usage. A proposal is also presented to reduce the losses of potential and the overall consumption of energy in approximately 5 millions of Btu/hr. [Espanol] En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio para reducir el consumo de energia en una seccion de una planta de dimetil tereftalato. Se realizo un analisis termico para evaluar las oportunidades de ahorro de energia. Se encontro que la planta opera con un alto nivel de integracion energetica, es decir, se recupera la maxima cantidad de calor en forma de vapor y se reutiliza en otras secciones de la planta. Sin embargo, el diseno del proceso es tal que una fraccion importante del potencial de calentamiento de este vapor se pierde debido a la expansion a que es sometido para ajustar su presion a la del cabezal de distribucion, limitando de esta manera su uso optimo. Se presenta una propuesta para reducir las perdidas de potencial y reducir el consumo global de energia en aproximadamente 5 millones de Btu/hr.

  7. Energia eólica, geração de empregos e desenvolvimento sustentável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana Simas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A energia eólica no Brasil passou por um período de lento crescimento, porém, os projetos contratados nos últimos três anos deverão quintuplicar a capacidade instalada. É a tecnologia limpa que mais tem crescido na última década, trazendo benefícios ambientais e sociais para diversos países. Nosso trabalho buscou quantificar a geração de empregos diretos e indiretos pela energia eólica no país. Até 2020, serão gerados 195 mil empregos, e 70% desses são diretos, a maioria na construção civil, com grande potencial para a criação de empregos em localidades rurais. Assim, a energia eólica deverá contribuir decisivamente para o desenvolvimento sustentável do país.Wind power development in Brazil has experienced a long period of slow growth; however, projects contracted over the last three years might increase the current installed capacity by fivefold. This was the fastest growing clean energy technology over the last decade, bringing environmental and social benefits to several countries. Our work has determined direct and indirect job creation potential due to indigenous wind power deployment. About 195,000 jobs will be created up to 2020, out of which 70% direct, and most of them in construction, which has great local job creation potential. Therefore, wind power plays a major role in the sustainable development of the country.

  8. Use of the operation planning network at Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE); Uso de la red de planeacion de la operacion en el Centro Nacional de Control de Energia (CENACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto; Alatorre, Pedro; Gonzalez, Nemorio; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A description is made of the ways Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utilizes the system called Short Term Operation Planning Network (Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo) (REDPLA) in the elaboration of the generation daily pre-dispatch (PD) of the National Electric System (SEN). The PD defines the hourly generation with which each central must contribute, to cover the predicted demand during the following 24 hours, so that the total production cost be the lowest. Respecting at every moment the transmission limitations, the characteristics of the generation system and the operational restrictions. [Espanol] Se describe la manera en que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) utiliza el sistema denominado Red de Planeacion de la Operacion a Corto Plazo (Redpla) en la elaboracion del predespacho diario (PD) de generacion del sistema electrico nacional (SEN). El PD define la generacion horaria que debera aportar cada central electrica para cubrir la demanda pronosticada durante las proximas 24 horas, de tal manera que el costo de produccion total sea el mas bajo, respetando en todo momento las limitaciones de transmision, las caracteristicas del sistema de generacion y las restricciones operativas del sistema.

  9. Experiences of energy saving and co-generation projects; Experiencias de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Barajas, Alberto [Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this document are presented the successful projects of energy saving and co-generation that Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. has made in diverse industries. The investment recovery periods have been smaller to 18 months. The projects have been made for different companies within Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Se presentan los casos exitosos de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion que Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. ha realizado en diversas industrias cuyo periodo de recuperacion de la inversion han sido menores a 18 meses. Los proyectos han sido realizados para distintas empresas dentro de la Republica Mexicana.

  10. Anàlisis d’un sistema d’energia renovable basat en un dish Stirling

    OpenAIRE

    Villà Sabé, Èric

    2016-01-01

    L’any 2015 li concedeixen a la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) un projecte europeu DIDSOLIT finançat per la UE, per avaluar el cost-benefici d’un sistema d’energia renovable. Davant d’aquest escenari, la UAB es va posa en contacte amb el centre CITCEA per dur a terme aquest projecte d’enginyeria. Posteriorment, es procedeix amb la compra d’un dish Stirling TRINUM a l’empresa INNOVA SOLAR, que és instal·lat a l’edifici del ETSEIB, UPC, Barcelona. Davant d’aquesta oportunitat, es pro...

  11. Cost-benefit of energy saving in bioclimatic designs; Costo-beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimatios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble dos soluciones de Negocios (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rdriguez V, Luis [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    Tools and criteria for Cost-Benefit Analysis (ACB) of energy saving in bioclimatic designs (DB) are presented, for which a reference project is established. Based on the traditional design of air conditioning of a building and with the support of this one, the estimation of costs and benefits of the same building is made; but with passive systems. The tools used consider related resources such as time and money. Criteria are used such as: Present value (VP), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the conserved Energy (CEC). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into consideration. The differences between the design of reference and the Bioclimatic Design, established from the application of these criteria, allow evaluating the economic margin as far as operation and maintenance. Finally, the cost of the conserved energy of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative for energy saving and calculates the present value from them in all of the period of useful life of the bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio (ACB) del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual se establece un proyecto de referencia. Basado en el diseno tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con apoyo en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio; pero con sistema pasivos. Las herramientas usadas consideran recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero. Se usan criterios tales como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados con la construccion, mantenimiento y operacion del diseno. Las diferencias entre el diseno de referencia y el Diseno Bioclimatico, establecidas a partir de la aplicacion de estos criterios, permiten evaluar el margen economico en cuanto a la operacion y el mantenimiento. Finalmente, se

  12. Didáctica da química : a energia na química : III

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Duarte Costa

    1991-01-01

    Formação - Professores Programa apresentado pelo professor Duarte Costa Pereira, sobre o segundo aspeto da Descrição Reacional da Química: a Energia como conceito unificador dos vários níveis de descrição da Química. Recurso a experiências realizadas em Laboratório de Química. Disciplina “Didáctica da Física e da Química “, do Curso de Profissionalização em Exercício.

  13. Mudanças no uso da terra e o particionamento de energia no sudoeste da Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Webler,Alberto D.; Josiane B. Gomes; Aguiar, Renata G.; Nara L. R. de Andrade; Aguiar,Leonardo J. G.

    2013-01-01

    A expressiva taxa de desmatamento na região amazônica tem se tornado uma preocupação mundial. Este processo consiste, substancialmente, na conversão de sistemas florestais em sistemas agropecuários. Este novo ecossistema requer estudos que elucidem quanto ao seu funcionamento buscando o entendimento de como a referida região interage com a atmosfera. Com o intento de investigar o comportamento de componentes do balanço de energia em uma área de pastagem foi realizado um estudo na Fazenda Noss...

  14. Perfil sanguíneo de novilhos Nelore alimentados com diferentes fontes da energia da dieta em confinamento

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Filho, Geraldo Helber Batista; Souza,Rafahel Carvalho; Costa,Patrícia Monteiro; Silva, Sílvio Costa e; Andrade Júnior, José Mauro de Carvalho; Barbosa, Steffany Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Bovinos confinados estão mais susceptíveis ao desenvolvimento de desordens metabólicas o que pode resultar em decréscimo na produtivida­de. Foram avaliados os perfis sanguíneos em 32 bovinos Nelore alimentados com diferentes fontes de energia na dieta em confinamento, sendo MGI - die­ta composta por milho grão inteiro e suplemento comercial peletizado; SCMF - dieta composta por silagem de capim elefante e milho floculado como fonte energética; SCPC - dieta composta por silagem de capim elefan...

  15. Uma introdução aos métodos de cálculo da energia de Casimir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Sobrinho J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito Casimir é um dos aspectos mais intrigantes da física moderna. A previsão da existência de uma força macroscópica de origem quântica entre condutores neutros e sua posterior comprovação experimental é sem dúvida um dos triunfos da teoria quântica dos campos. Complementando uma introdução conceitual publicada recentemente nesta revista, apresentamos alguns métodos de cálculo da energia de Casimir, que é a grandeza fundamental que origina o efeito Casimir.

  16. Producció biològica d'hidrogen i energia a partir d'aigües residuals

    OpenAIRE

    Guisasola i Canudas, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Investigadors del Departament d'Enginyeria Química de la UAB han aconseguit obtenir energia elèctrica i hidrogen de manera eficient a partir del procés de depuració d'aigües residuals. El sistema proposat utilitza bacteris que consumeixen la matèria orgànica i produeixen un corrent elèctric que permet la producció d'hidrogen, el vector energètic del futur. Els resultats apunten cap a un desenvolupament a escala industrial d'aquesta tecnologia, si bé abans cal afrontar alguns obstacles tècnics...

  17. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  18. Description of the international scenarios and the renewable energies (Chapter 4 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Descripcion de los escenarios internacionales y las energias renovables (Capitulo 4 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this chapter, energy scenarios made by different organizations are described, the majority foreign, and they do not represent an official version of the Secretaria de Energia of the Mexican government. 1. The IEO-2004, Projections to year 2025 of the Energy Information Agency (EIA) of the Department of Energy of the USA (DOE, USA). - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1970-2000) and projections to the future (2001-2025); 2. The WOE-2004, Projections to year 2030 of the Agency International of Energy of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (AIE-OECD) - it describes the world-wide energy situation with historical information (1971-2002) and projections to the future (2002-2030); 3. The scenarios of Shell to year 2050; 4, Scenarios to year 2025 of the Agency International of Energy oriented to a sustainable future: it is a document published in the 2003, it contains the results of an exercise to develop three exploratory scenarios and a formative scenario/projections; 5. The study of the World-wide Council of Energy on the activators of the energy sector; 6. Other scenarios for Mexico are: Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation, GEO-Mexico and the Centro de Investigacion de Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. [Spanish] En este capitulo, se describen escenarios energeticos a largo plazo realizados por diferentes entidades, la mayoria extranjeras, y no representan una version oficial de la Secretaria de Energia del gobierno de Mexico. 1. El IEO-2004, Proyecciones al 2025 de la Energy Information Agency (EIA) del departamento de energia de los EUA (DOE, USA).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica (1970-2000) y proyecciones a futuro (2001-2025); 2. El WOE-2004, Proyecciones al 2030 de la Agencia Internacional de Energia de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (AIE-OCDE).- describe la situacion energetica mundial con informacion historica

  19. Potencial del techo verde, para ahorrar electricidad por aire acondicionado en la edificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruber Trujillo Samayoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Tanto en México como en el mundo, más de tres cuartas partes de los insumos que se usan en la producción de electricidad provienen de fuentes no renovables, en una realidad donde los techos de las edificaciones son responsables de un consumo importante de electricidad por aire acondicionado. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar el aspecto térmico y la eficiencia en el consumo de electricidad de dos aires acondicionados colocados, bajo el Techo de concreto reforzado y el Techo verde, y a la vez utilizar a la geometría analítica como herramienta de análisis en el consumo de electricidad. Método: Aunque inicialmente la metodología de la climatología dinámica, fue desarrollada para el análisis térmico, en este trabajo se retomó para aplicarlo al consumo eléctrico y conjuntándolo con el apoyo de la geometría analítica, a través de ecuaciones de recta que representan promedios anuales, se evidenció las diferencias en el consumo. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el Techo verde amortigua mejor las temperaturas exteriores, reduce la oscilación térmica y; en el consumo eléctrico, con una diferencia promedio anual de un 28%, el Techo Verde consumió menos energía eléctrica por aire acondicionado. Discusión o conclusión: Se demuestra que conviene el uso de techos verdes en el sitio de estudio y posibilita su aplicación en otros contextos. El trabajo se realizó en periodos de temperaturas extremas opuestas, invierno de 2014 y primavera de 2015.

  20. Potencial del techo verde, para ahorrar electricidad por aire acondicionado en la edificación

    OpenAIRE

    Ruber Trujillo Samayoa; Yamile Rangel Martínez; Gabriel Castañeda Nolasco

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Tanto en México como en el mundo, más de tres cuartas partes de los insumos que se usan en la producción de electricidad provienen de fuentes no renovables, en una realidad donde los techos de las edificaciones son responsables de un consumo importante de electricidad por aire acondicionado. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue evaluar el aspecto térmico y la eficiencia en el consumo de electricidad de dos aires acondicionados colocados, bajo el Techo de concreto reforzado y el Tech...

  1. Potential of bioclimatic architecture for energy saving in buildings; Potencial de la arquitectura bioclimatica para ahorro de energia en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The design and construction of current buildings has been characterized, most of all, in the last 30 years, for the lack of consideration in the design process of aspects that nowadays represent a fundamental importance. These aspects are related to energy conservation and environmental protection, with man as the main center of attention for the optimum satisfaction of its physiological as well as psychological needs. In this paper are presented the causes for the lack of consideration of the mentioned aspects and guidelines to follow are set forth for their integration in the design process. Also the architecture potential with a bioclimatic approach is analyzed, for energy saving in buildings. [Espanol] El diseno y construccion de edificios contemporaneos se ha caracterizado, sobre todo en los ultimos treinta anos, por la falta de consideracion en el proceso de diseno, de aspectos que hoy en dia revisten una importancia primordial. Estos aspectos se relacionan con la preservacion de la energia y del medio ambiente, teniendo al hombre como principal centro de atencion, para la satisfaccion optima de sus necesidades, tanto fisiologicas como psicologicas. En este trabajo, se presentan las causas de la falta de consideracion de los aspectos antes citados y se plantean las pautas a seguir para su integracion en el proceso de diseno. Asi mismo, se analiza el potencial de la arquitectura con un enfoque bioclimatico, para ahorro de energia en los edificios.

  2. Energy saving by the use of polystyrene in construction; Ahorro de energia por la utilizacion de poliestireno en la construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Raul [Polioles S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In the past last years, the building industry has been faced with requirements in the rational energy use and environmental preservation. The polystyrene foam is a material that for more than forty years has demonstrated its attributes all over the world in its application in the construction industry as well as in the packing and crating industries, becoming a synonym of economic construction in regard to energy saving and a synonym also of a rational and safe packing. In this paper a short description is made of the manufacturing process of the expandable polystyrene foam, its properties and applications in the construction industry. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos, la industria de la construccion se ha enfrentado a exigencias en el uso racional de la energia y en la preservacion del medio ambiente. La espuma de poliestireno expansible es un material que por mas de cuarenta anos, ha demostrado sus cualidades a nivel mundial en su aplicacion tanto en la industria de la construccion como en la del empaque y embalaje, llegando a convertirse en sinonimo de una construccion economica en cuanto a ahorro de energia y sinonimo tambien de un embalaje racional y seguro. En este trabajo se hace una breve descripcion del proceso de fabricacion de la espuma de poliestireno expandible, sus propiedades y aplicaciones dentro de la industria de la construccion.

  3. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  4. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 1: Country reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 1: Country reports) is the first report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This first report is the presentation of the countries studied in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The policy system and the political framework conditions that underpin energy related industrial activity are reviewed for each country. This includes energy strategies, laws and regulations, R&D and innovation policies and instruments, and international collaboration. Key actors and institutions in the public domain, research and education, and non-governmental organisations are mapped. Finally, the descriptions of the countries include also technology specific overviews of R&D-intensive firms in the energy sector. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports Part 3: Special reports The results are summarised in the Synthesis report. (Author). refs., 24 figs., 49 tabs

  5. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO DA MAMONEIRA BRS ENERGIA EM FUNÇÃO DA DENSIDADE POPULACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIBRAN DA SILVA ALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population density is one of the factors that affect the final yield of crops, being easily ma-nipulated by man. The objective was to evaluate the growth of castor bean plants cv BRS Energia in dense pop-ulations through primary data and non-destructive analysis of growth and identify which period greater vegeta-tive growth occurs. We adopted a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications, totaling 20 experimental units. Each experimental unit contained 4 m wide and 6 m in length, representing 24 m². Treatments involving five populations of plants 10.000; 16.666; 25.000; 50.000; 100.000 plants ha-1, with a spacing of 1 m between rows and 1; 0.6; 0.4; 0.2 and 0.1 m between plants, respectively. It was determined: stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, leaf area index and rates absolute and relative leaf growth, of stem diam-eter, of plant height and of fresh biomass epigeal. The castor bean BRS Energia has the highest rates of vegeta-tive increase between 15 and 45 days after emergence. Therefore, it is of great importance, in this period, pro-vide the plant water and nutrient conditions appropriate so that does not compromise on plant development.

  6. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  7. Previsão do impacto de racionamento de energia sobre a economia Pernambucana a partir da experiência de 2001/2002: uma análise de insumo-produto

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho analisa os requerimentos de energia necessários para o desenvolvimento das atividades econômicas do Estado de Pernambuco bem como os setores-chave em utilização de energia elétrica e ainda, os efeitos econômicos de uma restrição ao uso de energia elétrica para que se saibam os impactos de um racionamento desse bem. A metodologia utilizada foi a construção de um modelo híbrido de Insumo-Produto para a economia pernambucana tendo em vista que através deste modelo se...

  8. The wind power in Brazil: Proinfa and the new model of the electric sector; A energia eolica no Brasil: Proinfa e o novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Proinfa - Programa de Incentivo as Fontes Alternativas de Energia (Energy Alternative Sources Improvement Program), its maturation period, the first stage results and the difficulties and the conflicts generated by the New Model of Electric Sector for the development of the aeolian energy in the Brazilian electric matrix.

  9. Avaliação da indústria de equipamentos para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sérgio Bonanni

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, incentivado pelo Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, procurou avaliar e identificar o "estado da arte" da tecnologia industrial brasileira de equipamentos de pequeno e médio porte para aproveitamento de fontes renováveis de energia. O projeto atuou nas seguintes áreas: Pequenas Centrais Hidrelétricas (PCH, Energia Solar, Energia Eólica, Biodigestores e Equipamentos de Biogás e Gaseificadores de combustíveis sólidos (Gasogênios, não somente "identificando" como "localizando" os atuais fabricantes de equipamentos utilizados no aproveitamento e renovação da energia. O projeto focalizou ainda os aspectos econômicos e financeiros das indústrias pesquisadas, tais como: caracterização e evolução recente, sua produção industrial em mercado atual e futuro, além das suas dificuldades na produção e comercialização de seus produtos.This work, sponsored by the Brazilian Research Council, carried out a sectorial appraisal of the manufacturers of equipment that use renewable energy sources. The survey was executed in Small Hydroelectric Plants, Solar Energy, Eolic Energy, Biogas and Gasification of solid combustible identifying the manufacturers and their localization. The survey pointed out the industries economical and financial aspects, as well as, the difficulties in producing and trading their products.

  10. Ferramenta de auxílio no processo de medição de energia elétrica utilizando inteligência computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Silva Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda assuntos relacionados aos problemas encontrados na medição de energia elétrica em decorrência de distorções harmônicas da rede. Tais distorções podem ser capazes de provocar erros consideráveis, acarretando, consequentemente, em cobrança de uma quantidade indevida de energia pela empresa fornecedora. Tendo em vista esse problema, o objetivo deste artigo consiste em tornar o processo de medição de energia elétrica mais eficiente por meio de conceitos referentes a Redes Neurais Artificias e Redes Neuro-Fuzzy.Palavras-chave: Medição de energia elétrica. Distorções Harmônicas. Redes Neurais Artificiais. Redes Neuro-Fuzzy.AbstractA tool to assist in the process of electric energy measurement by the use of computational intelligenceThis article discusses issues related to problems encountered on electrical energy measurement due to harmonics distortions in the network. Such distortions may be able to cause considerable errors and consequently an undue amount of energy collection by the supplier. In view of this problem, the objective of this article is to make the process of measuring more efficient electricity through concepts related to Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Networks.Keywords: Electrical energy measurement. Harmonic Distortions. Artificial Neural Networks. Neuro-Fuzzy Networks.

  11. Geração de energia elétrica excedente no setor sucroalcooleiro: um estudo a partir das usinas paulistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilmar José de Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A geração de energia elétrica por parte do setor sucroalcooleiro encontra-se muito aquém de seu potencial. Este artigo tem por objetivo identificar os entraves para a ampliação da oferta de excedentes de energia elétrica pelo setor sucroalcooleiro, utilizando, para tanto, cinco estudos de caso com usinas paulistas. Os elevados custos associados à comercialização da energia elétrica - seja na venda de excedentes, seja na aquisição para consumo próprio - constituem a explicação mais plausível para a auto-suficiência na produção de energia elétrica pelo setor sucroalcooleiro, aliada à pequena geração de excedentes de energia para comercialização. Das cinco usinas estudas, as três que comercializam excedentes de energia o fazem como parte de uma estratégia de antecipação da necessidade futura de auto-suficiência. Havendo custos associados à venda de excedentes de energia elétrica, não há incentivos à utilização de tecnologias de maior eficiência energética. As políticas públicas voltadas à expansão dos excedentes de energia devem voltar-se para a redução dos custos associados à comercialização de excedentes de energia. Particularmente interessante é aumentar o volume de consumidores livres e amparar a comercialização entre estes e os co-geradores de energia.The generation of electric energy by the sugarcane sector stands much below its potential. Using five case studies with São Paulo plants, this article aims to identify the obstacles to the expansion of the electric energy commercialization by the sugarcane sector. High costs associated to the commercialization of electric energy - in commercialization of excesses, and in the acquisition for proper consumption - are the most reasonable explanation for the self-sufficiency in the production of electric power by the sugarcane sector, an allied energy to the small generation of excesses of energy for commercialization. Out of the five plants

  12. Eficiência de utilização da energia metabolizável para mantença e ganho de peso e exigências de energia metabolizável e de nutrientes digestíveis totais de bovinos F1 Limousin x Nelore não-castrados

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso Cristina Mattos; Valadares Filho Sebastião de Campos; Gesuladi Júnior Antonio; Silva Fabiano Ferreira da; Paulino Mário Fonseca; Valadares Rilene Ferreira Diniz; Cecon Paulo Roberto; Paulino Pedro Veiga Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Foram utilizados 50 novilhos F1 Limousin x Nelore inteiros, alocados em dez tratamentos, com cinco níveis de concentrado (25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75%) e duas formas de balanceamento protéico da dieta (uma isoprotéica com 12% de proteína bruta [PB] e outra variando proteína com energia). O consumo de matéria seca (MS) necessário para manter o equilíbrio de energia foi calculado dividindo-se o consumo de energia metabolizável (EM) necessário para mantença (112,89 kcal/PCVZ0,75), pela concentração...

  13. A personal memory of the history of the group of energy and mass transference; Una memoria personal de la historia del grupo de transferencia de energia y masa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Eduardo [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    An object that is exposed to sunlight heats up. Based on the everyday experiences, this is a claim that the majority of us would agree. In a more technical note, this object increases its temperature and internal energy. Reflection for a moment, perhaps we would come to the conclusion that the energy captured by the object exposed to solar radiation could be used in a useful fashion. It would require a much longer time of reflection and analysis to imagine the method to convert the heat into useful energy. It is precisely this analysis that has been the objective of the group of energy and mass transference of the Center for Energy Research since its foundation, and probably will remain so while it can be identified as a group of scientific research. In the following pages we will feature briefly, from a personal stand point of view the history of the work, successes and failures of the group since its inception till the present. [Spanish] Un objeto que se expone a la luz solar se calienta. Basados en la experiencia cotidiana, esta es una aseveracion con la que la mayoria de nosotros estaria de acuerdo. Dicho de manera mas tecnica, este objeto aumenta su temperatura y su energia interna. Reflexionando un instante, quiza llegariamos a la conclusion que la energia capturada por el objeto expuesto a la radiacion solar podria ser usada de manera util. Se requeriria un tiempo mucho mas largo de reflexion y analisis para imaginar el metodo para convertir el calor en energia util. Precisamente este analisis ha sido el objetivo del grupo de Transferencia de Energia y Masa del Centro de Investigacion en Energia desde su fundacion, y probablemente lo seguira siendo mientras se le pueda identificar como un grupo de investigacion cientifica. En las paginas siguientes resenaremos brevemente desde un punto de vista personal la historia del trabajo, exitos y fracasos del grupo desde su inicio hasta el presente.

  14. Utilization of the computational technic for the promotion and diffusion of the energy conservation practice; Utilizacion de tecnicas computacionales para promocionar y difundir el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, N. [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper are presented the developments obtained through the application of the new computational technologies in the diffusion and promotion tasks of energy efficient use and conservation. The most relevant aspects are described of three multimedia courses that were designed in order to increase the possibilities of offering personal training in efficient energy technic, as well as to have on hand totally open consulting and interactive tools. The courses that are described are: ``Design of Energy Conservation Programs for the Industry``, ``Energy Conservation in Combustion Equipment`` and ``Energy Cogeneration Technologies.`` On another subject, an analysis is also made of the possibilities for the development and application of expert systems that advise and give support to the work of technicians and engineers dedicated to energy conservation. The main characteristics of an expert system to give support to the energy analysis of lighting industrial systems, malls, buildings and hotels are also described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los desarrollos obtenidos por la aplicacion de las tareas de difusion y promocion del uso eficiente y ahorro de energia. Se describen los aspectos mas relevantes de tres cursos multimedia que fueron disenados con el objeto de incrementar las posibilidades de brindar capacitacion individualizada en tecnicas energeticas eficientes, asi como de contar con herramientas de consulta totalmente abiertas e interactivas. Los cursos que se describen son: ``Diseno de Programas de Ahorro de Energia en la Industria,`` ``Ahorro de Energia en Equipos de Combustion`` y ``Tecnologias de Cogeneracion de Energia.`` Por otro lado, tambien se hace un analisis de las posibilidades para el desarrollo y aplicacion de sistemas expertos que asesoren y apoyen el trabajo de tecnicos e ingenieros dedicados al ahorro de energia. Se describen las caracteristicas principales de un sistema experto disenado para brindar apoyo en analisis energeticos

  15. Estimativa do balanço de energia utilizando imagens TM - Landsat 5 e o algoritmo SEBAL no litoral sul de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As trocas de energia na interface solo-planta-atmosfera, por meio das componentes do balanço de radiação (Rn e dos fluxos de calor no solo (G, sensível (H e latente (LE, são essenciais para a modelagem climática e hidrológica que, por sua vez, afetam toda a biosfera. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa teve por objetivos: (1 estimar e comparar o comportamento dos componentes do balanço de energia, usando o algoritmo SEBAL - Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land, em diferentes tipos de uso e cobertura do solo e (2 validar o algoritmo. Para isso, foram usadas três imagens TM - Landsat 5 de órbita e ponto 214/066, com datas de passagem em 26 de agosto de 2006, 6 de setembro de 2010 e 28 de janeiro de 2011, todas recortadas para enquadrar o litoral sul de Pernambuco. Os resultados mostraram a capacidade do SEBAL de estimar a variabilidade espacial dos diferentes componentes do balanço de energia, com capacidade de distinguir diferentes ocupações do solo. O cômputo do balanço de energia possibilita observar as formas diferenciadas do uso da energia pelos diferentes tipos de cobertura do solo e verificar aqueles que propiciam melhor conforto térmico. As estimativas da evapotranspiração obtidas pelo algoritmo SEBAL apresentaram uma boa concordância com os resultados obtidos pelo método da FAO-Penman-Monteith demonstrando, dessa forma, a potencialidade da abordagem metodológica escolhida.

  16. Pesquisa e desenvolvimento e a qualidade no fornecimento de energia elétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Torres da Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil os serviços de fornecimento de energia elétrica, salvo raras exceções, são prestados com exclusividade por empresas públicas e privadas, em operações regulamentadas por dispositivos legais específicos e contratos de concessão ou permissão. Pela legislação em vigor tais empresas são obrigadas ainvestir em P&D (pesquisa e desenvolvimento. De outro lado, essas empresas também têm que cumprir metas relacionadas à qualidade dos seus serviços. Tais aspectos motivaram a realização de uma pesquisa, objeto do presente artigo, visando avaliar a existência, ou não, de relação entre esses investimentos e a qualidade dos serviços. Para tal finalidade foram levantados dados que foram analisados pelo método estatístico da correlação. Os resultados obtidos indicaramuma baixa correlação entre os indicadores utilizados, permitindo concluir que, até o momento, os investimentos em P&D podem não estar apresentando nenhum impacto significativo na qualidade dos serviços.Abstract In Brazil the services of electricity supply, with few exceptions, are provided exclusively by public and private companies, in operations regulated by specific legal provisions and concession contracts or permits. By existing legislation suchcompanies are required to invest in P&D (research and development. On the other hand, these companies also have to meet targets related to the quality of their services. These aspects motivated the implementation of a research objective of this article, to evaluate the existence or not of a relation between the investment andservice quality. For this purpose data was collected were analyzed by statistical method of correlation. The results indicated a low correlation between the indicators used, allowing to conclude that so far, the investments in P&D may not be showing any significant impact on service quality.

  17. Energia dal mare: modelli numerici e GIS per la valutazione del potenziale energetico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanela Caiaffa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso l’uso di modelli numerici oceanografici applicati al Mar Mediterraneo i ricercatori del laboratoriodi modellistica climatica e impatti dell’ENEA stanno valutando il potenziale energetico contenuto nel motoondoso lungo la fascia costiera e più in generale nei mari italiani, allo scopo di identificare i siti più idoneiall’installazione di impianti di conversione del moto ondoso in energia elettrica. Energy from the sea: numerical models and GIS for the evaluation of potential production Marine renewable energy is an emerging sector with great potential to contribute in achieving European renewable energy and decarbonisation targets. Marine renewable energy is here defined to include both wave and tidal current energy. With a diverse set of technologies in development and policy support mechanisms introduced in a number of European countries, the sector is working towards achieving commercial deployments in the near future. The present paper after a short and simple description of the WAve prediction Model (WAM, a numerical wave model to assess the wave potential energy in the Mediterranean basin, describes the potential advantages in in-tegrating the numerical results in a GIS (Geographic Information System containing environmental  and  territorial  data.  The  analysis  of  multiple  layers  of  geo-referenced information allows to explore the spatial relationship between the wave energy poten-tial and other variables such as the location of protected areas or navigational routes. This kind of analysis helps identifying the most suitable areas for the the installation of wave energy converters. As an example, in order to better highlight the results along the Italian coast, the values of the potential energy, extracted along the coast (about 12 km from the coast, have been included in a series of thematic maps.

  18. Densidade populacional e seu efeito na produtividade da mamoneira BRS Energia sob cultivo irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran da Silva Alves

    Full Text Available RESUMOA mamoneira é uma planta oleaginosa arbustiva e o óleo de suas sementes possui inúmeras aplicações industriais. No Nordeste do Brasil destaca-se como alternativa para geração de emprego e renda na agricultura familiar. Contudo, na atualidade tem-se dado ênfase ao seu emprego na produção de combustível renovável (biodiesel. A escolha do espaçamento e da época de plantio adequados são passos tecnológicos básicos, que podem favorecer uma maior produção de grãos por planta pelo surgimento de mais racemos por planta com maior tamanho e número de frutos. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar os efeitos de diferentes populações de plantas de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. cv. BRS Energia quanto ao teor de óleo e produtividade. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental da Embrapa Algodão, localizada no município de Barbalha-CE, onde se trabalhou em delineamento aleatorizado em blocos com cinco populações de plantas (10.000; 16.666; 25.000; 50.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1 com quatro blocos. Utilizou-se o método de irrigação por aspersão. Com base nos resultados do estudo, verificou-se que o crescimento das plantas aumentou em função do incremento da população de 10.000 até 100.000 plantas ha-1, a produtividade de grãos foi ajustada em função das populações testadas, o teor de óleo decresceu com o aumento da densidade populacional, os componentes de produção estudados decresceram com o aumento da população de plantas no intervalo considerado.

  19. National Energy Strategy 2012-2026; Estrategia Nacional de Energia 2012-2026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Direccion General de Planeacion Estrategica, Secretaria de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    In compliance with the provisions of the Congress, the National Energy Strategy 2012-2026 (NES) outlines the direction of the Mexican energy sector with a horizon of 15 years. Its vision is supported by a comprehensive planning exercise that collects information from each of the parastatals and decentralized administrative bodies that make up the sector. This ensures the accuracy and relevance of information presented throughout the document and integrates the perspectives of all public bodies involved. From that interagency and interdisciplinary approach, the NES provides energy policy guidelines that are essential to realize this vision. In turn, these serve to construct detailed criteria of public policy. Finally, the NES raises specific targets for 2026, which can be achieved based on the implementation of actions considered within the planning guidelines. The NES is a prospective tool and indicative that stands as a useful tool for any plan or program. To serve as an instrument of dialogue between institutions and authorities, NES is a document with a solid vision and a planned role in Mexico's energy policy. [Spanish] En cumplimiento por lo establecido por el Congreso de la Union, la Estrategia Nacional de Energia 2012-2026 (ENE) delinea el rumbo del sector energetico mexicano con un horizonte de 15 anos. Su vision esta sustentada en un ejercicio integral de planeacion que recaba informacion de cada una de las entidades paraestatales y organos administrativos desconcentrados que conforman el sector. Esto garantiza la precision y pertinencia de la informacion presentada a lo largo del documento e integra las perspectivas de todos los entes publicos involucrados. A partir de ese enfoque interinstitucional e interdisciplinario, la ENE establece los lineamientos de politica energetica que son indispensables para materializar esta vision. A su vez, estos sirven para construir criterios detallados de politica publica. Finalmente, la ENE plantea metas concretas

  20. Exigências de energia de bovinos de corte em pastejo Energy requirements of beef cattle at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar as exigências e as eficiências de utilização de energia para ganho de peso e mantença de bovinos de corte em pastejo. A área experimental foi composta de cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens. Utilizaram-se 27 bovinos anelorados não-castrados, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de 311,0 kg e idade média de 14 meses. Três animais foram abatidos após o período de adaptação para servirem como referência para as estimativas do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e da composição corporal iniciais dos animais mantidos no experimento. Dos 24 restantes, quatro foram designados ao grupo mantença com tempo de pastejo restrito para limitar o consumo de energia a nível próximo da mantença. Os animais restantes (20 foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: mistura mineral, autocontrole, suplemento três vezes/semana (segunda, quarta e sexta; e suplemento diariamente. A exigência líquida de energia para mantença foi estimada como o anti-log do intercepto da equação obtida pela regressão linear entre o logaritmo da produção de calor (PC e o consumo de energia metabolizável (CEM, assim como pelo coeficiente "a" da equação de regressão exponencial entre a produção de calor e o consumo de energia metabolizável dos animais sob suplementação, juntamente com o daqueles sem suplementação e os do grupo mantença. As quantidades de energia e gordura no ganho aumentaram com o peso vivo dos animais. As exigências de energia líquida para ganho de peso de bovinos anelorados não-castrados em pastejo podem ser obtidas pela equação: ER = 0,0617*PCVZ0,75*GDPCVZ1,0564. O requisito energético diário para mantença foi de 64,00 kcal/PV0,75. A eficiência de uso da EM para mantença estimada foi de 0,64 e a eficiência de uso da EM para ganho de 0,26.A trial involving 27 zebu bulls at pasture with initial live weight (LW of 311.0 kg were conducted with the objective of determining their energy requirements. Three animals

  1. Eficiência de Utilização da Energia Metabolizável para Mantença e Ganho de Peso e Exigências de Energia Metabolizável e de Nutrientes Digestíveis Totais de Bovinos Nelore Não-Castrados

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo; Cristina Mattos Veloso; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Eduardo Bevitori Kling de Moraes; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Foram utilizados 40 novilhos Nelore inteiros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 240 kg, sendo quatro novilhos de referência, quatro alimentados para mantença e o restante distribuído em oito tratamentos, com quatro diferentes níveis de concentrado nas dietas (20, 40, 60 e 80%) e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB) (15 e 18%). O consumo de matéria seca (MS) suficiente para manter o equilíbrio de energia foi calculado dividindo-se o consumo de energia metabolizável (EM) suficiente para mantença, de...

  2. Speed control and generation of electric power of a gas turbine by means of fuzzy-logic; Control de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas mediante logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamaca Fernandez, Luis Jonathan

    2000-08-01

    The development of a fuzzy-logic control algorithm is presented. It was developed for the speed and load control of a gas turbine. The speed/load controller of the gas turbine which were conventional Pi's were completely replaced by the fuzzy-logic controllers. The fuzzy controllers correspond to MISO systems that has as input the error an its rate of change and as an output the control signal for the fuel valve. The fuzzy controller provides an algorithm that can turn a strategy of linguistic control (based on knowledge of experts) into a strategy of automatic control. The fuzzy controllers were validated by the development of functional test in a simulation of a nonlinear mathematical gas-turbine model. The controllers were programmed in C language in PC. Simulation test for the speed regulation and load tracking were used for the controller validation. The fuzzy controller had a good performance because the minimized the signal error produced by the set of programmed system perturbations (due to control actions). Besides, they had a better reference tracking then PI controllers. Consequently, the proposed fuzzy controllers have a better performance than the conventional control system. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se presenta el diseno, programacion y evaluacion de un algoritmo de control basado en logica difusa para el control de velocidad y generacion de potencia electrica de una turbina de gas. En el esquema de control velocidad/carga de la turbina de gas, se sustituyeron completamente los dos controladores convencionales del tipo PI por controladores difusos, teniendo asi un control digital directo. Los controladores difusos corresponden a sistemas MISO que utilizan como variables de entrada el error y la derivada del error, y como variable de salida la senal de control a la valvula de combustible. De esta forma, un controlador difuso provee un algoritmo que puede convertir una estrategia de control linguistico (basado en conocimiento de expertos

  3. Профсоюз против планов Eesti Energia / Ирина Токарева

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Токарева, Ирина

    2010-01-01

    Narva energeetikute ametiühing nõuab Eesti Energia juhtidelt Narva Elektrijaama reorganiseerimise peatamist, põhjendades seda töötajate sotsiaalsete garantiide kaotamise ja ka võimaliku avariiohtlikkusega

  4. Conservação de energia em fornos de cozimento de anodo Energy saving in anode baking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. T. Tiba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência por unidades de produção mais sustentáveis vem obrigando a indústria de alumínio a adotar estratégias para reduzir o consumo de energia e minimizar a geração de resíduos. Procedimentos nesta direção têm sido implementados em fornos de cozimento de anodo, onde alguns aprimoramentos têm permitido a redução no consumo de energia. Entretanto, sabe-se que durante a etapa de queima do anodo, elevada quantidade de calor é ainda dissipada para o ambiente, aumentando os custos com energia. Desta forma, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar alternativas de redução do consumo de combustível do forno de cozimento de anodo considerando, para isto, o transporte de calor das câmaras de combustão desde as paredes refratárias até o bloco de carbono, passando pelo coque fluido. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que uma possível mudança da distribuição do tamanho de partículas do coque, bem como, a adição de uma manta isolante no topo do forno pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho do sistema quando o foco é sustentabilidade e otimização do processo.The trend for sustainable production units induced the aluminum industry to adopt strategies of reducing the energy consumption and waste generation. In this sense, several procedures have been carried out in the anode baking furnace, reducing its energy consumption. However, during the carbon block thermal treatment, a great amount of heat is still released to the environment, increasing the energy cost. Therefore, the present work aims to show alternatives of reducing the anode furnace energy consumption considering the heat flow from the combustion chamber, via the flue wall and the fluid coke, till the anode. The results point out that a change in the fluid coke particle size distribution as well as placing an insulating blanket on the top of the furnace can optimize the anode furnace performance when the focus is sustainability and the process optimization.

  5. A Aproximação entre Tecnologia e Economia: Os Emergentes Papéis da Energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Mallet Guy Guerra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estágios de desenvolvimento do ser humano, desde o primitivo até o tecnológico, possuem uma estreita correlação com o consumo de energia. Comparando-se o nível de desenvolvimento das nações industrializadas com o dos demais países constata-se que aquelas, com apenas 16% da população mundial, consomem 50% dos recursos mundiais e ostentam os mais altos índices de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH. A análise dos índices de consumo de energia per capita com os do IDH, evidencia que a forma de alcançar o bem estar dos povos desenvolvidos está alicerçado em um exacerbado consumo dos recursos energéticos e um notório egoísmo quanto a preservação de seu “status quo”. O processo histórico particular de cada nação pobre impõe um ônus de difícil reversão dentro da atual conjuntura política mundial. Isso porque a questão energética assume caracter de soberania e desafio para os países em desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvidos, que necessitam crescer economicamente para sair dos índices de pobreza humana. A eficiência energética das novas tecnologias se coloca como uma alternativa de conservação da energia e de respeito aos limites dos ecossistemas, mas não se constituiu na solução para a exclusão social de grande parte da humanidade. A sustentabilidade supõe uma nova estrutura social e de poder, com um sistema ético que conduz a direitos igualitários de qualidade de vida para toda a sociedade global.

  6. Suplementação de Treonina em Dietas de Frangos de Corte, Variando a Energia e as Relações Energia: Proteína Threonine Supplementation in Broiler Diets Varying Energy and Energy: Protein Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Reginatto

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos (EXP 1 e 2 foram conduzidos para avaliar relações energia metabolizável:proteína bruta (EM:PB e a adição de treonina (Thr em dietas com alta (A (3.200kcal EM/kg e baixa (B (2.900kcal EM/kg energia, sobre desempenho e composição de carcaças de frangos de corte machos. As relações energia:proteína foram 139 e 160 kcal/%, para as dietas iniciais (1 a 21 dias (EXP 1 e 160 e 181kcal/%, para as de crescimento (22 a 40 dias (EXP 2, nos dois níveis de energia. As dietas com ampla relação EM:PB foram suplementadas, ou não, com Thr a fim de iguala-las às dietas com menor EM:PB. Os níveis de Met+Cys e de Lys foram constantes. As aves receberam uma dieta única após (EXP1, ou antes (EXP2 do fornecimento das dietas experimentais. Nos dois EXP as dietas A proporcionaram melhor desempenho: ganho de peso (GP,consumo de ração e conversão alimentar (CA (pTwo experiments (EXP were carried out to investigate the metabolizable energy:crude protein ratios (ME:CP and threonine addition (Thr in high-energy (H (3.200kcal ME/kg and low-energy (L (2.900kcal ME/kg diets, on the performance and carcass composition of male broiler chickens. The ME:CP ratios were: 139 and 160kcal/% for starter diets (1 to 21 days of age (EXP 1 and 160 and 181kcal/% for grower diets (22 to 40 days(EXP 2, in both energy levels, keeping Met + Cys and Lys constant. Thr was supplemented to equalize its level to the lower EM:PB ratio. All birds received a unique diet after (EXP 1 or before (EXP 2 been fed with the experimental diets. In both EXP feeding H diets resulted in better performance -weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion (FC (p<0,01 at the end of each experimental period. However, in EXP 1, birds fed with L diets during the starter period had better caloric conversion (kcal/kg (CC in the total period (1 to 40 days, as an indicative of accelerated growth. The lower levels of Thr (0.74 and 0.69% for H and L diets, respectively were not

  7. Saving 50% of energy in air conditioning and refrigeration; 50% de ahorro de energia en aire acondicionado y refrigeracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez De la Fuente, Rodolfo Javier [Instituto para la Proteccion Ambiental de Nuevo Leon-CAINTRA, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bolado Tamez, Jaime Antonio [Industrias AlEn S. A. de C. V., Monterrey (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Due to the fact that the air conditioning systems represent up to 70% of the energy consumption in our buildings, to the constant raise of the electric tariffs and to the increment of temperatures in Nuevo Leon State, as well as the restrictions on the use of some refrigerant fluids because of its potential damage to the ozone layer (Montreal Protocol) and the preferential use of refrigerants with low global heating potential (Kioto Protocol). The Camara de la Industria de la Transformacion de Nuevo Leon (Nuevo Leon`s Transformation Industry Chamber) through the Instituto para la Proteccion Ambiental de Nuevo Leon (Nuevo Leon`s Institute for Environmental Protection), create the program ECO-REFRIGERATION whose three missions are: Increase the efficiency of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, promote the substitution of refrigerants and extend the benefits of these projects to the community in general. [Espanol] Debido a que los sistemas de climatizacion representan hasta el 70% de consumo energetico en nuestros inmuebles, al constante incremento de las tarifas electricas, el incremento de las temperaturas en Nuevo Leon, asi como la restriccion del uso de algunos refrigerantes por su potencial de dano de la capa de ozono (Protocolo de Montreal) y el uso preferente de refrigerantes con bajo potencial de calentamiento global (Protocolo de Kioto), la Camara de la Industria de la Transformacion de Nuevo Leon a traves del Instituto para la Proteccion Ambiental de Nuevo Leon crean el Programa ECO-REFRIGERACION cuyas tres misiones son: Incrementar la eficiencia de los equipos de aire acondicionado y refrigeracion, promover la sustitucion de refrigerantes y extender los beneficios de este proyecto a la comunidad en general.

  8. Proceedings of the 20 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 20. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociaciacion de Tenicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F, from the 15 to the 19 of November of 1999. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies, and energy and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 20 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 15 al 19 de noviembre de 1999. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, y energia y ambiente.

  9. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  10. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  11. Energia, industrialização e exportações : analise dos ramos metalurgico e papel & celulose

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Donizeti Berni

    1993-01-01

    Resumo: O processo de industrialização desde os seus primórdios tem-se baseado no trabalho humano e, ao mesmo tempo, no uso crescente de carvão mineral, de eletricidade, de petróleo e em menor escala na energia nuclear. Ainda neste século, tais fontes energéticas foram consideradas promissoras a até, inesgotáveis. A partir da década de 70, as duas crises do petróleo aliado às pressões ambientalistas, aceleraram o processo de mudança nas relações de produção vigente e suas decorrentes formas d...

  12. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  13. Variables that influence in the consumption of electrical energy; Variables que influyen en el consumo de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Fiscal Escalante, Raul; Maqueda Zamora, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sada Gamiz, Jesus; Buitron Sanchez, Horacio [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It is said that when a program of saving and efficient use of the electrical energy is implemented it must be business for three: user, society and electrical utility. Regarding to the user his decision making is very simple: it is to me more cheap or more expensive, the benefit for the society can be seen from very diverse aspects, being the most important conservation of the natural resources and the environment, as far as the electric utility factors of more weight are the differing of investments and the reliability of the system. The present paper shows the importance of monitoring of the ways of energy use in different types of users, to be able to make decisions of programs: ALD, DMS (Demand Side Management) in very diverse scenarios: cities, types of users, income levels et cetera. [Spanish] Se dice que cuando se implanta un programa de ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia eletrica debe ser negocio para tres: usuario, sociedad y empresa eletrica. En lo que respecta al usuario su toma de decision es muy simple: me resulta mas barato o mas caro, el beneficio para la sociedad puede verse desde muy diversos aspectos, siendo el mas importante la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el medio ambiente, en cuanto a la empresa los factores de mas peso son el diferimiento de inversiones y la confiabilidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia que tiene el monitoreo de las formas de uso de la energia en diferentes tipos de usuarios, para poder tomar decisiones de programas ALD, DMS por sus siglas en ingles (Demand Side Managenment) en muy diversos escenarios: ciudades, tipos de usuarios, niveles de ingresos, etcetera.

  14. Mudanças no uso da terra e o particionamento de energia no sudoeste da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto D. Webler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A expressiva taxa de desmatamento na região amazônica tem se tornado uma preocupação mundial. Este processo consiste, substancialmente, na conversão de sistemas florestais em sistemas agropecuários. Este novo ecossistema requer estudos que elucidem quanto ao seu funcionamento buscando o entendimento de como a referida região interage com a atmosfera. Com o intento de investigar o comportamento de componentes do balanço de energia em uma área de pastagem foi realizado um estudo na Fazenda Nossa Senhora, no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, buscando-se analisar os padrões da radiação líquida e dos fluxos de calor latente, sensível e no solo, nos períodos: úmido, úmido-seco, seco e seco-úmido, nos anos de 2000 a 2005. As medidas dos fluxos de calor latente e sensível foram realizadas utilizando-se o método de covariância de vórtices turbulentos. Os resultados dessas análises evidenciaram que o particionamento de energia em uma área de pastagem nos períodos úmido, úmido-seco, seco e seco-úmido foram, respectivamente, de 77,8; 69,6; 50,6 e 75,2% para o fluxo de calor latente e 22,5; 31,2; 46,7 e 24,7% para o fluxo de calor sensível, indicando uma vulnerabilidade maior da pastagem às alterações sazonais.

  15. Eesti Energia võttis elektri salaja ära : elektritarbija, kellel jäi kord enda süül, siis aga panga, Eesti Energia ja tarbija enda vahelise arusaamatuse tõttu elektri eest tasumata, leidis end ootamatult elektrita jäetuna / Kai Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Kai

    2003-01-01

    Otsekorralduslepinguga elektriarve tasumata jätnud kliendilt elektri väljalülitamisest. Kommenteerivad Eesti Energia pressiesindaja Riina Vändre, tarbijakaitseameti pressiesindaja Kristina Vaksmaa, Hansapanga Eesti meediasuhete juht Kristiina Tamberg ja Eesti Ühispanga pressiesindaja Evelin Pull

  16. Design and construction of models of solar thermal facilities in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra); Maquetas de instalaciones solares termicas para la formacion profesional de grado superior en el centro integrado de formacion profesional superior de energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Orus, L. M.; Yerro, C.; Aguado, H.; Cambra, T.; Oroz, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article shows how we have approached the solar energy installations in the ''Centro integrado de FP superior de energias renovables de Imarcoain''(Navarra) with the design and construction of models which allow us to teach in this type of installations at different levels. (Author)

  17. Proposal for the optimization of the procedures for the analysis, assessment and follow-up of energy efficiency at the Manaus Energia S/A enterprise environment; Proposta de otimizacao dos procedimentos para analise, avaliacao e acompanhamento de projetos de eficiencia energetica no ambito da empresa Manaus Energia S/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Benjamim Cordeiro [Manaus Energia S/A., AM (Brazil). Programa de Eficiencia Energetica e Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2006-07-01

    The present article has for objective, to present a proposal to optimize the procedures for analysis and evaluation of projects that composes the annual Program of Energy Efficiency of Manaus Energia S/A, assisting to criteria of market prices, sustainability and return for the company. (author)

  18. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  19. Esfera em plano inclinado: conservação da energia mecânica e força de atrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Wilton Pereira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe um experimento visando demonstrar que a força de atrito estático é conservativa. O experimento consiste em uma esfera rolando em um plano inclinado. para o qual a inclinação pode ser variada. Para cada ângulo estabelecido a energia mecânica no início e no fim da pista foi determinada. A análise dos resultados mostrou que a conservação da energia mecânica ocorre até um ângulo limite, a partir do qual há escorregamento. A determinação deste ângulo por inspeção gráfica possibilitou o cálculo do coeficiente de atrito estático entre a pista e a esfera em movimento.

  20. Determinação das energias de superfície do SnO2 puro e dopado Surface energy of pure and doped tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. R. Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A calorimetria tem se mostrado uma importante ferramenta para o controle e entendimento de comportamentos de sistemas nanoestruturados. Isto se deve basicamente às recentes medidas de energia de superfície reportadas na literatura; isto é, como em sistemas nanométricos a superfície tem uma maior contribuição na energia livre total do sistema, o conhecimento desta entalpia é fundamental para alcançar o controle desejado. No entanto, procedimentos calorimétricos para medida da energia de superfície são relativamente complexos e, se fosse possível estimar a energia de superfície por métodos alternativos, isto poderia ser de grande importância para o desenvolvimento da nanociência. Neste trabalho a energia de superfície do SnO2 é apresentada por medida de calorimetria de dissolução e corrigida por calorimetria de adsorção de água. Após isso, uma discussão sobre a influência de aditivos iônicos na área de superfície específica do SnO2 é apresentada. Quando os aditivos iônicos formam excesso de superfície no SnO2, a área de superfície aumenta mesmo considerando o aumento difusional esperado. Isto pode ser relacionado com a diminuição da energia de superfície pelos aditivos devido ao excesso de superfície como previsto por Gibbs. Baseado nesta premissa e utilizando o valor medido de energia de superfície do SnO2, as medidas de área de superfície dos pós dopados são utilizadas para calcular a energia de superfície de pós dopados com Ni, Fe, Cr e Mg.Calorimetry has been proved to be an important tool to control and understand the behavior of nanostructured systems. This is basically because of the recent surface energy measurements reported in the literature by high-temperature calorimetry. That is, since in nanosized systems the surface accounts for a larger part of the total atoms, knowing their energy is of main importance to achieve a desired control. However, calorimetric procedures to measure the

  1. Modelagem conceitual para identificação de áreas com potencial para geração de energia por fonte renovável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Celestino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O mundo enfrenta um desafio na busca de alternativas para atender a demanda de energia elétrica de forma sustentável e diminuir os efeitos dos Gases de Efeito Estufa. Uma maneira de minimizar estes efeitos e expandir o parque gerador é incrementar a produção com recurso a fontes renováveis. Mas para que, no momento de instalar um novo empreendimento, seja tomada uma decisão assertiva é necessário realizar a compilação de variáveis que sejam pertinentes ao tema e ao espaço geográfico. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma modelagem conceitual por objetos (de acordo com o padrão OMT-G de forma a identificar áreas potenciais para gerar energia elétrica por fontes renováveis.

  2. Fontes e Níveis de Energia Digestível em Rações para Suínos Machos Inteiros dos 60 aos 100 kg

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas Alessandra Gimenez; Donzele Juarez Lopes; Oliveira Rita Flávia Miranda de; Ferreira Aloízio Soares; Lopes Rogério dos Santos; Tavares Sandra Lúcia

    2002-01-01

    Visando avaliar o efeito de duas fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja e gordura de coco) e de quatro níveis de energia digestível (3350, 3450, 3550 e 3650 kcal/kg de ração) sobre o desempenho de suínos machos inteiros, dos 60 aos 100 kg, foram utilizados oitenta animais, distribuídos num arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (fontes x níveis de energia), em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições de dois animais por baia. As rações experimentais, formuladas à base de milho, farelo de soja e suplemen...

  3. Environmental impact study due to end use energy technologies; Estudio prospectivo del impacto ambiental debido a tecnologias de uso final de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini Poli, Fabio

    1997-11-01

    Two thirds of the internal offer of energy in Mexico is consumed by end use sectors through end use technologies (TUF). Here is presented an integral conceptual frame for the environmental impact evaluation due to end use technologies, then the evolution of the interactions between technology-environment-fuel is analyzed in the long term (year 2025) according to three possible scenarios: business as usual, blocks and sustainable. [Spanish] Dos terceras partes de la oferta interna de energia en Mexico la utilizan los sectores de consumo final mediante tecnologias de uso final energetico. En el presente trabajo se introduce un marco conceptual integral para evaluar los impactos ambientales debidos a la utilizacion de tecnologias de uso final de la energia (TUF), luego se analiza la evolucion de las interacciones entre tecnologia-energetico-ambiente a largo plazo (ano 2025) de acuerdo a tres escenarios posibles: tendencial, bloques y sustentable.

  4. A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico; Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico of the Secretaria de Planeacion y Desarrollo (main directorate of technological development of the secretariat of planning and technological development) of the Secretaria de Energia (Sener), with the support of the World Bank performed a study, coordinated by Pablo Mulas del Pozo to analyze the possible penetration of the renewable energy sources in Mexico between today and year 2030. In this project are included as small renewable sources the small hydroelectric plants (mini, micro and smaller than 20 MW), the geothermal, the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass. As part of this study three large lines of reflection are contemplated: (1) a bibliographical revision of the possible futures of the renewable energies, including some projections over the future evolution of the national power sector, and over the technological status of the same ones; (2) Projections on the possible future evolution of the national power sector and the possible penetration of the renewable sources of energy in it, using a simulation model (LEAP model); and (3) Groups of approach to consult experts on different aspects related to the possible future penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico (especially, on present and future obstacles that face the renewable sources in our country, the possible carrying events of future which could modify the rate of penetration of these energies, and possible policy guidelines that could benefit the penetration of the same ones as of today). [Spanish] La Direccion General de Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Secretaria Planeacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico de la Sener, con el apoyo del Banco Mundial realizo un estudio, coordinado por el Pablo Mulas del Pozo, para analizar la posible penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico entre hoy y el ano 2030. En dicho proyecto se incluyen como fuentes renovables a las pequenas hidroelectricas (micro y mini, menores de 20 MW), la

  5. Conversor CC/CC com dois estÃgios para aplicaÃÃo em sistemas fotovoltaicos autÃnomos de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Everton Uchoa Reis

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de um conversor CC/CC com dois estÃgios para aplicaÃÃo no desenvolvimento de sistemas autÃnomos de energia elÃtrica. O conversor sob estudo consiste basicamente da associaÃÃo de dois conversores CC/CC, em que entre eles à inserido um banco de baterias para dar continuidade ao fornecimento de energia em perÃodos em que nÃo hà radiaÃÃo solar. Todos os conversores utilizados para a composiÃÃo do sistema sÃo do tipo boost utilizando a cÃlula de comutaÃÃo ...

  6. Penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico: group of approach on the possible present and future obstacles for the renewable energies (Annexe 11 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico: grupo de enfoque sobre los posibles obstaculos actuales y futuros para las energias renovables (Anexo 11 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernudi, Montserrat; Alonso C, Antonio [Analitica Consultores S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this study it is analyzed the possible penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico between today and year 2030. In this project are included as small renewable sources the hydroelectric ones (mini, smaller micro and less than of 20 MW), the geothermal, the solar energy, the wind energy and the biomass. This report corresponds to the results obtained in the group of consultation of experts on the present obstacles and future of the renewable energies in Mexico, made o May 24, 2005 in the Mexico City with a small group of approach that presented the objectives of the project, defined the main present obstacles and the possible future evolution for the penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico. [Spanish] En este estudio se analiza la posible penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico entre hoy y el ano 2030. En dicho proyecto se incluyen como fuentes renovables a las pequenas hidroelectricas (micro y mini, menores de 20 MW), la geotermia, la energia solar, la energia eolica y la biomasa. Este informe corresponde a los resultados obtenidos en el grupo de consulta a expertos sobre los obstaculos presentes y futuros de las energias renovables en Mexico, realizado el 24 de mayo de 2005 en la ciudad de Mexico con un pequeno grupo de enfoque que presento los objetivos del proyecto, definio los principales obstaculos actuales y la posible evolucion futura para la penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico.

  7. ANÁLISE DA CRISE DE 2012 NO DESEMPENHO ECONÔMICO-FINANCEIRO DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA LISTADAS NA BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyandra Zampiere Pessoa da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o impacto da crise de 2012 no desempenho econômico-financeiro das indústrias de energia elétrica listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para isto, realizou-se um estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa nas 40 indústrias do setor de energia elétrica listadas na BM&FBovespa. As análises foram realizadas a partir dos indicadores econômico-financeiros de liquidez, rentabilidade, endividamento e atividade. Os dados para o estudo foram coletados do banco de dados do Economatica® no período de 2009 a 2013, enquanto que a tabulação dos dados e elaboração de gráficos e tabelas foi realizada no Microsoft Office Excel 2007, por meio da média dos indicadores para cada ano. Assim, os resultados demonstraram que a crise de 2012 do setor de energia elétrica provocou variações negativas nos indicadores de endividamento e rentabilidade, enquanto que os indicadores de liquidez e atividades apresentaram variações positivas, que podem ser justificadas pelas indenizações pagas pelo Governo Federal pela renovação das concessões. Desse modo, pode-se inferir que os indicadores econômico-financeiros das indústrias do setor de energia elétrica apresentaram variações relevantes no período da crise deste setor.

  8. Exigências líquidas de proteína e energia para crescimento de tourinhos santa gertrudis em dietas de alto teor de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Berndt

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 32 tourinhos Santa Gertrudis inicialmente com dez meses de idade e 245 kg de peso, alimentados em confinamento com dietas contendo 88% de concentrado. Quatro animais foram abatidos no início do experimento (linha base para estimativa da composição corporal inicial. Os 28 animais restantes foram distribuídos em baias individuais com delineamento de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2x2 (dois volumosos x dois processamentos do milho grão com sete repetições. Os volumosos incluíam silagem da planta de milho ou bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e os dois processamentos do grão de milho, o grão colhido seco e triturado e o colhido e ensilado úmido. Estimou-se, por intermédio da regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo corporal de energia, em função do logaritmo do peso do corpo vazio, o conteúdo de energia e proteína para ganho de peso em qualquer faixa de peso vazio incluída neste trabalho: para ganho de 1 kg, em um animal de 300 kg, foram necessárias 3,64 Mcal/dia de energia e 129,5 g de proteína.

  9. RELAÇÃO ENTRE FOLGA ORGANIZACIONAL E P&D NAS COMPANHIAS DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA NA BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro De Nez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a relação entre folga organizacional e os gastos com Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P&D nas companhias de energia elétrica listadas na BM&FBovespa. O objetivo da pesquisa é verificar se existe relação entre a folga organizacional e o valor destinado a P&D nestas companhias. A pesquisa é um estudo documental, de caráter descritivo e abordagem quantitativa. Os dados foram coletados nas demonstrações contábeis das empresas, sendo realizada estatística descritiva e posterior análise dos dados em painel. A amostra da pesquisa consiste nas demonstrações financeiras de 22 empresas do setor de energia elétrica entre os anos de 2010 e 2012. Os resultados demonstraram que existe uma relação significativa positiva da variável folga potencial com a aplicação de recursos em P&D, porém, entre folga recuperável e folga disponível e a aplicação de recursos P&D não houve relação significativa. Conclui-se que, quanto mais recursos originados de capital próprio, maior tende a ser a aplicação em P&D nas empresas de energia elétrica. .

  10. Fonte eólica de energia: aspectos de inserção, tecnologia e competitividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbia Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A energia eólica tem experimentado um exponencial e virtuoso crescimento no Brasil. De 2009 a 2012, nos seis leilões em que a fonte eólica participou, foram contratados 7 GW em novos projetos representando mais de 25 bilhões de reais em investimentos. A trajetória da fonte eólica que deverá chegar em 2017 com 8,5 GW de capacidade instalada teve início com o Programa de Incentivo às Fontes Alternativas de Energia Elétrica (Proinfa. Lançado em 2004 e baseado em um estruturado modelo de financiamento e políticas regionais, o Proinfa foi responsável pela contratação de 1.422,9 MW, por meio de preços subsidiados. O ano 2012 foi marcado pela comemoração da inserção de 2 GW de potência instalada de energia eólica no sistema elétrico nacional, de forma que o Brasil encerra o ano de 2012 com 2,5 GW de potência eólica instalada e 2% de participação na matriz elétrica brasileira. Porém, também foi um ano de grandes desafios e dificuldades para a fonte eólica, o que culminou em uma relativa desaceleração para esta indústria. Inclusive com a realização de apenas um leilão que teve a menor demanda contratada de todos os leilões de energia nova já realizados. A reduzida contratação também resultou em preços muito baixos, uma vez que a competição foi muito acirrada, a oferta foi 28 vezes superior a demanda, de forma que o certame foi encerrado com preços médios de R$ 90,00 por MWh. A indústria eólica está passando por uma fase crucial de consolidação, apresentando estágio ainda imaturo, a existência de onze fabricantes, cada um com capacidade média de produção de 500 MW por ano de equipamentos, não necessariamente determina uma oferta de 5.000 MW de máquinas. É certo que o ano 2012, sob o aspecto da contratação, não foi um período muito animador, visto que a economia cresceu menos do que o esperado e para 2013 espera-se a retomada do crescimento do PIB nacional, em torno de 4%, e a retomada nos n

  11. Comportamento morfofisiológico da mamoneira BRS Energia submetida à irrigação com água salina Morphophysiological behavior of castor bean BRS Energia submitted to irrigation with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido na estação experimental de Irrigação e Drenagem do Instituto Federal Baiano, para avaliar o crescimento da mamoneira BRS Energia, em função da salinidade da água de irrigação, em sistema de lisimetria. Os tratamentos foram constituídos dos níveis de salinidade da água de 0,12; 0,8; 1,6; 2,4; 3,2; 4,0 e 4,8 dS m-1, dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e quatro plantas por tratamento. Quinzenalmente foram avaliados, dos 20 até os 80 dias após a emergência, o crescimento e as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo da altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule e a área foliar das plantas. O crescimento avaliado pela altura, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo de cada variável, diminuíram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação, em todos os períodos estudados. As inibições foram respostas da elevação do nível salino do solo de não salino, para ligeiramente, moderadamente e fortemente salino.An experiment was conducted at the experimental station of Irrigation and Drainage of the Instituto Federal Baiano, to evaluate the growth variables of the castor bean BRS Energia as a function of salinity of irrigation water in lysimeters. The treatments were constituted of water salinity levels of 0.12; 0.8; 1.6; 2.4; 3.2; 4.0 and 4.8 dS m-1, disposed in a completely randomized design, with three replications and four plants per treatment. Fortnightly from 20 to 80 days after emergence, the growth variables and the absolute and relative growth rates of plant height, stem diameter and leaf area of plants were evaluated. The growth measured by height, stem diameter, leaf area and the rates of absolute and relative growth of each variable, decreased with increase in irrigation water salinity in all periods. The restrictions were in response to increase in soil salinity levels from non saline soil to slightly, moderately and

  12. INFRAESTRUCTURA DE COMUNICACIONES EN MICRORREDES ELECTRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Eduardo Gaona García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra un estudio de la actualidad técnica y tecnológica de la infraestructura de comunicaciones utilizadas en  microrredes eléctricas, en este sentido ha surgido la necesidad de investigar, analizar, mejorar y desarrollar métodos de comunicación tanto alámbricos como inalámbricos que permitan crear una infraestructura de comunicaciones que soporte las características de control, supervisión y trasmisión de información entre dispositivos de control en una microrred de forma eficiente, segura y confiable.Dadas estas características en el artículo se analizan  las diferentes arquitecturas y topologías propuestas entorno a comunicaciones en el ambiente Smart Grid que se puedan adaptar a la forma en que opera una microrred. Se muestran las propuestas  y desarrollos realizados en el  área de telecomunicaciones concerniente a protocolos de comunicaciones utilizados en microrredes eléctricas, con el fin de conocer las tecnologías, protocolos y algoritmos utilizados en la transmisión de datos.

  13. Actions in the electrical sector to propitiate the environmental protection; Acciones en el sector electrico para propiciar la proteccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevino Gaspari, Mateo [Fideicomiso de Ahorro de Energia (FIDE) (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The saving of electrical energy is one of the most efficient means to propitiate the environmental protection in the surroundings of the facilities used in the production of electrical energy. The emission of polluting agents associated with the electric power generation is analyzed, among them, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, along with the particulate emission of ash or soot. In addition, an analysis is made of the contribution of the electrical energy saving to the environmental protection and the actions that the Comision Federal de Electricidad of Mexico will undertake on the electric energy saving for the 1995 to the 2000 period. [Spanish] El ahorro de energia electrica es uno de los medios mas eficientes para propiciar la proteccion ambiental en el entorno de las instalaciones usadas en la produccion de energia electrica. Se analiza la emision de contaminantes asociados con la generacion electrica, entre ellos, el CO{sub 2}, el SO{sub 2} y NO{sub 2}, junto con la emision de particulas de ceniza o de hollin. Ademas se analiza la contribucion del ahorro de energia electrica a la proteccion ambiental y las acciones que emprendera la Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico sobre ahorro de energia electrica para el periodo 1995 al 2000.

  14. The super conservation energy building of the Ohbayashi corporation in Tokyo, Japan; El edificio super conservador de energia de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Vargas, Ricardo [Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna, La Laguna (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The main building of the Institute of Technical Investigation of Ohbayashi Corporation in Tokyo, Japan, was built with the objective of being the best all over the world in the grounds of energy conservation. The utilization of this building was initiated on April 15, 1982 registering an annual energy consumption in the first two years of 87 and 96 Million calories/m{sup 2} respectively, that is, less than one fourth the consumption in conventional buildings. The inside ambient is better or equal to the one of ordinary buildings and the time for the investment recuperation was estimated of 8.7 years. The classification for the energy consumption in those first two years was of 31% for air conditioning, 41% for lighting/wall receptacles and 25% for others. The maximum consumption was in the month of August and was of 10 to 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. The minimum consumption corresponded to the month of November and was 6 to 7 Mcal/m{sup 2}. In 1984 this building won the prize Energy of the ASHRAE. A total od 98 conservation measures were adopted for its construction and operation. [Espanol] El principal edificio del Instituto de Investigacion Tecnica de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio, Japon, fue construido con el objetivo de ser el mejor en el mundo en el terreno de la conservacion de energia. La utilizacion de este edificio comenzo el 15 de abril de 1982, registrando un consumo anual de energia en los dos primeros anos de 87 y 96 Mcal/m{sup 2} respectivamente, esto es, menos de un cuarto del consumo en edificios convencionales. El ambiente interno es mejor o igual que el de edificios ordinarios y el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion se estimo en 8.7 anos. La clasificacion en el consumo de energia para esos dos primeros anos fue de 31% para el acondicionamiento de aire, 41% para la iluminacion/contactos y 25% para otros. El maximo consumo aparecio en el mes de agosto y fue de 10 a 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. El minimo consumo correspondio al mes de noviembre fue de 6 a 7 Mcal

  15. Historical-statistical analysis of energy consumption in energy management; Analisis historico-estadistico del consumo energetico en la administracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar Bejarano, Ruben [IMENOR (Mexico); Oven, Mark [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Washington (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Traditionally the specific consumption of energy has been considered as the most adequate index to evaluate the efficiencies in the productive processes. Nevertheless, this index, in some instances is highly susceptible to suffer significant variations, due to factors such as equipment condition, raw materials quality, operational parameters, climate and production level. This last one definitely is the most important and requires a deeper analysis. In this presentation a methodology is developed to analyze the energy consumption as well as their specific energy consumption with respect to production. Enough historical data are utilized to allow for a statistical analysis. This study is of equal usefulness in an energy diagnosis, as in a management program of energy saving. In presenting the possibility of identifying potential energy saving, stands out the advantages of the analysis and the conclusions that can be derived from it. Through the actual data collected in several industries during the energy diagnosis, various possible results of the analysis are presented. Finally, how this type of analysis can be adapted to a more precise control of the energy consumption is described and be used as a base for establishing goals in energy efficiency in the long term. [Espanol] Tradicionalmente se ha considerado al consumo especifico de energia como el indice energetico mas adecuado para evaluar las eficiencias de los procesos productivos. Sin embargo, este indice es en ocasiones altamente susceptible a sufrir variaciones importantes, debido a factores como el estado de los equipos, la calidad de la materia prima, los parametros operativos, el clima, y el nivel de produccion. Este ultimo es decididamente el mas importante, y requiere un analisis mas profundo. En esta presentacion se desarrolla una metodologia para analizar tanto consumos de energia como consumos especificos de energia con respecto a la produccion. Se utilizan suficientes datos historicos para permitir

  16. Linking dietary energy and skeletal development in the horse Vinculação de energia na dieta e desenvolvimento do esqueleto do cavalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Burton Staniar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletic production is what is sought from the horse. As mammary development is important to the dairy cow, skeletal development is important to horses meeting their production goals. As any integrative physiologist will appreciate, the variables that come together to result in optimal skeletal development are complex. Nutrition is one of these, and it contains two broad variables; the supply of dietary nutrients and energy. This presentation will focus on dietary energy and its links with skeletal development. I propose that it is not simply the amount of dietary energy, but the way and from that that energy is supplied that impacts skeletal development. Through an understanding of how dietary energy impact skeletal development, more precise feeding management strategies can be developed to reduce the risk of skeletal abnormalities and even potentially improve skeletal integrity.Produção atlética é o que se exige do cavalo. Do mesmo modo que o desenvolvimento das glândulas mamárias é importante para vaca leiteira, o desenvolvimento do esqueleto é importante para os cavalos atingirem as metas de produção. Como qualquer fisiologista integrador vai apreciar, as variáveis necessárias para se atingir o desenvolvimento ideal do esqueleto são complexas. A nutrição é uma destas variáveis que contém outras duas mais amplas: fornecimento de nutrientes e energia da dieta. Esta apresentação irá focar na energia da dieta e seus vínculos com o desenvolvimento do esqueleto. Proponho que não é simplesmente a quantidade de energia da dieta, mas a maneira como essa energia será fornecida e quais serão os impactos sobre o desenvolvimento do esqueleto. O entendimento do impacto da energia da dieta sobre o desenvolvimento do esqueleto pode gerar estratégias de gestão de alimentação mais precisas para reduzir o risco de anormalidades esqueléticas e até melhorar potencialmente a integridade do esqueleto.

  17. Cost-Benefit of the energy saving in the bioclimatic designs; Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en los disenos bioclimaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A. [Doble Dos Soluciones de Negocios, S.A. de C.V., Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morillon G, David; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Tools and criteria for the Cost-Benefit analysis from the energy saving in bioclimatic designs (BD) are presented, for which, a reference project is established and the costs and benefits of energy saving in BD with base in that project are evaluated. A case study is presented taking as reference the traditional design of the air conditioning of a building and with this base the estimation of cost-benefit of the same building is made, but with passive systems. The tools used are those that allow to consider related resources such as time and money; in that sense, are used criteria such as: Present value (PV), Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) and the Cost of the Conserved Energy (CCE). The costs related to the construction, maintenance and operation of the design are taken into account. The differences between the reference design and the BD, established from the application of these criteria, allow to evaluate the economic margin of the BD as far as operation and maintenance is concerned. Finally the CCE of the bioclimatic measures is evaluated as an initiative of energy saving and the present value is calculated of the energy saving in the entire useful life of a bioclimatic design. [Spanish] Se presentan herramientas y criterios para el analisis Costo-Beneficio del ahorro de energia en disenos bioclimaticos (DB), para lo cual, se establece un proyecto de referencia y se evaluan los costos y beneficios del ahorro de energia en DB con base en ese proyecto. Se presenta el estudio de un caso tomando como referencia el dise tradicional de la climatizacion de un edificio y con base en este, se realiza la estimacion de costos y beneficios del mismo edificio, pero con sistemas pasivos. Las herramientas usadas, son aquellas que permiten considerar recursos relacionados como son tiempo y dinero; en ese sentido, se usan criterios como: Valor Presente (VP), Costo Anual Equivalente (CAE) y el Costo de la Energia Conservada (CEC). Se toman en consideracion los costos relacionados

  18. Balanço de energia em vinhedo de 'Niagara Rosada' Energy balance on 'Niagara Rosada' vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado para caracterizar a variação horária do saldo de radiação e dos fluxos de calor latente, sensível e no solo, em vinhedo cultivado com a cultivar NiagaraRosada', conduzida no sistema de espaldeira, em Jundiaí (SP. Além disso, foram determinadas as relações entre o saldo de radiação (SR no vinhedo e a radiação solar global (RG e a partição da energia disponível ao sistema nos fluxos de calor latente (LE, sensível (H e no solo (G. Em um dia característico de período seco, o LE representou 44% do SR e o H, 48%. Em um dia chuvoso, o LE representou 86% do SR e o H, 21%. Em um dia ensolarado, após um período de chuvas, LE e H foram, respectivamente, 68% e 29% do SR. O G foi, em média, 5,7% e 1,3% do SR para as ruas mantidas capinadas e com forro, respectivamente.The energy balance method was used to characterize the hourly variation of the net radiation, latent and sensible fluxes and soil heat flux on a mature vineyard grown at Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. The grapevines, cv. Niagara Rosada, in the vineyard were wrapped to trellis wires, creating compact hedgerows 2 m apart, 1.7 m height and 0.4 wide, with the foliage 1m above the soil surface. Also, the net and incoming radiation relationships and the partioning of the available energy to the system into latent and heat flux, and soil heat flux were determined for the vineyard. During a sunny day (dry period the latent heat flux was 44% of the net radiation and the sensible heat flux, 48%. However during a rainy day, the latent heat flux was 86% of the net radiation and the sensible heat flux, 21%. During a sunny day, after the occurrence of rain, the latent and sensible heat fluxes were, respectively, 68% and 29% of the net radiation. The soil heat flux was 5.7 an 1.3% of the net radiation, for bare soil and mulched rows, respectively.

  19. Proceedings of the 21 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 21 Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional del a energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F., from the 14 to the 16 of March of 2001. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 21 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 14 al 16 de marzo de 2001. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables y ambiente.

  20. Партс заменил двух членов совета фирмы Eesti Energia / Райго Неудорф

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Неудорф, Райго

    2011-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Parts kutsus Eesti Energia nõukogu liikme kohalt tagasi Aivar Reiviku ning Rein Kuusmiku. Uuteks nõukogu liikmeteks said Andres Saame ja Toomas Tauts. Tagandatud nõukogu liikmed väidvad, et Eesti Energia juhtkond käitub omanikust riigiga omatahtsi ja peab endiselt plaani siirduda börsile

  1. The quality of the distribution services in subtransmission lines and substations of the electric power concessionaires in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A qualidade dos servicos de distribuicao em linhas de subtransmissao e subestacoes das concessionarias de energia eletrica no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinigo, Marcos Alex; Minami, Nelson Kazuo [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; nminami@sp.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present the CSPE (Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia), delegate of ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) in Sao Paulo state, and demonstrates the mechanisms employed and the results achieved in the inspection of the maintenance of transmission lines e substations of the main concessionaires of the state. (author)

  2. History of Spanish Selection of the International Solar Energy; Historia de la Asociacion Espanola de Energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is about the old and new Spanish Sections of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES). The old Section was formed on the initiative of the Spanish Association Atecyr and was named ISES Espana. As a legal Spanish association, it developed its activities from 1981 until 1991 when economic difficulties made ISES suspend the Section. In that year Prof. Manuel Vazquez, director of the Laboratory of Solar Energy of the University of Vigo, became interested in the subject and participated in his restlessness to other Spanish members of ISES. All of them agreed to create a new Spanish association under the name of Asociacion Espanola de Energia Solar (AEDES), which was registered as an ONG in the Spanish National Register of Associations and ratified by ISES as its Spanish Section in 1993. In this paper the significant data of the old and new sections are given, including the names of representative people and members of the Board and the development of the membership. (Author)

  3. Solar energy as fuel to move the world; La energia solar como combustible para mover al mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Arturo; Gamboa, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Among the technologies that can be used to take properly advantage of the Sun, we have the development of various solar devices, ranging from the solar collectors, equipment that convert the solar radiation into heat, until the solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of these devices in various countries of the world, has allowed us to evaluate the technical feasibility of the technologies associated with the development and use of Renewable Energies to solve the global energy problems, and, in this way, achieve the long-awaited energy independence to which aspire all the nations of the planet. [Spanish] Entre las tecnologias que se pueden utilizar para aprovechar de forma adecuada al Sol, tenemos el desarrollo de diversos dispositivos solares, los cuales van desde los captadores solares, equipos que convierten la radiacion solar en calor, hasta las celdas solares, que convierten la luz del Sol en electricidad. El desarrollo e implementacion de estos dispositivos en diversos paises del mundo, han permitido evaluar la factibilidad tecnica de las tecnologias asociadas al aprovechamiento y uso de las Energias Renovables para resolver los problemas energeticos globales, y, de esta forma, conseguir la tan ansiada independencia energetica a la que aspiran todas las naciones del planeta.

  4. EVLTraining®: aplicativo para treino do cálculo da densidade de energia endovenosa linear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    Full Text Available Resumo Contexto O reconhecimento da termoablação endovenosa como tratamento da insuficiência de veias safenas traz a necessidade de maior conhecimento e compreensão do método. A densidade de energia endovenosa linear (linear endovenous energy density – LEED é a variável mais aceita para padronização, cada vez mais amplamente divulgada. Não deve ser utilizada apenas para comparação de resultados científicos – deve também ser usada no intraoperatório para a realização do procedimento com segurança. Objetivos Desenvolver aplicativo para mensuração da LEED e avaliar sua aplicabilidade. Métodos O aplicativo para iOS EVLTraining® foi desenvolvido para equipamentos portáteis com o intuito de padronizar a emissão energética em procedimentos de termoablação endovenosa. Resultados O aplicativo criado mostrou equivalência com as medidas aplicadas no procedimento cirúrgico. Conclusões O software EVLTraining® permite o treino prévio de cirurgião e equipe para a velocidade de tração da fibra ótica que será aplicada.

  5. Methodology for energy diagnosis in distribution steam lines; Metodologia para diagnostico de energia en lineas de distribucion de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, M.; Ambriz, J. J.; Romero P, H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology that results of great advantage in the development of the energy analysis of an industrial facility that utilizes steam as a mean of energy transport and where the steam operated equipment is physically located in a remote place, away from the generation site. Mention is made here of the equipment characteristics that can be used for such purpose, the most important parameters to identify in a rapid and efficient way the faults presented in the steam distribution system in the industrial plants and the formats that contribute to keep the corresponding records for efficiently maintain in operation the steam pipeline net in conjunction with the involved accessories. [Espanol] En el presenta trabajo se muestra una metodologia que resulta de gran utilidad en el desarrollo del analisis energetico de una planta industrial, en la cual se emplee el vapor como medio de transporte de la energia y en donde el equipo que utiliza el vapor se encuentre fisicamente en un lugar apartado de la zona de generacion. Aqui se mencionan las caracteristicas del equipo que se puede utilizar para dicho diagnostico, los parametros de mayor importancia para identificar en forma rapida y eficiente las fallas que se presentan en el sistema de distribucion de vapor en las plantas industriales y los formatos que contribuyen a llevar los registros correspondientes para mantener operando eficientemente la red de vapor, en conjunto con los accesorios que en ella se involucran.

  6. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR BEANS GROWN UNDER SALINITY CONDITIONS (VARIETIES BRS ENERGIA, MPA 34 AND MPB 01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL ANTÔNIO PRESOTTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that some plant species exhibit satisfactory production levels when grown under high salinity levels, whereas others exhibit decreased production due to sodium sensitivity even at low sodium concentrations. The castor bean is moderately sensitive to salinity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early growth of three castor bean varieties (BRS Energia, MPA 34 and MPB 01 grown in nutrient solution with increasing sodium concentrations (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L - 1 . A completely randomized split - plot experimental design was used, with a 5x3 factorial scheme and three replicates per treatment. Salinity resulted in decreased dry weight of all castor bean varieties grown for 31 days under hydroponic conditions. The dry weight accumulation was less affected at the root than at the shoot level. Nevertheless, the shoot dry weight decreased with the increasing salinity. MPA 34 exhibited higher early growth than the remaining tested varieties. Salinity affected the early development of the tested castor bean varieties, and this effect was more pronounced at the shoot than at the root. Variety MPA 34 is promising for cultivation under moderate salinity levels.

  7. WEBSITES CORPORATIVOS NA COMUNICAÇÃO DE RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL EM DISTRIBUIDORAS DE ENERGIA: UM ESTUDO LONGITUDINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Aureliano Farache

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O fenômeno da Responsabilidade Social das Empresas (RSE na gestão dos negócios vem sendo objeto de estudos que questionam o comportamento das empresas na construção de uma sociedade mais justa. Este trabalho busca analisar em quatro grandes empresas do setor de distribuição de energia, como a RSE está sendo divulgada por meio de seus websites corporativos, levando em consideração que a Internet é uma poderosa ferramenta de comunicação. Após breve revisão teórica, é aplicado um conjunto de indicadores de divulgação de RSE por meio de websites corporativos. Como resultado, observa-se que as empresas analisadas utilizavam seus websites em 2006 principalmente para a divulgação do balanço social, mas o mesmo não pode ser dito sobre os resultados de seus projetos sociais, uma vez que as informações não estavam naquela época disponíveis por este meio eletrônico. Três anos depois pode ser observado que as quatro empresas apresentam em seus websites corporativos detalhes sobre seus investimentos sociais incluindo projetos, parceiros e resultados obtidos.

  8. Integrating of renewable energy in operation system: the Special Regime Control Centre (CECRE); Integracion de la energia renovable en la operacion del sistema: El Centro de Control de regimen especial (CECRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Division, M.

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of Red Electrica de Espana Special Regime Control Centre (CECRE) has demonstrated the Spanish System Operators commitment of integrating the maximum possible wind power generation into the electrical system compatible with secure operation. With this leadership initiative,for the first time in the world, a System Operator Control Centre (CECRE) has succeeded in sending power control instructions to wind power generators over the country through Generation Control Centres (CGC) to which these generators must be connected complying with the Spanish Rules. (Author)

  9. A diplomacia da energia : os biocombustíveis no Brasil e a construção de seu marco jurídico regulatório internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A energia é considerada recurso essencial para a melhoria das condições de vida dos povos e seu acesso é altamente relevante para a promoção do desenvolvimento. Diante do dever de produção de energias para sustentar as atividades humanas, de uma previsível escassez de petróleo nos anos vindouros, da importância de encontrar novas fontes de energia e das preocupações com o meio ambiente, os países têm formulado programas políticos e normas jurídicas que visam regular a formatação dessa produçã...

  10. RedeGasEnergia - gas and energy excellence network: a strategy for development the Brazilian natural gas market; RedeGasEnergia - rede de excelencia de gas e energia: uma estrategia para o desenvolvimento do mercado do gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio L.F. dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia do Gas Natural; Freire, Luiz G.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Tecnologia da RedeGasEnergia

    2004-07-01

    The present work aims at to present a new methodology of Excellency Net of Natural Gas - RedeGasEnergia for the development do natural gas market no Brazil, through in the application do model management for technologies associates different segments da economy: residential, commercial, industrial, Vehicle and of cogeneration, in accord with the Strategical Planning of the PETROBRAS. The developed methodology is based on the interaction enters the technological lines of direction of the segments of the economy and marketing lines of direction, inside of a corporative environment enters the some agents of the productive chain of the Natural Gas, which is: University, the delivering and transporting Institutions of Research and Technologies (technological arm) and companies of NG, municipal, state and federal equipment manufacturers (enterprise arm) and agencies, trade associations (governmental arm) to which of integrated and articulated form carry through a sustainable development of the Natural Gas market in Brazil. A study of case of the methodology will be shown, from the analysis of the current scenes of the use of the natural gas in light vehicles and weighed, locomotives and boats, as well as the available infrastructure for the Vehicle applications. (author)

  11. Mexico/USA agreement for the performance of an energy audit: a study case; Acuerdo Mexico/EUA para realizar auditoria de energia: un caso de estudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, Hernando; Ambriz, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Johny; Sheffield, John [University of Missouri-Rolla, Missouri (United States)

    1998-12-31

    en la ciudad de Mexico por un equipo de profesores y estudiantes de la Universidad de Missouri-Rolla (UMR) y la Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (UAM). Este intercambio internacional examina el potencial de transferencia tecnologica de los programas de los Centros de Asesoria Industrial y de Analisis y Diagnosticos Energeticos, mismos que son patrocinados por la Oficina de Tecnologias Industriales del Departamento de Energia de los Estados Unidos (Programa IAC-DOE). El articulo describe la metodologia aplicada por el equipo internacional para identificar las oportunidades de ahorro de energia mediante la visita a las instalaciones de las empresas manufactureras. Estas se clasifican de acuerdo con las areas potenciales de ahorro (por ejemplo: iluminacion, compresores de aire, motores, etc.) e incluyen los ahorros de energia, sus costos asociados, los costos de implementacion y el periodo simple de retorno. El trabajo presenta un caso de estudio relacionado con dos plantas mexicanas. Se hace una revision de las estadisticas de un ano que enlista las oportunidades de ahorro de energia encontradas por el UMR-IAC durante ocho anos de operacion, con el proposito de ilustrar. Las estadisticas se basan en unas 25 auditorias realizadas en los Estados Unidos y comprenden los ahorros de energia y de demanda, los costos asociados, los costos de implementacion y el periodo simple de retorno. Tambien se describe la realizacion de las auditorias conjuntas como una forma valida de transferencia tecnologica en dos vias, de interes para ambas instituciones educativas. El articulo concluye las ventajas del acercamiento conjunto hacia las auditorias de energia y el potencial para el desarrollo de un programa mas ambicioso de transferencia tecnologica. El valor educacional de la experiencia anterior para el profesorado y los estudiantes involucrados en el intercambio academico se ve tambien como una oportunidad importante para seguir con dichas actividades.

  12. Análise newtoniana de um sistema mecânico com uma força dependente da velocidade e a existência de condições para a conservação de energia

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio,R.V.; Fracalossi, R.; Oliveira, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Um sistema mecânico com forças dependentes da velocidade é estudado. Mostra-se que, sob escolhas muito particulares para os termos da força resultante em cada direção, é possível obter o resultado de que a energia total do sistema se conserva, podendo ainda ser dividida em três parcelas, associadas a cada direção, e que também se comportam como uma lei de conservação para a energia individualmente.

  13. Gestão eficiente da energia eléctrica no edifício da Biblioteca da FCT e negociação de um novo contrato em mercado liberalizado

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Diogo José Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, a energia eléctrica tem vindo a conquistar, um lugar cada vez mais importante na sociedade, sendo nos nossos dias um bem essencial para o funcionamento normal das residências, empresas, indústrias e cidades. O problema que a presente dissertação analisa é transversal a inúmeros edifícios, que consomem diariamente uma grande quantidade de energia eléctrica, na ordem dos 900 kWh diários, ou mesmo superior. Desta forma, considera-se o consumo de eletricidade, ...

  14. Estabilidade de pós quasicristalinos de uma liga de Al62.2Cu25.5Fe12.3 obtidos por moagem de alta energia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Danielle Guedes de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Os materiais com estrutura quasicristalina apresentam propriedades singulares, tais como: elevada dureza, baixa energia superficial e baixo coeficiente de atrito, boa resistência à oxidação e corrosão, elevada resistência ao desgaste e ainda baixas condutividades elétrica e térmica. Estes materiais podem ser obtidos por fundição convencional, moagem de alta energia (MAE) ou mecanossíntese e também por técnicas de obtenção de filmes finos. Entretanto, estes materiais são bastant...

  15. Cogeneration projects in PEMEX refining; Proyectos de cogeneracion en PEMEX Refinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra O' Leary, Jose [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    Mexican Petroleum proposes the electric power cogeneration, the energy consumption and rationalization as well as the operative performance improvement. This is the reason Pemex refining considers the cogeneration projects development possibility related with the Refining National System to supply the six refineries with steam and electric power. And also the energy auto-supply to other Pemex refining, using the liquid and solid residuals as fuels for petroleum refining. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos propone la Cogeneracion de energia electrica, el aprovechamiento y la racionalizacion del consumo de energia, asi como el mejoramiento del desempeno operativo, por lo cual Pemex Refinacion plantea la posibilidad del desarrollo de proyectos de Cogeneracion asociados a las refinerias del Sistema Nacional de Refinacion, para abastecer de vapor y energia electrica a cada una de las seis refinerias, asi como el autoabastecimiento de energia a otras instalaciones de Pemex Refinacion, utilizando como combustibles los residuales liquidos y solidos de la refinacion del petroleo.

  16. Characterization of high-energy milled alumina powders Caracterização de pós de alumina submetidos a moagem de alta energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tomasi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of reactive high-energy milling has been reported for the synthesis of ceramic powders namely, metal oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides or mixtures of ceramics or ceramic and metal compounds. In this work, high-energy milling was used for reduction of alumina powders to nanometric particle size. The ceramic characteristics of the powders were analyzed in terms of the behavior during deagglomeration, compaction curves, sintering and microstructure characterization. It was observed that the high energy milling has strong effect in producing agglomeration of the nanosized powders. This effect is explained by the high-energy impact of the balls, which may fracture particles or just cause the particles compacting. In this case, strong agglomerates are produced. As the powder surface area increases, stronger agglomerates are produced.Tem sido amplamente divulgada a utilização da moagem reativa de alta energia para a síntese de pós cerâmicos de óxidos de metais, carbetos, boretos, nitretos ou misturas de compostos cerâmicos ou compostos cerâmicos e metálicos. Neste trabalho, a moagem de alta energia (não reativa foi utilizada para a redução de pós de alumina para partículas de dimensões nanométricas. As características cerâmicas dos pós obtidos foram analisadas a partir de resultados de comportamento durante a desaglomeração, curvas de densificação, sinterização e caracterização de microestrutura. Observou-se que a moagem de alta energia tem forte efeito de aglomeração dos pós com partículas em dimensões nanométricas. Esse efeito é explicado pelo impacto de alta energia das bolas, os quais podem fraturar as partículas ou apenas causar a compactação das mesmas. Nesse último caso, que sempre ocorre, são formados aglomerados de alta resistência. O aumento da área superficial do pó produz aglomerados mais resistentes.

  17. Evaluation of energy saving in large scale projects in domestic lighting; Evaluacion del ahorro de energia en proyectos de gran escala en alumbrado domestico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, Adrian [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The present work shows the methodology and the necessary parameters are indicated to evaluate the energy saving and the reduction of power demand obtained, by the large scale projects of substitution of incandescent lamps by compact, circular fluorescent and globe type lamps in the domestic sector. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra la metodologia y se indican los parametros necesarios para evaluar el ahorro de energia y reduccion de la demanda de potencia obtenidos, por los proyectos de gran escala de sustitucion de focos incandescentes por lamparas fluorescentes compactas, circulares y tipo globo en el sector domestico.

  18. Catalysis as a tool for energy conservation in the refinery industry; Catalisis como herramienta de ahorro de energia en la industria de la refinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, S.; Moran-Pineda, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Bazan, G.; Gonzalez, L.; Barrios, H. [Pemex-Refinacion, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The catalysis, defined by the alchemists since its appearance, as that something or Philosophical Stone, with a special power to transform matter by means of the energy, has always represented a challenge to mankind, even more now, when most of the goods needed for its survival are related to a chemical process and nowadays, when they can not be imagined without the presence of a catalyzer. In the reciprocity between the chemical change and the catalyzer, the energy utilized represents the critical point. Once stated the above, it becomes interesting the study of the impact and the consequence of the binomial catalysis-energy in relation to the fuel recovery processes and the emission control processes, originated by its combustion, where the main objective is in establishing an analysis criterion for energy conservation with different trends; the first one, on the impact of the application of optimum catalytic systems in the fuel recovery processes and the second one on the optimum catalytic processes for emissions control. [Espanol] La catalisis desde su aparicion definida por los alquimistas como ese algo o piedra filosofal, con una fuerza especial para la transformacion de la materia mediante la energia, siempre ha representado un reto para el hombre, mas aun en la actualidad donde la mayoria de los bienes necesarios para su supervivencia estan relacionados con un proceso quimico y que hoy en dia no se conciben estos sin la presencia de un catalizador. En la reciprocidad entre el cambio quimico y el catalizador, la energia utilizada representa el punto critico. Dado lo anterior, resulta interesante el estudio del impacto y trascendencia del binomio catalisis-energia en relacion con los procesos para la obtencion de los combustibles y de los procesos para el control de emisiones, producto de la combustion de los mismos, donde el objetivo primordial esta en establecer un criterio de analisis de ahorro de energia con diferentes directrices; la primera, el impacto

  19. Separación de plásticos reciclados de resíduos de equipos electrónicos como alternativa para reaprovechamiento de energia.

    OpenAIRE

    Utimura, Solange Kazue; Rosario, Carlos Gonzalo Alvarez; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2014-01-01

    Los residuos de equipos electronicos se an convertido en un gran problema ambiental dedido al rápido avance tecnológico y a que el plástico es uno de los residuos que mas contaminan. Elreciclaje de plástico es de vital importancia para la industria, pues permite un ahorro de energia al mismo tiempo que protege al medio ambiente. El descarte excesivo de plástico se ha convertido en un gran obstáculo para su disposicion....

  20. Reflections of ANEEL criteria for quality in the supply of electrical energy; Reflexoes sobre criterios da Aneel para a qualidade no fornecimento da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: molivia@unifacs.br; Mello, Sergio Souto Maia Malbouisson de [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA), BA (Brazil)], email: smello@coelba.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the changes implemented by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) to monitor and control the indices related to the continuity of electric power supply. It also presents the evolution of the amount of fines, in case of failure of attending the quality indicators, both the collective and the individual ones. Finally, it presents some issues which need further analysis regarding to the limits of time established to the restoration of the energy supply after a power failure. (author)

  1. Comunicação de Dados em Redes de Distribuição de Energia Elétrica de Baixa Tensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brandão Nogueira Vital

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o mecanismo de troca de informações com uso de redes brasileiras de distribuição de energia elétrica de baixa tensão, e traça a linha evolutiva do tema até atingir o desenvolvimento tecnológico atual. Dessa forma, são abordados temas importantes sobre o assunto como aplicações comerciais, faixa de operação, descrição dos dispositivos de rede que possibilitam a troca de dados, comportamento do canal de comunicação e das fontes ruidosas.

  2. Determinação da energia metabolizável do farelo residual do milho com e sem enzima em dietas para frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Valadares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutricional e determinar a energia metabolizável do farelo residual de milho (FRM sem e com o uso da enzima alfa- amilase. Foi realizado um experimento de metabolismo com 180 pintos machos Cobb com 14 dias, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis aves por parcela. As dietas experimentais foram: T1: ração referência (RR, T2: 60% T1 + 40% de FRM, T3: RR + enzima, T4: 60% T1 + 40% de FRM com adição de enzima, T5: RR com substituição de 100% do milho pelo FRM e T6: RR com substituição de 100% do milho pelo FRM com adição de enzima. A composição química do FRM foi: 88,33% de matéria seca (MS, 10,23% de proteína bruta (PB, 15,44% de extrato etéreo (EE, 4,33% de cinzas (CZ e 4555kcal/kg de energia bruta (EB. Os valores dos coeficientes de metabolizabilidade aparente para o FRM sem e com adição de enzima foram, respectivamente, de 73,37% e 76,33% para MS (p=0,0136, 70,44% e 70,39% para PB (p=0,9595 e de 74,79% e 76,77% para EB (p=0,0128. Os valores da energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e da EMA corrigida para retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn para o FRM (na base natural foram de 3322±19 e 3241±18kcal/kg e de 3334±16 e 3261±17kcal/kg, respectivamente, sem e com adição de enzima. A adição da enzima não teve efeito estatístico significativo sobre os valores de EMA e EMAn, entretanto houve efeito positivo no coeficiente de metabolização da energia.

  3. Mexico's energy sector in year 2003 and 2004-2013 prospectives (Chapter 1 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); El sector energia de Mexico en el 2003 y las prospectivas 2004-2013 (Capitulo 1 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this chapter, related to the energy sector of Mexico the following subjects are reviewed: the structure of the Mexican power sector, the energy balance, the reserves and the production of primary energy, the production and the infrastructure of the hydrocarbons sector, the infrastructure and the production of the electrical sector and, the projections to year 2013. [Spanish] En este capitulo, relacionado con el sector de energia de Mexico se tratan los siguientes temas: la estructura del sector energetico mexicano, el balance de energia, las reservas y la produccion de energeticos primarios, la produccion y la infraestructura del sector hidrocarburos, la infraestructura y la produccion del sector electrico y, las proyecciones al 2013.

  4. Electronic meter with custom integrated circuit for electric energy measurement; Medidor eletronico de energia eletrica com circuito integrado dedicado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Roberto Pereira

    1990-04-01

    The design and implementation of an electrical energy electronic meter for operation at low voltages, according to two steps of development carried out in Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL is described. In the first step, an electronic meter with discrete commercial components has been developed, in order to demonstrate to the Brazilian power suppliers the feasibility of such a device for electrical energy metering and charging. The second step was constituted by the design of an integrated circuit, aiming the reduction of the cost of the meter as well as the enhancement of its reliability. Several techniques of electrical energy measurement are presented. The meter with discrete components makes use of a time division multiplier (TDM), in order to determine the active power in the load. Voltage and current levels have been reduced through the use of voltage and current sensors compatible with the TDM's inputs. A V-F converter employing continuos integration, has been used for the determination of the energy consumed by the load through the integration of the TDM's output signal. Most of the discrete components of the meter have been replaced by the dedicated integrated circuit. The TDM has remained essentially the same, but the V-F converter has been changed into a dual-slope one, which is more adequate for implementation in a single chip. The tests performed with the prototypes of the meter including both the meter with discrete components and the meter with the custom-made integrated circuit have presented measurement errors of less the 0,2 %. The initial goal, according to Brazilian specifications of electromechanical meters and international specifications for electronic meters, was 1 %. (author)

  5. Penetration of the renewable sources of energy in Mexico: group of approach on possible guidelines for policies for the renewable energies (Annexe 13 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Penetracion de las fuentes renovables de energia en Mexico: grupo de enfoque sobre posibles lineamientos de politicas para las energias renovables (Anexo 13 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernudi, Montserrat; Alonso C, Antonio [Analitica Consultores S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    This report corresponds to the results obtained in the group of consultation to experts on the possible policy guidelines that could favor the penetration of the renewable energies in Mexico, conducted on July 26, 2005 in Mexico City with a small group of approach, the specific objectives of the meeting were: to define possible policy guidelines that help the future penetration of the renewable energies in Mexico between years 2005 and 2030; and to explore possible obstacles for the implantation of such policies. [Spanish] Este informe corresponde a los resultados obtenidos en el grupo de consulta a expertos sobre los posibles lineamientos de politicas que podrian favorecer la penetracion de las energias renovables en Mexico, realizado el 26 de julio de 2005 en la ciudad de Mexico con un pequeno grupo de enfoque, los objetivos especificos de la reunion fueron: definir posibles lineamientos de politica que ayuden a la penetracion futura de las energias renovables en Mexico entre los anos 2005 y 2030; y explorar posibles obstaculos para la implantacion de dichas politicas.

  6. Optimización del control del sistema de almacenamiento térmico en centrales solares termoeléctricas

    OpenAIRE

    Peón Menéndez, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Las centrales termosolares de colectores cilindroparabolicos objeto de esta tesis utilizan aceite termico como fluido caloportador y sales fundidas como sistema de almacenamiento termico (SAT). El aceite absorbe la energia luminica procedente del sol, y la transfiere mediante intercambiadores de calor a un ciclo agua-vapor para ser convertida en energia electrica por un turbogenerador, o al sistema de almacenamiento termico para ser almacenada y posteriormente transferida al ciclo agua-vapor,...

  7. Alcoholic fermentation: an option for renewable energy production from agricultural residues; Fermentacion alcoholica: una opcion para la produccion de energia renovable a partir de desechos agricolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, H. J [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: hjv@correo.azc.uam.mx; Dacosta, O [Oficina de Consejo, Desarrollo y Transferencia Tecnologica, Dijon (Francia)]. E-mail: statfor@yahoo.com

    2007-10-15

    Biotechnology offers several options for generating renewable energy. One of these technologies consists on producing bioethanol by fermentation. Bioethanol is mainly used to prepare fuel for motor vehicles. This paper presents a proposal to produce such as fuels with a hundred liters experimental fermentation pilot unit. Results derived from essays are similar, in terms of yield and productivity, to those presented by other systems, if we take into account that our unit works under non sterile conditions, which represents significant energy savings. This technology does not require specialized knowledge for its construction and it would accessible to groups of Mexican farmers. [Spanish] La biotecnologia ofrece diversas opciones para la generacion de energias renovables. Una de ellas es la produccion de bioetanol, el cual se obtiene mediante fermentacion. El bioetanol se usa en la preparacion de carburantes para vehiculos automotores. En este articulo se presenta una propuesta para la obtencion de este combustible mediante una unidad de fermentacion piloto experimental de 100 litros. Los resultados de nuestros ensayos, en rendimiento y productividad, son similares a los de otros laboratorios si se considera que esta unidad piloto funciona en condiciones no esteriles, lo que representa como ventaja un ahorro de energia no despreciable. Ademas, la tecnologia no requiere conocimientos especializados para su realizacion y estaria al alcance de grupos campesinos mexicanos.

  8. ENERGIA EÓLICA: POR UMA REVISÃO DAS BASES ENERGÉTICAS E INCENTIVO A ECONOMIA DE BAIXO CARBONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carneiro Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto realiza uma análise acerca da energia eólica no Brasil, da possibilidade de implantação, dos impactos socioambientais, econômicos e da sua escolha como matriz energética alternativa. Todos estes aspectos são verificados para se enfrentar a crise energética e as alterações climáticas provenientes da emissão de gases do efeito estufa. Por fim, aponta o compromisso do Estado em uma solução para o problema e a necessidade de adoção de incentivos fiscais para se viabilizar empreendimentos no setor. Para a pesquisa foi usado o desenvolvimento sustentável como alicerce e o método investigativo-dedutivo, por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, para responder ao problema que tem seu cerne na viabilidade de investimentos públicos e privados na energia eólica, como alternativa energética renovável e de baixo carbono, objetivando garantir um desenvolvimento sustentável.

  9. Comportamento a fatica dei giunti saldati in funzione della densità di energia di deformazione locale: influenza dei campi di tensione singolari e non singolari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lazzarin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Il criterio della densità di energia di deformazione (SED considera un preciso volume di controllo posizionato in corrispondenza del piede o della radice dei cordoni di saldatura, ossia delle zone di possibileinnesco delle cricche di fatica. Modellati i cordoni come intagli a V non raccordati e con diverso angolo di apertura, il volume è riconducibile a un settore circolare nei casi di tensione o deformazione piana, e il raggio vale circa 0.3 mm per i giunti saldati in acciaio strutturale.Il valore medio della densità di energia di deformazione dipende essenzialmente dalle distribuzioni singolari nei giunti di medio ed elevato spessore, mentre importante diventa il contributo della T-stress nei giunti di spessore ridotto. Entrambi gli effetti sono correttamente computati utilizzando modelli agli elementi finiti, anche utilizzando mesh con un numero ridotto di gradi di libertà. Il fatto è di notevole interesse per una possibile applicazione del metodo a strutture saldate di geometria complessa. Agli effetti descritti, tipicamente riconducibili a una modellazione piana, si possono accompagnare campi singolari non convenzionali, legati aeffetti tridimensionali indotti dalla geometria. L’effetto out-of-plane è qui evidenziato in relazione ai giunti a semplice sovrapposizione.

  10. Injustiças da sustentabilidade: Conflitos ambientais relacionados à produção de energia “limpa” no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Firpo de Souza Porto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as contradições existentes na implementação de projetos de energia “limpa”, a partir de quatro casos do contexto brasileiro: agrocombustíveis via cana‑de‑açúcar, hidrelétricas, parques eólicos e, por fim, energia nuclear. Todos geram inúmeros impactos sociais, ambientais e à saúde que caracterizam o que denominamos provocativamente “injustiças da sustentabilidade”. Assumimos que os conflitos ambientais existentes nos casos são inevitáveis em sociedades de mercado, cuja visão hegemônica de desenvolvimento econômico das corporações e, frequentemente, órgãos de governo é confrontada por populações atingidas e movimentos sociais. Portanto, consideramos estratégico reconhecer as injustiças ambientais como forma de articular as bases materiais da sustentabilidade com questões econômicas, sociais, culturais e filosóficas acerca da noção de progresso.

  11. Thermal analysis for energy consumption reduction in cooling water systems; Analisis termico para la reduccion del consumo de energia en sistemas de agua de enfriamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picon Nunez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Quillares Vargas, Luis [Tecnopinch, S. A. de C. V., (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the fundamental principles for the thermal analysis of cooling water systems in processing plants. In existing heat dissipating networks this methodology application allows the identification of opportunities for reducing the energy consumption used for cooling water pumping. The methodology is based on the determination of the minimum cooling water flow as a function of the installed heat exchange capacity, subjected to the restrictions of the maximum allowed temperature elevation. The methodology application to real systems, has resulted in saving 20% of the total energy consumed in cooling water pumping. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principios fundamentales para el analisis termico de sistemas de enfriamiento en plantas de proceso. En redes de eliminacion de calor existentes, la aplicacion de esta metodologia permite identificar oportunidades para reducir el consumo de energia utilizada para el bombeo del fluido enfriante. La metodologia se basa en la determinacion del flujo minimo de agua de enfriamiento en funcion de la capacidad de transferencia de calor instalada, sujeta a las restricciones de maximo incremento de temperatura permitido. La aplicacion de la metodologia a sistemas reales, ha resultado en ahorros del 20% del total de la energia que se consume en el bombeo del agua de enfriamiento.

  12. Efeitos da Energia de Soldagem e Consumível sobre a Resistência à Flexão Simples de Juntas Soldadas em Perfis Tubulares de Aço TMCP

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    Rafael Luciano Dalcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A introdução dos aços fabricados por processamento termomecânico controlado (TMCP demandou maiores propriedades mecânicas e metalúrgicas das juntas soldadas sobre eles produzidas. Em função desses fatores, a energia de soldagem é estritamente limitada, e para evitar uma eventual redução da resistência mecânica da zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC, é necessário testar os procedimentos de soldagem próximos daqueles que serão usados na estrutura real. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo é obter dados detalhados referentes à eficiência mecânica de juntas soldadas pelo processo MAG e com diferentes energias de soldagem, sobre perfis tubulares quadrados em aço TMCP, formando um conjunto soldado coluna/viga. Portanto, seis distintas energias de soldagem e dois metais de adição foram utilizados (AWS ER80S-G e AWS ER120S-G, com as soldas posicionadas em todo o contorno do perfil. As doze estruturas soldadas foram instrumentadas e submetidas à flexão simples. Comparando-se as juntas soldadas produzidas com mesma energia de soldagem, e apesar dos efeitos similares sobre a zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC, aquelas fabricadas com o consumível AWS ER120S-G apresentaram maior resistência mecânica.

  13. Research of equipment possession and gas and electric power habits of commercial and industrial consumers of low voltage; Pesquisa de posse de equipamentos e habitos de consumo de energia eletrica e gas de consumidores comerciais e industriais em baixa tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Jose Antonio; Casolari, Ronaldo Pedro; Angrisano, Alexandre; Araujo, Dalva Souza de [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports a survey conducted by the Departamento de Energia e Automacao Eletrica, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, on the possession of electric and gas equipment, and the habits of consumption which were applied to a consumers attended in low voltage commercial class and industrial class services, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  14. Avaliação econômica e ambiental da energia atômica no Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.361

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    Juliana Bento

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar se a energia nuclear pode contribuir para geração de energia elétrica de maneira sustentável no território nacional. O estudo foi realizado a partir de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental do setor energético, com levantamento de custos e impactos ambientais no processo de geração de energia elétrica, nas usinas termonucleares. A emissão de gases na atmosfera é elevada, e uma das principais causas de mudanças climáticas são as usinas de carvão. Já no caso das usinas termonucleares, a emissão é controlada, não afetando o meio ambiente e a saúde humana. Inúmeras melhorias ainda são necessárias para que seu ingresso flua como uma alternativa viável, de modo que sane problemas de escassez de matéria-prima, torne-se potencial fonte geradora de energia elétrica, não coloque em risco a sobrevivência da humanidade e garanta a preservação dos recursos naturais.

  15. Efeito da inclusão do caroço de algodão sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e balanço da energia em dietas para ovinos

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    Rogério M.C.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco carneiros castrados, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, foram utilizados para avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de inclusão (0, 12, 24, 35 e 45% de caroço de algodão integral (Gossypium hirsutum à dieta básica de feno de "Tifton 85" (Cynodon spp. sobre a digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, sobre os consumos de energia digestível e metabolizável por unidade de tamanho metabólico, e sobre o balanço energético. O consumo de energia digestível aumentou até o nível de 24% de inclusão de caroço de algodão integral (192,58 Kcal/kg0,75/dia. O balanço energético foi positivo para todas as dietas em virtude do atendimento aos requisitos energéticos de mantença. Os animais que receberam 24% de inclusão do caroço de algodão integral à dieta tiveram maior consumo de energia e melhores digestibilidade e balanço energético.

  16. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

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    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de