Sample records for ahmed tube insertion

  1. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy (United States)

    ... this page: // Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  2. Chest tube insertion - slideshow (United States)

    ... presentations/100008.htm Chest tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... pleural space is the space between the inner and outer lining of the lung. It is normally very thin, and lined only ...

  3. Eustachian tube function in children after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.


    This study was performed to assess the effect of the insertion of ventilation tubes and the subsequent aeration of the middle ear on eustachian tube (ET) function in children. Manometric ET function tests were performed repeatedly for 3 months after the placement of ventilation tubes in 83 children

  4. T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis. (United States)

    Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi


    T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

  5. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis AL Saif


    Full Text Available Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  6. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube. (United States)

    Al Saif, Narjis; Hammodi, Adel; Al-Azem, M Ali; Al-Hubail, Rasheed


    Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  7. Modified Seldinger technique for the insertion of standard chest tubes. (United States)

    Altman, E; Ben-Nun, A; Curtis, W; Best, L A


    Closed tube thoracostomy is a standard procedure for the evacuation of air, blood, or other materials from the pleural space. This paper describes a modification of the Seldinger technique that facilitates chest tube insertion. Either a Nelaton or Thieman catheter is threaded into the side drainage hole and out the tip of a standard Argyle-type chest tube. After using the clamp to insert the catheter into the pleural space through a previously dissected tract, the catheter serves as a guide over which the chest tube is inserted. The technique is simple to use, effective, and safe. It employs standard, inexpensive materials to insert chest tubes in such a way as to minimize the potential traumatic complications inherent in other techniques.

  8. [The Use of a Tracheal Tube for Guiding Nasogastric Tube Insertion]. (United States)

    Saima, Shunsuke; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa


    An obese patient was scheduled for shoulder joint surgery under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, insertion of a gastric tube was difficult. A new tracheal tube was prepared, the connecter was removed, and the tube was cut longitudinally. The tube was inserted orally into the esophagus. A gastric tube was passed through the nose, and its tip was taken out of the mouth. The tip of the gastric tube was passed through the tracheal tube, and its correct position in the stomach was confirmed by auscultation of the epigastrium. The tracheal tube was carefully taken out from the esophagus leaving the gastric tube in the stomach. The cut tracheal tube was peeled off from the gastric tube. Correct positioning of the gastric tube was re-confirmed.

  9. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN


    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  10. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi


    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery.   Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients.   Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion.   Conclusion:  Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion.

  11. Convective heat transfer enhancement inside tubes using inserted helical coils (United States)

    Ali, R. K.; Sharafeldeen, M. A.; Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M. A.


    Convective heat transfer was experimentally investigated in tubes with helical coils inserts in turbulent flow regime within Reynolds number range of 14400 ≤ Re ≤ 42900. The present work aims to extend the experimental data available on wire coil inserts to cover wire diameter ratio from 0.044 to 0.133 and coil pitch ratio from 1 to 5. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as fluid. The effects of Reynolds number and wire diameter and coil pitch ratios on the Nusselt number and friction factor were studied. The enhancement efficiency and performance criteria ranges are of (46.9-82.6%) and (100.1-128%) within the investigated range of the different parameters, respectively. Correlations are obtained for the average Nusselt number and friction factor utilizing the present measurements within the investigated range of geometrical parameters and Re.

  12. Nelaton catheter assisted versus standard nasogastric tube insertion: a randomized, clinical trial. (United States)

    Ghaemi, M; Mousavinasab, N; Jalili, S


    It is sometimes difficult to insert a nasogastric tube in an anaesthetized patient. We evaluated the benefit of reinforcing the distal portion of the nasogastric tube with a Nelaton catheter: 8 and 10 French Nelaton catheters were inserted into 16 and 18 French nasogastric tubes respectively through the first proximal holes of tubes up to their tips. The patients anaesthetized were randomly allocated into either the control or the Nelaton groups, and nasogastric tube was inserted as deeply as the catheter length, then the catheter was withdrawn and the tube was inserted farther to reach the stomach. Eighty patients (40 in each group) were included in this study. The success rate of nasogastric tube insertion was 90% in the Nelaton group and 57% in the control group (P = 0.001). The mean insertion time was 80 (SD 43) and 92 (SD 35) seconds in the Nelaton and the control groups respectively.

  13. A new technique for T tube insertion in severe subglottic stenosis. (United States)

    Goto, Taichiro; Akanabe, Kumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi


    T tube insertion for subglottic stenosis is often difficult due to bending of the T tube itself. A T tube could be inserted safely and consistently in a patient with severe subglottic stenosis employing a method that we newly devised. Our method can be performed under local anesthesia without special instruments and is technically straightforward. And also, our method is considered to be applicable to marked stenosis and stenosis with a complex morphology. Herein we present an improved method for inserting a silicone T tube through a tracheostomy stoma in patients with severe subglottic stenosis.

  14. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Hitran Wire Matrix Turbulators As Tube Inserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Shell and tube heat exchangers are extensively used in boilers, oil coolers, pre-heaters, condensers etc. They are also having special importance in process application as well as refrigeration and air conditioning industries. The present paper emphasizes on heat transfer characteristics of shell and tube heat exchangers with the aid of hiTRAN wire matrix inserts is been studied. Investigations were made on effect of mass flow rate of water on heat transfer characteristics in case of plain tube without inserts. When hiTRAN wire matrix tube inserts are used, which effectively increases the turbulence of tube side flow due to the hydrodynamic and thermal agitation of boundary layer in turns increases additional pressure drop is available in the system. This results in increase in the wall shear, reduced wall temperature which enhances substantial increase in tube side heat transfer characteristics. Heat and cooling processes streams is a standard operation in many industries this operation is often performed in heat exchangers where the heated or cold fluid flows under laminar conditions inside the tubes the mechanisms of under those flow conditions are complex poorly understood since they can involve both forced and natural convection making accurate prediction for heat exchanger. Heat transfer in laminar flow regimes is low by default but can be greatly increased by the use of passive heat transfer enhancement such as tube inserts. The present analysis the hiTRAN wire matrix turbulators were used and increased heat transfer characteristics as expected outcomes.

  15. Novel Visual Nasogastric Tube Insertion System: A Feasibility and Efficiency Study in a Manikin. (United States)

    Li, Qiaoya; Xie, Juan; Wu, Jinxing; Guo, Rui; Ma, Wenwen; Xu, Gang; Yang, Min; Deng, Huisheng


    Background. Conventional nasogastric tube placement is an essential clinical procedure; however, complications may arise from blind manipulation. We tested the feasibility and efficiency of a visual nasogastric tube insertion system (VNGS) using a manikin. Methods. A microimaging fiber (0.8 mm) was integrated into the nasogastric tube to create the VNGS. Twenty inexperienced physicians were enrolled and assigned to the visual or conventional group. Each physician performed 10 repeated nasogastric tube insertions with visual guidance or the conventional method; another 20 inexperienced medical students received nasogastric tube insertion training using visual guidance or the conventional method. Results. The nasogastric tube successfully reached the stomach and the narrow anatomic structures were visualized with the VNGS. Time required for insertion was significantly shorter in the visual group compared to the conventional group (22.56 ± 3.08 versus 37.30 ± 4.12 seconds, P visual group. Less mucosal damage was noted in the visual group (3.43 ± 1.63 versus 9.86 ± 2.31 cm(2)). Medical students performed better NGT insertions (shorter insertion time and less procedure-related complications) after undergoing the visual guidance training. Conclusions. The VNGS may provide a new technique for nasogastric tube insertion applicable to clinical use or simulation training.

  16. Withdrawing method of the stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the descending colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinsaku Fukuda; Tatsuya Mikami; Tadashi Shimoyama; Norihiro Hanabata; Hideki Iwamura; Akihiro Munakata


    We experienced a very rare complication of colonoscopy,a migration of stiffening tube into the colorectum. We herein introduce a withdrawing method of migrating stiffening tube incidentally inserted into the colorectum.A 65-year-old Japanese woman underwent colonoscopy because of abdominal discomfort. We used stiffening tube to insert the scope to the proximal colon because of her redundant sigmoid colon. When withdrawing the scope,we realized that the tube was fully inside the colorectum.We could not remove the tube instantly, and it reached the splenic flexure, finally. We reinserted the scope through the migrating tube, straightened the scope, and withdrew it holding a slight angle of the scope over the proximal end of the tube. Then, we could safely remove the tube along with the scope through the anus.

  17. Fluoroscopically Guided Three-Tube Insertion for the Treatment of Postoperative Gastroesophageal Anastomotic Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Guowen; Xu, Qingyu; Chen, Shixi; Bai, Xiangjun; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Qin; Xu, Lin; Xu, Weidong [Cancer Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing (Korea, Republic of)


    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of three-tube insertion for the treatment of postoperative gastroesophageal anastomotic leakage (GEAL). From January 2007 to January 2011, 28 cases of postoperative GEAL after an esophagectomy with intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomotic procedures for esophageal and cardiac carcinoma were treated by the insertion of three tubes under fluoroscopic guidance. The three tubes consisted of a drainage tube through the leak, a nasogastric decompression tube, and a nasojejunum feeding tube. The study population consisted of 28 patients (18 males, 10 females) ranging in their ages from 36 to 72 years (mean: 59 years). We evaluated the feasibility of three-tube insertion to facilitate leakage site closure, and the patients' nutritional benefit by checking their serum albumin levels between pre- and post-enteral feeding via the feeding tube. The three tubes were successfully placed under fluoroscopic guidance in all twenty-eight patients (100%). The procedure times for the three tube insertion ranged from 30 to 70 minutes (mean time: 45 minutes). In 27 of 28 patients (96%), leakage site closure after three-tube insertion was achieved, while it was not attained in one patient who received stent implantation as a substitute. All patients showed good tolerance of the three-tube insertion in the nasal cavity. The mean time needed for leakage treatment was 21 {+-} 3.5 days. The serum albumin level change was significant, increasing from pre-enteral feeding (2.5 {+-} 0.40 g/dL) to post-enteral feeding (3.7 {+-} 0.51 g/dL) via the feeding tube (p < 0.001). The duration of follow-up ranged from 7 to 60 months (mean: 28 months). Based on the results of this study, the insertion of three tubes under fluoroscopic guidance is safe, and also provides effective relief from postesophagectomy GEAL. Moreover, our findings suggest that three-tube insertion may be used as the primary procedure to treat postoperative GEAL.

  18. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Insertion in Partial Immunized Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang


    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the impact of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population. Study Design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. This study used Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000–2009. Every child under 17 years old who received tubes during this 10-year period was identified and analyzed. The tube insertion rates in different age groups and the risk to receive tubes in different birth cohorts before and after the release of the vaccine in 2005 were compared. Results. The tube insertion rates for children under 17 years of age ranged from 21.6 to 31.9 for 100,000 persons/year. The tube insertion rate of children under 2 years old decreased significantly after 2005 in period effect analysis (β = −0.074, P < 0.05, and the negative β value means a downward trend and increased in children 2 to 9 years old throughout the study period (positive β values which mean upward trends, P < 0.05. The rate of tube insertion was lower in 2004-2005 and 2006-2007 birth cohorts than that of 2002-2003 birth cohort (RR = 0.90 and 0.21, 95% CI 0.83–0.97 and 0.19–0.23, resp.. Conclusion. The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may reduce the risk of tube insertion for children of later birth cohorts. The vaccine may have the protective effect on tube insertions in a partial immunized pediatric population.

  19. Sonotubometry in children with otitis media with effusion before and after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avoort, S.J.C.; Heerbeek, N. van; Zielhuis, G.A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.


    OBJECTIVES: To test the outcome of sonotubometric measurement in children with otitis media with effusion (OME) before and after insertion of ventilation tubes. DESIGN: Eustachian tube ventilatory function was tested in children with OME. To test validity, sonotubometric testing took place before in

  20. Investigation of the effect of using tube inserts for the intensification of heat transfer (United States)

    Goodarzi, K.; Goudarzi, S. Y.; Zendehbudi, Gh.


    In this work, heat transfer in channels containing inserts of different shapes was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques taking a gaslight water heater as an example. Three types of devices inserted in the water heater tube (flow swirlers) were investigated: star-shaped, coiled wire, and classic ones in the form of twisted tapes. In the present study, the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model is used to model the turbulent flow regime. This numerical simulation has been performed over a Reynolds number range of 5800-18500. In the studied range of Reynolds number the maximum thermal performance factor was obtained by the starry inserts with A star/ A inlet = 0.50. The results have exposed that also the use of all tube inserts leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and pressure drop over the smooth tube. In addition, the results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with starry insert were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the coiled wire inserts and classic twisted tape.

  1. The protective effect of adenoidectomy on pediatric tympanostomy tube re-insertions: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    Full Text Available Adenoidectomy in conjunction with tympanostomy tube insertion for treating pediatric otitis media with effusion and recurrent acute otitis media has been debated for decades. Practice differed surgeon from surgeon. This study used population-based data to determine the protective effect of adenoidectomy in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertion and tried to provide more evidence based information for surgeons when they do decision making.Retrospective birth cohort study.This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2000-2009 in Taiwan. The tube reinsertion rate and time to tube re-insertion among children who received tympanostomy tubes with or without adenoidectomy were compared. Age stratification analysis was also done to explore the effects of age.Adenoidectomy showed protective effects on preventing tube re-insertion compared to tympanostomy tubes alone in children who needed tubes for the first time (tube re-insertion rate 9% versus 5.1%, p = 0.002 and longer time to re-insertions, p = 0.01, especially those aged over 4 years when they had their first tube surgery. After controlling the effect of age, adenoidectomy reduced the rate of re-insertion by 40% compared to tympanostomy tubes alone (aHR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41-0.89. However, the protective effect of conjunction adenoidectomy was not obvious among children with a second tympanostomy tube insertion. Children who needed their first tube surgery at the age 2-4 years were most prone to have tube re-insertions, followed by the age group of 4-6 years.Adenoidectomy has protective effect in preventing tympanostomy tube re-insertions compared to tympanostomy tubes alone, especially for children older than 4 years old and who needed tubes for the first time. Nonetheless, clinicians should still weigh the pros and cons of the procedure for their pediatric patients.

  2. Severe prelenticular membrane formation on the surface of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens after cataract surgery in an eye with an Ahmed valve implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Sun; Ahn; Jin; A; Choi


    <正>Dear Sir,Iam Yong-Sun Ahn,from the Department of Ophthalmology of St.Vincent Hospital of Suwon,Kyungki-do,South Korea.Cataracts are a common problem in eyes with a glaucoma drainage device(GDD),because tube shunt surgery increases the incidence and progression of cataracts[1].An Ahmed valve,the most commonly inserted GDD,is composed of a silicone tube connected to a flat plate sewn to the sclera,and aqueous humor flows from the

  3. Ahmed glaucoma valve implant: surgical technique and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva I


    Full Text Available Ivano Riva,1 Gloria Roberti,1 Francesco Oddone,1 Anastasios GP Konstas,2 Luciano Quaranta3 1IRCCS “Fondazione GB Bietti per l’Oftalmologia”, Rome, Italy; 21st University Department of Ophthalmology, Glaucoma Unit, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve is an effective surgical technique to reduce intraocular pressure in patients affected with glaucoma. While in the past, the use of this device was reserved to glaucoma refractory to multiple filtration surgical procedures, up-to-date mounting experience has encouraged its use also as a primary surgery for selected cases. Implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve can be challenging for the surgeon, especially in patients who already underwent previous multiple surgeries. Several tips have to be acquired by the surgeon, and a long learning curve is always needed. Although the valve mechanism embedded in the Ahmed glaucoma valve decreases the risk of postoperative hypotony-related complications, it does not avoid the need of a careful follow-up. Complications related to this type of surgery include early and late postoperative hypotony, excessive capsule fibrosis around the plate, erosion of the tube or plate edge, and very rarely infection. The aim of this review is to describe surgical technique for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation and to report related complications. Keywords: glaucoma, surgical technique, glaucoma drainage devices, Ahmed glaucoma valve, complications

  4. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookhoo, Leema [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mahant, Sanjay [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Parra, Dimitri A.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G.; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome

  5. False-positive pH aspirates after nasogastric tube insertion in head and neck tumour. (United States)

    Sellers, Claudia Kate


    Nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes are commonly inserted to supplement enteral nutrition in certain patient groups, including those with head and neck cancers where swallowing may be compromised. An NHS National Patient Safety Alert was released in 2011 detailing ongoing cases of significant morbidity and mortality attached to the incorrect placement of NG feeding tubes in hospital inpatients. Since 2005, there were 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm nationally due to feeding into the lung through misplaced tubes. pH testing remains the first-line method of placement confirmation, with chest x-ray used when no aspirate is gained or where pH testing fails to confirm suitable acidity. We present a case report describing false-positive NG tube placement confirmation tests in a patient with head and neck cancer, who was administered feed into lung parenchyma with significant morbidity. We discuss the case for specific NG tube placement protocols in head and neck cancer patients.

  6. Fluoroscopic insertion of post-pyloric feeding tubes: success rates and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurley, P.D.; Hopper, M.A. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Jobling, J.C. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Teahon, K. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    Aim: To examine the success and complication rates of radiological placement of post-pyloric feeding tubes, including those inserted with the assistance of a guide-wire. Materials and Methods: Two hundred referrals (156 patients), between the dates of 5 April 2002 and 10 September 2004, were identified retrospectively from computerized records. Subsequently, the radiology reports and patients' notes were reviewed to evaluate the indications for post-pyloric feeding, success of placement, use of a guide-wire, and any complications. Results: A post-pyloric tube was placed in the distal duodenum/jejunum in 183 (91.5%) patients and in the proximal duodenum or distal stomach in six (3%). A tube could not be inserted in 11 (5.5%) patients, and 51 (25.5%) of the insertions required the use of a guide-wire. Immediate complications were recorded in seven patients (3.5%): vomiting (n = 5); hypotension and apnoea requiring naloxone (n = 1) and hypoxia requiring endotracheal intubation (n = 1). Conclusion: Radiological placement of post-pyloric feeding tubes has a success rate comparable with endoscopically placed tubes, and it rarely involves significant technique-related complications.

  7. How to insert a nasogastric tube and check gastric position at the bedside. (United States)

    Best, Carolyn


    Rationale and key points A nasogastric tube (NG tube) can be used to aspirate stomach contents or to administer feed, medication or fluid into the stomach. ▶ A blind technique is used to insert the NG tube through the nostril, along the nasopharynx, through the oesophagus and into the stomach. ▶ It is important for nurses to be able to recognise problems that may arise when inserting a NG tube blindly, and to know what actions to take if it is suspected that the distal tip of the NG tube is not sitting in the stomach, or they are unable to identify its location. ▶ Misplacement and subsequent use of a NG tube to administer feed, medication or fluid is a 'never event' ( NHS England Patient Safety Domain 2015 ). Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you think this article will change your practice. 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at

  8. Improving the documentation of nasogastric tube insertion and adherence to local enteral nutrition guidelines. (United States)

    Cole, Esther


    Fine bore nasogastric (NG) tubes are often required for patients who have insufficient nutrition to meet their daily requirements, as well as for feeding or medications when there are difficulties with swallowing. "Death or severe harm as a result of a naso […] gastric tubes being misplaced in the respiratory tract" is one of the Department of Health's list of "never events". Noble's Hospital, Isle of Man, has local guidelines based on the National Patient Safety Agency's 2005 guidelines and 2011 update, regarding the initial insertion and confirmation of placement of NG tubes. Retrospective baseline data looking at 13 case notes across 10 hospital wards showed that the majority of NG tube insertions took place on the stroke unit. A three-point quality of guidelines score showed that 8/13 (62%) cases were following guidelines appropriately. A seven-point quality of documentation score showed no case notes had full documentation. A teaching intervention for junior doctors and nurses was devised. However, there was no significant improvement in quality scores after 90 days (49 NG tube insertions). Therefore, an NG tube bundle, which included a pro forma for the case notes, information poster, and sticker for the nurse notes, was trialled on the stroke unit for six weeks. This showed that 10/12 (83%) cases were following guidelines appropriately. While only 2/12 (16%) of case notes had full documentation, this represented the two occasions when the pro forma was filled in and filed correctly. It is hoped that there could be a roll out of the intervention hospital-wide with identification of ways to improve usage of the NG tube bundle.

  9. Numerical simulation of heat transfer of latent functionally thermal fluid in tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars in laminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian; LIU PeiQing; LIN GuiPing


    The heat transfer of latent functionally thermal fluid in three kinds of tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars is numerically researched using equivalent spe-cific heat model, and the flow fields are analyzed with field synergy field. It is found that in the tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars, the heat transfer effects of functionally thermal fluid become more and more pronounced with the Ste de-creasing. This is similar to be case of functionally thermal fluid flowing in smooth straight tubes. Compared with the results receiving from smooth straight tubes, the heat transfer of functional thermal fluid in tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars has been significantly enhanced. And this effect becomes more apparent as the diameter of coaxially inserted cylindrical bars increases meanwhile, however, energy consuming of the tubes shows the same trend.

  10. Numerical simulation of heat transfer of latent functionally thermal fluid in tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars in laminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The heat transfer of latent functionally thermal fluid in three kinds of tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars is numerically researched using equivalent spe- cific heat model, and the flow fields are analyzed with field synergy field. It is found that in the tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars, the heat transfer effects of functionally thermal fluid become more and more pronounced with the Ste de- creasing. This is similar to be case of functionally thermal fluid flowing in smooth straight tubes. Compared with the results receiving from smooth straight tubes, the heat transfer of functional thermal fluid in tubes with coaxially inserted cylindrical bars has been significantly enhanced. And this effect becomes more apparent as the diameter of coaxially inserted cylindrical bars increases meanwhile, however, energy consuming of the tubes shows the same trend.

  11. Nasogastric tube insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients: a new and reliable method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Yung-Fong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The “Rusch” intubation stylet is used to make endotracheal tube intubation easy. We designed this study to evaluate the usage of this equipment in the guidance of nasogastric tube (NGT insertion. Methods A total of 103 patients, aged 23 to 70 years, undergoing gastrointestinal or hepatic surgeries that required intraoperative NGT insertions were enrolled into our study. The patients were randomly allocated to the control group (Group C or the stylet group (Group S according to a computerized, random allocation software program. In the control group, the NGT was inserted with the patient’s head in an intubating position. In the stylet group, the NGT was inserted with the assistance of a “Rusch” intubation stylet tied together at the tips by a slipknot. The success rates of the two methods, the durations of the insertions, and the occurrences of complications were recorded. All of the failed cases in the control group were subjected to the new technique used in the stylet group, and the successful rescue rate was also evaluated. Results Successful insertions were recorded for 52/53 patients (98.1% in Group S and for 32/50 patients (64% in Group C. The mean insertion times were 39.5 ± 19.5 seconds in Group C and 40.3 ± 23.2 seconds in Group S. Successful rescues of failure cases in Group C were achieved in 17/18 patients (94.4% with the assistance of a “Rusch” intubation stylet. Conclusions The “Rusch” intubation stylet-guided method is reliable with a high success rate of NGT insertion in anesthetized and intubated patients. Trial registration Institutional Review Board of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (IRB: 98-2669B and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000423910

  12. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai B


    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  13. Further understanding of twisted tape effects as tube insert for heat transfer enhancement (United States)

    Abu-Khader, Mazen M.


    Tube inserts are used as heat transfer enhancement tool for both retrofit and new design of shell and tube heat exchangers. This paper discusses and reviews the characteristics and performance of twisted tapes. The theory and application are also addressed. Industrial case study was selected to illustrate the behaviour effect that the twisted tapes impose at various laminar, transition and turbulent flow regions. This effect was demonstrated by changing the inside tube diameter and twist ratio through evaluating selected exchanger design parameters such as: local heat transfer coefficient, friction factor and pressure drop. Testing the exponent powers for Re and Pr at both laminar and turbulent regions were carried out. General design considerations are outlined for the use of twisted tapes in shell and tube heat exchangers.

  14. A novel technique to insert nasogastric tube for the anesthetized patients during cervical esophageal reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie Zhang; Yu Deng; Shengling Fu; Yixin Cai; Ni Zhang; Xiangning Fu


    Objective:We are describing a novel technique to insert nasogastric tube (NGT) in the anesthetized patients dur-ing cervical esophageal reconstruction. Methods:Forty patients with mid and upper esophageal tumor enrol ed into this study were randomly al ocated into two groups (the control group, group C and the novel method group, group N). Al the patients were applied mechanical anastomosis to finish the cervical esophageal reconstruction. The procedure of NGT insertion for group C use the conventional method;wel , the group N use the novel technique. Results:Al the patients in group N had been finished the NGT insertion in the first attempt, and the total time for insertion was (5.05 ± 1.15) mins;on the contrary, for the group C, duration of insertion (min) was (24.45 ± 5.23) mins, and the successful rate of NGT insertion in the first attempt was 40%(P<0.05);no one in group N had coiling/kinking, and 6/20 (30%) in group C had it (P=0.020). The complication rate of bleeding between the two group had no significant dif erence. Conclusion:For the patient with mid and upper esophageal tumor who need cervical esophageal reconstruction, this novel method can save the NGT insertion time, and make it easier with higher successful rate.

  15. Minimizing radiation dose to patient and staff during fluoroscopic, nasoenteral tube insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, S.; Bednarek, D.R. (New York Univ., NY (United States). School of Medicine)


    Since the fluoroscopic image during nasoenteral tube placements is used for guidance and not for diagnosis, a lower contrast image with increased quantum mottle can be easily tolerated. The three methods to reduce the radiation dose rate investigated consisted of removing camera from the image intensifier output phosphor, and setting the fluoroscopic mA to the minimum value so that the kVp could be maximized. Fluoroscopic frozen video frames of a clinical tube insertion comparing the images with and without the dose-saving techniques are presented. Measurements of the radiation dose rates using a Plexiglas phantom show that the dose for patient and staff during fluoroscopic-guided nasoenteral tube placements can be reduced by over a factor of 10 without significantly adversely affecting the actual placement procedure. (author).

  16. Fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity


    Panayotidis, Costas; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nisolle, Michelle


    This article presents for the first time in the literature a case of fallopian tube insertion into the uterine cavity discovered accidentally during laparoscopic retrieval of a misplaced coil from the pelvic cavity. Peer reviewed

  17. A Novel and Innovative Way of Nasogastric Tube Insertion in Anesthetized Intubated Patient (United States)

    Sahu, Sandeep; Kishore, Kamal; Sachan, Vertika; Chatterjee, Arnidam


    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement in anesthetized and intubated is sometimes very challenging with more than 50% failure rate in the first attempt. We describe a newer innovative Sahu's three in one, technique with use of GlideScope and forward placement of intubated trachea by external laryngeal maneuver, these both techniques lead to separation of trachea from esophagus so that endoscopic jejunal feeding tube guide wire strengthen NGT can be guided and manipulated to esophagus under direct vision. After informed consent, we used Sahu's three in one combo technique to insert NGT in adult anesthetized and intubated patients of both the sexes with high success in the first attempt. We found this technique easy, helpful, less time consuming with high success rate.

  18. Increasing rate of middle ear ventilation tube insertion in children in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;


    ear ventilation tube insertion performed in Denmark in the period were identified. A possible change in incidence rate over time was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 502,569 uni- or bilateral...... in incidence rate was found in 1-year-olds with an annual increase of 4.5% (95% confidence interval 4.4-4.6%). Age-specific incidence rates remained at maximum around the age of 14 months throughout the period. The cumulative incidence proportion for the 2010 birth cohort by the time they reach the age of 5...

  19. Thermal performance enhancement in tubes using helically twisted tape with alternate axis inserts (United States)

    Yongsiri, K.; Thianpong, C.; Nanan, K.; Eiamsa-ard, S.


    This article presents an investigation on heat transfer enhancement in a round tube inserted with a helically twisted tape. The effects of a helically twisted tape with alternate axis (HTT-A) on heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal performance factor behaviours are reported for the turbulent regime. HTT-A geometries are tape pitch to tube diameter, P/D = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0; alternate length to pitch length, l/P = 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0; twisted length to tape width, y/W = 3.0; and tape width to tube diameter, w/D = 0.2. The experiment has been performed by varying the volumetric air flow rate in order to adjust Reynolds number ranging from 6 000 to 20 000. The wall of the testing tube is uniformly heated as a constant heat flux while the tests are covered with thermal insulations to reduce heat loss to surroundings. Thermal performance is evaluated by comparing the present experimental results with the results of the modified HTT-A and also those obtained from previous study (conventional helically twisted tape, HTT). The thermal performance of tested tube with HTT-A is evaluated to obtain the degree of heat transfer enhancement and friction factor induced by HTT-A with respect to the plain tube under the same test conditions. Evenly, it is interesting to observe that the tube with HTT-A consistently possesses higher heat transfer and thermal performance factor than those with the HTT around 14.1% and 1.9%, respectively. The HTT-A with the smaller pitch ratio and adjacent twist length provides higher heat transfer rate and friction factor than the one with larger pitch ratio and alternate length as a result of a larger contact surface area, stronger swirl intensity and, thus, better fluid mixing near the tube wall. In the range determined, the tubes with the largest pitch ratio ( P/D = 2.0) and smallest alternate length ( l/P = 1.0) give the highest thermal performance factor at around 1.35. In addition, the empirical correlations of the Nusselt number, friction

  20. J-tube technique for double-j stent insertion during laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgical procedures. (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jung Keun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook


    Double-J stent insertion has been generally performed during laparoscopic upper urinary tract (UUT) surgical procedures to prevent transient urinary tract obstruction and postoperative flank pain from ureteral edema and blood clots. Several restrictive conditions that make this procedure difficult and time consuming, however, include the coiled distal ends of the flexible Double-J stent and the limited bending angle of the laparoscopic instruments. To overcome these limitations, we devised a Double-J stent insertion method using the new J-tube technique. Between July 2011 and May 2013, Double-J stents were inserted using the J-tube technique in 33 patients who underwent a laparoscopic UUT surgical procedure by a single surgeon. The mean stent placement time was 4.8±2.7 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. In conclusion, the J-tube technique is a safe and time-saving method for Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic surgical procedures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Considerable uncertainty and controversies exists regarding the surgical treatment options of Otitis media with effusion (OME. As untreated or improperly treated longstanding OME causes problems in social and intellectual behavior in children, it is of great public health importance. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of myringotomy with that of myringotomy with venti lation tube (VT insertion as treatment of OME and to find out long - term sequlae of VT insertion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Tertiary care hospital level prospective follow - up study was conducted in 50 children of 3 to 10 years of age with history of OME and a denoid hypertrophy. They were randomly divided into two groups. All children had adenoidectomy and along with that one group had myringotomy and other group underwent myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. The patients’ characteristics were prospectively recorded during the study period of one year starting from January 2013. Results were analyzed. There is significant improvement in hearing in myringotomised children than those with ventilation tube insertion. (Student t test, p<0. 05 and t ympanic membrane appear more towards normalcy (Fisher’s exact test, p<0. 05 in those children after one year. CONCLUSION: The insertion of ventilation tube after myringotomy has not much beneficial effects on hearing in long - term. Ventilation tubes also c ause pathological changes in the tympanic membrane such as tympanosclerosis and perforation.

  2. A Heuristic Force Model for Haptic Simulation of Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using Fuzzy Logic. (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xue-Jian; Chiang, Vico C L; Deng, Zhaohong; Qin, Jing


    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is an essential clinical skill. The training is conventionally performed on rubber mannequins albeit practical limitations. Computer simulation with haptic feedback can potentially offer a more realistic and accessible training method. However, the complex interactions between the tube and the nasogastric passage make it difficult to model the haptic feedback during NGT placement. In this paper, a fuzzy-logic-based approach is proposed to directly transfer the experience of clinicians in NGT placement into the simulation system. Based on their perception of the varying tactile sensation and the conditions during NGT placement, the membership functions and fuzzy rules are defined to develop the force model. Forces created using the model are then combined with friction forces to drive the haptic device and render the insertion forces in real time. A prototype simulator is developed based on the proposed force model and the implementation details are presented. The usability of the prototype is also evaluated by clinical teachers. The proposed methodology has the potential for developing computerized NGT placement training methods for clinical education. It is also applicable for simulation systems involving complicated force interactions or computation-expensive models.

  3. Airway management using laryngeal mask airway in insertion of the Montgomery tracheal tube for subglottic stenosis -A case report-. (United States)

    Park, Jung Sun; Kwon, Young-Suk; Lee, Sangseock; Yon, Jun Heum; Kim, Dong Won


    The Montgomery tracheal tube (T-tube) is a device used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty for patients with tracheal stenosis. This device can present various challenges to anesthesiologists during its placement, including the potential for acute loss of the airway, inadequate administration of inhalation agents, and inadequacy of controlled mechanical ventilation. The present case of successful airway management used a laryngeal mask airway under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil in the insertion of a Montgomery T-tube in a tracheal resection and thyrotracheal anastomosis because of severe subglottic stenosis.

  4. Fabrication of flexible photonic crystal using alumina ball inserted Teflon tube (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Hotta, Takehiro; Sato, Hisashi


    In our previous paper, it was found that cotton yarn/TiO2-dispersed resin photonic crystals were fabricated successfully by applying textile technology. However, it is difficult to apply for practical use because these photonic crystals cannot change their shape flexibly. In this study, we fabricate the flexible photonic crystals using high-dielectric constant fibers. The high-dielectric constant fibers were made by inserting alumina balls into Teflon tubes. The crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric and multilayered woven fabric with an fcc lattice structure were structured by aligning high-dielectric constant fibers periodically. These photonic crystals consist of air and high-dielectric constant fibers. The attenuation of transmission amplitude through the photonic crystals was measured. The photonic crystal of crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric exhibits a forbidden gap in the range from 16 to 18 GHz range. On the other hand, the photonic crystal of multilayered woven fabric, which was fabricated by the same parameter with crossed linear-fiber laminated fabric, also exhibits a forbidden gap in the range from 13 to 16 GHz range. Thus, we can successfully fabricate flexible photonic crystals of woven fabric using high-dielectric constant fibers.

  5. Visualization of oscillating flow in a double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator with a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube (United States)

    Shiraishi, Masao; Murakami, Masahide


    The double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator that has a diaphragm inserted in a bypass-tube, which enabled it to transmit a pressure oscillation whereas to obstruct a DC gas flow, was manufactured and tested. The oscillating flow behavior inside of the refrigerator was studied by using a smoke-wire flow visualization technique. It was found that if the diaphragm was optimized, the performance would be improved more than that of the refrigerator with a bypass valve due to the increase in the P-V work of the gas and the decrease in the convective heat loss caused by a secondary flow.

  6. Heat transfer enhancement in smooth tube with wire coil insert in laminar and transitional non-newtonian flow


    García Pinar, Alberto; Solano Fernández, Juan Pedro; Viedma Robles, Antonio; Martínez Hernández, David Sebastián


    This work presents an experimental study on the heat transfer enhancement by means of a tube with wire-coil insert,for non-Newtonian laminar and transitional flow. The dimensionless pitch and wire diameter (based on the plain tube inner diameter) were chosen as p/D= 1 and e/D=0.09. Two pseudoplastic test fluids have been used: 1% by weight aqueous solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with high viscosity and medium viscosity. A wide range of flow conditions has been covered: Reynolds ...

  7. The chest tube inserted into the stomach after a transthoracic operation for esophageal cancer:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-li; ZHA Yu-xin; LI Ren-yuan; NI Yi-ming; LUO Wen-zong


    @@ Surgical complications after the transthoracic operation for esophageal cancer mainly include anastomatic fistula, thoraco-stomach fistula, stenosis of anastomosis,gastric perforation, gastric volvulus, diaphragmatic hernia,wound infection, and some other pulmonary complications. Unfortunately, there are few reports about the complications caused by position change of the chest tube until now. We presented an unusual case of a patient who underwent a transthoracic operation for esophageal cancer in our department on August 17, 2006, and a lot of intragastric material was found in his chest tube 17 days later, endoscopic examination suggested that the chest tube had inserted into the stomach. We tried to discuss the etiology and clinical management for this case as well.

  8. Comparing insertion characteristics on nasogastric tube placement by using GlideScopeTM visualization vs. MacIntosh laryngoscope assistance in anaesthetized and intubated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hafsah Wan Ibadullah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: This was a prospective, randomized clinical study to compare the success rate of nasogastric tube insertion by using GlideScopeTM visualization versus direct MacIntosh laryngoscope assistance in anesthetized and intubated patients. Methods: Ninety-six ASA I or II patients, aged 18-70 years were recruited and randomized into two groups using either technique. The time taken from insertion of the nasogastric tube from the nostril until the calculated length of tube had been inserted was recorded. The success rate of nasogastric tube insertion was evaluated in terms of successful insertion in the first attempt. Complications associated with the insertion techniques were recorded. Results: The results showed success rates of 74.5% in the GlideScopeTM Group as compared to 58.3% in the MacIntosh Group (p = 0.10. For the failed attempts, the nasogastric tube was successfully inserted in all cases using rescue techniques. The duration taken in the first attempt for both techniques was not statistically significant; Group A was 17.2 ± 9.3 s as compared to Group B, with a duration of 18.9 ± 13.0 s (p = 0.57. A total of 33 patients developed complications during insertion of the nasogastric tube, 39.4% in Group A and 60.6% in Group B (p = 0.15. The most common complications, which occurred, were coiling, followed by bleeding and kinking. Conclusion: This study showed that using the GlideScopeTM to facilitate nasogastric tube insertion was comparable to the use of the MacIntosh laryngoscope in terms of successful rate of insertion and complications.

  9. Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy for refractory glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M Kolomeyer


    Conclusions: Pars plana Baerveldt tube implantation with PPV can preserve vision, reduce IOP, and decrease the number of glaucoma medications necessary to achieve target IOP in patients with recalcitrant glaucoma.

  10. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop of turbulent flow inside tube with inserted helical coils (United States)

    Sharafeldeen, M. A.; Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M. A.; Ali, R. K.


    The heat transfer and pressure drop were experimentally investigated in a coiled wire inserted tube in turbulent flow regime in the range of Reynolds number of 14,400 ≤ Re ≤ 42,900. The present work aims to extend the experimental data available on wire coil inserts to cover wire diameter ratio of 0.044 ≤ e/d ≤ 0.133 and coil pitch ratio of 1 ≤ p/d ≤ 5. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as fluid. The effects of Reynolds number and wire diameter and coil pitch ratios on the Nusselt number and friction factor were studied. The enhancement efficiency and performance criteria ranges are of (46.9-82.6 %) and (100.1-128 %) within the investigated range of the different parameters, respectively. Correlations are obtained for the average Nusselt number and friction factor utilizing the present measurements within the investigated range of geometrical parameters and Re. The maximum deviation between correlated and experimental values for Nusselt number and friction factor are ±5 and ±6 %, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshith Thomas


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & METHODS This study was conducted to determine and compare the pressor responses associated with insertion of a laryngeal mask airway with endotracheal tube during elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia in paediatric patients. 64 patients of age between 2-12 years weighing between 10–40 kg, belonging to ASA grade I and II, scheduled for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia were included in the study. Patients belonging to ASA grade III and IV, those scheduled for emergency surgeries and patients with anticipated difficult airway were excluded from the study. The patients were randomised into two groups of 32 each, by computer generated software. For patients in group-L, airway was secured with laryngeal mask airway. Patients in group-E, airway was secured with endotracheal tube. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and SpO2 were recorded just before induction and subsequently at 1, 3, 5 & 10 minutes. Mean heart rate increase at 1, 3 & 5 minutes was much less when compared to Group-E (p=significant. Mean systolic blood pressure of Group-L is significantly less at 1, 3, 5 & 10 minutes than that of Group-E (p=significant. Mean diastolic blood pressure of Group-L is significantly less at 1, 3 & 10 minutes compared to Group-E (p=significant. RESULTS & CONCLUSION Complications like sore throat, blood staining and coughing at the end of the procedure were seen less in Group-L than in group-E. In this study, we concluded that the pressor responses were less with LMA than with endotracheal tube. Based on our conclusion, we can say that LMA can be used as an alternative to endotracheal tube in maintaining an intact airway under general anaesthesia.

  12. Chest Tube Insertion in the Delayed Esophageal Perforation Phenomenon: A Tragic or Beneficial Outcome? (United States)

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Sokouti, Masoud; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad-Hossein


    A 53-year-old woman with foreign body esophageal perforation, was first misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. In referral hospital her chest computed tomography was reported as giant hiatal hernia or giant pulmonary abscess. She was treated for abscess, after several days, right hemithorax tube thoracostomy was performed. After that, she developed necrotizing fasciitis on the chest wall. After a 19-day delay, we found a 5-cm mid-thoracic esophageal tearing during thoracotomy and repaired it. After 2 years follow up the patient condition is good. This report describes a unique case of mid-thoracic foreign body esophageal perforation and rupture with a delay in diagnosis with a tragic course.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar


    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube and fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments were conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of particle volume concentration of , and twisted tape twist ratios of . The nanofluid heat transfer coefficient is high compared to water and further heat transfer enhancement is observed with twisted tape inserts. The pressure drop increases slightly with the inserts, but is comparatively negligible. A generalized regression equation is developed based on the experimental data for the estimation of the Nusselt number and friction factor for water and nanofluid in a plain tube and with twisted tape inserts.

  14. Outcomes of upper airway reconstructive surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome based on polysomnography after nasopharyngeal tube insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-hua; WU Da-hai; BAO Ji-min; SHI Hong-jin


    Background The most common obstruction sites for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) are the oropharynx and the glossopharyx.The diagnosis of glossopharyngeal airway obstruction is difficult.The study aimed to assess the effect of upper airway reconstructive surgery for OSAHS based on polysomnography (PSG) after nasopharyngeal tube insertion (NPT-PSG),and to evaluate the clinical value of NPT-PSG in localizing the obstructive sites.Methods Seventy-nine OSAHS patients diagnosed with PSG were included in the study.PSG was repeated with a nasopharyngeal tube in place (NPT-PSG).Results of the two PSGs were compared.A NPT-PSG apnea hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 15 times per hour was used as a threshold for glossopharyngeal surgery.The cause of glossopharyngeal airway obstruction was taken into consideration in planning glossopharyngeal surgery.Assessment of efficacy was followed-up.Results After NPT-PSG,patients' AHI significantly decreased and lowest oxygen saturation (LaSO2) significantly increased.Of the 79 patients,47 were treated with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) alone and 32 with UPPP + glossopharyngeal surgery.Thirty-two patients were considered cured,33 markedly improved,and 14 failed.The overall surgery success rate was 82.3%.Conclusions NPT-PSG can be used as a diagnosis tool for localizing airway obstruction in OSAHS patients.Surgical treatment based on NPT-PSG results in good treatment efficacy.

  15. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Convection-Condensation of Vapor with High Concentration Air in Tube with Inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔永章; 田茂诚; 张林华; 李广鹏; 朱建宾


    A three-dimensional numerical model is presented for studying the convection-condensation of mixture with vapor in a tube with edgefold-twisted-tape inserts under transition flow.According to the diffusion layer theory and laminar species transport,a condensation model with user defined function is proposed and compared with heat and mass transfer analogy and experimental test.With the condensation model,the influences of gap width and op-erating parameters on thermal-hydrodynamics performance are simulated.As the gap width increases,convection and condensation heat transfer increase initially and then decrease,while convection heat transfer increases sharply and then decreases slightly.Increasing vapor fraction has a significant effect on condensation heat transfer but it has little effect on convective heat transfer.With the increase of inner wall temperature both convection and condensa-tion heat transfer all decrease and the ratio of condensation to total heat decrease dramatically.Increases inlet tem-perature mainly affects convection heat transfer.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement of laminar nanofluids flow in a circular tube fitted with parabolic-cut twisted tape inserts. (United States)

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar


    Numerical investigation has been carried out on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of copper-water nanofluid flow in a constant heat-fluxed tube with the existence of new configuration of vortex generator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two types of swirl flow generator: Classical twisted tape (CTT) and Parabolic-cut twisted tape (PCT) with a different twist ratio (y = 2.93, 3.91 and 4.89) and different cut depth (w = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) with 2% and 4% volume concentration of CuO nanofluid were used for simulation. The effect of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, twist ratio, cut depth and nanofluid were considered. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate and the friction factor induced by the Classical (CTT) and Parabolic-cut (PCT) inserts increases with twist ratio and cut depth decreases. The results also revealed that the heat transfer enhancement increases with an increase in the volume fraction of the CuO nanoparticle. Furthermore, the twisted tape with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered 10% enhancement of the average Nusselt number with significant increases in friction factor than those of Classical twisted tape.

  17. Bleb incarceration following Ahmed valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross FJ


    Full Text Available Fredric J Gross, Giovanni DiSandro Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Globe luxation is a painful and potentially vision-threatening condition in which the globe becomes trapped behind the eyelids requiring physician intervention in the emergency department or eye clinic. On presentation, the patient typically complains of an inability to close their eye, severe foreign body sensation, decreased vision, and significant eye pain. Although most visual symptoms are reversible and primarily result from exposure keratopathy, optic nerve damage, and permanent vision loss can occur from repeat or prolonged episodes of globe luxation. Risk factors include any congenital or acquired conditions that displace the globe anteriorly in the orbit and increased eyelid laxity that allows the globe to prolapse through the lid aperture. Typically, the precipitating event involves eyelid retraction during ophthalmic examination or an event that increases intraorbital pressure such as coughing or sneezing. Once the globe has luxated, the condition is typically worsened by blepharospasm and patients’ attempts to close the eye that worsen the entrapment. In the current case, the patient had a large superotemporal filtering bleb following Ahmed valve surgery for uncontrolled glaucoma. While instilling her glaucoma medication, she retracted her eyelids sufficiently to pull the upper lid over her filtering bleb where it became entrapped causing a similar presentation to globe luxation. Traditional methods of repositioning the globe were unsuccessful. Bleb needling was ultimately required to return the globe to a normal position. Keywords: luxation, globe, glaucoma

  18. Different method regarding stomach tube insertion effect contrastive analysis%不同方法对于胃管插入效果的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨不同方法对于胃管插入效果的比较.方法:选取我院2007年9月~2010年7月收治的120例需插胃管鼻饲患者的临床资料,随机分为治疗组(60例)和对照组(60例),对照组患者采用经口腔插入胃管,治疗组患者经鼻腔插入胃管,比较两组患者插管过程中恶心、呕吐发生率,插管次数及食管损伤情况.结果:治疗组患者插管成功率高,恶心、呕吐、食管损伤发生率低,与对照组患者比较差异有统计学意义(p<0.05).结论:经鼻腔插管能有效避免不良反应的发生,降低患者的不适程度,效果满意,值得在临床推广.%Goal: Discusses the different method regarding the stomach tube insertion effect comparison. Method: Selects 120 examples which my courtyard in September, 2007 ~2010 year in July admits to insert the stomach tube nasal feeding patient's clinical material, divides into the treatment group stochastically (60 examples) and the control group (60 examples), the control group patients use after the oral cavity insertion stomach tube, the treatment group patients after the nasal cavity insertion stomach tube, inserts a tube in the process compared with two group of patients disgusting, the vomitive formation rate, the intubation number of times and the esophagus damage situation. Finally: The treatment group patients insert a tube the success ratio to be high, disgusting, the vomit, the esophagus damage formation rate are low, compares the difference with the control group patients to have statistics significance (p <0.05). Conclusion: Can avoid the untoward effect effectively after the nasal cavity intubation the occurrence, reduces patient's ill degree, the effect is satisfied, is worth in clinical promoting.

  19. Ear tube insertion (United States)

    Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ. Otitis externa, otitis media, and mastoiditis. In: Klein JO, ed. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Nasogastric feeding tubes from a neonatal department yield high concentrations of potentially pathogenic bacteria- even 1 d after insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sandra Meinich; Greisen, Gorm; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki


    probiotic administration through the tube. RESULTS: Out of the 94 NG-tubes, 89% yielded more than 1,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml bacteria, and 55% yielded the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Staphylococcus aureus. The mean concentration in the yield was 5.3 (SD: 2.1, maximum 9.4) log10......BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are vulnerable to pathogens and at risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis. Nasogastric feeding tubes (NG-tubes) might contaminate feeds given through them due to biofilm formation. We wanted to determine if there is a rationale in replacing NG-tubes...... more often to reduce contamination. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of used NG-tubes from a tertiary neonatal department. After removal, we flushed a 1-ml saline solution through the tube, determined the density of bacteria by culture, and related it to the duration of use and any...

  1. A comparison of intraocular pressure and hemodynamic responses to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube using anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and hemodynamic responses following insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA or endotracheal tube (ETT after anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil in cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled study, 50 adults scheduled for elective cataract extraction procedure under general anesthesia were allocated to LMA insertion (n = 25 or ETT (n = 25 groups. IOP, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and heart rate (HR were measured after insertion of the airway device every minute up to 5 min. Results: There were no significant differences between LMA and ETT groups in SBP, DBP, HR, and IOP immediately after airway instrumentation up to 5 min, except in 4th min in DBP, 2nd min in HR, and 5th min in IOP (7.9 ± 2.3 mmHg in LMA and 9.4 ± 2.5 mmHg in ETT group; P = 0.030. There was good surgeon satisfaction for providing acceptable surgical field in both groups (88% in LMA and 80% in ETT group; P = 0.702. Conclusion: Propofol combined with remifentanil provides good and excellent conditions for insertion of LMA or ETT with minimal hemodynamic disturbances in cataract surgery. Considering LMA insertion is less traumatic than ETT, using LMA may be better than ETT for airway securing in these patients.

  2. Perfusion index versus non-invasive hemodynamic parameters during insertion of i-gel, classic laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam M Atef


    Full Text Available Background: Perfusion index (PI is a non-invasive numerical value of peripheral perfusion obtained from a pulse oximeter. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PI for detecting haemodynamic stress responses to insertion of i-gel, laryngeal mask airway (LMA and endotracheal tube and compare, its reliability with the conventional haemodynamic criteria in adults during general anaesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for elective general surgery under general anaesthesia were randomised to three groups. (i-gel, LMA and ET groups ( n=20/group. Heart rate (HR (positive if ≥10 bpm, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP (positive if ≥15 mm Hg and PI (positive if ≤10% were monitored for 5 min after insertion. Main outcome measures: SBP, DBP, HR and PI were measured before induction of anaesthesia and before and after insertion of the airway device. Results: Insertion of airway devices produced significant increases in HR, SBP and DBP in LMA and ET groups. Moreover, PI was decreased significantly by 40%, 100% and 100% in the three groups. Using the PI criterion, the sensitivity was 100% (CI 82.4-100.0%. Regarding the SBP and DBP criterions, the sensitivity was 44.4% (CI 24.6-66.3%, 55.6% (CI 33.7-75.4% respectively. Also, significant change in the mean PI over time (from pre-insertion value to the 1 st min, 3 rd min, until the 4 th min after insertion without regard the device type, ( P<0.001. Conclusion: PI is a reliable and easier alternative to conventional haemodynamic criteria for detection of stress response to insertion of i-gel, LMA and ET during propofol fentanyl isoflurane anaesthesia in adult patients.

  3. 2种胃管置入术对新生儿疼痛反应的比较研究%Comparison of two different gastric tube insertion methods on neonatal pain response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 陈娟娟; 朱明; 夏艳; 赵武


    目的 比较2种不同方式胃管置入术对新生儿疼痛反应的影响.方法 将2010年4~7月新生儿科需要行胃管置入术的47例新生儿随机分为经鼻胃管置入组28例和经口胃管置入组19例,比较2组新生儿疼痛评分及胃管置入过程中并发症的发生率.结果 经鼻胃管置入组疼痛评分的平均秩次显著高于经口胃管置入组,经鼻胃管置入组疼痛发生率明显高于经口胃管置入组,且并发症发生率明显高于经口胃管置人组.结论 经口置入胃管对新生儿疼痛反应影响小,并发症少,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To compare two different gastric tube insertion methods on neonatal pain responae.Methods From April to July 2010,47 neonatal patients underwent gastric tube insertion in the neonatal department of our hospital were randomly classified into two groups:the nasal gastric tube insertion group(28 cases) and the oral gastric tube insertion group( 19 cases).Neonatal pain score and incidence of complications during gastric tube insertion between both groups were compared.Results The mean rank of pain scores were significantly higher in the nasal gastric tube insertion group than in the oral gastric tube insertion group.The incidence of pain and complications were higher in the nasal gastric tube insertion group than in the oral gastric tube insertion group.Conclusions The impact of oral gastric tube insertion on neonatal pain response is not significant,and few complications occur during oral gastric tube insertion,so it is worthy of clinical application.

  4. Experimental investigation on thermo-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT-water nanofluid flow inside horizontal coiled wire inserted tubes (United States)

    Akhavan-Behabadi, M. A.; Shahidi, Mohamad; Aligoodarz, M. R.; Ghazvini, Mohammad


    The present study is aimed to measure and analyze the thermo-physical properties and overall performance of MWCNT-water nanofluid in turbulent flow regimes under constant heat flux conditions inside horizontal coiled wire inserted tubes. For this purpose, stable MWCNT-water nanofluids with different particle weight fractions of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 % as well as deionized water were utilized as the working fluids. It was found that the existing theoretical models could not predict the thermo-physical property values accurately, especially in case of specific heat capacity. Therefore, new empirical correlations are presented based on the obtained experimental results to predict such properties for the nanofluids. In addition, the overall performance of heat transfer techniques considered in this paper was evaluated based on thermal performance factor. The results revealed that thermal performance factor for all cases are greater than unity which indicate that simultaneous usage of nanofluids and wire coil inserts enhances the heat transfer without huge penalty in pumping power. Hence, using nanofluids as the working fluid in combination with coiled wire inserted tubes can be considered for some practical applications.

  5. [Use of a metal guide in the working channel of a fiberoptic scope to insert a tracheal tube in an infant with Treacher Collins syndrome and choanal atresia]. (United States)

    Rodríguez Conesa, A M; Etxániz Alvarez, A; Rey Calvete, A M; Pérez Gil, J; Nieto Mouronte, C M


    Neonates with Treacher Collins syndrome can present difficult airways. Ventilation through a face mask and laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation may prove impossible due to the craniofacial malformations that are characteristic of this syndrome. Furthermore, patients with this syndrome are at high risk of airway obstruction, meaning that awake fiberoptic endoscopy provides the best option for tracheal intubation. This technique is especially difficult in children, however, and material required for performing it in neonates is not always available. We report the case of a 5-day-old infant boy with Treacher Collins syndrome and bilateral choanal atresia in whom we used a flexible metal guide inserted into the working channel of a fiberoptic scope. The tracheal tube could then be inserted.

  6. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope. (United States)

    El-Tahan, Mohamed; Doyle, D John; Khidr, Alaa M; Hassieb, Ahmed G


    We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) using a non-channeled standard blade of the King Vision (TM) videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV) in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision (™) videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV.

  7. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope (United States)

    El-Tahan, Mohamed; Doyle, D. John; Khidr, Alaa M; Hassieb, Ahmed G


    We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT) using a non-channeled standard blade of the King Vision TM videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV) in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision ™ videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV. PMID:25309730

  8. Flow topology, heat transfer characteristic and thermal performance in a circular tube heat exchanger inserted with punched delta winglet vortex generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonloi, Amnart [College of Industrial Technology, Bangkok (Thailand); Jedsadaratanachai, Withada [Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)


    To improve the heat transfer rate and thermal performance, the punched delta winglet vortex generators, DWVGs, were inserted in the middle of the circular tube heat exchanger. The effects of the flow attack angles and the flow directions were investigated numerically for the Reynolds number Re = 100 – 2000. The finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm were used to study. The results are reported in terms of the flow structure, heat transfer behavior and thermal performance evaluation and also compared with the smooth tube with no vortex generators. As the numerical results, the use of the DWVGs in the tube can improve the heat transfer rate and thermal performance by creating the vortex flow through the tested section. The rise of the flow attack angle results in the increasing strength of the vortex flows. The flow attack angle of 25 .deg. performs the highest heat transfer rate and thermal performance, while the flow attack angle of 0 .deg. gives the reversed results. The computational results reveal that the optimum thermal enhancement factor is around 2.80 at Re = 2000, α = 25 .deg., with the winglet tip pointing downstream. The correlations on both the Nusselt number ratio and friction factor ratio for the DWVG in the tube heat exchanger are presented.

  9. Measurement of fluid flow by means of pressure differential devices inserted in circular cross-section conduits running full -- Part 4: Venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva


    ISO 5167-4:2003 specifies the geometry and method of use (installation and operating conditions) of Venturi tubes when they are inserted in a conduit running full to determine the flowrate of the fluid flowing in the conduit. ISO 5167-4:2003 also provides background information for calculating the flow-rate and is applicable in conjunction with the requirements given in ISO 5167-1. ISO 5167-4:2003 is applicable only to Venturi tubes in which the flow remains subsonic throughout the measuring section and where the fluid can be considered as single-phase. In addition, each of these devices can only be used within specified limits of pipe size, roughness, diameter ratio and Reynolds number. ISO 5167-4:2003 is not applicable to the measurement of pulsating flow. It does not cover the use of Venturi tubes in pipes sized less than 50 mm or more than 1 200 mm, or for where the pipe Reynolds numbers are below 20 000. ISO 5167-4:2003 deals with the three types of classical Venturi tubes: cast, machined and rough welde...

  10. Risk of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrotrostomy (PEG tube insertion under antiplatelet therapy: a systematic review with a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo


    Full Text Available Background and aim: Patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tube placement often are under antiplatelet therapy with a potential thromboembolic risk if these medications are discontinued. This systematic review aims to assess if maintaining aspirin and/or clopidogrel treatment increases the risk of bleeding following PEG placement. Methods: A systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases was developed for studies investigating the risk of bleeding in patients on antiplatelet therapy undergoing PEG tube insertion. Summary estimates, including 95 % confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. A fixed or random effects model was used depending on heterogeneity (I². Publication bias risks were assessed by means of funnel plot analysis. Results: Eleven studies with a total of 6,233 patients (among whom 3,665 were undergoing antiplatelet treatment, met the inclusion criteria and were included in the quantitative summary. Any PEG tube placement-related bleeding was found in 2.67 % (95 % CI 1.66 %, 3.91 % of the entire population and in 2.7 % (95 % CI 1.5 %, 4.1 % of patients not receiving antiplatelet therapy. Pooled relative risk (RR for bleeding in patients under aspirin, when compared to controls, was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.89, 2.29; I² = 0 %; pooled RR for clopidogrel was 1.21 (95 % CI 0.48, 3.04; I² = 0 % and for dual antiplatelet therapy, 2.13; (95 % CI 0.77, 5.91; I² = 47 %. No significant publication bias was evident for the different medications analyzed. Conclusion: Antiplatelet therapy was safe among patients undergoing PEG tube insertion. Future prospective and randomized studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study.

  11. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts. (United States)

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar


    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.

  12. Dr Ahmed Zaky Abushady: author, beekeeper, doctor and poet. (United States)

    Wright, David


    Ahmed Zaky Abushady, (1892-1955) was an author, beekeeper, doctor and poet. This paper follows his life from his upbringing in Egypt and his time as a medical student in England to his later life as a pathologist working in Alexandria and Cairo and finally his years in the United States of America. It emphasises his contributions in several fields not directly related to medicine and looks at his continuing influence.

  13. Application of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion in the hearing rehabilitation of children with secretory otitis media%鼓膜切开置管术在儿童分泌性中耳炎听力康复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗英章; 步桂清; 张秀者; 荣宏; 张勋


    AIM: To study the role of the myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion inthe hearing rehabilitation of the children with secretory otitis media(SOM).METHODS: Myringotomy and ventilation tube insertions were performed in56 children with chronic SOM. RESULTS: The pure-tone threshold average(PTA) of six months after operation in 50 cases(91 ears) was improvedsignificantly compared with the preoperative PTA( P < 0. 01 ). The effectiverate of myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion was 92. 3%. CONCLU-SION: As a therapeutic method in the hearing rehabilitation of the childrenwith chronic SOM, the myringotomy and veptilation tube insertion should beused as primary surgical therapy.

  14. [Some medical documents written by Ahmed Cevdet Pasha]. (United States)

    Izgoer, A Z


    The assumption that civilization was originated in the East, was one of the most important points emphasized by the intelligentsia of the late Ottoman reign. This conviction was appreciated in the thought of Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1823 - 1895), a famous figure of the period. Cevdet Pasha, who believed that the source of science and education was started in the East, claimed that Europe was acquainted with Islamic science during the Crusades. In this paper Cevdet Pasha's ideas related with small-pox, cholera, plague, poisons and microbes are mentioned. This study is based on Cevdet Pasha's documents related with these subjects; and the transcriptions of the texts are given.

  15. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube. (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Fackler, Cameron J; Berger, Elliott H; Shaw, Peter B; Stergar, Mike


    Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL) was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF). Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB), 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs ® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL.

  16. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Murphy


    Full Text Available Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF. Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB, 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs ® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL.

  17. The Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Neovascular Glaucoma (An AOS Thesis) (United States)

    Netland, Peter A.


    Purpose: To evaluate the results of Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery in neovascular glaucoma and control patients. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, we reviewed 76 eyes of 76 patients, comparing the surgical outcomes in control patients (N=38) to matched neovascular glaucoma patients (N=38). Success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 mm Hg and ≤21 mm Hg, without further glaucoma surgery, and without loss of light perception. Results: Average follow-up for control and neovascular glaucoma patients was 18.4 and 17.4 months, respectively (P = .550). At last follow-up, mean IOP was 16.2 ± 5.2 mm Hg and 15.5 ± 12.5 mm Hg (P = .115) in control and neovascular glaucoma patients, respectively. Life-table analysis showed a significantly lower success for neovascular glaucoma patients compared with controls (P = .0096), with success at 1 year of 89.2% and 73.1%, at 2 years of 81.8% and 61.9%, and at 5 years of 81.8% and 20.6% for control and neovascular glaucoma eyes, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed neovascular glaucoma as a risk factor for surgical failure (odds ratio, 5.384, 95% CI, 1.22–23.84, P = .027). Although IOP control and complications were comparable between the two groups, visual outcomes were worse in neovascular glaucoma patients, with 9 eyes (23.7%) with neovascular glaucoma compared with no controls losing light perception vision (P = .002). The majority with loss of vision (5 of 9) had successful control of IOP during the postoperative period. Conclusion: Neovascular glaucoma patients have greater risk of surgical failure after Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery compared with controls. Despite improved mean IOP with drainage implants, visual outcomes may be poor, possibly due to progression of underlying disease. PMID:20126506

  18. PICC Seldinger technique and traditional tube insertion.we Used to compare%Seldinger技术与传统PICC置管术应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:比较超声实时引导下改良Seldinger技术与传统经外周静脉穿刺置入中心静脉导管(PICC)置管术在肿瘤患者中的应用效果。方法:将116例拟实施PICC置管化疗的肺癌患者随机分为观察组(58例)和对照组(58例),观察组是采用超声实时引导下的改良Seldinger技术穿刺置管,对照组采用传统方法置管。结果:观察组和对照组的一次性穿刺成功率、一次置管成功率、机械性静脉炎和血栓形成比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),但在穿刺点渗血方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:超声实时引导下改良Seldinger技术行PICC置管一次成功率高,并发症少,值得在肿瘤患者化疗中进行推广。%purpose:to compare the ultrasonic guided by real-time modified Seldinger technique and traditional via peripheral venous puncture in central venous catheter (PICC) tube insertion.we application effect in cancer patients.Methods:116 cases of quasi implementation of PICC catheter chemotherapy in lung cancer patients were randomly divided into observation group (58 cases) and control group (58 cases),the observation group USES the modified Seldinger technique guided by ultrasound real-time,tube control group using traditional methods.Results:the observation group and control group of one-time success rate of puncture,a success rate of catheter,mechanical phlebitis thrombosis and comparative differences are statistically significant (P0.05).Conclusion:ultrasound guided by real-time modified Seldinger technique line of PICC catheter into a high power,fewer complications,is worth popularizing in cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Evaluation of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel in Mexican children with glaucoma (United States)

    Albis-Donado, Oscar; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Romero-Quijada, Rafael; Thomas, Ravi


    Purpose: To evaluate the results and extrusion rates of the Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation through a needle-generated scleral tunnel, without a tube-covering patch, in children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the charts of 106 Mexican children implanted with 128 AGVs operated between 1994 and 2002, with the needle track technique, at our institution, with at least six months follow up was done. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) control, tube extrusions or exposure and other complications. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a 96.9% survival rate at six months, 82.4% at one year, 78.7% at two years, 70% at three years and 41.6% at four years. Total success at the last follow-up (IOP between 6 and 21 mm Hg without medications) was achieved in 30 eyes (23.5%), 58 eyes (45.3%) had qualified success (only topical hypotensive drugs) and 40 eyes (31.3%) were failures. The mean pre- and post-operative IOP at the last follow up was 28.4 mmHg (SD 9.3) and 14.5 mmHg (SD 6.3), respectively. No tube extrusions or exposures were observed. Tube-related complications included five retractions, a lens touch and a transitory endothelial touch. The risk of failure increased if the eye had any complication or previous glaucoma surgeries. Conclusion: Medium-term IOP control in Mexican children with glaucoma can be achieved with AGV implantation using a needle-generated tunnel, without constructing a scleral flap or using a patch to cover the tube. There were no tube extrusions, nor any tube exposures with this technique. PMID:20689189


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir KAYABAŞI


    Full Text Available Sarban Ahmed is one of poet melami sheik in the 16th century. Since his sheik İsmail Masuki died and his follow up by state, cause to slow up activity of tariqat. Sarban Ahmed use to poems that contiued to faith tariqat of disciples. He process to theme of melamet, when write to form of ottoman poetry. We look for concept of melamet to Ahmed Sarban’s poems that inside to meaning borders of ottoman poetry. Sarban Ahmed 16. yüzyıl şair Melami şeyhlerindendir. Şeyhi, İsmail Maşukî’nin tarikat inançları yüzünden öldürülmüş olması, Sarban Ahmed’in devlet otoritesi tarafından takip ediliyor olması, tarikatın yer altına çekilerek faaliyetlerini yavaşlatması sonucunu doğurmuştur. Sarban Ahmed, müritlerinin tarikat inançlarını devam ettirmek için şiirlerini kullanmıştır. Divan şiiri nazım biçimiyle yazdığı şiirlerinde melamet temasını işlemiştir. Bu çalışmada, Divan şiirinin anlam sınırları çerçevesinde Sarban Ahmed şiirlerindeki Melamilik anlayışını tespit etmeye çalıştık.

  1. 丁卡因在正颌术后患者胃管置入中的应用效果%Effects of tetracaine spray on insertion of stomach tubes after orthognathic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍琪; 魏建华; 马婕; 陈欢; 何英莲


    Objective To evaluate the effects of oropharyngeal topical anesthesia with tetracaine spray (0.1%) on the discomfort and success rate of insertion of stomach tube after orthognathic surgery.Methods Totals of 80 patients treated with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were randomly assigned into control group (n =40) and test group (n =40).Stomach tubes were inserted into stomachs of the patients with a semirecumbent position through nasal at the day after surgery.Traditional methods of inserting stomach tubes were applied in control group,while patients in test group were given topical anesthesia with 0.1% tetracaine spray to oropharyngeal before stomach tubes inserted.The operating time and primary success rate of tube insertion were recorded.Intubation pain or discomfort was observed.Results The operating time of test group was significantly shorter than that of control group (2.7 ± 0.8 min vs 4.2 ± 1.1 min,t =2.892,P < 0.01).Primary success rate of intubation of test group was significantly higher than that of control group (97.5% vs 85%,x2 =3.914,P <0.05).There was less pain or discomfort in the intubation process in test group (Z =2.660,P < 0.01).Conclusions Stomach tube insertion with 0.1% tetracaine spray topical anesthesia can alleviate pain,improve primary success rate of stomach tube insertion.%目的 观察0.1%丁卡因表面麻醉用于正颌术后患者胃管置入过程中,对置管不适的效果和一次置管成功率的影响.方法 将80例双颌接受正颌外科手术的患者采用随机数字表法分为对照组以及干预组,每组40例.两组均于术后第1天采用半卧位经鼻留置胃管,对照组用传统方法留置胃管,干预组置管前3 min应用0.1%的丁卡因给予咽腔喷雾表面麻醉,分别测量置管时间和一次性置管成功率,并对置管不适情况进行评估.结果 干预组置管时间显著短于对照组(2.7 ±0.8 min vs 4.2±1.1 min),一次性置管率高于对照组(97.5%vs 85

  2. Numerical Simulation of the Tube Inserted with Rotors -assembled Device for Heat Transfer Enhancement%换热管内转子强化换热的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震; 韩崇刚; 李锋样; 阎华; 杨卫民


    Principle of the rotors - assembled device for heat transfer enhancement and automatic cleaning was first introduced in the paper.Flow field, temperature field, pressure field and process of heat exchange were regarded to evaluate flow and heat transfer characteristics of the tube by building up 3 - D flow models of a plain tube and the tube inserted with several rotors.The comparison of simulation results showed that the three - dimensional flow in the tube inserted with rotors was very complex, with clear circular flow between rotors and the tube wall, while the tangential velocity and radial velocity increased to some extent, and the fluid inside the rotating radius flowed in a spiral way.In all, the tube inserted with rotors achieved stronger turbulence intensity than the plain tube, especially in the near- wall region.Therefore convective heat transfer was enhanced with heat transfer coefficient increased, which proved heat transfer enhancement and automatic cleaning functions of rotors.%本文概述了转子组合式强化传热装置的强化传热和自清洁原理.分别通过建立光管及内置多个转子换热管的三维流动模型,对换热管内流场、温度场、压力场以及换热过程进行了模拟,得到了管内流体的流动特性和传热特性.对比模拟结果表明,内置转子换热管管内的三维流动比较复杂,转子与管壁之间缝隙内的流体有着明显的环绕流动,切向速度和径向速度也增大到一定范围,转子旋转半径内的流体整体呈螺旋流动.总的来说,内置转子的换热管内较光管有较强的湍流度,尤其是近壁区域,因此强化了管内的对流换热,传热系数显著提高,从而验证了转子具有强化传热和自清洁的双重功能.

  3. Effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media%鼓室置管对儿童分泌性中耳炎中耳功能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛承刚; 万俐佳; 周小淳; 吴燕; 鲁海涛


    目的 探讨鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎对中耳功能的影响.方法 选取47例(58耳)临床诊断为分泌性中耳炎的患儿,分别在鼓室置管术前及术后1个月、6个月进行纯音测听、声导抗、畸变产物耳声发射(distortion product otoacoustic emission,DPOAE)检查和耳镜检查,以评估鼓室置管手术前后中耳功能的变化及术后的并发症.结果 鼓室置管术后1个月、6个月分别行耳镜和声导抗检查,均较术前听力明显提高.术后6个月与术后1个月检查结果比较,听力改变差异无统计学意义.与鼓室置管术前比较,DPOAE引出率及部分频率幅值提高,差异具有统计学意义.鼓室置管术后的并发症主要是中耳感染、分泌性中耳炎复发、鼓膜穿孔和鼓膜内陷.结论 鼓室置管治疗儿童分泌性中耳炎,应用检测纯音测听、声导抗、DPOAE和耳镜检查,了解鼓室置管术后的并发症情况,综合评价对中耳功能的影响,具有临床指导意义.%Objective To investigate the effect of tympanostomy tube insertion on the middle ear function in children with secretory otitis media ( SOM). Methods Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance , distortion product otoacoustic emission ( DPOAE) examination and otoscopy were carried out in 47 children (58 ears) with SOM before tube insertion, one month and 6 months after tube insertion respectively to evaluate the changes of middle ear function and surgical complications. Results One month and 6 months after tube insertion, hearing of children with catheter patency was significantly improved. In addition, the detection rate and amplitude of DPOAE were significantly increased. The difference of hearing 1 month and 6 months after tube insertion was statistically insignificant. Surgical and postoperative complications included middle ear infection, recurrent SOM, tympanic perforation and tympanic membrane retraction. Conclusion Pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance

  4. Numerical simulation of pressure drop characteristics in a circular tube with self-rotating twisted tape inserts%内置自旋扭带圆管内压降特性的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯振飞; 孙瑞娟; 林清宇


      为了直观地描述内置自旋扭带圆管内压降的特性,采用RNG k-ε湍流模型对内置静止扭带、自旋扭带圆管及空管的压降特性进行数值模拟研究,并进行了内置3种型号自旋扭带圆管压降特性的数值模拟和试验研究。研究表明:自旋扭带管的压力降约为空管的2倍,而静止扭带管的压力降差不多达到空管的3倍;在含有自旋扭带或静止扭带的管段内,压力沿轴线方向线性变化,与理论分析趋势一致;扭带压降(流体与自旋扭带的摩擦力引起的压力降)的理论计算值、数值结果均与试验结果比较一致;影响扭带压降的因素是流体轴向流速、扭带宽度及扭带节距;流体轴向流速增大,扭带压降也增大;扭带宽度增大,扭带压降也增大;扭带节距增大,扭带压降略有下降。%In order to visually describe the pressure drop characteristics in a circular tube with self-rotating twisted tape inserts , the RNG k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the pressure drop characteristics in a circular tube with self-rotating twisted tape , static twisted tape or none inserts . The numerical simulation and experimental study of pressure drop characteristics in a circular tube with 3 types of self-rotating twisted tape inserts were presented .The results indicated that the pres-sure drop of the tube with self-rotating twisted tape is about twice of the empty tube and the pressure drop of the tube with static twisted tape is nearly three times of the empty tube .In the section of tube with self-rotating twisted tape or static twisted tape inserts , the pressure shows a linear variation along the axial direction , which is consistent with the theoretical analysis .The theoretical and nu-merical results of pressure drop caused by friction resistance between the fluid and the twisted tape are consistent with the experimental results .The flow axial velocity , the width and the half

  5. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision™ videolaryngoscope [v3; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Tahan


    Full Text Available We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT using a non-channeled standard blade of the King VisionTM videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision™ videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision™ videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV.

  6. Case Report: Double lumen tube insertion in a morbidly obese patient through the non-channelled blade of the King Vision™ videolaryngoscope [v4; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Tahan


    Full Text Available We describe the insertion of the double lumen endobronchial tube (DLT using a non-channeled standard blade of the King VisionTM videolaryngoscope for one lung ventilation (OLV in a morbidly obese patient with a predicted difficult airway, severe restrictive pulmonary function, asthma, and hypertension. The patient was scheduled for a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The stylet of the DLT was bent to fit the natural curve of the #3 non-channeled blade of the King Vision™ videolaryngoscope. We conclude that the use of King Vision™ videolaryngoscope could offer an effective method of DLT placement for OLV.

  7. Ahmed Midhat and Adnan Adivar on history of science and civilizations. (United States)

    Kilinc, Berna


    I analyze the contrasting visions of history of science in the works respectively of an Ottoman and a Turkish man of letters, Ahmed Midhat and Adnan Adivar, and claim that they perceived the link between science and cultural identity in different terms. Ahmed Midhat conceived of science as closely tied to its cultural matrix, whereas Adivar settled for a less holistic view. Both authors saw science as the harbinger of a new social existence, but they evaluated the prospects of this existence in rather divergent ways. Ahmed Midhat was concerned with the detrimental effects of an unquestioning appropriation of European scientific traditions, while Adivar had no such qualms, and celebrated the universalism and progressiveness of reason as revealed in history of science. I suggest that these differences in their outlooks presented their readers with civilizational choices.

  8. 管内插入物强化传热及除垢的研究进展%Progress in Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement for Tube Insert and Scale Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article introduced the the field synergy theory was used to characteristics of heat transfer enhancement for tube insert, and explain the mechanism of heat transfer, especially in velocity vector field and heat flow vector field synergy between the effects of heat transfer process. In recent years, researchers have summarized the insertion of the tube with enhanced heat transfer and scale removal. Suggestions have been given for future research.%介绍了内插物强化传热技术的特点,运用了场协同理论来解释其强化传热的机理,主要是速度矢量场和热流矢量场之间的协同对传热过程的影响。总结了近年来研究者们对管内插入扭带强化传热和除垢的研究结果及进展,并对将来的研究工作提出了建议。

  9. A comparative study between ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube for ease of insertion and haemodynamic changes in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Patodi


    Conclusions: ProSeal LMA proved to be a suitable alternative to endotracheal tube for airway management with stable haemodynamics in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(12.000: 5334-5340

  10. A meta-analysis of the therapeutic effects of increasing insertion depth of nasogastric tube on gastrointestinal de-compression%胃管置入深度对胃肠减压疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琼娜; 王华芬; 吕敏芳; 郑晶晶


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of increasing insertion depth of nasogastric tube in the treatment of gas-trointestinal decompression. Methods The randomized clinical trials(RCT) that compared the efficacy of increasing inser-tion depth of nasogastric tube in treatment of gastrointestinal decompression were researched from CBM,CNKI,Wangfang data,Cochrane,EMBASE,CINAHL,PubMed. After extracting data and assessing the quality of the included studies, meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Results Twenty RCTs including 3507 cases were included. Meta-analysis showed that increasing insertion depth of nasogastric tube significantly decreased occurring rate of moderate-severe abdominal distention[OR=0.28, 95%CI(0.24, 0.33)],significantly increased the 24 hours volume of drainage after nasogas-tric tube place [WMD=200.36, 95%CI (95.37, 305.35)] and significantly shortened the recovery time of bowel sounds [WMD=-23.98, 95%CI (-30.09,-17.86)]. Conclusions Increasing insertion depth of nasogastric tube can decrease oc-curring rate of moderate-severe abdominal distention, increase 24 hours volume of drainage after nasogastric tube place and shorten recovery time of bowel sounds.%目的:根据现有临床研究评价增加胃管插入深度对胃肠减压的有效性。方法检索CBM、CNKI、万方数据库、Cochrane、EMBASE、CINAHL、PubMed等数据库中的有关胃管插入深度对胃肠减压效果影响的中英文随机对照试验(RCT),提取数据并进行质量评价,数据分析采用RevMan5.2软件。结果共纳入20篇文献,共3507例患者。Meta分析结果显示:增加胃管置入深度可以降低中重度腹胀的发生率[OR=0.28,95%CI(0.24,0.33)]、增加置管后24 h引流液量[WMD=200.36,95%CI (95.37,305.35)]、缩短肠鸣音恢复时间[WMD=-23.98,95%CI (-30.09,-17.86)]。结论增加胃管的置入深度可以有效减轻腹胀、增加引流量、缩短肠鸣音的恢复时间。

  11. Numerical simulation Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids in Twisted-Tape Inserts Tubes%纳米流体在内置扭带管的传热数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斌; 刘彤


    In order to take a comparative study on heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids in the twisted-tape inserts in tubes,established an enhanced heat exchanger of twisted-tape inside tubes of the tube heat exchang-er’ s physical model,carried on numerical simulation by using RNG k-ε model. Comparing with experimental results,spatial distribution of heat transfer fluid temperature field,heat transfer coefficient and flow field can be obtained. Compared nanofluids with water on influence of enhancing heat exchanger in six different twist ratio and two different materials of twisted-tape inserts. The result shows that using Cu-water nanofluids as the work-ing fluid has a significantly improvement on the heat transfer performance of the heat. The heat transfer effect of 0. 8% Cu-water nanofluids is better than that of 0. 5%. The smaller twist ratio is,the better effect of heat trans-fer can be. The enhancement of heat transfer is 0. 51 between Twisted-Tape Inserts Tubes with twist ratio is 2. 5 using 0. 5% Cu-water nanofluids and plain tube using water. Copper twisted tape inserts tube heat exchanger is better than aluminum twisted tapes.%为了对比纳米流体在内置扭带管中的强化传热效果,建立了以Cu-水纳米流体和水为传热介质的内置扭带强化换热管的管式换热器物理模型,采用RNG k-ε进行数值模拟研究,并与实验结果对比,得到了内置扭带换热管流体流动的速度、温度、湍流强度场的分布规律及特性。比较了两种质量分数的纳米流体与水在六种不同扭转比的扭带换热管中和两种不同材质的内置扭带分别对强化传热的影响。结果表明,以Cu-水纳米流体为工质的内置扭带管的换热效果明显优于纯水;质量分数为0.8%的Cu-水纳米流体换热效果优于0.5%的Cu-水纳米流体,扭转比越小,则换热效果越好,质量分数为0.5%的Cu-水纳米流体在扭转比为2.5的内置扭带管中相对于水

  12. Comparative analysis on inserting time of indwelling gastric tube and nasal tube for operation of esophageal cancer patients%食管癌手术患者留置胃管和鼻肠管置人时机的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志英; 冯燕芳; 黄素娟; 赖梅; 张莹


    Objective To explore the optimal timing of nasointestinal tube for operation of esophageal carcinoma patients.Methods 100 cases of esophageal cancer were randomly divided into two groups:tube after anesthesia group,anesthesia preposition pipe group.Anesthesia after tube group was in general anesthesia with tracheal intubation,after placing operation posture of indwelling stomach tube and nasal tube,anesthesia preposition pipe group placed nasal tube and indwelling gastric tube before anesthesia.Results Between the two groups,the comfort degree,nursing operation difficulty and the time,the first success rate of catheter and various complications appearing during catheter placement were significantly different (P< 0.01).Conclusion The optimal timing of indwelling gastric tube and nasal tube placement for the operation of esophageal cancer patients should be after general anesthesia with tracheal intubation and before surgical position of operation.%目的 探讨食管癌手术的患者置入胃管和鼻肠管的最佳时机.方法 100例食管癌手术患者随机分为两组:麻醉后置管组、麻醉前置管组.麻醉后置管组均在全身麻醉气管插管后、摆置手术体位前留置胃管和鼻肠管,麻醉前置管组均在麻醉前留置胃管和鼻肠管.结果 两组患者在舒适度、护理操作的难度和时间、置管首次的成功率、患者置管出现的各种并发症等方面差异有极显著性(P<0.O1).结论 食管癌手术患者留置胃管、鼻肠管置入的最佳时机在全身麻醉气管插管后、摆置手术体位前.

  13. 不锈钢管镶嵌件在压铸中的应用研究%Research and Application of Inserts of Stainless Steel Tube in Die Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    阐述了汽车发动机电控冷却器压铸件不锈钢油管内镶嵌件的结构、定位及工艺过程控制.其要点是,在油管接头上预先按图纸尺寸要求钻攻底孔、攻牙及铣面,同时做出与之配合的镀锌螺栓接头,装配后(将螺栓接头旋入油管接头内,成为油管总成,再放到压铸模上)通过与模具上的限位镶块精确定位,从而实现铸件压铸后油管接头位置度及接头端面的距离尺寸不变的目的.压铸结束后拆除可循环利用的螺栓接头,镀锌接头涂层防止了高温下因油污引起的生锈,满足了产品的清洁度要求.%According to the product assembly requirements, first pre-drilling thread bottom hole, tapping and milling surface in the tube union required by the drawing, and make the galvanized thread plug at the same time, the thread plug is screwed into the tube union as a tube assembly, and then put it into the casting mold . The tube dimensions of the casting would be achieved directly by the die casting process through die-casting mould precision limit insert . When the die casting is complete, remove the recyclable thread plug . The galvanized thread plug can prevent effectively metal from rust caused by the high temperature and oil of the fitting surface between the tube union and the thread plug to ensure the cleanliness requirement, and protect the tube surface against damage . The internal thread of the tube u-nion ensure the tooth shape in the thread plug force in the die casting process, so as to achieve the purpose of directly by the die-casting process. Reduce the cost under the precondition to satisfy the production requirements.

  14. Bilateral Sturge-Weber Syndrome and glaucoma controlled with Ahmed valve implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jarczun Kac


    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber Syndrome is a rare neuro-oculocutaneous disorder. The authors describe the case of a 13 years old boy, presented with bilateral Sturge-Weber Syndrome and glaucoma. Surgical treatment with Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes was carried out achieving lower levels of intraocular pressure.

  15. 糖尿病新生血管性青光眼 Ahmed 引流阀植入术%Ahmed valve implantation in diabetic patients with neovascular glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗培建; 张雪翎; 刘振英; 张正培


    目的:观察Ahmed引流阀植入治疗糖尿病新生血管性青光眼( NVG)的效果。方法2005年12月至2013年5月住院的38例(38眼)采用Ahmed引流阀植入治疗的糖尿病NVG临床资料,进行回顾性分析。结果38例中术后早期出现低眼压浅前房7例,短暂性眼压升高4例,前房积血12例,阀门管堵塞2例。术前与术后出院时眼压比较,平均下降(34.17±14.99)mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。视力提高11例,下降1例,不变26例。结论围手术期血糖的稳定控制,术中的个性化治疗,术后及时发现并给予正确的处理,可以取得较好的临床疗效。%Objective To observe surgical outcomes of Ahmed valve implantation in diabetic patients with neovascular glaucoma .Methods The clinical data of 38 eyes of 38 patients with diabetic neovascular glaucoma were retrospectively analyzed .They had undergone Ahmed valve implantation in Eye Institute of Xuzhou from Dec.2005 to May 2013.Results In the 38 patients, 7 cases were observed with ocular hypotension and shallow anterior chamber , 4 cases with transient ocular hypertension , 12 cases with hyphema and two cases with valve tube blockage in the early stage after the operation .Compared with the preoperative IOP, the postoperative IOP was reduced by (34.17 ±14.99) mmHg, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).There were 11 cases with improved vision, one case with decreased vision, and 26 cases with unchanged vision .Conclusion Stable control of blood sugar perioperatively , individualized treatment during operation , timely detection and right treatment of postoperative complications , can make the surgery get more satisfactory clinical efficacy .

  16. Clinical Analysis of Inserting Gastric Tube to Tube Rupture in 1 Cases of Pesticide Poisoning%关于农药中毒插胃管致胃管断裂1例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的分析抢救农药中毒患者置胃管时被患者咬断的原因。方法介绍1例女性患者因自服敌敌畏,患者洗胃时拒不配合,强行咬断胃管的前端致胃管断裂的病历进行分析。结果患者吐出断胃管,更换胃管,在口腔内置入牙垫,置入胃管完成洗胃的全过程。结论洗胃是农药中毒患者最直接有效地方法,有效地将胃管插入胃内并进行固定是确保洗胃过程顺利进行的一个关键环节,能最大限度地减少毒物的吸收,直接影响抢救有机磷农药中毒的成功率。提高洗胃的速度和清洁度,减少不良反应,提高抢救成功率,减轻护士疲劳感。%Objective Analysis for pesticide poisoning patients indwel ing gastric tube was a patient of snap. Methods A female patients because of self medication in patients with gastric lavage, dichlorvos, refuses to cooperate with, forced to bite tube rupture caused by stomach tube at the front end of the medical record analysis. Results The patient to spit out the broken tube, replace the nasogastric tube, in the mouth into the stomach with dental pad, complete the whole process of gastric lavage. Conclusion The gastric lavage is pesticide poisoning were the most direct and effective way, ef ectively the gastric tube into the stomach and fixation is the key to ensuring the gastric lavage process smoothly, can minimize the absorption of poison, directly af ect the organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning rescue success rate. To improve the speed of gastric lavage and cleanliness, reduce adverse reaction, improve the success rate, reduce the fatigue feeling.

  17. 内置螺旋弹簧换热管内流动与传热三维数值模拟%3D numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in heat exchange tube with helical coil inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建民; 彭坤; 胡小霞; 黄伟; 余海燕


    In order to investigate single-tube heat transfer enhancement principles of heat exchange tube with helical coil inserts,the flow and heat transfer characteristics were simulated using Fluent software.The effects of spring application on flow field,pressure drop and heat transfer performance were investigated.The pitch of coil spring was set as 2 mm,4 mm,5 mm.The effects of spring pitch on the heat transfer enhancement performance were analyzed.The numerical results showed that the fluid in tube with helical coil inserts presents the helical flow,the cutting speed and the radial velocity of flow near the wall had been improved to some extent.Thus the fluid was mixed completely,boundary layer was disturbed fully and heat was exchanged thoroughly.And the temperature difference between inlet and outlet increased as well,with the maximum increase of 0.9 ℃.Under the conditions of the same Reynolds number,the Nusselt number in tube with helical coil inserts was higher than plain tube,but pressure drop and friction factor increased obviously.With the reduced spring pitch,heat transfer was enhanced and friction factor was increased.%为研究内置螺旋弹簧换热管单管强化传热原理,采用Fluent软件对内置螺旋弹簧换热管内流体流动与传热特性进行数值模拟,考察了弹簧的应用对管内流场、压降和换热性能的影响,并分别取螺旋弹簧节距p分别为2 mm、4 mm、5 mm初步研究了弹簧的节距对强化传热效果的影响。模拟结果显示:弹簧管内流体呈螺旋流动状态,管壁附近流体切向速度和径向速度有一定程度的提高,从而加剧了管内流体的混合及边界层的扰动,充分换热,弹簧管进出口温度差较光管有所增加,最高增加了0.9℃;相同雷诺数条件下,内置螺旋弹簧换热管Nu数均高于光管,而压降和阻力系数相比光管有明显增加,随着弹簧节距减小换热增强而摩擦阻力系数增加。

  18. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  19. Zakajev: Tšetšeenia on Euroopa, mitte Vene siseasi / Ahmed Zakajev ; interv. Kadri Liik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zakajev, Ahmed


    Tšetšeenia presidendi Aslan Mashadovi esindaja Ahmed Zakajev vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema kohtuasja, Vene-Tšetšeenia konflikti, tshetsheenide tungimist Dagestani 1999. aastal. Tema hinnangul saab püsiva rahu tuua vaid Tšetšeenia kuulutamine rahvusvaheliseks protektoraadiks. Vt. samas: Analüütik: aitaks rahvusvaheline sekkumine. Tšetšeenia sõdade kronoloogia

  20. Long-term success of Ahmed glaucoma valve in refractory glaucoma%Ahmed青光眼阀治疗难治性青光眼的长期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmut Kaya; Zeynep Ozbek; Aylin Yaman; Ismet Durak


    目的:评估Ahmed青光眼阀(Ahmed glaucoma valve,AGV)植入治疗难治性青光眼的长期疗效及并发症.方法:回顾性分析13例13眼接受Ahmed青光眼阀植入,最短随访18mo的难治性青光眼患者.所有患者均在术前及术后1,3,6mo,1a及1a以后行全面的眼科检查,眼压测量,记录并发症及抗青光眼的药物需求.结果:患者平均年龄27.3±16.0岁.所有患眼(100%)接受至少一次前置小切口手术.平均随访61.3±30.8mo.在少量药物的作用下,12mo时眼压由35.0±7.0mmHg降至18.2±7.9mmHg,96mo时降至17.0±4.1mmHg,76.9%患者需其他辅助治疗以达到预期的成功疗效.最常见的并发症包括包裹性囊肿8眼(61.5%),置管脱出4眼(30.8%).结论:包裹性囊肿是最常见的并发症,阻碍了Ahmed青光眼阀植入治疗难治性青光眼.虽然囊肿被抗纤维化药物切除,但没有抗青光眼药物的治疗,眼压仍旧不能很好控制.%AIM: To evaluate the long-term results and complications of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in refractory glaucoma.glaucoma who underwent AGV implantation and had a minimum follow-up of 18 months was performed. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination and intraocular pressure(IOP) measurement before surgery and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year after surgery and yearly afterwards. Complications and the number of antiglaucoma medications needed were recorded. incisional surgery. Mean follow-up was 61.3±30.8 months. IOP was reduced from a mean of 35.0±7.0mmHg to 18.2±7.9mmHg at 12 months and to 17.0±4.1mmHg at 96 months (P<0.05) with a lower number of medications from baseline, 76.9% patients required additional procedures to achieve the success criteria set by previously published series. The most common complications were encapculated cyst formation in eight eyes (61.5%) and tube exposure in four eyes (30.8%). hindered succesful IOP control after AGV implant insertion for refractory glaucoma. Despite cyst

  1. Calorimeter insertion

    CERN Multimedia


    Calorimeter insertion between toroids in the ATLAS experiment detector Calorimeters are surrounding the inner detector. Calorimeters will absorb and measure the energies of the most charged and neutral particles after the collisions. The saved energy in the calorimeter is detected and converted to signals that are taken out with data taking electronics.

  2. Insertion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J


    The interaction of an insertion device with the electron beam in a storage ring is discussed. The radiation property including brightness, ux and polarization of an ideal and real planar and helical / elliptical device is described. The magnet design of planar, helical, quasiperiodic devices and of devices with a reduced on axis power density are resumed.

  3. A randomized clinical trial comparing the standard mcintosh laryngoscope and the c-mac d blade video laryngoscope™ for double lumen tube insertion for one lung ventilation in Onco surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Bhatia Shah


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Several devices enabling double-lumen tube (DLT placement for thoracic surgeries are available, but there are no studies for D-blade video laryngoscope-guided DLT insertion. We compared the CMac D-blade videolaryngoscope™ and the Macintosh laryngoscope for DLT endobronchial intubation using parameters of time and attempts required for intubation, glottic view, incidence of complications and haemodynamic changes. Methods: Prospective, parallel group, randomised controlled clinical trial where sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients aged 18-80 years scheduled for thoracic surgeries entailing DLT placement were randomly allocated in two groups based on the laryngoscopic device used for endobronchial intubation. Data were subjected to statistical analysis SPSS (version 17, the paired and Student′s t-test for equality of means. Nominal categorical data between the groups were compared using Chi-squared test or Fisher′s exact test as appropriate. P ˂ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Time required for intubation was comparable (37.41 ± 18.80 s in Group-M and 32.27 ± 11.13 s in Group-D. Number of attempts and incidence of complications (trauma, DLT cuff rupture, oesophageal intubation was greater in the Macintosh group, except malpositioning into the wrong bronchus (easily rectified fibre-optic bronchoscopically, which was greater with the D-blade. Greater haemodynamic changes were observed during Macintosh laryngoscopy. Conclusion: D-blade videolaryngoscope™ is a useful alternative to the standard Macintosh laryngoscope for routine DLT insertion.

  4. A Turkish Philosopher Between the East and the West: On Ahmed Midhat Efendi’s Life and Scientific/Philosophical Thoughts


    Doğan, Cem


    As an intelletual, Ahmed Midhat represents an important breaking point from the Ottoman intelligentsia. Forasmuch, Ahmed Midhat Efendi managed to overcome the question of “how can be this empire led to the salvation?”. It was a contemplated question since Tanzimat Era. Midhat, as the very first intellectual who perceived the Western philosophy and its scienticif and philosophical problems, had a colorful and unsteady frame of mind. In this article, Ahmed Midhat Efendi’s thoughts, journalism, ...

  5. Reliable experimental setup to test the pressure modulation of Baerveldt Implant tubes for reducing post-operative hypotony (United States)

    Ramani, Ajay

    Glaucoma encompasses a group of conditions that result in damage to the optic nerve and can cause loss of vision and blindness. The nerve is damaged due to an increase in the eye's internal (intraocular) pressure (IOP) above the nominal range of 15 -- 20 mm Hg. There are many treatments available for this group of diseases depending on the complexity and stage of nerve degradation. In extreme cases where drugs or laser surgery do not create better conditions for the patient, ophthalmologists use glaucoma drainage devices to help alleviate the IOP. Many drainage implants have been developed over the years and are in use; but two popular implants are the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant and the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant. Baerveldt Implants are non-valved and provide low initial resistance to outflow of fluid, resulting in post-operative complications such as hypotony, where the IOP drops below 5 mm of Hg. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implants are valved implants which initially restrict the amount of fluid flowing out of the eye. The long term success rates of Baerveldt Implants surpass those of Ahmed Valve Implants because of post-surgical issues; but Baerveldt Implants' initial effectiveness is poor without proper flow restriction. This drives the need to develop new ways to improve the initial effectiveness of Baerveldt Implants. A possible solution proposed by our research team is to place an insert in the Baerveldt Implant tube of inner diameter 305 microns. The insert must be designed to provide flow resistance for the early time frame [e.g., first 30 -- 60 post-operative days] until sufficient scar tissue has formed on the implant. After that initial stage with the insert, the scar tissue will provide the necessary flow resistance to maintain the IOP above 5 mm Hg. The main objective of this project was to develop and validate an experimental apparatus to measure pressure drop across a Baerveldt Implant tube, with and without inserts. This setup will be used in the

  6. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David


    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  7. 圆管内插入螺旋片状多孔介质的换热性能及场协同分析%Heat Transfer Performance for Tube Inserted With Helical Screw-Tape Porous Media and Its Field Synergy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓屿; 刘志春; 刘伟


    The present study introduced a tube inserted with helical screw-tape porous media which can make the fully developed laminar flow in the tube to form an equivalent thermal boundary layer, and thereby enhance the heat transfer between the fluid and the tube wall. At the same time, the increase of flow resistance in the tube is not so obvious. The overall flow and heat transfer performance for the fully developed laminar water flow in a tube inserted with helical screw-tape porous media was investigated numerically. The comparisons between helical screw-tape porous media and ring porous media and cylindrical porous media were made. And its mechanisms of enhancing heat transfer were also analyzed using the principle of field synergy. The results shows that the tube inserted with the helical screw-tape porous media can improve the flow and heat transfer performance effectively, the value of PEC varied between 3.60 and 3.95.%采用数值计算的方法,以水为流动介质,研究了圆管内插入螺旋片状多孔介质在充分发展的层流区的换热及流动综合性能,并与环状和圆柱状多孔介质插入物进行了对比,此外,利用场物理量协同原理对计算结果进行了分析。结果表明,在圆管内插入螺旋片状多孔介质可以有效提高换热与流动的综合性能,其PEC达到3.60—3.95.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim HAKSEVER


    Full Text Available Ahmed Dai is a major poet in 14-15 century. Teressül which is one of the most among the works is initial work has known now variety of Münşeat in Turkish literature. The work explains rules of letter writing procedure. Unique and insufficient copy of the work in our hands is registered at the Manisa Muradiye Library 1856/3. The work consists of 9 sheets. Ahmet Dai indicates that it is written out with unsophisticated Turkish in order to be helpful and useful, it is made a beginning with basmala, glorification and pray in compliance with islamic traditions. The author had put in order 10 number of rules of letter writing under the title of “politeness” after that he had given information about caption and sobriquet as writing a letter to formal and informal person. Three number of representative sample of letters are also given a place in the work. Text of copy in our hands finished before third letter finished.Further representative samples of letter might be present in original text written out by the writer. Ahmed-i Dâî 14-15. yüzyılın büyük şairlerindendir. Eserleri arasında önemli bir yere sahip olan Teressül, Türk edebiyatında münşeat türünün şimdilik bilinen ilk eseridir. Eser mektup yazma usul ve kurallarını anlatır. Eserin elimizdeki tek ve eksik bir nüshası Manisa Muradiye Kütüphanesi 1856/3’te kayıtlıdır.Eser 9 yapraktan ibarettir. Ahmed Daî eserini faydalı ve kullanışlı olması için sade bir Türkçe ile kaleme aldığını belirtmiş; İslamî geleneğe uygun olarak besmele, hamd ve dua ile başlamıştır. Yazar “edeb” başlığı altında on tane mektup yazma kuralı sıralamış, sonra resmî ve gayrı resmî kişilere mektup yazarken kullanılacak ünvan ve lâkapları vermiştir. Eserde üç tane de temsilî mektup örneğine yer verilmiştir. Üçüncü mektup bitmeden elimizdeki nüsha metni sona ermiştir.Yazarın kaleme aldığı orijinal metinde muhtemelen başka mektup

  9. 旋转扭带管内传热与阻力性能的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of heat transfer and resistance performance in a rotating twisted-tape-inserted tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 张林华; 崔永章; 曲云霞; 朱艳艳


    为了研究生物质锅炉换热管内插入外源驱动旋转的扭带对传热及阻力性能的影响,建立了不同扭曲比的扭带在不同转速时管内流体流动的三维物理模型.采用RNGk-ε湍流模型对传热过程进行模拟,得出了旋转扭带管内流体的换热及阻力特性.结果表明:旋转扭带提高了管内流体的轴向速度和切向速度;转速为0~10rpm时,转速越大、扭曲比越小,表面传热系数越大,阻力损失也越大;扭曲比在2.06~5.1的扭带,综合评价因子在1.13~ 1.41之间,扭曲比为3.15的扭带综合评价因子最高.%In order to study the heat transfer and resistance performance effect of rotating twisted-tapeinserted tube of the biomass boiler,a three-dimensional fluid flow model of rotating twisted tape is presented with different angular velocity and distorted ratio.The Renormalized Group (RNG) k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the process of heat transfer for getting the heat transfer and resistance performance of rotating twisted-tape-inserted tube.The result shows that rotating twisted tape increases the axial velocity and tangential velocity of the fluid.When the rotation speed is 0-10rpm,the higher the speed is and the smaller the twist ratio is,the higher the surface heat transfer coefficient is and the more the resistance loss is.The comprehensive evaluation factor of the twisted tapes with the twist ratio of 2.06-5.1 is 1.13-1.41,while the comprehensive evaluation factor of the twisted tape with the twist ratio of 3.15 is highest.

  10. Application of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with sodium hyaluronate on NVG%Ahmed 青光眼阀植入术中联合应用透明质酸钠治疗 NVG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金桃; 叶正辉; 徐志伟


    operation at 1mo, comparing the complications such as postoperative intraocular pressure ( IOP ) , the changes of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the hemorrhage of shallow anterior chamber, hyphema and choroidal detachment, etc.IOP before and after operation between the two groups was examined by independent sample test (non-normal distribution), the complications were compared by χ2 text. RESULTS:Postoperative follow-up time was 1mo.IOP in research group was declined from 42.8 ±5.56mmHg preoperatively to 17.7 ±3.77mmHg, IOP in control group was declined from 42.5±5.36mmHg preoperatively to 18.6± 5. 39mmHg. Postoperative complications: shallow anterior chamber occurred in 2 patients ( 2 eyes ) in research group and 4 patients (4 eyes) in control group. Hyphema occurred in 1 patient (1 eye) in research group and in 5 patients (5 eyes) in control group.Poor location of the anterior chamber silicone tube occurred in 1 patient in research group. CONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate combined with Ahmed glaucom avalve can effectively reduce IOP in patients with NVG and decrease the postoperative hyphema, which will lead to short-term increasing IOP in patients after operation, but had no significant effect in the long run.

  11. Ahmed Zakajev: Litvinenko tapeti, sest ta abistas omakasupüüdmatult tšetšeene / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-


    Vene ajalehes Kommersant ilmus intervjuu endise Itškeeria ministri Ahmed Zakajeviga, kes ei kahtle, et Aleksandr Litvinenko tapmisega on seotud Andrei Lugovoi. Suurbritannia politsei tegutseb täie tõsidusega, et sundida Venemaad Andrei Lugovoid välja andma

  12. Reconciling different legal spheres in theory and practice: pluralism and constitutionalism in the cases of Al Jedda, Ahmed and Nada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Hollenberg, S.


    A detailed analysis of four judicial responses to extreme pluri-contextual settings, the House of Lords’ and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)’s rulings in Al-Jedda, the UK Supreme Court’s judgment in Ahmed, and the ECtHR’s recent ruling in Nada, demonstrates that all three courts relied on

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vortex breakdown in the wake of the 25∘ Ahmed body (United States)

    Jermann, Cyril; Meliga, Philippe; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, Francois; Serre, Eric


    We study experimentally and theoretically the wake of the 25circ; Ahmed body, considered a suitable test-case to reproduce the two counter-rotating longitudinal vortices widely encountered in automotive aerodynamics. The three-dimensional experimental mean flow is reconstructed at high Reynolds number (Re = 2 . 8 ×106) from a series of cross-flow time-averaged planes acquired with a moving automated Stereo-PIV system. We observe a sharp decay of the axial velocity and vorticity in the near-wake, 0 . 5 times the projected length of the slanted surface downstream the square back, where the streamwise vortices is subjected to a strong adverse pressure gradient and the turbulent kinetic energy exhibits a peak in the vortex core. A stability analysis of the experimental velocity shows that the flow undergoes vortex breakdown roughly at the same position, through a transition from supercritical (x 0 . 5) conditions and the accumulation of upstream propagating axisymmetric waves.

  14. Consumer Perceptions of Brand Trust Online of Clothing in Karachi: A case study of Gul Ahmed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Javed


    Full Text Available Online purchase, in the clothing industry of Pakistan, is on a historical high. There are various factors that affect the brand trust of online consumers. This research is aimed to find the correlation between security and privacy of personal information, name of the brand, word-of-mouth, prior online experience and information quality on the one hand and the online brand trust of consumers on the other. The study is conducted in relation to a single brand, named Gul Ahmed. The sample for this study contained 387 respondents. The results of the study show that all these factors have a significant relationship with online brand trust. Word of mouth however, has been found to have the strongest correlation with the online brand trust.

  15. Determinasi Eksistensial Pemikiran Hukum Islam Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na‘im

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholkhatul Khoir


    Full Text Available This article deals with the Islamic legal thought of Abdullahi Ahmed an-Na‘im from the sociology of knowledge approach. According to this approach, knowledge (including religious interpretation and practices is sociologically, economically and politically determined. This article aims to understand how an-Na‘im’s Islamic legal thought is determined by his existence within social reality. This article concludes that an-Na‘im’s thought is determined by (1 socio-political and legal reality in Sudan, (2 Mahmoud Mohamed Taha who influenced his ideas, (3 British milieu, and (4 American environment which is politically secular, Islamo-phobic, racist, discriminative and intolerant towards Afro-Americans. The maturity of an-Na‘im’s thought is particularly influenced by the history of British colonialism in Sudan and his academic training in England, a place where human rights discourse develops as the result of post-enlightenment humanism and some major revolutions in Europe.

  16. Feedback Control of an Ahmed Body Flow Exhibiting Symmetry-Breaking Regimes (United States)

    Evstafyeva, Olga; Morgans, Aimee


    At motorway speeds two-thirds of usable engine energy of square-back vehicles is spent overcoming the aerodynamic drag. The main source of drag is the bi-stable low pressure wake which forms at the back of the body as the boundary layers separate over the rear edges of the vehicle. Identifying large coherent structures and describing the physics of the wake is, therefore, of great practical importance for understanding the sources of drag and informing drag-reduction strategies. Present work investigates numerically the flow past the Ahmed body- a commonly used test-case for a simplified vehicle geometry, at Reynolds numbers 310 3D flow-field, the destabilising dynamics of the wake and vortex systems are investigated further. Dynamic Mode Decomposition is performed to identify the main coherent structures and their frequencies and growth rates. A practical feedback control strategy is then implemented to achieve base pressure recovery yielding a concomitant drag reduction.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Pressure Drop and Flow Filed in the Heat Exchanger Tube Inserted Self-rotating Straight-tooth Twisted Tape%内插自旋直齿扭带换热管压降及流场数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜仔; 林清宇; 冯振飞; 欧向波; 刘晓林


    In order to visually describe the characteristics of pressure drop and flow filed self-ro-tating straight-tooth twisted tape inserted in heat exchanger tube,the computer model for the in-ner basin of heat exchanger tube was established,in which self-rotating straight-tooth twisted tape is inserted with water as the medium,and numerical simulation was taken to study the char-acteristics of pressure drop and flow filed in tube by using RNG k~εturbulence model.The re-sults of numerical simulation indicated that the pressure dropΔp of the tube with twisted tape in-to a parabola relationship with the flow velocity u,the faster of the flow velocity,the larger of the pressure drop,and it was greater than that of smooth tube.The fluid was a rule of three-di-mensional spiral flow in the tube with twisted tape,making the fluid form a secondary vortex flow.The twisted tape with straight serration structure enhanced the turbulence of fluid.In the region near tube wall,the flow axial velocity of the tube with twisted tape was averagely in-creased more in the range of 33.05% ~ 35.17% than that of smooth tube.%为了直观地描述内插自旋直齿扭带管内压降及流场的特性,建立了以水为介质的内插自旋直齿扭带换热管内流场的计算模型,采用RNG k~ε湍流模型对管内压降及流场的特性进行数值模拟研究。计算结果表明,扭带管的压降Δp与流体的流速u成抛物线关系,压降随着流速的增大而增大,并且大于空管的压降;扭带管的流体呈有规律的三维螺旋状流动,且存在二次流,扭带的直齿结构增强了流体的湍流程度;在近管壁区域,扭带管的流体轴向速度比空管平均提高幅度在33.05%~35.17%。

  18. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte


    : An 84-year-old Caucasian woman with dysphagia and at risk of aspiration underwent routine insertion of a nasogastric feeding tube; however, shortly after insertion she developed respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed the tube had been misplaced into our patient's right lung. The tube was removed...

  19. Analysis on the efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma%Ahmed 青光眼引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玫侠; 李上


    Objective To analyze the efficacy and safety of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma. Methods 38 patients (42 eyes)with refractory glaucoma were selected as research subjects.All of them accepted the Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation,The levels of intraocular pressure before and after treatment were compared.Postoperative complica-tions and clinical efficacy were recorded.Results Visual improvement rate was 90.5%,and the intraocular pressure decreased to (18.47 ±3.26)mm Hg.There were 12 (31.6%)cases of complete success and 22 (57.9%)cases of conditional success.There were 2 (5.3%)cases of intraoperative complication and 2 (5.3%)cases of postoperative complication.Conclusion Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for refractory glaucoma is effective and safe,worthy of promotion.%目的:探讨 Ahmed 青光眼引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼的效果及安全性。方法选取2013年4月至2015年4月确诊的38例(42眼)难治性青光眼患者,均接受 Ahmed 青光眼引流阀植入术治疗,比较治疗前后眼压变化情况,观察术后并发症发生情况及临床疗效。结果38例患者术后视力良好率90.5%,眼压降至(18.47±3.26)mm Hg。完全成功12例,占31.6%;条件成功22例,占57.9%。术中并发症2例(5.3%),术后并发症2例(5.3%)。结论Ahmed引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼疗效确切,并发症少,值得推广。

  20. Drag reduction on the 25 slant angle Ahmed reference body using pulsed jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Pierric [CNAM, Institut AeroTechnique (IAT), Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Amandolese, Xavier [CNAM, Aerodynamics Department, Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Aider, Jean-Luc [UMR 7636, CNRS, ESPCI ParisTech, PMMH Laboratory, Paris (France)


    This paper highlights steady and unsteady measurements and flow control results obtained on an Ahmed model with slant angle of 25 in wind tunnel. On this high-drag configuration characterized by a large separation bubble along with energetic streamwise vortices, time-averaged and time-dependent results without control are first presented. The influence of rear-end periodic forcing on the drag coefficient is then investigated using electrically operated magnetic valves in an open-loop control scheme. Four distinct configurations of flow control have been tested: rectangular pulsed jets aligned with the spanwise direction or in winglets configuration on the roof end and rectangular jets or a large open slot at the top of the rear slant. For each configuration, the influence of the forcing parameters (non-dimensional frequency, injected momentum) on the drag coefficient has been studied, along with their impact on the static pressure on both the rear slant and vertical base of the model. Depending on the type and location of pulsed jets actuation, the maximum drag reduction is obtained for increasing injected momentum or well-defined optimal pulsation frequencies. (orig.)

  1. Feedback Control of Bistability in the Turbulent Wake of an Ahmed Body (United States)

    Brackston, Rowan; Wynn, Andrew; Garcia de La Cruz, Juan Marcos; Rigas, Georgios; Morrison, Jonathan


    Three-dimensional bluff body wakes have seen considerable interest in recent years, not least because of their relevance to road vehicles. A key feature of these wakes is spatial symmetry breaking, reminiscent of the large scale structures observed during the laminar and transitional regimes. For the flat backed Ahmed body, this feature manifests itself as a bistability of the wake in which the flow switches randomly between two asymmetric states. This feature is associated with instantaneous lateral forces on the body as well as increased pressure drag. Starting from the modelling approach of Rigas et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 778, R2, 2015)we identify a linearised model for this mode of the flow, obtaining parameters via a system identification. The identified model is then used to design a linear feedback controller with the aim of restoring the flow to the unstable, symmetric state. The controller is implemented experimentally at Re ~ 3 ×105 and is found to both suppress the bistability of the flow and reduce the drag on the body. Furthermore, the control system is found to have a positive energy balance, providing a key demonstration of efficient feedback control applied to a 3D bluff body at Reynolds numbers representative of road vehicle wakes.

  2. Exploring active flow control for efficient control of separation on an Ahmed model (United States)

    McNally, Jonathan; Alvi, Farrukh


    Active flow control is applied to an Ahmed model with a rear slant angle of 25°, where a typical flow field consists of a three-dimensional separation region on the rear slant of the bluff body. Linear arrays of discrete microjets, previously proven to effectively control this separation, are investigated further. A principal aim of this experimental study is to examine the sensitivity of control as the actuator location is shifted with respect to the separation location. Aerodynamic force and surface pressure measurements, combined with the velocity field obtained using particle image velocimetry, provide a measure of control efficacy and insight into the interaction of jet arrays with the local flow field, including the separating shear layer. An energy balance is conducted to characterize control efficiency for multiple positions over a range of microjet array blowing conditions. Results show that moving the actuator array further into the separation region requires higher microjet momentum to obtain a desired aerodynamic benefit. An empirical relationship is also developed for determining the required jet velocity as a function of position by relating the jet penetration distance to local flow features and length scales. Partial support by FCAAP and NSF.

  3. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro


    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  4. Disorder of blood-aqueous barrier following Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min-wen; WANG Wei; CHEN Shi-da; HUANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Xiu-lan


    Background Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation (AGVI) is used to treat refractory glaucoma.Breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) has been noted after some surgical techniques.The current study was designed to assess BAB disruption after AGVI.Methods Anterior chamber protein content was measured by the laser flare cell photometry in 22 eyes of 22 patients with refractory glaucoma before AGVI and at each postoperative visit up to 1 month.Results Before AGVI the mean aqueous flare values in all eyes were (15.17±9.84) photon counts/ms.After AGVI,the values significantly increased at day 1,day 3,and week 1 compared to those before AGVI (all P <0.05) with a peak at day 3.They returned to pre-operative levels at week 2,and were lower than preoperative level at month 1.Eyes with previous intraocular surgery history had greater aqueous flare values than those without previous intraocular surgery history,but there were no significant differences at all time points postoperatively (all P >0.05).Furthermore,eyes with shallow anterior chambers had greater aqueous flare values at day 3 and week 1 (all P <0.05).When comparing eyes with other refractory glaucoma conditions,neovascular glaucoma combined with intravitreal bevacizumab injection resulted in lower aqueous flare values after AGVI,but no significant differences were observed at all time points,postoperatively (all P>0.05).Conclusions The BAB was impaired and inflammation was present in the anterior chamber in refractory glaucomatous eyes following AGVI.However,such conditions were resolved within 1 month postoperatively.Intravitreal bevacizumab treatment in neovascular glaucoma eyes before AGVI may prevent BAB breakdown.

  5. Intravitreal bevacizumab and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao; Zhang; Yu-Xin; Yang; Ying-Ying; Xu; Rui-Min; Yang; Bao-Jun; Wang; Jun-Xi; Hu


    AIM:To explore the efficacy of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab(IVB) injection combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGV) implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG).METHODS:This retrospective study included 35 eyes from 35 patients who underwent preoperative IVB and AGV implantation for treatment of NVG. Findings such as intraocular pressure(IOP) number of anti-glaucoma medications, visual acuity(VA), surgical success rates,and complications were recorded.RESULTS:AfterAGVimplantation,IOPwas18.2±4.0mmHg,15.5±3.3 mm Hg and 9.8±2.6 mm Hg at 6, 12 and 36 mo,significantly decreased compared with pre-IOP(P <0.01).The number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.9 ±0.5,0.8 ±0.9 and 0.8 ±0.6 at 6, 12 and 36 mo, significantly decreased compared to pre-treatment(P <0.01). At last visit, there were 19 eyes with stable VA, 4 with VA improvement, 12 with diminished VA and 3 with complete loss light perception. There were 7 cases that failed during 3-year fellow up period. Cumulative probabilities of valve survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 82.9%,74.1% and 71.0% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively. Cox stepwise regression analysis found that the survival time was significant associated with the pre-visual acuity <2/400(P <0.05). Post-operative complications occurred in 8eyes, of which hyphema presented in 2 eyes, choroidal effusion in 2 eyes.CONCLUSION:The procedure of preoperative IVB andAGV implantation should be one of treatments for NVG because of its safety and effectiveness.

  6. Outcomes of Ahmed valve surgery for refractory glaucoma in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq; Alasbali; Abdullah; Ali; Alghamdi; Rajiv; Khandekar


    AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve(AGV) implantation surgery for refractory glaucoma.METHODS: This one-armed historical cohort study was conducted in 2011. Refractory glaucoma was defined as eyes with an intraocular pressure(IOP) greater than21 mm Hg with maximally tolerated glaucoma medications, failed surgeries, or both. For all eyes with refractory glaucoma that underwent AGV implantation,data were collected on IOP, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA) and glaucoma medications preoperatively and 4, 6, 12, 24 and 56 wk postoperatively. Logarithm values of IOP were calculated and compared. RESULTS: The study group was comprised of 30patients(30 eyes, 16 males and 14 females) with refractory glaucoma. Mean preoperative IOP was 39.3 ±13.8 mm Hg. Postoperative mean IOP was 15.7±7.1 mm Hg,19.6 ±12.8 mm Hg and 13.9 ±14.2 mm Hg at 12, 24 and56 wk respectively. BCVA was ≥6/60 in 11 eyes preoperatively, and five eyes had BCVA ≥6/60 at 56 wk postoperatively. Preoperatively, more than four medications were used to treat glaucoma in 21 eyes. At12 wk postoperatively, no medications were required to control IOP in 20 eyes. At 56 wk postoperatively, at least one medication was required to control IOP in 10 eyes.Over the entire follow up period, four eyes were treated with yttrium aluminium garnet(YAG) laser and 14 eyes required a second surgery. The AGV was removed in four eyes.CONCLUSION: AGV implantation reduced IOP and the number of medications required to control refractory glaucoma. However, there was a higher risk of decreased vision. Long-term follow up and prompt intervention are recommended.

  7. Pîr Ahmed Efendi, The Sheikh of Kalburcu, and Understanding of Alevîs in the Sample of Sofca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıfat Türkel


    Full Text Available Pir Ahmed Efendi is an important person who lived in Kütahya at XVI. century and arrived scholars from line of his family as Müfti Dervis, Sunullâh-ı Gaybi. Pir Ahmed Efendi who had been respected at his period, has been recalled to the present day by varied sections. However, he has been appropriated by Alevi’s from begining from second part of XX. century, up to the present. He is still honoured between Alevi’s at the state and in Sofca in which his grave is located in. Besides, there still is a household under his name and students in it. That’s why in this work we aimed to present Pir Ahmed Efendi, and to determine Alevi perception in Sofca. We gave some information first about Pir Ahmed Efendi’s life by using writing sources in order to make Alevi perception more clear in Sofca and Pir Ahmed household. Then, we have mentioned about understanding of Pir Ahmed Efendi in todays Sofca. Subsequently we tried to determine Alevi understanding of “Koculu Household” which is Alevi’s of Sofca are connected, Seyyid Kemal Sultan Household and the House that bear the name Pir Ahmed Efendi from the point of basic belief and worshipping. We compared it to the traditional Alevi understanding in places. To do all of these we used quantitative researches instead of qualitative researches. And for provision we made an interview to mentors of mentioned households and students in Eskisehir, Kutahya and Sofca.

  8. 21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device usually made of plastic intended to be inserted...

  9. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  10. Efficacy of laryngeal mask airway Ⅰ-gel for airway management in patients requiring insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic cholecystectomy%Ⅰ-gel喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者气道管理的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石妤; 左明章; 杨宁; 连盟


    目的 评价Ⅰ-gel喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者气道管理的效果.方法 择期全麻下拟行腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者60例,性别不限,ASA分级Ⅰ-Ⅲ级,年龄26 ~ 64岁,体重54 ~ 90 kg,Mallampati分级Ⅰ-Ⅲ级,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=20):Ⅰ组经Ⅰ-gel喉罩的引流管放置胃管,Ⅱ组术前经鼻放置胃管并术中保留,麻醉诱导前确定胃管位置,置入I-gel喉罩后不经引流管放置胃管,Ⅲ组术前经鼻放置胃管并术中保留,麻醉诱导前确定胃管位置,置入I-gel喉罩后经引流管放置胃管.术中监测血流动力学指标、SpO2、PETCO2和气道峰压(Ppeak).置入成功后行纤维支气管镜检查评分,并记录胃管位移的发生情况;记录喉罩置入时间、首次置入成功情况、置入刻.度、气道密封压、喉罩漏气和胃管引流情况.拔除喉罩后记录罩体内是否有血液或返流物,通过pH值试纸测定喉罩尖端及罩体的背侧和腹侧的pH值.记录术后24h内口咽部不良反应的发生情况.结果 3组术中血流动力学平稳,SpO2、Ppeak和PEr CO2均在正常范围,Ppeak低于气道密封压.3组喉罩置入时间、首次置入成功率、置入刻度、气道密封压、喉罩漏气发生率、纤维支气管镜检查评分、拔除喉罩时间、术后口咽部不良反应发生率、罩体内带血和有返流物的发生率,术后喉罩尖端及罩体背侧和腹侧的pH值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组经鼻胃管均未发生位移.Ⅱ组有7例患者经喉罩的引流管有黄色胃液流出,其中仅有2例患者经鼻放置的胃管有引流液.结论 对于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者,Ⅰ-gel喉罩易于置入,其气道密封性可靠,通气效果好.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Ⅰ-gel for airway management in the patients requiring insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic

  11. Feasibility of supreme laryngeal mask airway in patients required insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic surgery%Supreme双管喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜手术患者气道管理的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤洁; 张锦


    Objective To assess the feasibility of supreme laryngeal mask airway in patients required insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic surgery. Methods Sixty ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ patients( 24 ~62 year old,52 ~75 kg ) scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: group I ( n = 29 )and group Ⅱ ( n = 31 ). In group I ,the nasogastric tube was inserted through the drain tube of supreme LMA. In group Ⅱ ,the nasogastric tube was inserted before operation. The fiberoptic laryngoscopy scores were assessed. The LMA placement time,success rate of LMA placement at the first attempt, airway sealing pressure were recorded. PETCO2 and peak airway pressure ( Ppeak )were monitored during operation. The problems after removal of the LMA were observed,and the adverse reactions after operation were recorded. Results There was no significant difference in the LMA placement time, success rate of LMA placement at the first attempt, airway sealing pressure, fiberoptic laryngoscopy scores, problems after removal of the LMA and adverse reactions between the two groups ( P >0. 05 ). Conclusion Supreme LMA can be used safely and effectively for the patients required insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic surgery.%目的 评价Supreme双管喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜手术患者气道管理的可行性.方法 择期全麻下拟行腹腔镜胆囊切除手术患者60例,ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,年龄24~62岁,体重52~75 kg,Mallampati Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,将患者随机分为经Supreme喉罩引流管放置胃管组( I组,29例)和术前经鼻放置胃管组(Ⅱ组,31例).Ⅰ组放置胃管后经胃管引流胃内容物,Ⅱ组于术前经鼻放置胃管,麻醉诱导前充分吸引后再置入喉罩.喉罩置入成功后行纤维支气管镜检查评分.记录喉罩置入时间、首次置入成功率和气道密封压情况.记录置入喉罩后和气腹后气道峰压(Ppeak)和呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)的变化.拔除喉罩

  12. 属性层次模型在决策中的应用%Application of AHM in Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 向隅


    层次分析法(Analytic Hierachy Process:AHP)方法是通过对定量与定性问题进行分析,从而作出决策.而属性层次模型(Attribute Hierachical Model:AHM)方法是在AHP方法的基础上建立的,具有简单,使用方便的优点.针对一个实际问题,利用属性层次模型方法进行分析得到了与使用AHP方法相同的结论.

  13. i-gel喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜手术患者气道管理的效果%Efficacy of laryngeal mask airway i-gel in patients required insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 左明章; 石妤; 宋京海


    目的 评价i-gel喉罩用于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜手术患者气道管理的效果.方法 择期全麻下拟行腹腔镜手术患者55例,性别不限,ASA分级Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,年龄26~64,体重54~73 kg,Mallampati分级Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,采用随机数字表法,将患者随机分为2组:经i-gel喉罩放置胃管组(Ⅰ组,n=28)和术前经鼻放置胃管组(Ⅱ组,n=27).Ⅰ组经i-gel喉罩的引流管放置胃管,并经胃管引流胃液及气体,Ⅱ组术前经鼻放置并术中保留胃管,麻醉诱导前充分吸引后,再置入喉罩.术中监测血液动力学指标、SpO2、PETCO2和气道峰压.置入成功后行纤维支气管镜检查评分,并观察胃管位移的发生情况;记录喉罩置入时间、首次置入成功情况、气道密封压、罩体周围漏气和胃管引流情况.拔除喉罩后观察罩体内是否有血液或返流物,记录术后24 h内咽部不良反应的发生情况.结果 两组术中血液动力学平稳,SpO2、气道峰压均在正常范围,气道峰压低于喉罩密封压,组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组喉罩置入时间、首次置入成功率、胃管引流率、气道密封压、罩体漏气发生率、口咽部解剖结构显露评分、咽部不良反应发生率、罩体内带血和有返流物的发生率比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),Ⅱ组胃管均未发生位移.结论 对于术前置入鼻胃管的腹腔镜手术患者,i-gel喉罩易于置入,气道密封性可靠,通气效果好,不影响胃管引流,可安全有效地用于该类患者的气道管理.%Objective To assess the efficacy of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) i-gel in patients required insertion of nasogastric tube before laparoscopic surgery. Methods Fifty-five ASA Ⅰ - Ⅲ patients ( Mallampati Ⅰ -Ⅲ ), aged 26-64 yr, weighing 54-73 kg, scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: group Ⅰ ( n= 28) and group Ⅱ ( n = 27). The size of i-gel LMA was chosen based on

  14. A prospective comparative study on neovascular glaucoma and nonneovascular refractory glaucoma following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Zhou Minwen; Wang Wei; Huang Wenbin; Chen Shida; Li Xingyi; Gao Xinbo


    Background Neovascular glaucoma is a refractory disease,and difficult to manage.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and nonNVG patients.Methods This prospective,non-randomized study included 55 eyes of 55 patients with refractory glaucoma; 27 had NVG (NVG group) and 28 had non-NVG (non-NVG group).All of the patients underwent AGVI.The NVG group was adjunctively injected with intravitreal ranibizumab/bevacizumab (IVR/IVB) before AGVI.Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome measure in this study.Surgical success rate,number of antiglaucoma medications used,best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),and postoperative complications were analyzed between the groups.Results All of the patients completed the study (follow-up of 12 months).Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis indicated that the qualified success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 70.5% and 92.9%,respectively; this difference was significant (P=0.036).The complete success rates in the NVG and non-NVG groups at 12 months were 66.7% and 89.3%,respectively (P=0.049).Compared with preoperative examinations,the postoperative mean IOP and use of medications were significantly lower at all follow-up time points in both groups (all P <0.05).There were significant differences in BCVA between the two groups at the 12-month follow-up (x2=9.86,P=0.020).Cox proportional hazards regression showed NVG as a risk factor for surgical failure (RR=15.08,P=0.033).Postoperative complications were similar between the two groups.Conclusions AGVI is a safe and effective procedure in refractory glaucoma,but the success rate of surgery was related to the type of refractory glaucoma.The complete and qualified success rates of NVG patient adjunctive anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment are still lower than those of non-NVG patients.

  15. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte


    BACKGROUND: Many patients have a nasogastric feeding tube inserted during admission; however, misplacement is not uncommon. In this case report we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented fatality from pressure pneumothorax following nasogastric tube withdrawal. CASE PRESENTATION......: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman with dysphagia and at risk of aspiration underwent routine insertion of a nasogastric feeding tube; however, shortly after insertion she developed respiratory distress. A chest X-ray showed the tube had been misplaced into our patient's right lung. The tube was removed......, but our patient died less than an hour after withdrawal. The autopsy report stated that cause of death was tension pneumothorax, which developed following withdrawal of the misplaced feeding tube. CONCLUSIONS: The indications for insertion of nasogastric feeding tubes are many and the procedure...

  16. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators (United States)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica


    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  17. Analysis of C60 insertion into single wall carbon nanotube by molecular dynamics simulation (United States)

    Ishii, Takafumi; Esfarjani, Keivan; Hashi, Yuichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Iijima, Sumio


    Classical molecular dynamics is used to simulate the insertion of C60 into a (10, 10) single wall nano tube (SWNT). We propose that the insertion process occurs through the open end of the tube. After insertion, the energy exchange between the C60 and the nanotube causes the kinetic energy of the former to decrease as it moves inside the tube. This kinetic energy loss is due to a "friction force" which we calculated for several insertion conditions. The binding energy of the C60 with the SWNT is due to Van der Waals interaction, and is found to be about 3.5 eV.

  18. Fibreoptic Bronchoscope for Nasogastric Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Dhiraj


    Full Text Available A patient of stage III squamous cell carcinoma of mandible with hemi-mandibulectomy, modified radical neck dissection and radiotherapy required Ryle’s Tube (RT insertion for feeding. This case report describes use of fibreoptic bronchoscope to place an endotracheal tube in oesophagus through nasal route which was then used as a conduit to pass a RT into stomach.

  19. Fibreoptic Bronchoscope for Nasogastric Tube Placement


    Bhandari Dhiraj; Garg Deepika; Chandankhede Shweta; Sharma Vaijyanti; Premendran Benhur; Tidke Sucheta


    A patient of stage III squamous cell carcinoma of mandible with hemi-mandibulectomy, modified radical neck dissection and radiotherapy required Ryle’s Tube (RT) insertion for feeding. This case report describes use of fibreoptic bronchoscope to place an endotracheal tube in oesophagus through nasal route which was then used as a conduit to pass a RT into stomach.

  20. Tie rod insertion test

    CERN Multimedia



    The superconducting coil is inserted in the outer vaccum tank and supported by a set of tie rods. These tie rods are made of titanium alloy. This test reproduce the final insertion of the tie rods inside the outer vacuum tank.

  1. Ahmed Bey Zogou et la Serbie Une coopération inachevée (1914-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.


    Full Text Available Dans la première phase de la Grande Guerre, les relations entre la Serbie et l’Albanie furent tendues, marquées par les conflits et les disputes territoriales ainsi que par la rivalité avec les autres puissances, surtout l’Autriche-Hongrie et la Turquie, dans l’Albanie, en tant que nouvel État balkanique. Afin de dépasser les conflits et de rétablir l’influence politique de la Serbie en Albanie le Président du Conseil serbe, Nikola P. Pašić, établit les liens proches et stratégiques avec le puissant chef d’Albanie centrale Essad Pacha Toptani. En vue d’élargir le réseau des chefs claniques amicaux à travers les émissaires spéciaux en Albanie, Pašić recruta Ahmed bey Zogou, le chef de la région des Mati et le neveu d’Essad Pacha. Cette étude démontre les différentes phases, avec les résultats mitigés, d’une coopération entre la Serbie et Ahmed bey Zogou, chef de la région Mati (futur roi d’Albanie Zog Ier entre-deux-guerres, destinée d’apaiser l’inimitié des clans albanais contre la Serbie et de créer un cadre de coopération bilatérale plus stable et plus durable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177011: L’histoire des idées et institutions politiques dans les Balkans aux XIXe et XXe siècles

  2. Safe and adequate placement of nasogastric tubes in the presence of a cuffed tracheostomy tube. (United States)

    Parmar, A; Macleod, I; McDonald, S; Tierney, P


    This case report and review of the literature aims to highlight the importance of the use of a chest radiograph to check the placement of nasogastric tubes after insertion in an awake patient with an inflated cuffed tracheostomy tube regardless of an acidic pH test.

  3. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys


    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  4. Late-Onset Endophthalmitis Secondary to Exposed Glaucoma Tube Implant in a Rare Case of Paediatric Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshatha Ranganath


    Full Text Available Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs are used to treat paediatric glaucoma resistant to conventional medical and surgical treatment, achieving good intraocular pressure (IOP control and long-term success. Late endophthalmitis is a rare complication that may develop following GDI surgery. A 17-year-old male presented with acute endophthalmitis 2 years after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with pericardial patch graft for management of refractory glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uveae. The glaucoma tube was exposed due to erosion of the overlying conjunctiva with no visible pericardial graft. After control of active infection, he underwent tube revision surgery whereby the exposed tube was retained and repatched with a double-thickness pericardial patch graft. He did well following surgery with good control of IOP and restoration of vision. Conjunctival dehiscence with graft melting over the GDI tube presented a major risk factor for endophthalmitis. Prompt surgical revision of an exposed tube is highly recommended to avoid ocular morbidity.

  5. [Nasogastric tubes: a lot of bother]. (United States)

    Tagliabue, Fabio; D'Angelo, Carlo; Zuccon, William; Giorgetta, Casimiro; Balduzzi, Valerio; Gambarini, Fabrizio; Bonandrini, Luigi


    The insertion of the nasogastric tube is one of the procedure that produces the most discomfort for the patients and practitioners. The AA, with the make use of their clinical experience and the data of the literature, report some personal reflections about the management of the nasogastric tube. The AA also analyse some variables (choice of the tube, approach to the patient, insertion of the tube, examination of the position, fixation and removal) that can influence on discomfort of the patient. The choice of the most right SNG is an important moment for the correct insertion; an effect we need to adjust the material and diameter of the tube to the prearranged use. The common practice demonstrates that the collaboration with the patient, obtained by "direct" and "indirect" strategies, gives more possibilities to immediately success of this procedure. The literature explains that it is possible to decrease the discomfort with topical anesthesia; still there are some points of view to clarify. From analyse of the different methods to check the position of SNG, the pH test of the aspirating fluid is the best solution. Once examination of right placement, we need to fix in different points (at least two). From personal experience the removal of SNG is better tolerate that the insertion because the patient is more conscious to be on the mend. The principal recommendation is to abstain from insertion of SNG if it is not closely necessary!

  6. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld;


    . The theoretical basis for such electrodes is discussedand, using a simplified model, equations are derived to describe the distribution of potential and current duringdischarge/charge operation. Under the assumption that the insertion compound particles are small enough to ensureequilibrium, and that the local...... electrode potential depends linearly on the degree of insertion, these equations are solvedto obtain analytical expressions for the discharge curve. It is shown that the parameters which determine the dischargebehavior for a given discharge current are simply related to the effective ionic and electronic...

  7. Hidden $U(1)_Y$ Ward-Takahashi identities, absence of Brout-Englert-Higgs fine-tuning, decoupling of certain heavy particles, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking II: The Abelian Higgs model (AHM), extended-AHM, derivations and examples

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Bryan W


    This work is dedicated to the memory of R. Stora. The spontaneously broken (SSB) $U(1)_Y$ Abelian Higgs model (AHM) (the gauge theory of a scalar $\\phi \\propto (H+i\\pi)= {\\tilde H}e^{i{\\tilde \\pi}/}$ and a transverse vector A) has a massless pseudo-scalar $\\pi$ in Lorenz gauge. Physical states have a conserved global current and Goldstone theorem (GT). $\\tilde \\pi$ becomes a Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB). Slavnov-Taylor identities keep on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states independent of anomaly-free gauge, and global, transformations, yielding towers of $\\phi$-sector Ward-Takahashi Identities (WTI), and constraining external $\\phi$ dynamics. Ultraviolet quadratic divergences (UVQD) contribute only to $m_\\pi^2$, forced by the GT to 0, so all UVQD vanish. Weak-scale renormalized gauge-independent Higgs pole-mass and VEV are therefore not fine-tuned. The NGB is "eaten" and decouples, hiding the $U(1)_Y$ WTI from observable particle physics. Our regularization-scheme-independent results are unchanged by th...

  8. 改良Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Modified Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation in the Treatment of Refractory Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of modified Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the treatment of refractory glaucoma.Methods 76 patients with refractory glaucoma were divided into Ahmed group (Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation) and modified Ahmed group (modified Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation) according to the different treatment methods. The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and complications after treatment were compared between the two groups.Results The intraocular pressure, visual acuity and complications of modified Ahmed group were beter than Ahmed group, the difference has statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Modified Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the treatment of refractory glaucoma has significant effect and less adverse reactions, worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:分析改良Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼的临床疗效。方法76例难治性青光眼患者根据治疗方法的不同分为Ahmed组36例(采用Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗)和改良Ahmed组40例(采用改良Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗),比较两组患者治疗后的眼压、视力及并发症情况。结果改良Ahmed组的视力恢复情况,眼压,并发症均优于Ahmed组,差异比较均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论改良Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗难治性青光眼,疗效显著,且不良反应较小,值得临床推广应用。

  9. Book review: The superlative city: Dubai and the urban condition in the early twenty-first century edited by Ahmed Kanna


    Housby, Elaine


    "The Superlative City: Dubai and the Urban Condition in the Early Twenty-First Century." Ahmed Kanna. Harvard University Press. August 2013. --- In the last few years, the Persian Gulf city of Dubai has exploded from the Arabian sands onto the world stage. Oil wealth, land rent, and so-called informal economic practices have blanketed the urbanscape with enormous enclaved developments attracting a global elite, while the economy runs on a huge army of migrant workers from the labour-exporting...

  10. Inserting the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The huge superconducting solenoid for CMS is inserted into the cryostat barrel. CMS uses the world's largest thin solenoid, in terms of energy stored, and is 12 m long, with a diameter of 6 m and weighing 220 tonnes. When turned on the magnet will produce a field strength of 4 T using superconducting niobium-titanium material at 4.5 K.

  11. Pixel detector insertion

    CERN Multimedia



    Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

  12. Heat Transfer Enhancement by Using Different Types of Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tabatabaeikia


    Full Text Available Heat transfer enhancement has been always a significantly interesting topic in order to develop high efficient, low cost, light weight, and small heat exchangers. The energy cost and environmental issue are also encouraging researchers to achieve better performance than the existing designs. Two of the most effective ways to achieve higher heat transfer rate in heat exchangers are using different kinds of inserts and modifying the heat exchanger tubes. There are different kinds of inserts employed in the heat exchanger tubes such as helical/twisted tapes, coiled wires, ribs/fins/baffles, and winglets. This paper presents an overview about the early studies on the improvement of the performance of thermal systems by using different kinds of inserts. Louvered strip insert had better function in backward flow compared to forward one. Modifying the shape of twisted tapes led to a higher efficiency in most of the cases excpet for perforated twisted tape and notched twisted tape. Combination of various inserts and tube with artificial roughness provided promising results. In case of using various propeller types, heat transfer enhancement was dependent on higher number of blades and blade angle and lower pitch ratio.

  13. SVC obstruction and stridor relieved by nasogastric tube insertion. (United States)

    Molena, Emma J; Krishnamoorthy, Ashwin; Praveen, Coimbatore


    Achalasia is an idiopathic motility disorder of the oesophagus of increasing incidence. It is characterized by aperistalsis of the lower oesophagus and failure of relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. Patients classically present with chronic symptoms of dysphagia, chest pain, weight loss and regurgitation, and they commonly suffer pulmonary complications such as recurrent microaspiration of static, retained food contents of the upper oesophagus. However, it has also been described, uncommonly, to present with megaoesophagus and secondary tracheal compression. We present a case of megaoesophagus secondary to achalasia which presented with stridor and signs of acute superior vena caval obstruction.

  14. Investigation of contact resistance for fin-tube heat exchanger by means of tube expansion (United States)

    Hing, Yau Kar; Raghavan, Vijay R.; Meng, Chin Wai


    An experimental study on the heat transfer performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger due to mechanical expansion of the tube by bullets has been reported in this paper. The manufacture of a fin-tube heat exchanger commonly involves inserting copper tubes into a stack of aluminium fins and expanding the tubes mechanically. The mechanical expansion is achieved by inserting a steel bullet through the tube. The steel bullet has a larger diameter than the tube and the expansion provides a firm surface contact between fins and tubes. Five bullet expansion ratios (i.e. 1.045 to 1.059) have been used in the study to expand a 9.52mm diameter tubes in a fin-tube heat exchanger. The study is conducted on a water-to-water loop experiment rig under steady state conditions. In addition, the effects of fin hardness and fin pitch are investigated in the study. The results indicate that the optimum heat transfer occurred at a bullet expansion ratio ranging from 1.049 to 1.052. It is also observed that larger fin pitches require larger bullet expansion ratios, especially with lower fin hardness. As the fin pitch increases, both fin hardness (i.e. H22 and H24) exhibit increasing heat transfer rate per fin (W/fin). With the H22 hardness temper, the increase is as much as 11% while H24 increases by 1.2%.

  15. Ear Tubes (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  16. Instalación de "sondas digestivas ectopicas" en pacientes con patología de cabeza y cuello y otras diversas, cuando las vías naturales no son practicables o no se consideran convenientes: Una nueva metodología "Ectopic enteral tube" insertion in patients with head, neck and other pathologies when natural tracts are impracticable or inadvisable: A new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hernández-Altemir


    Full Text Available Introducción. Es frecuente que en los pacientes con patología general diversa y del territorio oral y maxilofacial tengamos que dotarles de medios extraordinarios para facilitar la alimentación y aspiración digestiva. Presentamos una nueva metodología para la instalación de lo que denominamos Sondas Digestivas Ectópicas (SDE. Material y Método. Empleamos las sondas digestivas convencionales, sólo que haciéndolas llegar al tramo digestivo por lo que denominamos vías ectópicas de instalación y entre las más habituales en nuestras manos estaría, la sonda digestiva pericraneal o submental o a través de heridas y trayectos creados o no del territorio craneofacial. Presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente con fracturas conminutadas del territorio craneomaxilofacial al que la SDE se instaló en la región temporal y supracigomática izquierda. Resultados. Conseguimos con esta nueva metodología evitar técnicas más agresivas como la gastrostomía percutánea o quirúrgica y evitar el uso de los la via nasal u oral, cuando éstos no son practicables o no están indicados manteniendo una vía fiable de aspiración y alimentación digestiva. Conclusiones. Los beneficios de esta técnica deben hacer que incorporemos la SDE en nuestro arsenal terapéutico.Introduction. Patients with a variety of general pathologies and oral and maxillofacial pathologies often require extraordinary measures for to ensure enteral feeding and aspiration. We report a new method for inserting what we call "ectopic enteral tubes" (EET. Material and Method. Conventional enteral tubes are inserted into the digestive tract using "ectopic" insertion routes. At present, the most common routes available are the pericranial or submental routes, as well as wounds and trajectories that are present or created expressly for this purpose in the craniofacial area. We report the clinical case of a patient with comminuted fractures of the temporal and left suprazygomatic

  17. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers (United States)

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.


    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan


    Full Text Available Grommet insertion the commonest surgical procedure next only to circumcision is usually performed using an operating microscope 1. Authors have been using 4 mm 0 degree nasalendoscopes to perform this procedure during the last 5 years. This is a report of their experience in using endoscope inlieu of microscope in performing this surgery. This study makes a comparative analysis of Endoscopic Grommet insertion viz a viz Microscopic Grommet insertion. For this comparative analysis one year (2009 data base of Government Stanley Medical College Chennai India was used. This study reveals that Endoscopic Grommet insertion compared favorably with Microscopic Grommet insertion in all aspects with certain obvious advantages.

  19. Jejunostomy feeding tube (United States)

    ... page: // Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  20. Esophageal rupture due to Sengstaken-Blakemore tube misplacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee-Fah Chong


    The author presents three cases of esophageal rupture during the treatment of massive esophageal variceal bleeding with Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube. In each case, simple auscultation was used to guide SB tube insertion, with chest radiograph obtained only after complete inflation of the gastric balloon. Two patients died of hemorrhagic shock and one died of mediastinitis.The author suggests that confirmation of SB tube placement by auscultation alone may not be adequate.Routine chest radiographs should be obtained before and after full inflation of the gastric balloon to confirm tube position and to detect tube dislocation.

  1. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence. (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra


    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively.

  2. Pneumothorax Following Feeding Tube Placement: Precaution and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zahmatkesh


    Full Text Available Nasojejunal feeding tubes are being used at an increased frequency, but it is not without complications that could be life-threatening. We report two cases of pneumothorax following small-bore feeding tube insertion into the pleural cavity, resulting in pneumothorax. We further discuss the potential measures that can be taken to prevent and treat this serious complication.

  3. Adjunctive with versus without intravitreal bevacizumab injection before Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min-wen; WANG Wei; HUANG Wen-bin; CHEN Shi-da; LI Xing-yi; GAO Xin-bao; ZHANG Xiu-lan


    Background Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a refractory disease which is difficult to manage.This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjunctive intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection in conjunction with Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation (AGVI) in the management of NVG.Methods This was a retrospective study of patients with NVG in whom AGVI was performed between October 2008 and May 2012.The sample was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment:with adjunctive IVB injection (the IVB group,n=25 eyes) and without adjunctive IVB injection (the control group,n=28 eyes).The surgical success rate,number of antiglaucoma medications used,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),postoperative complications,regression,and recurrence of iris neovascularization (NVI) were analyzed between the groups.Results The surgical outcomes of the two groups were compared.The complete success rates in the IVB and control groups were 84.0% and 64.3% at 12 months and 80.0% and 53.6% at 18 months,respectively.There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.041).Mean postoperative intraocular pressures,mean number of postoperative antiglaucoma medications,and BCVA were not significant between the two groups.The NVI in 22 (88.0%) eyes had completely regressed within 2-8 days after IVB.However,NVI recurred in 10 eyes (40.0%) 2-9 months later after IVB.The IVB group had only 1 case (4.0%) of hyphema out of 25 eyes,while there were 8 (28.6%) cases of hyphema out of 28 eyes in the control group (P=0.026).Conclusions This study showed that preoperative IVB injection reduced NVI remarkably,decreased hyphema,and led to higher surgical success rates.Pre-operative IVB injection may be an effective adjunct to AGVI in the management of NVG.

  4. Iatrogenic velopharyngeal insufficiency caused by neonatal nasogastric feeding tube. (United States)

    Pollack, Aron Z; Ward, Robert F; DeRowe, Ari; April, Max M


    Complications from a prolonged nasogastric tube intubation, though seldom reported, are well described. Herein we describe the first two reported cases of velopharyngeal insufficiency secondary to velopharyngeal scarring and immobility from repetitive nasogastric tube insertions and prolonged use. Differing only in location, the proposed pathophysiologic mechanism of injury is identical to that of the nasogastric tube syndrome, a rare and serious, well described entity consisting of bilateral vocal fold paralysis due to pressure-induced ulceration of the posterior cricoarytenoid musculature.

  5. Ultrasonic airborne insertion loss measurements at normal incidence (L). (United States)

    Farley, Jayrin; Anderson, Brian E


    Transmission loss and insertion loss measurements of building materials at audible frequencies are commonly made using plane wave tubes or as a panel between reverberant rooms. These measurements provide information for noise isolation control in architectural acoustics and in product development. Airborne ultrasonic sound transmission through common building materials has not been fully explored. Technologies and products that utilize ultrasonic frequencies are becoming increasingly more common, hence the need to conduct such measurements. This letter presents preliminary measurements of the ultrasonic insertion loss levels for common building materials over a frequency range of 28-90 kHz using continuous-wave excitation.

  6. Gastrostomy insertion: comparing the options - PEG, RIG or PIG?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasch, H.-U. E-mail:; Wilbraham, L.; Bullen, K.; Marriott, A.; Lawrance, J.A.L.; Johnson, R.J.; Lee, S.H.; England, R.E.; Gamble, G.E.; Martin, D.F


    AIM: To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) with radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) and assess a hybrid gastrostomy technique (per-oral image-guided gastrostomy, PIG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty PEGs and 50 RIGs performed in three centres were prospectively compared and the endoscopic findings of 200 PEGs reviewed. A fluoroscopy-guided technique was modified to place 20 F over-the-wire PEG-tubes in 60 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Technical success was 98%, 100% and 100% for PEG, RIG and PIG, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced stoma infection for orally placed tubes (p=0.02). Ten out of 50 (20%) small-bore RIG tubes blocked. Replacement tubes were required in six out of 50 PEGs (12%), 10 out of 50 RIGs (20%), but no PIGs (p<0.001). No procedure-related complications occurred. The function of radiologically placed tubes was significantly improved with the larger PIG (p<0.001), with similar wound infection rates. PIG was successful in 24 patients where endoscopic insertion could not be performed. Significant endoscopic abnormalities were found in 42 out of 200 PEG patients (21%), all related to peptic disease. Insignificant pathology was found in 8.5%. CONCLUSION: PIG combines advantages of both traditional methods with a higher success and lower re-intervention rate. Endoscopy is unlikely to detect clinically relevant pathology other than peptic disease. PIG is a very effective gastrostomy method; it has better long-term results than RIG and is successful where conventional PEG has failed.

  7. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  8. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  9. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  10. A virtual reality based simulator for learning nasogastric tube placement. (United States)

    Choi, Kup-Sze; He, Xuejian; Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Deng, Zhaohong


    Nasogastric tube (NGT) placement is a common clinical procedure where a plastic tube is inserted into the stomach through the nostril for feeding or drainage. However, the placement is a blind process in which the tube may be mistakenly inserted into other locations, leading to unexpected complications or fatal incidents. The placement techniques are conventionally acquired by practising on unrealistic rubber mannequins or on humans. In this paper, a virtual reality based training simulation system is proposed to facilitate the training of NGT placement. It focuses on the simulation of tube insertion and the rendering of the feedback forces with a haptic device. A hybrid force model is developed to compute the forces analytically or numerically under different conditions, including the situations when the patient is swallowing or when the tube is buckled at the nostril. To ensure real-time interactive simulations, an offline simulation approach is adopted to obtain the relationship between the insertion depth and insertion force using a non-linear finite element method. The offline dataset is then used to generate real-time feedback forces by interpolation. The virtual training process is logged quantitatively with metrics that can be used for assessing objective performance and tracking progress. The system has been evaluated by nursing professionals. They found that the haptic feeling produced by the simulated forces is similar to their experience during real NGT insertion. The proposed system provides a new educational tool to enhance conventional training in NGT placement.

  11. The Multiple Silicone Tube Device, “Tubes within a Tube,” for Multiplication in Nerve Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Johansson


    Full Text Available Multiple nerve branches were created during the regeneration procedure after a nerve injury and such multiple branches are suggested to be used to control, for example, prosthesis with many degrees of freedom. Transected rat sciatic nerve stumps were inserted into a nine mm long silicone tube, which contained four, five mm long, smaller tubes, thus leaving a five mm gap for regenerating nerve fibers. Six weeks later, several new nerve structures were formed not only in the four smaller tubes, but also in the spaces in-between. The 7–9 new continuous nerve structures, which were isolated as individual free nerves after removal of the tubes, were delineated by a perineurium and contained both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers as well as blood vessels. Stimulation of the proximal nerve elicited contractions in distal muscles. Thin metal electrodes, inserted initially into the smaller tubes in some experiments, became embedded in the new nerve structures and when stimulated contractions of the distal muscles were observed. The “tubes within a tube” technique, creating multiple new nerves from a single “mother” nerve, can be used to record multiple signals for prosthetic device control or as sources for supply of multiple denervated targets.

  12. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab


    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  13. Fatal massive hemorrhage caused by nasogastric tube misplacement in a patient with mediastinitis. (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Kang, Ting-Jui; Hui, Chung-Kun; Hung, Ming-Hui; Sun, Wei-Zen; Chan, Wei-Hung


    Nasogastric tube insertion is a routine procedure in medical care. However, misplacement of the tube can cause a variety of complications, which can be life threatening in some instances. We report a case of fatal hemorrhagic shock immediately after nasogastric tube insertion in a patient undergoing debridement by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for mediastinitis. Emergency endoscopy showed that the bleeding came from the nasogastric tube which had perforated the esophagus and possibly tore an intrathoracic large vessel. The nasogastric tube insertion was considered to have directly produced the perforation because no esophageal perforation had been found on preoperative endoscopy. Factors contributing to the risk of esophageal perforation in this case included coexisting mediastinitis, surgical manipulation, endotracheal intubation, inability to cooperate during general anesthesia, and repetitive advancement of the nasogastric tube. Prompt clamping of the nasogastric tube or delayed insertion after failed attempts might have improved the outcome. This report illustrates the complication of massive bleeding that can occur immediately after misplaced insertion of a nasogastric tube. Extraordinary care should be taken to avoid misplacement of the nasogastric tube during insertion.

  14. Vein-style air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Robert Leon; Gobinath, Thulasiram; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung; Lamgaday, Robin; Losey, Robert Allen; Griffoin, Jean-Claude Patrice Philippe


    An air pumping tube and tire system and method of assembling is provided in which a tire groove is formed to extend into a flexing region of a tire sidewall and a complementary air pumping tube inserts into the tire groove. In the green, uncured air pumping tube condition, one or more check valves are assembled into the air pumping tube through access shafts and align with an internal air passageway of the air pumping tube. Plug components of the system enclose the check valves in the air pumping tube and the check valve-containing green air pumping tube is then cured.

  15. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.


    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  16. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cereda


    Full Text Available A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  17. A preliminary investigation of the neoprene tube finger extension splint. (United States)

    Clark, E N


    Neoprene tube finger extension splints were analyzed to determine the production, amounts, and directions of force magnitude on the proximal interphalangeal joint during the flexing of the tube up to angles of 80 degrees. The tubes were examined in their empty form, with a human digit inserted into the tube, and with portions of the tube on the volar and dorsal surfaces removed. Upward forces ranged from less than 100 g to 225 g in the empty tubes. Upon insertion of a human digit into the tubes, forces increased from 125 g at 10 degrees to 650 g at 80 degrees flexion. Removal of a 2-cm square portion on the dorsal surface over the PIP joint did not significantly affect the tube's ability to lift upward demonstrating little or no downward pressure in the device. The tube had little or no upward force following removal of a 2-cm square encompassing the angle of the device on the volar surface. Positive effectiveness of the tubes were examined in case reports.

  18. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  19. Feeding tube - infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BİLGİLİ


    Full Text Available Özetİcazet, ilmin aktarılmasında önemli bir belgedir. Öğrencinin belli bir ilmi yeterliliğe sahip olduğunu gösteren icazet, Hz. Peygamber (s.a.v’e kadar ilim alınan hocaları gösteren tarihi bir vesikadır. Makalede Osmanlı Devletinin son dönemlerinde yetişerek İslâm Hukukçuluğu ile ön plana çıkan Konya müderrislerinden Şeyhzâde Ahmed Ziya Efendinin Müderris Hasan Kudsî Efendiden aldığı ilmi icazet1 incelendi. Konu edindiğimiz icazet, akli ve nakli tüm ilimleri kapsadığı ve hoca silsilesine ayrıntılı yer verdiği için ilmi icazetin ‘genel icazet/icazet-i âmme’ kısmına bir örnektir. Makalenin birinci bölümü Ahmed Ziya Efendi ile hocası Hasan Kudsî Efendinin kısa biyografilerine ayrıldı. İkinci bölümde icazet hakkında genel bilgi sunulduktan sonra icazetin değerlendirmesi yapıldı. Üçüncü bölümde de icazetin Türkçeye tercümesi sunuldu.Anahtar Kelimeler: İcazet, Fıkıh, İlim, MedreseAbstractAuthorization is an important document the transfer of knowledge. Showing that the student has a specific scientific competence, This document is historical certificate and evidence from knowledge of the teachers to the Prophet. In this article, we studied Şeyhzade (dervish’s son Ahmed Ziya Efendi’s diploma recieved from Muderris (proffesor Hasan Kudsî Efendi that was Islamic jurist and lived in the last period of Ottoman State. This sertificate is an example part of the general sertificate for mental and transplants covered by all the sciences and given in detail for the scientific diploma. Firstly in this article we mentioned Ahmed Ziya Efendi’s and Hasan Kudsî Efendi’s short biographies. Secondly we presented information about authorization/icazet after that assessed this sertificate. Thirdly we translated this authorication to Turkish.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Kronolojik tarzda yazılan vefeyâtnâmeler Türk edebiyatındaki biyografi türlerinden birisidir. Bu makalede Ahmed Câvid Efendi’nin Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ı çeşitli yönleriyle ilim âlemine tanıtılarak, eserin ilk yüz senelik bölümü çeviri metin olarak sunulmaktadır. Eski ve yeni kaynaklarda bahsedilmeyen bu eserin zahriyesinde yer alan telif kaydı ve metindeki anlatımlar, eserin Ahmed Câvid’e ait olduğu fikrini vermektedir. Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ın asıl bölümünü hicretten yazıldığı ana dek gerçekleşen vefat kayıtları oluşturmaktadır. Bu kısımda, vefatı bildirilen kişilerin kısa yaşam bilgileri de verilmektedir. Müslüman ülkelerin liderlerinin tahta çıkış ve ölüm tarihleri ile Osmanlı Devleti’nin vezir, şeyhülislam, darüssaade ağası, nakibüleşraflarının nasb, azil ve vefat tarihlerinin bildirildiği cedveller eserin diğer bölümlerini meydana getirmektedir. Eser, Türk edebiyatı ve tarihinin pek çok ünlü simasının vefat tarihleri ile muhtasar hayat hikâyelerini ihtiva etmesi açısından oldukça önem taşımaktadır. Kısmen münşiyâne bir üslûba sahip olması Vefeyât-ı Kibâr’ı diğer kronolojik vefeyâtnâmelerden ayırmaktadır ABSTRACT Chronologic type acquaintances are one of the biography types in the Turkish literature. This article introduces Ahmed Câvid’s Vefeyât-ı Kibâr and includes a translated written text for the first century of its coverage. This work has not been mentioned in the old and new studies and its credits page and narrative indicates that Ahmed Câvid was the author. The main section of Vefeyât-ı Kibâr comprises of death records from the Hijrah (622 AD to the time that it was written. It contains a brief biography of the listed person. Other parts of the book contains a chart on Ottoman viziers, shaykh al-Islam, chief harem eunuch, chief degree of the prophet's descendants, along with their appointment, dismissal and death dates

  2. Gas turbine vane cooling air insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.E.; Hultgren, K.G.; Dishman, C.D.; Van Heusden, G.S.


    This patent describes a gas turbine. It comprises turbine vanes, each of the vanes supplied with cooling air and having: an airfoil portion forming a first cavity having an insert disposed therein for directing the flow of the cooling air, the insert having first and second insert ends; a shroud portion from which the airfoil portion extends, the insert attached to the shroud portion at the first insert end; an insert extension extending through a portion of the insert and extending beyond the first insert end, the insert extension and the insert forming an annular gap therebetween separating the insert from the insert extension; a plate covering at least a portion of the shroud, the plate having a first hole formed therein through which the insert extension extends; and at least a first seal extending between the insert extension and the insert, and sealing the annular gap therebetween. This patent also describes a method of making a gas turbine. It comprises welding a first tubular insert adjacent its first end to a vane outer shroud; partially inserting a second tubular insert into the first tubular member and attaching the second tubular insert thereto; placing a plate having a hole formed therein on the outer shroud so that the hole surrounds the second tubular insert; and attaching the second tubular insert to the plate by placing a first seal between the first and second tubular inserts and attaching the first seal to each of the first and second tubular inserts, and placing a second seal between the second tubular insert and the plate and welding the second seal to the second tubular insert and the plate.

  3. Comparison of two percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in the nutritional management of ALS patients. (United States)

    Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Turner, Martin R; Shaw, Ashley S; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Chris E; Leigh, P Nigel; Sidhu, Paul S


    Patient care and minimizing complications post gastrostomy have to date received little attention in ALS patients. We compare the complications associated with pigtail and mushroom type percutaneous radiological gastrostomy tubes in this patient group. Patients requiring PRG received either Wills-Oglesby or the skin level Entristar. Retrospective review of the clinical notes was performed capturing demographic data, peristomal infection, tube displacement, tube failure, nutritional status, site of disease onset, and survival. Thirty-five patients (Group 1) had the Wills-Oglesby tube of which 14 (40%) tubes required replacement. The Entristar tube was inserted in 29 patients (Group 2) where 8 (28%) required replacement (NS). The incidence of infection was significantly lower with the Entristar tube, (psyndrome'. We conclude that the Entristar skin level gastrostomy tube is associated with a reduction in peristomal infection, tube failure and blockage compared with the Wills-Oglesby tube.

  4. Nasogastric Tube Placement in Newborns Before Discharge. (United States)

    Alnemri, Abdulrahman M; Saeed, Anjum; Assiri, Asaad M


    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical staff (physicians) at different levels about insertion or placement of nasogastric tube (NGT) in a normal newborn before discharge. It was a survey-based, observational study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital. Atotal of 103 doctors were sent text message; among those 81 (78.6%) responded. Among the respondents, 27, 16, 11 and 27 were neonatologists, general physicians, obstetricians/ ENT/pediatric surgeons, and senior registrars neonatology (SRN), respectively. Majority of physicians, 57 (70.3%) rejected the idea of insertion of NGTin a normal newborn but in 24 (29.6%), answer was to insert NGTin all the newborns before discharge to check the patency of nasal cavities. Regarding the position, region of doctors and their response, majority from Center said ‘No’(not in favour of insertion) but from South, 17/18 (94.4%) said ‘Yes’(in favour of insertion). Regarding other specialties, majority of them showed rejection of this idea. In conclusion, most of the healthcare professionals, directly involved with neonatal care, rejected the idea of routine insertion of NGTin normal newborn examination before discharge; rather, some non-invasive technique could be opted.

  5. The love moaning of a poet: the vocabulary of the letters written by Ahmed Arif to Leyla ErbilBir şairin aşk iniltileri: Ahmed Arif’ten Leyla Erbil’e mektupların söz varlığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Baskın


    Full Text Available Ahmed Arif, who is one of the Sociable Poets of the 1940s, wrote about the topics in his works in a romantic style. The enthusiasm and the romance in his works separates him from other poets of the era. Although he wrote only one poetry book, his poems such as Hasretinden Prangalar Eskittim, Haberin Var mı? (İçerde, Terketmedi Sevdan Beni became famous and were composed and sung by famous singers of Turkey like Funda Arar, Ahmet Kaya, Suavi, Edip Akbayram, Cem Karaca. These events made him become a famous poet not only in a narrow society who had similar thoughts, but also all over Turkey. There are many sources for the lyricism and romance that gave him this fame. However, the most important share among these many sources belongs to his love for Leyla Erbil. He did not limit his love with poems and he conveyed his love for Leyla Erbil in the letters he wrote, most of which were written between the years 1954-1959, and the last of which was written in 1977. In his poems, Ahmed Arif told his love, his environment, the intellectual world of the era, his exiles and the challenges he had experienced. All these reasons make the verbal existence of the Letters from Ahmed Arif to Leyla Erbil important. For this reason, in this study, the letters are examined in terms of verbal existence and the words in his works are classified under titles such as Basic Word Existence, Proverbs, Phrases, Terms, Verbal Structures, Reduplications, Slang and Expletives, Sayings specific to Diyarbakır, etc. and the concept areas are defined. As a result of this, it has been determined that Ahmed Arif was infatuated with Leyla Erbil, he even placed her in the very center of his personal life, sometimes he deified her, and defined her as “My lady, my friend, by sister, my daughter, my god, my messenger”. Moreover, it was also observed that the local sayings, phrases, and especially slang and expletives have important places in Ahmed Arif’s vocabulary.  

  6. 插入双面有三角形翅片的金属带对热交换管中流动和传热特性的影响%Influence of Double-sided Delta-wing Tape Insert with Alternate-axes on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Heat Exchanger Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smith Eiamsa-ard; Pongjet Promvonge


    The convective heat transfer and friction behaviors of turbulent tube flow through a straight tape with double-sided delta wings (T-W) have been studied experimentally. In the current work, the T-W formed on the tape was used as vortex generators for enhancing the heat transfer coefficient by breakdown of thermal boundary layer and by mixing of fluid flow in tubes. The T-W characteristics are (1) T-W with forward/backward-wing arrangement, (2) T-W with alternate axis (T-WA), (3) three wing-width ratios and (4) wing-pitch ratios. The experimental result reveals that for using the T-W, the increases in the mean Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor are, respectively, up to 165% and 14.8 times of the plain tube and the maximum thermal performance factor is 1.19. It is also obvious that the T-W with forward-wing gives higher heat transfer rate than one with backward-wing around 7%.The present investigation also shows that the heat transfer rate and friction factor obtained from the T-WA is higher than that from the T-W. In addition, the flow pattern and temperature fields in the T-W tube with both backward and forward wings were also examined numerically.

  7. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites (United States)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  8. An insertion algorithm for catabolizability

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, Jonah


    Motivated by our recent work relating canonical bases to combinatorics of Garsia-Procesi modules \\cite{B}, we give an insertion algorithm that computes the catabolizability of the insertion tableau of a standard word. This allows us to characterize catabolizability as the statistic on words invariant under Knuth transformations, certain (co)rotations, and a new operation called a catabolism transformation. We also prove a Greene's Theorem-like characterization of catabolizability, and a result about how cocyclage changes catabolizability, strengthening a similar result in \\cite{SW}.

  9. Evaluation of promoting effect of transdermal enhancers with AHM-Topsis%基于属性AHM的Topsis综合评价促透剂的促透效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖焕玲; 黄萍; 王晖


    目的 运用基于属性AHM的Topsis,对几种促透剂的促透效果进行综合评价.方法 以延胡索乙素为模型药物,以氮酮、薄荷醇、丁香油、广藿香挥发油为促透剂,在离体透皮吸收装置上进行透皮吸收实验,计算渗透系数、稳态流量、滞后时间、增渗倍数,运用基于属性AHM的Topsis对促透效果进行综合评价.结果 对延胡索乙素的促渗作用,优劣顺序为:10 mL·L-1氮酮、10 mL·L-1氮酮和10 mL·L-1丁香油、10 mL·L-1丁香油、10 mL·L-1氮酮和10 mL·L-1薄荷醇、10 mL·L-1薄荷醇和10 mL·L-1丁香油、10 mL·L-1薄荷醇、10 mL·L-1氮酮和10 mL·L-1广藿香挥发油、10 mL·L-1丁香油和10 mL·L-1广藿香挥发油、10 mL·L-1薄荷醇和10 mL·L-1广藿香挥发油、10 mL·L-1广藿香挥发油.结论 基于属性AHM的Topsis使主观与客观相结合,能公正地评价中药挥发油促渗剂的促渗效果.%Objective To evaluate the promoting effect of transdermal enhancers with AHM-Topsis .Methods Tetrahydropalmatine was used as a model,and azone,menthol,clove oil,and patchouli oil were used as transdermal enhancers .Transdermal absorption experiment the of nicotinamide on the device of penetrating skins in vitro was done .Penetrating rates and steady fluxs and lag times and enhancement ratio were observed ,and then the AHM-Topsis was used to evaluate the promoting effect of transdermal enhancers .Results As for promoting effect on tetrahydropalmatine ,the order of advantages and disadvantages were as follows :10 mL · L-1 azone ,10 mL · L-1 azone & 10 mL · L-1 clove oil ,10 mL · L-1 clove oil ,10 mL · L azone & 10 mL · L-1 menthol ,10 mL ?·L-1 menthol & 10 mL · L-1 clove oil ,10 mL · L-1 menthol ,10 mL · L-1 azone & 10 mL · L-1 patchouli oil ,10 mL · L-1 clove oil & 10 mL · L-1 patchouli oil,10 mL · L-1 menthol & 10 mL · L-1 patchouli oil ,10 mL · L-1 patchouli oil .Conclusion AHM-Topsis can evaluate the promoting effect of transdermal

  10. Further studies in filmwise condensation of steam on horizontal finned tubes


    Swensen, Keith Andrew


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Over the years, there has been significant variation in the filmwise steam condensation data at NOS on horizontal low0integral finned tubes. With a view to increasing the accuracy of the data, inserts were used inside the tubes to reduce inside thermal resistance; however, significant discrepancies then occurred in the calculated outside coefficient when compared to data taken without an insert. These discrepancies arose due to the d...

  11. Heat Transfer Enhancement of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using Conical Tapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanraj S.Pimple


    Full Text Available This paper provides heat transfer and friction factor data for single -phase flow in a shell and tube heat exchanger fitted with a helical tape insert. In the double concentric tube heat exchanger, hot air was passed through the inner tube while the cold water was flowed through the annulus. The influences of the helical insert on heat transfer rate and friction factor were studied for counter flow, and Nusselt numbers and friction factor obtained were compared with previous data (Dittus 1930, Petukhov 1970, Moody 1944 for axial flows in the plain tube. The flow considered is in a low Reynolds number range between 2300 and 8800. A maximum percentage gain of 165% in heat transfer rate is obtained for using the helical insert in comparison with the plain tube.

  12. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris


    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Conjunctival inclusion cyst following repair of tube erosion in a child with aphakic glaucoma, leading to endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Glaucoma in aphakia is a major long term complication following congenital cataract surgery. Implantation of glaucoma drainage device provides an effective approach to manage refractory paediatric glaucoma. However implant surgery in young individuals is not free of complications. The prompt detection and management of tube erosion is of utmost importance to prevent devastating sequel of endophthalmitis. Implantation cyst following repair of tube erosion has not been reported so far. This case illustrates the rare occurrence of inclusion cyst following repair of tube erosion, the possible causes and its consequences. Case description: A 2-year-old child with aphakia developed intractable glaucoma. Following a failed glaucoma filtering surgery he underwent sequential Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation in both the eyes. Six weeks following right eye surgery, the child presented with conjunctival erosion overlying the tube, which was treated with scleral patch graft and conjunctival advancement. One month after the repair of tube erosion, the child presented with implantation cyst under the scleral patch graft, which was treated by drainage with a 29G needle. The child presented with endophthalmitis of his right eye following an episode of bilateral conjunctivitis. This was managed by an emergency pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular antibiotics and tube excision. At the last follow up visit, the IOP was 20 mmHg with 2 topical antiglaucoma medications in the right eye following a trans scleral photocoagulation.Discussion: Lifelong careful follow-up of paediatric eyes with implant surgery is mandatory to look for complication such as tube erosion. It is important to place additional sutures to secure the patch graft during implantation of glaucoma drainage devices in children to prevent graft displacement and consequent tube erosion. During repair of tube erosion, it is crucial to remove all the conjunctival epithelium around the tube

  14. Contrast-free endoscopic stent insertion in malignant biliary obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM: To present a case series of MRCP-guided endoscopic biliary stent placement, performed entirely without contrast injection.METHODS: Contrast-free endoscopic biliary drainage was attempted in 20 patients with malignant obstruction,unsuitable for resection on the basis of tumor extent or medical illness. MRCP images were used to confirm the diagnosis of tumor, to exclude other biliary diseases and to demonstrate the stenoses as well as dilation of proximal liver segments. The procedure was carried out under conscious sedation. Patients were placed in the left lateral decubitus position. The endoscope was inserted, the papilla identified and cannulated by a papillotome. A guide wire was inserted and guided deeply into the biliary tree, above the stenosis, by fluoroscopy. A papillotomy approximately 1 cm. long was performed and the papillotome was exchanged with a guiding-catheter. A 10 Fr, Amsterdam-type plastic stent,7 to 15 cm long, was finally inserted over the guide wire/guiding catheter by a pusher tube system.RESULTS: Successful stent insertion was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications. Successful drainage, with substantial reduction in bilirubin levels,was achieved in all patients.CONCLUSION: This new method of contrast-free endoscopic stenting in malignant biliary obstruction is a safe and effective method of palliation. However, a larger, randomized study comparing this new approach with the standard procedure is needed to confirm the findings of the present study.

  15. Visual beam tube inspection at the TRIGA reactor Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeck, H.; Musilek, A.; Villa, M. [Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    Of the four TRIGA beam tubes two have been visually inspected in 1985. Prior to the inspection the reactor was shut down for 3 weeks. The fuel elements around the beam tubes were removed. Stainless steel dummy elements were inserted in the fuel positions to shield the core radiation. The active part of the Fast Rabbit Tube was removed into the beam tube loading device and transferred to an interim storage: Front dose rate was {approx} 50 mSv/h. Generally the beam tube was very clean, after the last inspection about 30 years ago. A1 cm cut was observed at the beam tube front end. A rigid endoscope was used to check the beam tube's inner surface using a 90 degree deflection objective and photo- and video equipment. The direct dose rate in front of the beam tube was about 30 mSv/h. The beam tube was vacuum cleaned. A corroded shielding tank containing boric acid has leaked. A wooden collimator partially disintegrating due to extreme temperature was removed from beam tube D. Documentation of the inspection for visible defects is produced for later comparison.

  16. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide (United States)

    Tube Feeding Troubleshoot ing Guide This guide is a tool to assist you, and should not replace your doctor’s ... everyone. table of contents Going Home with Tube Feedings....................................................2 Nausea and ... ...

  17. Neural Tube Defects (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  18. Research on the AHM Model for Location Selection of Railway Passenger Station%基于改进AHM模型的铁路客运站选址研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗霞; 廖勇


    研究目的:为了对客运站的选址做出合理的决策,建立了5个评价指标:与城市规划的契合、与城市交通的衔接、与客流的适应性、与既有枢纽的协调和客运站建设成本.引入改进的AHM(属性层次模型)模型对方案进行比选.研究结论:(1)通过选用0.1-0.9标度法直接获得属性判断矩阵,并且给出了定量指标属性判断矩阵的获得方法,对AHM进行了补充,使得AHM适用于定性与定量相结合的多属性决策.(2)AHM具有计算量小、操作简单、适用性强等特点,适用于铁路客运站的选址决策.%Research purposes: In order to obtain reasonable decisions making of location selection of railway passenger station, five criterions are established of degree assorting with urban planning, connection with urban traffic, adaptability to passenger flow, coordination with existing junction and cost of construction. AHM based on attribute measure is introduced into this paper for alternative selection.Research conclusions; (1) AHM is reinforced after measure of 0. 1 -0. 9 is introduced and quantitative criterion is calculated to achieve attribute judgment matrix. (2) AHM takes on characteristic of simple operation, strong adaptability, less calculation and is very suitable for location selection of railway passenger station.

  19. On the need for a nonlinear subscale turbulence term in POD models as exemplified for a high Reynolds number flow over an Ahmed body

    CERN Document Server

    Östh, Jan; Krajnović, Siniša


    We investigate a hierarchy of eddy-viscosity terms in POD Galerkin models to account for a large fraction of unresolved fluctuation energy. These Galerkin methods are applied to Large Eddy Simulation data for a flow around the vehicle-like bluff body call Ahmed body. This flow has three challenges for any reduced-order model: a high Reynolds number, coherent structures with broadband frequency dynamics, and meta-stable asymmetric base flow states. The Galerkin models are found to be most accurate with modal eddy viscosities as proposed by Rempfer & Fasel (1994). Robustness of the model solution with respect to initial conditions, eddy viscosity values and model order is only achieved for state-dependent eddy viscosities as proposed by Noack, Morzynski & Tadmor (2011). Only the POD system with state-dependent modal eddy viscosities can address all challenges of the flow characteristics. All parameters are analytically derived from the Navier-Stokes based balance equations with the available data. We ar...

  20. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    CERN Multimedia


    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  1. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  2. Inserting Agility in System Development (United States)


    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  3. Biliary peritonitis due to fistulous tract rupture following a T-tube removal. (United States)

    Sakorafas, George H; Stafyla, Vania; Tsiotos, Gregory G


    We present a patient with biliary peritonitis following a T-tube removal. The patient underwent laparotomy; a rupture of the fistulous tract around the T-tube was found. A Nelaton catheter was inserted through this opening and advanced toward the biliary tree and secured in place by a suture ligature. Postoperative course was uneventful.

  4. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G


    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb3Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb3Sn magnet make...

  5. Combined Scleral Flap with Donor Scleral Patch Graft for Anterior Tube Placement in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jea H. Yu


    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a new technique for anterior placement of tubes for glaucoma drainage devices to reduce the risk of tube erosions. Methods. Retrospective review of select cases of Ahmed Valve surgery combined with the novel method of a limbal-based scleral flap covered by a scleral patch graft to cover the tube at the entrance through the limbus. Intraoperative and postoperative illustrations are shown to highlight the method of tube placement. Results. In this retrospective case series, 3 patients are presented illustrating the technique. Two had neovascular glaucoma and one had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. On average, intraocular pressure was reduced from 39±14 mmHg to 15±2 mmHg and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 4±1 to 0. Preoperative and most recent visual acuities were hand-motion (HM and HM, 20/60 and 20/50, and 20/70 and 20/30, respectively. Conclusion. The combination of a limbal-based scleral flap with scleral patch graft to cover the tube with glaucoma drainage devices may be an effective means to reduce erosion and protect against endophthalmitis.

  6. Combined Scleral Flap with Donor Scleral Patch Graft for Anterior Tube Placement in Glaucoma Drainage Device Surgery (United States)

    Yu, Jea H.; Nguyen, Chuck; Gallemore, Esmeralda


    Purpose. To report a new technique for anterior placement of tubes for glaucoma drainage devices to reduce the risk of tube erosions. Methods. Retrospective review of select cases of Ahmed Valve surgery combined with the novel method of a limbal-based scleral flap covered by a scleral patch graft to cover the tube at the entrance through the limbus. Intraoperative and postoperative illustrations are shown to highlight the method of tube placement. Results. In this retrospective case series, 3 patients are presented illustrating the technique. Two had neovascular glaucoma and one had primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). On average, intraocular pressure was reduced from 39 ± 14 mmHg to 15 ± 2 mmHg and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced from 4 ± 1 to 0. Preoperative and most recent visual acuities were hand-motion (HM) and HM, 20/60 and 20/50, and 20/70 and 20/30, respectively. Conclusion. The combination of a limbal-based scleral flap with scleral patch graft to cover the tube with glaucoma drainage devices may be an effective means to reduce erosion and protect against endophthalmitis. PMID:27747118

  7. 脑卒中患者胃管留置长度的循证护理实践与效果评价%Evidence based nursing practice and effect evaluation of gastric tube insertion length for stroke patients with cerebral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿梅; 邓丽媛; 王艳红; 兰鸿


    Objective To study and evaluate the effect of nasogastric tube's indwelling length for stroke patients with cerebral .Method 116 patients with enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube were randomly assigned and divided in‐to control group and observe group .The indwelling length of nasogastric tube was 55~65 cm from eyebrows to na‐vel in the control group ,and 45~55 cm in the observe group .Result The remain volume of gastric juice in the ob‐serve group was more than that of the control group(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Selecting a suitable indwelling length of nasogastric tube among stroke patients by the evidence‐based nursing may reflect the gastric residual volume accu‐rately ,reduce reflux ,choking and aspiration rates .Its a feasibility method for clinical using .%目的:应用循证护理探讨脑卒中患者胃管置入长度并评价其效果。方法将我院116例经鼻胃管肠内营养的脑卒中患者随机分为对照组(n=52)和观察组(n=64),观察组根据循证步骤选取最佳的证据,改进胃管留置长度为患者眉心至脐的体表距离(约55~65 cm );对照组按《基础护理学》教材,胃管留置长度为患者前额发际至剑突的体表距离(约45~55 cm ),比较两组患者返流、呛咳及误吸的发生率和胃内残留量监测情况。结果观察组返流、呛咳及误吸发生率均低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组胃内残留量大于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采取循证护理的方法制订科学、个性化的胃管留置长度,可准确反映胃内残留量,减少返流、呛咳及误吸发生率,值得在临床实践工作中推荐。

  8. Comparison of guided insertion of the LMA ProSeal vs the i-gel. (United States)

    Gasteiger, L; Brimacombe, J; Perkhofer, D; Kaufmann, M; Keller, C


    In a randomised, non-crossover study, we tested the hypothesis that the ease of insertion using a duodenal tube guided insertion technique and the oropharyngeal leak pressure differ between the LMA ProSeal and the i-gel in non-paralysed, anesthetised female subjects. One hundred and fifty-two females aged 19-70 years were studied. Insertion success rate, insertion time and oropharyngeal leak pressure were measured. First attempt and overall insertion success were similar (LMA ProSeal, 75/76 (99%) and 76/76 (100%); i-gel 73/75 (97%) and 75 (100%), respectively). Mean (SD) insertion times were similar (LMA ProSeal, 40 (16) s; i-gel 43 (21) s). Mean oropharyngeal leak pressure was 7 cmH(2) O higher with the LMA ProSeal (p LMA ProSeal and i-gel is similarly easy using a duodenal tube guided technique, but the LMA ProSeal forms a more effective seal for ventilation.

  9. Myringotomy versus ventilation tubes in secretory otitis media: eardrum pathology, hearing, and eustachian tube function 25 years after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye-Thomasen, P.; Stangerup, S.E.; Jorgensen, G.;


    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-four children with bilateral secretory otitis media were treated by bilateral myringotomy and insertion of a ventilation tube on the right side only. The children were reexamined by otomicroscopy, tympanometry, and pure tone audiometry after 3, 7, and 25 years...

  10. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  11. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, J.R.F.


    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  12. Laryngeal tube use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by paramedics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunde Geir A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are numerous supraglottic airway alternatives to endotracheal intubation, it remains unclear which airway technique is optimal for use in prehospital cardiac arrests. We evaluated the use of the laryngeal tube (LT as an airway management tool among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients treated by our ambulance services in the Haukeland and Innlandet hospital districts. Methods Post-resuscitation forms and data concerning airway management in 347 adult OHCA victims were retrospectively assessed with regard to LT insertion success rates, ease and speed of insertion and insertion-related problems. Results A total of 402 insertions were performed on 347 OHCA patients. Overall, LT insertion was successful in 85.3% of the patients, with a 74.4% first-attempt success rate. In the minority of patients (n = 46, 13.3%, the LT insertion time exceeded 30 seconds. Insertion-related problems were recorded in 52.7% of the patients. Lack of respiratory sounds on auscultation (n = 100, 28.8%, problematic initial tube positioning (n = 85, 24.5%, air leakage (n = 61, 17.6%, vomitus/aspiration (n = 44, 12.7%, and tube dislocation (n = 17, 4.9% were the most common problems reported. Insertion difficulty was graded and documented for 95.4% of the patients, with the majority of insertions assessed as being “Easy” (62.5% or “Intermediate” (24.8%. Only 8.1% of the insertions were considered to be “Difficult”. Conclusions We found a high number of insertion related problems, indicating that supraglottic airway devices offering promising results in manikin studies may be less reliable in real-life resuscitations. Still, we consider the laryngeal tube to be an important alternative for airway management in prehospital cardiac arrest victims.

  13. Experimental characterization of the unsteady natural wake of the full-scale square back Ahmed body: flow bi-stability and spectral analysis (United States)

    Volpe, Raffaele; Devinant, Philippe; Kourta, Azeddine


    In recent years, the increasing interest in reducing the aerodynamic drag of vehicles, such as station wagons, minivans or buses, has led research to focus on the characterization of square back bluff geometries. In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental campaign on the full-scale well-known body of Ahmed et al. (1984) are presented, for two height-based Reynolds numbers, and . Eighty-one measurement points were used to map the base pressure field, while the wake topology was investigated by means of a series of ten 2D Particle Image Velocimetry planes. These measurements clearly show that the wake presents a bi-stable behavior, characterized by a random succession of switches between two well-defined mutually symmetric configurations, confirming the results from Grandemange et al. (J Fluid Mech 722:51-84, 2013b. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2013.83) for the same model. For the presented results, the timescale of this phenomenon is of the order of . The sensitivity of the bi-stability to the yaw angle was also investigated, and considerations on how to take such a behavior into account in post-processing this kind of field are given. High-frequency measurements were also carried out with four piezoelectric transducers and a synchronized two-component hot-wire. The results show a low-frequency spectral activity: peaks at and 0.19, corresponding to vortex shedding modes, were found on the lateral base pressures and in the far wake, whereas a signature at was visible on the vertical base centerline and in the recirculation bubble shear layer. Correlation analysis and proper orthogonal decomposition confirm the interpretation of the latter mode as the pumping of the recirculation bubble.

  14. Fuel nozzle tube retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihlar, David William; Melton, Patrick Benedict


    A system for retaining a fuel nozzle premix tube includes a retention plate and a premix tube which extends downstream from an outlet of a premix passage defined along an aft side of a fuel plenum body. The premix tube includes an inlet end and a spring support feature which is disposed proximate to the inlet end. The premix tube extends through the retention plate. The spring retention feature is disposed between an aft side of the fuel plenum and the retention plate. The system further includes a spring which extends between the spring retention feature and the retention plate.

  15. Heated Tube Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  16. Pleural controversy: optimal chest tube size for drainage. (United States)

    Light, Richard W


    In recent years, a higher and higher percentage of patients with pleural effusions or pneumothorax are being treated with small-bore (10-14 F) chest tubes rather than large-bore (>20 F). However, there are very few randomized controlled studies comparing the efficacy and complication rates with the small- and large-bore catheters. Moreover, the randomized trials that are available have flaws in their design. The advantages of the small-bore catheters are that they are easier to insert and there is less pain with their insertion while they are in place. The placement of the small-bore catheters is probably more optimal when placement is done with ultrasound guidance. Small-bore chest tubes are recommended when pleurodesis is performed. The success of the small-bore indwelling tunnelled catheters that are left in place for weeks documents that the small-bore tubes do not commonly become obstructed with fibrin. Patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions are probably best managed with small-bore catheters even when the pleural fluid is purulent. Patients with haemothorax are best managed with large-bore catheters because of blood clots and the high volume of pleural fluid. Most patients with pneumothorax can be managed with aspiration or small-bore chest tubes. If these fail, a large-bore chest tube may be necessary. Patients on mechanical ventilation with barotrauma induced pneumothoraces are best managed with large-bore chest tubes.

  17. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.


    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sıtkı NAZİK


    Full Text Available In the two ghazals with the redif “what can I do?"of Ahmed Paşa, the situation of the lover in the face beloved is reflected to us in a hopeless situation By taking in hand these two works and benefiting from a variety of sources, we stood on different understanding dimensions of the love in mysticism in axis of administrative structure in tradition of the Divan poetry. Accordingly, different hopeless lover image has appeared. Such as power, force, authority to the lover’s supreme features and eyes, hair, length, lips and to the elements of other beauties and to the effect of on the lover of these have been mentioned. Correspondingly, the lover’ hopeless, wretched, addicted and similar qualifications have been put forward and has been described hopelessness of lover in the face of beloved. Ahmed Paşa’nın “elimden ne gelir” redifli iki gazelinde, âşığın maşuk karşısındaki durumu çaresizlik aynasından bizlere yansıtılmaktadır. Bu iki gazel temel alınıp, çeşitli kaynaklardan da istifade edilerek Divan edebiyatındaki âşık ve maşuk tipine ait özellikler, Divan şiiri geleneği, tasavvuf ve idari yapı eksenli olmak üzere sevgili anlayışının farklı boyutları üzerinde durulmaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak da çaresiz âşık imajı ortaya konulmaktadır. Sevgilinin güç, kudret, otorite gibi üstün özelliklerine; gözü, saçı, boyu, dudağı ve diğer güzellik unsurlarına ve bunların âşık üzerindeki etkisine değinilmektedir. Buna karşılık âşığın aciz, biçare, perişan ve benzeri özellikleri öne çıkarılmakta, sevgili karşısında çaresizliği tasvir edilmektedir.

  19. Hologram recording tubes (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.


    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  20. 蒸发器内置毛细管开孔系统强化换热的试验研究%Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement by Holes Opened in the Capillary Inserted in the Tube of the Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 刘斌; 王清伟; 段爱鹏


    Based on the field synergy principle and enhancement of heat transfer characteristics of jet impingement,a new type heat ex-changer was designed.In this device,the capillary with opening holes was placed into the evaporation tube,making the refrigerant directly spray to the inner surface of the evaporation and absorb heat by evaporating,in which the heat transferring effi-ciency was extremely high because of the best coordination between velocity field and temperature gradient field.Theoretical anal-ysis of the capillary tube was taken to learn the coordination between velocity field and temperature gradient field with inlet veloci-ty (2m/s and 0.5m/s)and aperture (1mm and 0.5mm).Meanwhile experiments of the new type heat ex-changer were carried out under the evaporation pressure of 0 MPa,and compared with conventional capillary throttle system.The results shows the temperature field on the surface of the evaporation tube was more stable in the opening experiments,while there was a big fluctua-tion in contrast capillary experiment due to its poor ability of flow adjustment.With the same conditions of evaporation pressure and heat transfer area,the exhaust pressure in conventional capillary experiment was 13.6%higher than that of opening experi-ment,so the coefficient of performance and refrigerant charge amount are better than those of conventional capillary experiment. Meanwhile compressor power consumption in conventional capillary experiment was 9.1% higher than that of opening experiment, which verified the higher refrigerating efficiency of opening experiment.Due to the jet impingement of refrigerant and the best co-ordination between the flow field and temperature gradient field,the performance of heat ex-changer was dramatically improved, which made the temperature field on the surface of the evaporating tubes more uniform.%基于场协同强化理论,结合射流冲击的换热特点对常规毛细节流制冷系统进行优化,设计出一种新型的换

  1. Wavy tube heat pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, C. W.


    A PVC conduit about 4'' in diameter and a little more than 40 feet long is adapted for being seated in a hole in the earth and surrounds a coaxial copper tube along its length that carries Freon between a heat pump and a distributor at the bottom. A number of wavy conducting tubes located between the central conducting tube and the wall of the conduit interconnect the distributor with a Freon distributor at the top arranged for connection to the heat pump. The wavy conducting tubing is made by passing straight soft copper tubing between a pair of like opposed meshing gears each having four convex points in space quadrature separated by four convex recesses with the radius of curvature of each point slightly less than that of each concave recess.

  2. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo


    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  3. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  4. What Are Neural Tube Defects? (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects are ...

  5. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Russel B


    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  6. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  7. Comparison of FP-7 and S-2 Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in refractory glaucoma patients for short-term follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu-jing; LI Yi-qing; CHAI Fang; YANG Xue-jiao; ZHANG Yi-chong; WEI Yan-tao; HUANG Jing-jing; GE Jian; ZHUO Ye-hong


    Background Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) has been used for decades, but there is no detailed report about the efficacy of AGV in Chinese glaucoma patients. This study aimed to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy and side effects of S-2 polypropylene and PF-7 silicone AGV implantation in Chinese refractory glaucoma patients.Methods Patients were divided into S-2 model AGV group and FP-7 model AGV group. The complete and qualified surgical success rate, change of IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications used and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed.Results Average follow-up time was comparable between two groups. IOP was reduced from (37.9±12.7) mmHg preoperatively to (17.3±5.3) mmHg at the last follow-up in S-2 group and reduced from (39.9±14.4) mmHg to (17.7±4.9)mmHg in FP-7 group. Anti-glaucoma medications were reduced from 3.8±0.2 to 1.5±0.2 in S-2 group, and 3.5±0.2 to 0.7±0.2 in FP-7 groups. The cumulative success rates were comparable in two groups, which were 61.2% and 72.1% in S-2 group and FP-7 group respectively. When IOP reduction criteria was used, complete success rates were 30.6% and 51.2% for S-2 and FP-7 groups, and qualified success rates were 86.1% and 92.7% separately. In both groups, the major complication was hypotony, and the previous trabeculectomy of patients was the major risk factor for surgery failure.Conclusions In this short-term retrospective study, S-2 AGV is showed at least as effective as FP-7 AGV in IOP reduction, but associated with higher rate of complications. Previous trabeculectomy is a principle risk factor for AGV implantation failure. These clinical outcomes are important for converting use of the FP-7 silicon AGV in Chinese refractory glaucoma patients.

  8. A HTS dipole insert coil constructed

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Rey, J M; Stenvall, A; Sorbi, M; Tixador, P


    This report is the deliverable report 7.4.1 “A HTS dipole insert coil constructed“. The report has three parts: “Design report for the HTS dipole insert”, “One insert pancake prototype coil constructed with the setup for a high field test”, and “All insert components ordered”. The three report parts show that, although the insert construction will be only completed by end 2013, all elements are present for a successful completion and that, given the important investments done by the participants, there is a full commitment of all of them to finish the project

  9. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis


    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  10. Metallographic study of reconstitution welding in inserts of 1 cm{sup 3}; Estudio metalografico de soldaduras de reconstitucion en insertos de 1 cm{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Garcia R, R.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this article, the welding metallographic study carried out in Charpy test tubes reconstituted with notch in 'V', used in the surveillance programs of the vessel in nucleo electric plants is described. Inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} are used, where the inserts are usually rectangular of minimum 18 millimeters of length. The importance of using inserts of 1 cm{sup 3} is that the mechanical properties can be measured in another direction of the vessel steel, when changing the direction or sense of the notch in 'V' or the face where this notch is made in the insert. (Author)

  11. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho


    Full Text Available Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1 the patient’s bedpartner scored the snoring and (2 the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner’s sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10. The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10 but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use.

  12. Treatment of Snoring with a Nasopharyngeal Airway Tube (United States)

    Chang, Edward T.; Fernandez-Salvador, Camilo; Capasso, Robson


    Objective. To study the feasibility of a standard nasopharyngeal airway tube (NPAT) as treatment for snoring. Methods. An obese 35-year-old man, who is a chronic, heroic snorer, used NPATs while (1) the patient's bedpartner scored the snoring and (2) the patient recorded himself with the smartphone snoring app “Quit Snoring.” Baseline snoring was 8–10/10 (10 = snoring that could be heard through a closed door and interrupted the bedpartner's sleep to the point where they would sometimes have to sleep separately) and 60–200 snores/hr. Several standard NPATs were tested, consisting of soft polyvinyl chloride material raging between 24- and 36-French (Fr) tubes. Results. The 24 Fr tube did not abate snoring. The 26 Fr tube was able to abate the snoring sound most of the night (smartphone app: 11.4 snores/hr, bedpartner VAS = 2/10). The 28 and 30 Fr tubes abated the snoring sound the entire time worn (smartphone app: 0 snores, bedpartner VAS 0/10) but could not be tolerated more than 2.5 hours. The tube of 36 Fr size could not be inserted, despite several attempts bilaterally. Conclusion. Appropriately sized nasopharyngeal airway tubes may abate the snoring sound; however, as in this patient, they may be too painful and intolerable for daily use. PMID:27795710

  13. Note: An improved solenoid driver valve for miniature shock tubes. (United States)

    Lynch, P T


    A solenoid driver valve has been built to improve the operating performance of diaphragmless shock tubes, which are used for high pressure, high temperature chemical kinetics, and fluid mechanics studies. For shock tube driver application, the most important characteristics are those of sealing, strength, and quality of the generated shock waves and repeatability of opening characteristics and therefore subsequent post-shock conditions. The main features of the new driver valve are a face o-ring sealing design of the valve, the large internal volume, and through inserts near the solenoid core: adjustable opening characteristics of the valve.

  14. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast. (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj


    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds.

  15. Nasogastric feeding tube (United States)

    ... page: // Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  16. Tube-Forming Assays. (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy


    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  17. Snorkeling and Jones tubes


    Lam, Lewis Y. W.; Weatherhead, Robert G.


    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  18. Snorkeling and Jones tubes. (United States)

    Lam, Lewis Y W; Weatherhead, Robert G


    We report a case of tympanic membrane rupture during snorkeling in a 17-year-old young man who had previously undergone bilateral Jones tubes placed for epiphora. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  19. Kinking of medical tubes. (United States)

    Ingles, David


    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  20. Magnesium tube hydroforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R. [Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU), Stuttgart (Germany)


    Magnesium alloys reveal a good strength-to-weight ratio in the family of lightweight metals and gains potential to provide up to 30% mass savings compared to aluminium and up to 75 % compared to steel. The use of sheet magnesium alloys for auto body applications is however limited due to the relatively low formability at room temperature. Within the scope of this paper, extruded magnesium tubes, which are suitable for hydroforming applications, have been investigated. Results obtained at room temperature using magnesium AZ31 tubes show that circumferential strains are limited to a maximal value of 4%. In order to examine the influence of the forming temperature on tube formability, investigations have been carried out with a new die set for hot internal high pressure (IHP) forming at temperatures up to 400 C. Earlier investigations with magnesium AZ31 tubes have shown that fractures occur along the welding line at tubes extruded over a spider die, whereby a non-uniform expansion at bursting with an elongation value of 24% can be observed. A maximum circumferential strain of approx. 60% could be attained when seamless, mechanically pre-expanded and annealed tubes of the same alloy have been used. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at same time. Hence, seamless ZM21 tubes have been used in the current investigations. With these tubes, an increased tensile fracture strain of 116% at 350 C is observed as against 19% at 20 C, obtained by tensile testing of milled specimens from the extruded tubes. This behaviour is also seen under the condition of tool contact during the IHP forming process. To determine the maximum circumferential strain at different forming temperatures and strain rates, the tubes are initially bulged in a die with square cross-section under plane stress conditions. Thereafter, the tubes are calibrated by using an

  1. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry


    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  2. A gas laser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo, F.; Tokhikhide, N.


    A gas laser tube is described in which contamination of the laser gas mixture by the coolant is avoided, resulting in a longer service life of the mirrors. The holder contains two tubes, one inside the other. The laser gas mixture flows through the internal tube. An electrode is fastened to the holder. The coolant is pumped through the slot between the two tubes, for which a hole is cut into the holder. The external tube has a ring which serves to seal the cavity containing the coolant from the atmosphere. The internal tube has two rings, one to seal the laser gas mixture and the other to seal the coolant. A slot is located between these two rings, which leads to the atmosphere (the atmosphere layer). With this configuration, the degradation of the sealing properties of the internal ring caused by interaction with the atmospheric layer is not reflected in the purity of the laser gas mixture. Moreover, pollution of the mirrors caused by the penetration of the coolant into the cavity is eliminated.

  3. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.


    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Marginal adaptation of ceramic inserts after cementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Pfeiffer, P; Nergiz, [No Value


    The advantage of using ceramic inserts is to prevent major drawbacks of composite resins such as polymerization shrinkage, wear and microleakage. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation of two approximal ceramic insert systems after cementation to the cavities opened with ultrasonic ti


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉


    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  6. An Elementary Account of Needle Insertion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文兵; 霍则军


    @@ Based on the authors' clinical and personal experiences, several pain-inducing factors easily to be ignored by the operators when quick needle insertion is applied, and the authors' first invented slow painless needle insertion method are introduced in the article.

  7. Long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Singhal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most common systems of genetic engineering of mammalian cells are associated with insertional mutagenesis of the modified cells. Insertional mutagenesis is also a popular approach to generate random alterations for gene discovery projects. A better understanding of the interaction of the structural elements within an insertional mutagen and the ability of such elements to influence host genes at various distances away from the insertion site is a matter of considerable practical importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that, in the context of a lentiviral construct, a transcript, which is initiated at an internal CMV promoter/enhancer region and incorporates a splice donor site, is able to extend past a collinear viral LTR and trap exons of host genes, while the polyadenylation signal, which is naturally present in the LTR, is spliced out. Unexpectedly, when a vector, which utilizes this phenomenon, was used to produce mutants with elevated activity of NF-κB, we found mutants, which owed their phenotype to the effect of the insert on a gene located tens or even hundreds of kilobases away from the insertion site. This effect did not result from a CMV-driven transcript, but was sensitive to functional suppression of the insert. Interestingly, despite the long-distance effect, expression of loci most closely positioned to the insert appeared unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that a polyadenylation signal in a retroviral LTR, when occurring within an intron, is an inefficient barrier against the formation of a hybrid transcript, and that a vector containing a strong enhancer may selectively affect the function of genes far away from its insertion site. These phenomena have to be considered when experimental or therapeutic transduction is performed. In particular, the long-distance effects of insertional mutagenesis bring into question the relevance of the lists of disease-associated retroviral integration

  8. Polymerization shrinkage and contraction force of composite resin restorative inserted with "Megafiller". (United States)

    Tani, Y; Nambu, T; Ishikawa, A; Katsuyama, S


    This study quantified the contraction force and polymerization shrinkage of composite resins with/without beta-Quartz Glass Ceramic Inserts (BQCI) as "Megafiller". The materials used for the determination included a chemically cured composite and five light-cured composites. The system for measuring contraction force consisted of a transparent teflon tube for preparing the specimen, a small load cell, a dynamic strain gauge and a pen-recorder. After the composite was packed into the teflon mold, a BQCI (Type R3) was inserted through the opening and the specimen was cured. Linear polymerization shrinkage of the composites was measured every 10 seconds from the start of mixing or irradiation to 90 minutes by the mercury bath method. Three pieces each of BQCI (Type T3) were inserted in each specimen. The results suggested that BQCI was markedly effective in reducing polymerization shrinkage, but was not always effective in reducing the contraction force during polymerization.

  9. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL


    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  10. [A case of subglottic stenosis with bridging granuloma after intubation with double-lumen endotracheal tube]. (United States)

    Ito, Yosuke; Nakata, Yoko; Nakamura, Sakiko; Nagaya, Kei


    We present a case of subglottic stenosis with rare bridging granuloma after intubation with double-lumen endotracheal tube. An 81-year-old woman was diagnosed with the lung tumor and scheduled for the thoracoscopic surgery. We induced anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. A 35 Fr double-lumen intratracheal tube was inserted to the trachea with some resistance, when the tube passed through the glottis. A few days later, she suffered from respiratory discomfort. An otolaryngologist examined her larynx and subglottis. Laryngoscopic examination revealed bridging granuloma leading to tracheal stenosis. Tracheostomy and resection of granuloma were performed, and her symptom improved. If we feel resistance in intubating a double-lumen endotracheal tube in a patient with a history of intubation with a tracheal tube, we should operate gently adjusting the size of the tracheal tube.

  11. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  12. Knot formation in the feeding jejunostomy tube: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Shiou Liao; Huan-Fa Hsieh; Meng-Hang Wu; Teng-Wei Chen; Jyh-Cherng Yu; Yao-Chi Liu


    Jejunostomy feeding tubes provide surgeons with an excellent method for providing nutritional support, but there are several complications associated with a tube jejunostomy, including complications resulting from placement of the tube, mechanical problems related to the location or function and development of focally thickened small-bowel folds. A 76-year old man who presented with multiple medical diseases was admitted to our hospital due to aspiration pneumonia with acute respiratory failure and septic shock. He underwent exploratory laparotomy with feeding jejunostomy using a 14-French nasogastric tube for nutritional support. However, occlusion of the feeding tube was found 30- d after operation, and a rare complication of knot formation in the tube occurred after a new tube was replaced. On the following day, the tube was removed and replaced with a similar tube, which was placed into the jejunum for only 15 cm. The patient's feedings were maintained smoothly for two months. Knot formation in the feeding tube seems to be very rare. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the literature review. Its incidence is probably related to the length of the tube inserted into the lumen.

  13. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen


    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  14. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L


    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  15. Insertions and the emergence of novel protein structure: a structure-based phylogenetic study of insertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blouin Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein evolution, the mechanism of the emergence of novel protein domain is still an open question. The incremental growth of protein variable regions, which was produced by stochastic insertions, has the potential to generate large and complex sub-structures. In this study, a deterministic methodology is proposed to reconstruct phylogenies from protein structures, and to infer insertion events in protein evolution. The analysis was performed on a broad range of SCOP domain families. Results Phylogenies were reconstructed from protein 3D structural data. The phylogenetic trees were used to infer ancestral structures with a consensus method. From these ancestral reconstructions, 42.7% of the observed insertions are nested insertions, which locate in previous insert regions. The average size of inserts tends to increase with the insert rank or total number of insertions in the variable regions. We found that the structures of some nested inserts show complex or even domain-like fold patterns with helices, strands and loops. Furthermore, a basal level of structural innovation was found in inserts which displayed a significant structural similarity exclusively to themselves. The β-Lactamase/D-ala carboxypeptidase domain family is provided as an example to illustrate the inference of insertion events, and how the incremental growth of a variable region is capable to generate novel structural patterns. Conclusion Using 3D data, we proposed a method to reconstruct phylogenies. We applied the method to reconstruct the sequences of insertion events leading to the emergence of potentially novel structural elements within existing protein domains. The results suggest that structural innovation is possible via the stochastic process of insertions and rapid evolution within variable regions where inserts tend to be nested. We also demonstrate that the structure-based phylogeny enables the study of new questions relating to the

  16. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber (United States)

    Putra, Azma; Khair, Fazlin Abd; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd


    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  17. Heat transfer augmentation in a circular tube with winglet vortex generators☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya Chokphoemphun; Monsak Pimsarn; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge


    The article presents the influence of winglet vortex generators (WVGs) placed in the core flow area on ther-mal performance enhancement of a tube heat exchanger. The experiment was carried out in a uniform wall heat-fluxed tube by varying turbulent alrflow for Reynolds number ranging from 5300 to 24000. In the pres-ent work, the WVGs with an attack angle of 30° were inserted into the test tube at four different winglet pitch ratios (RP=P/D) and three winglet-width or blockage ratios (RB=e/D). The experimental results at various RP and RB values were evaluated and compared with those for smooth tube and tubes with twist-ed tape or wire coil. The measurement reveals that the WVGs enhance considerably the heat transfer and friction loss above the plaln tube, wire coil and twisted tape. The Nusselt number and friction factor increase with the increment of RB and Re but with the decreasing RP. The average Nusselt numbers for the WVGs with various RB are in the range of 2.03–2.34 times above the plaln tube. The thermal performance for the WVGs is found to be much higher than that for the wire coil and twisted tape and is in a range of 1.35–1.59. Also, a numerical investigation is conducted to study the flow structure and heat transfer enhancement mecha-nisms in the winglet-inserted tube.

  18. “Nutrothorax” complicating a misplaced nasogastric feeding tube in a severely ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Felipe-Silva


    Full Text Available Introduction of nasogastric feeding tubes is usually blindly performed and isgenerally considered a safe procedure. However, the rate of complications ofa blind insertion technique varies from 0.3 to 15%, and is usually related toinadvertent insertion of nasogastric tubes into the trachea and distal airways.The main predisposing factors related to tube malpositioning and complicationsare altered mental status with decreased cough or gag reflex, a preexistingendotracheal tube and severe illness. Complications include severe aspirationpneumonia, hydrothorax, hemothorax, empyema and pneumothorax. Themortality related to misplacement of a nasogastric tube is around 0.1-0.3% ofthe procedures. This 61-year old female had a history of poor appetite, weightloss, dyspnea and fever. A chest axial computerized tomography showedenlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Laboratory showed hypercalcemia withnormal PTH and hypokalemia. As the patient remained anorectic, a nasogastricfeeding tube was placed, through which the administration of enteral diet, bycontinuous infusion pump, was started. After 12 hours the patient developeddyspnea, hypoxemia and hypotension. During orotracheal intubation, itwas disclosed the presence of the nasogastric tube in the trachea as wellas the infused diet within the respiratory tract. Autopsy revealed an unusualcomplication of a nasogastric tube misplacement, which led to a massivecollection of enteral nutrition fluid into the pleural space – a “nutrothorax”.Additionally, an underlying stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma withinterstitial lung and bronchial mucosa involvement was diagnosed.

  19. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)


    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  20. Pericardial sac perforation: a rare complication of neonatal nasogastric tube feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Mahmoud Hanafy, Emad; Al Naqeeb, Niran [Al-Adan Hospital, Neonatal ICU, Department of Paediatrics, Hawally (Kuwait); Ashebu, Samuel D.; Bopaya Nanda, Harini [Al-Adan Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, P.O. Box 43721, Hawally (Kuwait)


    The insertion of a nasogastric tube for feeding and gastric aspiration is a common practice in the care of newborns, especially if they are preterm and unwell. Esophageal perforation is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. Associated perforation of the pericardial sac is an unusual, severe, and previously unreported complication of nasogastric tube feeding in a neonate. We present an illustrative case. (orig.)

  1. Conservative management of migrated percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube (United States)

    Chase, Thomas J.G.; Luck, Joshua; Harris, Lauren S.; Bashir, Gareth


    A 68-year-old male nursing home resident presented following dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) tube originally sited to prevent recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Computed tomography demonstrated tube migration into the lumen of the recto-sigmoid junction, where it remained for 12 days before passing spontaneously. During this period, the patient remained asymptomatic; the residual colocutaneous fistula functioned as a decompressive valve. Originally, the patient was due to be discharged with early flexible sigmoidoscopy follow-up. However, complex social issues delayed discharge. During his admission, a second PEC tube was successfully inserted next to the previous colostomy site without complication. This is an unusual case and no similar episodes of asymptomatic PEC migration have been reported. We demonstrate that such cases may be offered an appropriate trial of conservative management. Here, we describe our experience and critically appraise the literature. PMID:28064245

  2. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN


    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  3. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically (United States)

    Croucher, William C.


    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  4. Fluid flow of incompressible viscous fluid through a non-linear elastic tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazopoulos, A.; Tsangaris, S. [National Technical University of Athens, Fluids Section, School of Mechanical Engineering, Zografou, Athens (Greece)


    The study of viscous flow in tubes with deformable walls is of specific interest in industry and biomedical technology and in understanding various phenomena in medicine and biology (atherosclerosis, artery replacement by a graft, etc) as well. The present work describes numerically the behavior of a viscous incompressible fluid through a tube with a non-linear elastic membrane insertion. The membrane insertion in the solid tube is composed by non-linear elastic material, following Fung's (Biomechanics: mechanical properties of living tissue, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, 1993) type strain-energy density function. The fluid is described through a Navier-Stokes code coupled with a system of non linear equations, governing the interaction with the membrane deformation. The objective of this work is the study of the deformation of a non-linear elastic membrane insertion interacting with the fluid flow. The case of the linear elastic material of the membrane is also considered. These two cases are compared and the results are evaluated. The advantages of considering membrane nonlinear elastic material are well established. Finally, the case of an axisymmetric elastic tube with variable stiffness along the tube and membrane sections is studied, trying to substitute the solid tube with a membrane of high stiffness, exhibiting more realistic response. (orig.)

  5. Heat-shrink plastic tubing seals joints in glass tubing (United States)

    Del Duca, B.; Downey, A.


    Small units of standard glass apparatus held together by short lengths of transparent heat-shrinkable polyolefin tubing. The tubing is shrunk over glass O-ring type connectors having O-rings but no lubricant.

  6. The reversibility of reduced cortical vein compliance in normal-pressure hydrocephalus following shunt insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.A. [Department of Medical Imaging, John Hunter Hospital, Locked Bag 1, Newcastle Region Mail Centre, Newcastle (Australia)


    Superficial cortical venous compression secondary to alterations in craniospinal compliance is implicated in the pathogenesis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). A reduction in the pulsation in the outflow of the cortical veins would be expected to occur following compression of these veins and this has been shown in NPH. If cortical vein compression is a causative factor in NPH, it would be expected that cortical vein compliance as measured by pulsatility would be significantly altered by a curative procedure i.e. shunt tube insertion. My purpose is to compare the blood flow pulsatility characteristics in a group of patients with NPH before and after shunt tube insertion. I initially studied 18 subjects without pathology with MRI flow quantification studies of the cerebral arteries and veins to define the range of normality. The main study involved 18 patients with idiopathic dementia and mild leukoaraiosis who served as controls and seven patients with NPH studied before and after shunt insertion. Arterial, superior sagittal and straight sinus pulsatility was not significantly different between the patients with idiopathic dementia and those NPH patients before or after shunting. Cortical vein pulsatility before shunting in the patients with NPH was 43% lower than in those with idiopathic dementia (P =0.006). Following shunting, cortical vein pulsatility increased by 186% (P =0.007). There is thus reduced compliance in cortical veins in NPH which is significantly increased in patients who respond to insertion of a shunt tube. These findings suggest that reversible elevation in cortical vein pressure and reversal of the normal absorption pathway for cerebrospinal fluid may be behind the pathophysiology of NPH. (orig.)

  7. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Sarah, E-mail:; Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)


    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  8. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  9. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group


    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  10. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  11. Restore condition of Incore thimble tubes in guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanas, A.; Izquierdo, J.


    Aging of Nuclear Power Plant and succession of outages lead to wear and twist of the thimbles tubes but also to the fooling of Incore guide tubes. These can create friction and a high strength must be used for thimble tubes withdrawal. (Author)

  12. Potential risk of malposition of nasogastric tube using nose-ear-xiphoid measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Correct placement of nasogastric tubes provide proper functionality and maximize benefit and minimize risk. The Nose-Ear-Xiphoid (NEX body surface estimate method is a long-lasting technique, and this study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between NEX method and the secure insertion depth of nasogastric tube. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with nasogastric tube insertion who received whole body positron emission tomography with computerized tomography scan (PET-CT were recruited. All data were gathered in the image center, which included Nose-Ear (NE, Ear-Xiphoid (EX, Nose-Ear-Xiphoid (NEX, glabella-xiphoid (GX and glabella-umbilicus (GU lengths. The distances of the inserted portion of the nasogastric tube between the cardiac and the nostril were measured by multiplanar reconstruction algorithm. RESULTS: Only one patient successfully placed all side-holes into the stomach while using NEX method to estimate inserting depth. Twenty-nine patients (96.7% failed to place correctly. Fourteen participants had one or more side-holes in both the esophagus and the stomach sides. Fifteen patients could not pass through any side-hole across the gastroesophageal junction. They had shorter EX distances (p = 0.02, but no difference among the NE distances. Body height had the highest statistical correlation with nasogastric tube length (adjusted R(2 = 0.459, as compared with the NEX, GX and GU body surface methods. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that NEX method is inappropriate for adult patients to estimate the ideal inserting length of nasogastric tube. Physicians should realize these underinsertions with any side-hole above the gastroesophageal junctions may increase the potential risk of complications.

  13. An in vitro comparison of tracheostomy tube cuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguire S


    Full Text Available Seamus Maguire,1 Frances Haury,2 Korinne Jew2 1Research and Development, Covidien Respiratory and Monitoring Solutions, Athlone, Ireland; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien Respiratory and Monitoring Solutions, Boulder, CO, USA Introduction: The Shiley™ Flexible adult tracheostomy tube with TaperGuard™ cuff has been designed through its geometry, materials, diameter, and wall thickness to minimize micro-aspiration of fluids past the cuff and to provide an effective air seal in the trachea while also minimizing the risk of excessive contact pressure on the tracheal mucosa. The cuff also has a deflated profile that may allow for easier insertion through the stoma site. This unique design is known as the TaperGuard™ cuff. The purpose of the observational, in vitro study reported here was to compare the TaperGuard™ taper-shaped cuff to a conventional high-volume low-pressure cylindrical-shaped cuff (Shiley™ Disposable Inner Cannula Tracheostomy Tube [DCT] with respect to applied tracheal wall pressure, air and fluid sealing efficacy, and insertion force.Methods: Three sizes of tracheostomy tubes with the two cuff types were placed in appropriately sized tracheal models and lateral wall pressure was measured via pressure-sensing elements on the inner surface. Fluid sealing performance was assessed by inflating the cuffs within the tracheal models (25 cmH2O, instilling water above the cuff, and measuring fluid leakage past the cuff. To measure air leak, tubes were attached to a test lung and ventilator, and leak was calculated by subtracting the average exhaled tidal volume from the average delivered tidal volume. A tensile test machine was used to measure insertion force for each tube with the cuff deflated to simulate clinical insertion through a stoma site.Results: The average pressure exerted on the lateral wall of the model trachea was lower for the taper-shaped cuff than for the cylindrical cuff under all test conditions (P<0.05. The taper

  14. Acute diaphragmatic paralysis caused by chest-tube trauma to phrenic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, E.; Ben-Ari, J.; Schonfeld, T. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Horev, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Schneider Children' s Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    A 3{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old child developed unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis after chest drain insertion. Plain chest X-ray demonstrated paravertebral positioning of the chest-tube tip, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hematomas in the region of the chest-tube tip and the phrenic nerve fibers. The trauma to the phrenic nerve was apparently secondary to malposition of the chest tube. This is a rare complication and has been reported mainly in neonates. Radiologists should notify the treating physicians that the correct position of a chest drain tip is at least 2 cm distant from the vertebrae. (orig.)

  15. A case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery. (United States)

    Shinnabe, Akihiro; Hara, Mariko; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Masayo; Kodama, Kozue; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko


    We report a case of multiple abnormalities with eustachian tube obstruction by a protruded internal carotid artery. A 10-year-old male presented with multiple abnormalities including anomalous pinna, poor eyesight, facial palsy, moderate conductive deafness, and otitis media with effusion. Temporal bone computed tomography demonstrated obstruction of the right eustachian tube by a protruded internal carotid artery. Insertion of a tympanostomy tube did not improve his hearing, indicating a possible ossicular chain anomaly. Although tympanoplasty is necessary to improve the patients' hearing, the poor drainage function makes this difficult. Knowledge of this vascular anomaly is important when performing myringotomy or tympanoplasty.

  16. Hamstring tendons insertion - an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Antonio Grassi


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the hamstring tendons insertion and anatomical rela-tionships. METHODS: Ten cadaver knees with medial and anterior intact structures were selected. The dissection was performed from anteromedial access to exposure of the insertion of the flexor tendons (FT, tibial plateau (TP and tibial tuberosity (TT. A needle of 40 × 12 and a caliper were used to measure the distance of the tibial plateau of the knee flexor tendons insertion at 15 mm from the medial border of the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity to the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee. The angle between tibial plateau and the insertion of the flexor tendons of the knee (A-TP-FT was calculated using Image Pro Plus software. RESULTS: The mean distance TP-FT was 41 ± 4.6 mm. The distance between the TT-FT was 6.88 ± 1 mm. The (A-TP-FT was 20.3 ± 4.9°. CONCLUSION: In the anterior tibial flexor tendons are about 40 mm from the plateau with an average of 20°.

  17. New models for conventional and heat exchangers enhanced with tube inserts for heat exchanger network retrofit


    Jiang, N; Shelley, J D; Smith, Robin


    The retrofit of heat exchanger networks requires detailed models of the heat exchangers for the detailed assessment of network performance. Network retrofit options include heat transfer enhancement. There is thus a requirement for detailed models of heat exchanger performance, including heat transfer enhancement, suitable for inclusion in network retrofit optimization algorithms. Such models must be robust, computationally efficient and accurate enough to reflect the heat transfer and pressu...

  18. A longitudinal evaluation of hearing and ventilation tube insertion in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Nicolai; Alanin, Mikkel Christian; von Buchwald, Christian;


    audiometries were evaluated. The median number of audiometries per patient was 3 (range 1-29) and the median follow-up was 60 months (range 0-351 months). The mean PTA was 34 dB HL in patients below six years of age and improved significantly (p

  19. Vortex tube optimization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)


    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)

  20. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall


    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  1. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  2. Traveling-Wave Tubes (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.


    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  3. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients? (United States)

    Williams, Trish


    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  4. Mallory-Weiss tear following cardiac surgery : transoesophageal echoprobe or nasogastric tube?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, AJ; van der Maaten, JMAA; Laurens, RRP


    A case of fatal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a Mallory-Weiss tear after transoesophageal echocardiography during cardiac surgery is reported. After the echocardiographic examination, which is considered a safe procedure, a nasogastric tube was inserted which immediately revealed bright red b

  5. Obstruction of endotracheal tube with relevant respiratory acidosis during pediatric cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morei, N.M.; Mungroop, H. E.; Michielon, Guido; Scheeren, Thomas


    We describe a case of pediatric cardiac surgery in a 21- days old baby, in whom a nasal endotracheal tube (ETT) was inserted. At the end of surgery both ventilatory pressures and end-tidal CO2 increased suggesting airway obstruction. Suctioning of the ETT lumen did not relieve the problem, only ETT

  6. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)


    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  7. On the Insertion Time of Cuckoo Hashing

    CERN Document Server

    Fountoulakis, Nikolaos; Steger, Angelika


    Cuckoo hashing is an efficient technique for creating large hash tables with high space utilization and guaranteed constant access times. There, each item can be placed in a location given by any one out of k different hash functions. In this paper we investigate further the random walk heuristic for inserting in an online fashion new items into the hash table. Provided that k > 2 and that the number of items in the table is below (but arbitrarily close) to the theoretically achievable load threshold, we show a polylogarithmic bound for the maximum insertion time that holds with high probability.

  8. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme


    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  9. Hybrid endotracheal tubes (United States)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation to evaluate the performance of triangular finned tube heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinous M. Hameed, Bashar Muslem Essa


    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical investigation has been performed in this work to evaluate the performance for triangular finned tube heat exchanger. Experimental work included designing and manufacturing of shaped triangular fins from copper material of (10mm length, (10mm height, (1mm thickness, (22 mm distance between every two fins shaped and (15mm pitch between each two of fins which are install on the straight copper tube of (2m length having (20mm inner diameter and (22mm outer diameter. The inner tube is inserted inside the Perspex tube of (54mm inner diameter and (60mm outer diameter. Cold Air and hot water are used as working fluids in the shell side and tube side, respectively. Air at various mass flow rates (0.001875 to 0.003133 kg/sec flows through annuli and water at Reynold's numbers ranging from (10376.9 to 23348.03 flows through the inner tube. Performance of (smooth and finned tube heat exchanger was investigated experimentally. Experimental results showed that the enhancement of heat dissipation for triangular finned tube is (3.252 to4.502 times than that of smooth tube respectively. Numerical simulation has been carried out on present heat exchanger to analyze flow field and heat transfer using COMSOL computational fluid dynamic (CFD package model. The comparison between experimental work and numerical results showed good agreement.

  11. Percutaneous gastrostomy tube placement in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sane, S.S.; Towbin, A.; Bergey, E.A.; Kaye, R.D.; Fitz, C.R.; Albright, L.; Towbin, R.B. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, 3705 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    Objective. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of CNS and/or peritoneal infection in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts in whom a percutaneous gastrostomy tube is placed. Materials and methods. We placed 205 gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tubes from January of 1991 to December 1996. Twenty-three patients (10 boys, 13 girls) had ventriculoperitoneal shunts at the time of placement. All shunts were placed at least 1 month prior to placement of the gastrostomy tube. The patients ranged in age from 8 months to 16 years with a mean age of 6 years, 9 months. Patient weight ranged from 2 kg to 60 kg. All 23 children required long-term nutritional support due to severe neurologic impairment. No prophylactic antibiotics were given prior to the procedure. Of the patients, 21/23 had a 14-F Sacks-Vine gastrostomy tube with a fixed terminal retention device inserted, using percutaneous fluoroscopic antegrade technique. Two of the 23 patients had a Ross 14-F Flexi-flo gastrostomy tube which required a retrograde technique due to a small caliber esophagus in these children. Results. All 23 children had technically successful placements of percutaneous gastrostomy (7) or gastrojejunostomy (16) tubes. Of the children, 21/23 (91 %) had no complications from the procedure. Two of 23 (9 %) patients demonstrated signs of peritonitis after placement of their gastrostomy tubes and subsequently had shunt infections. In both, children CSF culture grew gram-positive cocci. The antegrade technique was used in both children who developed peritonitis. Conclusion. Our study indicates children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts who undergo percutaneous gastrostomy are at greater risk for infection and subsequent shunt malfunction. Therefore, we recommend prophylactic antibiotic therapy to cover for skin and oral flora. (orig.) With 1 fig., 7 refs.

  12. Gettering of hydrogen from Zr-2. 5Nb pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cann, C.D.; Sexton, E.E.; Bahurmuz, A.A.; White, A.J.; Balness, H.R.; Ledoux, G.A. (AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))


    Yttrium is being investigated as a hydrogen getter to prevent delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors. Yttrium strips have been encapsulated in zirconium alloy and attached to the ends of hydrided pressure tube sections to determine the effect of the degree of contact between the yttrium and the encapsulation on the gettering rate. Rates for strips hot isostatically pressed into the encapsulation were in good agreement with diffusion model predictions assuming complete contact. Rates for strips brought into contact by cold rolling were slightly lower than those for the hot-pressed strips, while little gettering was observed for loose strips sealed in the encapsulation by tungsten-inert gas welding. The effect of hydrogen flux rate to the yttrium on gettering was determined at 313degC for hydrogen fluxes from three to nine times those predicted in reactor. It was found that these fluxes did not affect the gettering rate for hydrogen concentrations up to 58 at.% in the hot isostatically pressed yttrium inserts. Inserts that were thermally cycled and inserts that had not been hot pressed achieved similar gettering rates. (orig.).

  13. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert (United States)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.


    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  14. Omission of postoperative nasogastric tube in esophagectomy: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryaei P.


    Full Text Available Background: Nasogastric tube (NG tube usage was first described in 1921 by Levin. Surgeons routinely use NG tube in most esophageal resections. Considering the numerous complications caused by this tube, the uncertainty about its usefulness and the scarcity of studies conducted on the subject, particularly in esophageal cancer patients, we investigated the necessity of the NG tube in these cases.Methods: This clinical trial was performed at the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital. Esophageal cancer patients were randomized into groups either with or without postoperative NG tube; the latter group was also prescribed metoclopramide. Postoperative obstruction was the exclusion criteria. The operation was done by a team of surgeons using the surgical techniques of McKeown or Orringer. All patients received ranitidine, heparin and antibiotics postoperatively. All patients received postoperative chest X-ray and chest physiotherapy. The NG tube was inserted or reinserted for those with abdominal distention and/or repeated vomiting. The NG tube was pulled out after return of bowel movements. The variables recorded for each patient included the first day of flatus, the first day of defecation, the first day of bowel sound (BS upon auscultation, duration of post-operative hospitalization, nausea and vomiting, abdominal distension, pulmonary complications, wound complications, anastomotic leakage and the need for placing/replacing the NG tube. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, v. 11.5.Results: After randomization, the NG tube was inserted for 22 patients, and 18 patients had no NG tube. The incidence of anastomotic leakage was significantly higher in the NG-tube group. No significant differences between the two groups were found for other complications. The mean times until first passage of flatus, defecation and BS upon auscultation and the duration of post-operative hospitalization were not significantly different. The need for

  15. In situ gas sensing using a remotely detectable probe with replaceable insert. (United States)

    Lim, Sun Do; Ma, Kyungsik; Jeong, Ji Ho; Kim, Gilhwan; Lee, Kwanil; Jeong, Je-Myung; Lee, Sang Bae


    We demonstrate a spectroscopic gas sensor using an optical fiber probe with a replaceable insert. The probe consists of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) with a core diameter of 10.9 μm and a glass tube where a 2-μm hollow core fiber (HCF) with a gold coated end facet can be inserted. The HCF is designed to function as both a gate where gases can enter the HC-PBGF and a mirror reflecting the guided light back to the HC-PBGF. The opposite distal end of the probe is also designed to be able to regulate the gas pressure within the HC-PBGF for a high gas flow rate, while still transmitting the reflected light to the analysis instrument. The remote sensing probe, we believe, has much potential for detecting gases in hazardous environments.

  16. A critical appraisal of medication package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjit Narzaree


    Full Text Available Introduction: Package Inserts (PIs refers to officially specified document that accompanies a drug for relevant, updated and unbiased information for rational drug use based on regulatory guidelines as per section 6.2 and 6.3 of schedule D of Indian Drug and cosmetic Act 1945. But some studies had shown non-uniformity with suboptimal level of informations which frequently can lead to medication errors. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the completeness of PIs.Aim: To critically evaluate package inserts of allopathic medicines.Material and Methods: 100 allopathic drug PIs were collected from pharmacies in Rohtak and were checked for the presence of each heading as per schedule D criteria, followed by scrutiny of the information included under the heading. Indian guidelines were also compared with US FDA guidelines for PIs.Scoring of package inserts: The informations were evaluated for completeness and scored as 1 if present otherwise scored as zero for no information or partial information. Scores for each heading were calculated by totaling the scores of all the package inserts. The total scores were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages.Results:  On an average PIs analyzed for the completeness of the criteria scored 10 (Mean± SD = 9.73±2.48 out of 16. Absence of common layout and headings caused inconvenience. In comparison to US FDA guidelines it lacked, disclaimer statement, boxed warning, revision date, approval date, toll-free number etc.Conclusion: PIs don’t seem to be serving effectively because of multiple deficiencies like completeness, uniformity, absence of headings.Keywords: Critical appraisal, package inserts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibani Devi


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  18. Lava Tube Collapse Pits (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  19. Overview of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, D-L; The ATLAS collaboration


    The upgrades for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be staged in preparation for high luminosity LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will be the construction of a new pixel layer which is currently under construction and will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine, in 2013-14. The new detector, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed between the existing Pixel Detector and a new, smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL required the development of several new technologies to cope with increased radiation and pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance through reduction of the pixel size and a more stringent material budget. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, will be used, connected with the new generation 130nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 readout chip via solder bump-bonds. 32 FEs with sensors are glued to a light weight carbon-carbon structure which incorporates a titanium cooling tube for a CO2 cooling system. In total th...

  20. Insertion of optic fibre for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The MicroJET system uses high pressure to carefully put the optical fibres into their protective tubes. These fibres are vital for rapid data transfer, but are also very delicate and, if damanged, may not work at the required efficiency. Similiar methods are used to install cables for the telecommunications industry.

  1. Tube coalescence in the Jingfudong lava tube and implications for lava flow hazard of Tengchong volcanism


    Zhengquan Chen; Yongshun Liu; Haiquan Wei; Jiandong Xu; Wenfeng Guo


    Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence...

  2. Nasogastric tube depth: the 'NEX' guideline is incorrect. (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen J; Allan, Kaylee; McWilliam, Helen; Toher, Deirdre

    Misplacing 17-23% of nasogastric (NG) tubes above the stomach ( Rollins et al, 2012 ; Rayner, 2013 ) represents a serious risk in terms of aspiration, further invasive (tube) procedures, irradiation from failed X-ray confirmation, delay to feed and medication. One causal factor is that in the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) guidance to place a tube, length is measured from nose to ear to xiphisternum (NEX) ( NSPA, 2011 ); NEX is incorrect because it only approximates the nose to gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) distance and is therefore too short. To overcome this and because the xiphisternum is more difficult to locate, local policy is to measure in the opposite direction; xiphisternum to ear to nose (XEN), then add 10 cm. The authors determined whether external body measurements can be used to estimate the NG tube length to safely reach the gastric body. This involved testing the statistical association of body length, age, sex and XEN in consecutive critically ill patients against internal anatomical landmarks determined from an electromagnetic (EM) trace of the tube path. XEN averaged 50 cm in 71 critically ill patients aged 53±20 years. Tube marking and the EM trace were used to determine mean insertion distances at pre-gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) (48 cm), where the tube first turns left towards the stomach and becomes shallow on the trace; gastric body (62 cm), where the tube reaches the left-most part of the stomach; and gastric antrum (73 cm) at the midline on the EM trace. Using body length, age, sex and XEN in a linear regression model, only 25% of variability was predicted, showing that external measurements cannot reliably predict the length of tube required to reach the stomach. A tube length of XEN (or NEX) is too short to guarantee gastric placement and is unsafe. XEN+10 cm or more complex measurements will reach the gastric body (mid-stomach) in most patients, but because of wide variation, external measurements often fail to predict a

  3. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.


    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  4. The special relativistic shock tube (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin W.


    The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.

  5. Tubing for augmented heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Pavlics, P.


    The objectives of the program reported were: to determine the heat transfer and friction characteristics on the outside of spiral fluted tubing in single phase flow of water, and to assess the relative cost of a heat exchanger constructed with spiral fluted tubing with one using conventional smooth tubing. An application is examined where an isolation water/water heat exchanger was used to transfer the heat from a gaseous diffusion plant to an external system for energy recovery. (LEW)

  6. Diffusion in a Curved Tube


    Ogawa, Naohisa


    The diffusion of particles in confining walls forming a tube is discussed. Such a transport phenomenon is observed in biological cells and porous media. We consider the case in which the tube is winding with curvature and torsion, and the thickness of the tube is sufficiently small compared with its curvature radius. We discuss how geomerical quantities appear in a quasi-one-dimensional diffusion equation.

  7. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)


    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  8. Learning from YouTube [Video Book (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra


    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  9. Charm production in flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, C E; Nazareth, R A M S; Pech, G


    We argue that the non-perturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single non-elementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. On their turn these clusters, or `fireballs', decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  10. Charm production in flux tubes (United States)

    Aguiar, C. E.; Kodama, T.; Nazareth, R. A. M. S.; Pech, G.


    We argue that the nonperturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single nonelementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. In their turn these clusters, or ``fireballs,'' decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange, and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.

  11. YouTube and 'psychiatry'. (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel


    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  12. Method for producing a tube (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.


    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  13. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael


    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  14. Effect of the sequence of tube rolling in a tube bundle of a shell and tube heat exchanger on the stress-deformed state of the tube sheet (United States)

    Tselishchev, M. F.; Plotnikov, P. N.; Brodov, Yu. M.


    Rolling the tube sheet of a heat exchanger with U-shaped tubes, as exemplified by the vapor cooler GP-24, was simulated. The simulation was performed using the finite element method with account of elas- tic-plastic properties of the tube and tube sheet materials. The simulation consisted of two stages; at the first stage, maximum and residual contact stress in the conjunction of a separate tube and the tube sheet was determined using the "equivalent sleeve" model; at the second stage, the obtained contact stress was applied to the hole surface in the tube sheet. Thus, different tube rolling sequences were simulated: from the center to the periphery of the tube sheet and from the periphery to the center along a spiral line. The studies showed that the tube rolling sequence noticeably influences the value of the tube sheet residual deflection for the same rolling parameters of separate tubes. Residual deflection of the tube sheet in different planes was determined. It was established that the smallest residual deflection corresponds to the tube rolling sequence from the periphery to the center of the tube sheet. The following dependences were obtained for different rolling sequences: maximum deformation of the tube sheet as a function of the number of rolled tubes, residual deformation of the tube sheet along its surface, and residual deflection of the tube sheet as a function of the rotation angle at the periphery. The preferred sequence of tube rolling for minimizing the tube sheet deformation is indicated.

  15. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes (United States)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko


    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  16. Knotting of a nasogastric feeding tube in a child with head injury: A case report and review of literature


    Nasiru J Ismail; Gyang Markus Bot; Ismail Hassan; Danaan J Shilong; Joseph O Obande; Salamat Ahuoiza Aliu; Ezekiel D Dung; Bello B Shehu


    Nasogastric intubation is one of the most common routine nonoperative procedures available for the hospital care of patients. The insertion and removal of this tube is associated with many complications. The complications include trauma, nasal septal abscess and inadvertent entry into the cranial cavity and trachea, ulceration, bleeding from varices and perforation. Knotting of the nasogastric tube is one of the very rare complications of nasogastric intubation particularly in children. To th...

  17. Development of ocular inserts for cattle. (United States)

    Greer, R T; Ryoo, J P


    Ring shaped ocular inserts have been developed to administer a therapeutic level of tylosin tartrate throughout a five day period to treat pinkeye in cattle. The inserts are based on polyvinyl chloride rings which are dip coated with a copolymer containing the antibiotic (tylosin tartrate). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization of surfaces has been of value to evaluate the presence and extent of surface flaws in the hydrogel coating, and to contribute to improvement in fabrication of the rings to insure the establishment of satisfactory seals at joints, uniformity of microporosity and cross sections, and the absence of significant cracking or flaking. In vitro release rates were determined using thin layer chromatography techniques, and rates were seen to be above a few micrograms of antibiotic per hour for experiments as long as nine days at simulated tear rates as high as 2 milliliters per hour.

  18. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion. (United States)

    Nisky, I; Pressman, A; Pugh, C M; Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Karniel, A


    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such a field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task.

  19. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes. (United States)

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M


    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  20. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil]. (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson


    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  1. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion. (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad


    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  2. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)


    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  3. Transfer of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet through a long flexible plastic tube (United States)

    Kostov, Konstantin G.; Machida, Munemasa; Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Honda, Roberto Y.


    This work proposes an experimental configuration for the generation of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet at the downstream end of a long flexible plastic tube. The device consists of a cylindrical dielectric chamber where an insulated metal rod that serves as high-voltage electrode is inserted. The chamber is connected to a long (up to 4 m) commercial flexible plastic tube, equipped with a thin floating Cu wire. The wire penetrates a few mm inside the discharge chamber, passes freely (with no special support) along the plastic tube and terminates a few millimeters before the tube end. The system is flushed with Ar and the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is ignited inside the dielectric chamber by a low frequency ac power supply. The gas flow is guided by the plastic tube while the metal wire, when in contact with the plasma inside the DBD reactor, acquires plasma potential. There is no discharge inside the plastic tube, however an Ar plasma jet can be extracted from the downstream tube end. The jet obtained by this method is cold enough to be put in direct contact with human skin without an electric shock. Therefore, by using this approach an Ar plasma jet can be generated at the tip of a long plastic tube far from the high-voltage discharge region, which provides the safe operation conditions and device flexibility required for medical treatment.

  4. Endoscopically placed nasogastrojejunal feeding tubes: a safe route for enteral nutrition in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Lee, Steven S; Mathiasen, Ronald A; Lipkin, Craig A; Colquhoun, Steven D; Margulies, Daniel R


    Patients with hepatic encephalopathy are at particular risk for aspiration when given oral or gastric feedings. An ideal strategy might combine distal enteral feeding with proximal gastric decompression, which is offered by a nasogastrojejunal (NGJ) feeding tube. One objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of endoscopically placed NGJ feeding tubes in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Charts of patients who underwent NGJ tube placements between April 1997 and January 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Two endoscopic techniques ("push" and "pull") were used. Eighteen patients (nine male and nine female) underwent 32 procedures. Twelve patients had undergone liver transplantation, four had decompensated cirrhosis, and two had fulminant hepatic failure. Twenty procedures used the push technique and 12 required the pull technique. The insertion time was shorter for the push technique compared with the pull technique (21.8 vs 39.6 min, P < 0.05). Enteral feedings were begun at an average of 5.2 hours after tube placement. The tubes remained in place for an average of 13.9 days. Complications related to the NGJ tubes included self-removal in eight, tube clogging in five, proximal migration in four, and intraduodenal migration of the gastric port in one. No aspiration episodes occurred. We conclude that NGJ feeding tubes may be placed endoscopically as a bedside procedure for patients with hepatic encephalopathy and provide a safe, efficacious, and rapid route for enteral nutrition in these patients.

  5. The use of a nasogastric tube to facilitate nasotracheal intubation: a randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Lim, C-W; Min, S-W; Kim, C-S; Chang, J-E; Park, J-E; Hwang, J-Y


    During nasotracheal intubation, the tracheal tube passes through either the upper or lower pathway in the nasal cavity, and it has been reported to be safer that the tracheal tube passes though the lower pathway, just below the inferior turbinate. We evaluated the use of a nasogastric tube as a guide to facilitate tracheal tube passage through the lower pathway, compared with the 'conventional' technique (blind insertion of the tracheal tube into the nasal cavity). A total of 60 adult patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery were included in the study. In 20 out of 30 patients (66.7%) with the nasogastric tube-guided technique, the tracheal tube passed through the lower pathway, compared with 8 out of 30 patients (26.7%) with the 'conventional' technique (p = 0.004). Use of the nasogastric tube-guided technique reduced the incidence and severity of epistaxis (p = 0.027), improved navigability (p = 0.034) and required fewer manipulations (p = 0.001) than the 'conventional' technique.

  6. A newly developed open-end intracranial hematoma drainage tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao He; Nongnaphat Wanussakul; Dong Yang; Tianya Wu; Ming Zhao


    Methods:The newly developed device consists of two parts:the plunger and barrel. On one side, the barrel is bullet shaped with an opening tip. The plunger is located in the middle cavity of the tube barrel and extended out at the open-end. It was designed for strengthening the tube barrel and for convenience in performing the drainage procedure. It can be used by inserting the drainage tube into the lesion and pulling out the plunger, whereby blood will forcefully rise up inside the barrel, providing a satisfactory outcome. It is made for effusion drainage purposes. During the procedure, the drainage tip is placed at the deepest part of the intracranial hematoma to completely drain the blood. Moreover, the plunger fits tightly in the tube, preventing leakage during the operation. With the use of the device, brain can be separated. In addition, the device can help reduce the risk of cerebral damage because of the small operating area. The barrel sidewall has matching opening holes bilaterally and equally for exchanging substances between the inner and outer parts. The overlapping ratio in each horizontal pair is around 1/3–1/2. Each pair on the opposite side will form a different pressure. Thus, the opening holes will not easily get blocked with blood clot. Results: Blood and accumulated liquid from the deepest part of the intracranial hematoma can be directly drawn through the drainage tube without damaging a large area. The tube does not get blocked easily and allows for complete removal of the hematoma. Conclusions:The device is asuitable instrument for clinical application.

  7. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert


    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  8. Clinical curative effect observation of Ahmed glaucoma drainage valve implantation in the treatment of neonatal vascular glaucoma%Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术治疗新生血管性青光眼的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术对新生血管性青光眼的治疗作用。方法:收治新生血管性青光眼患者28例(30眼),患者给予Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术,观察治疗结果。结果:28例患者术后眼压控制较好,视力保存好,并发症少。结论:Ahmed青光眼引流阀植入术操作简单、损伤小,在新生血管性青光眼患者治疗中能够保护患者的视功能,疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the treatment effect of Ahmed glaucoma drainage valve implantation in neonatal vascular glaucoma.Methods:28 patients with neonatal vascular glaucoma(30 eyes) were selected.The patients were given Ahmed glaucoma drainage valve implantation.The treatment effect was observed.Results:The postoperative intraocular pressure control of 28 patients were good;the visual preservation was good;the complication was less.Conclusion:Ahmed glaucoma drainage valve implantation operation is simple;it has little damage;it can protect the visual function of patients in the treatment of neonatal vascular glaucoma;the curative effect is remarkable.

  9. The Developing of the Syllogistic Reasoning Test and Classifying of Individual's Attribute Master Pattern Under AHM%AHM下的三段论推理测验编制及个体属性掌握模式判别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵顶位; 戴海琦; 郭斯萍



  10. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria


    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  11. Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data (United States)


    times only for high concentrations (of order 1% fuel or greater). The requirements of engine (IC, HCCI , CI and SI) modelers also present a different...Paper 03F-61 Interpreting Shock Tube Ignition Data D. F. Davidson and R. K. Hanson Mechanical Engineering ... Engineering Department Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 Abstract Chemical kinetic modelers make extensive use of shock tube ignition data

  12. Is looped nasogastric tube feeding more effective than conventional nasogastric tube feeding for dysphagia in acute stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwood Rowan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of patients admitted to hospital with acute strokes with up to 27% remaining by seven days. Up to 8% continue to have swallowing problems six months after their stroke with 1.7% still requiring enteral feeding. Nasogastric tubes (NGT are the most commonly used method for providing enteral nutrition in early stroke, however they are easily and frequently removed leading to inadequate nutrition, early PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy insertion or abandoning of feeding attempts. Looped nasogastric tube feeding may improve the delivery of nutrition to such patients. Methods Three centre, two arm randomised controlled trial, with 50 participants in each arm comparing loop (the intervention versus conventional nasogastric tube feeding. The primary outcome measure is proportion of intended feed delivered in the first 2 weeks. The study is designed to show a mean increase of feed delivery of 16% in the intervention group as compared with the control group, with 90% power at a 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes are treatment failures, mean volume of feed received, adverse events, cost-effectiveness, number of chest x-rays, number of nasogastric tubes and tolerability. Trial Registration ISRCTN Number: ISRCTN61174381

  13. New cardiac retractor for epicardial electrode insertion via subxiphoid approach. (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Arai, H; Suzuki, A


    A new retractor for the insertion of epicardial screw-in electrodes is described. We have found that this instrument can be easily applied to the heart and gives excellent exposure for electrode insertion.

  14. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.


    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  15. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output (United States)

    Lipoma, P.


    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  16. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability


    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Ivo HLAVATÝ; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal


    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  17. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (United States)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken


    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  18. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.


    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  19. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil (United States)


    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing. The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. PEG tubes: dealing with complications. (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  1. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes (United States)

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  2. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A


    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  3. Transposon insertion mapping with PIMMS – Pragmatic Insertional Mutation Mapping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eBlanchard


    Full Text Available The PIMMS (Pragmatic Insertional Mutation Mapping System pipeline has been developed for simple conditionally essential genome discovery experiments in bacteria. Capable of using raw sequence data files alongside a FASTA sequence of the reference genome and GFF file, PIMMS will generate a tabulated output of each coding sequence with corresponding mapped insertions accompanied with normalised results enabling streamlined analysis. This allows for a quick assay of the genome to identify conditionally essential genes on a standard desktop computer prioritising results for further investigation.Availability: The PIMMS script, manual and accompanying test data is freely available at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. KHALID


    Full Text Available This paper reports the work on developing concentric tube-fouling rig, a new fouling deposit monitoring device. This device can detect and quantify the level of fouling deposit formation. It can also functioning as sampler for fouling deposit study, which can be attached at any food processing equipment. The design is initiated with conceptual design. The rig is designed with inner diameter of 7 cm and with tube length of 37 cm. A spiral insert with 34.5 cm length and with 5.4 cm diameter is fitted inside the tube to ensure the fluid flows around the tube. In this work, the rig is attached to the lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer to test its effectiveness and to collect a fouling sample after pasteurization of pink guava puree. Temperature changes are recorded during the pasteurization and the data is used to plot the heat transfer profile. Thickness of the fouling deposit is also measured. The trends for thickness, heat resistance profile and heat transfer profile for concentric tube-fouling rig matched the trends obtained from lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer very well. The findings from this work have shown a good potential of this rig however there is a limitation with spiral insert, which is discussed in this paper.

  5. Pause before a PEG: A feeding tube may not be necessary in every candidate! (United States)

    Aparanji, Krishna P; Dharmarajan, T S


    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies (PEGs) are a means to provide nutrition in older adults incapable of normal adequate nutrient intake. Often decisions to insert a PEG in patients with illness and dementia are made hastily, before exhausting every means of feeding and full evaluation for the potential to regain capacity to feed normally. Further, ethical aspects often cloud such decisions, with data not supporting meaningful long-term improvement in outcomes or quality of life for the recipient of a PEG. Our case illustrates the story of a nursing home resident in whom an organized approach determined a reversible basis for his inability to feed and the potential to avoid tube insertion.

  6. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang


    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  7. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil (United States)


    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil. The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long. The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina


    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  9. A buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing timing optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Guoli; Lin Zhenghui


    A path-based timing optimization algorithm for buffer insertion and simultaneous sizing is proposed.Firstly, candidate buffer insertion location and buffer size for each branch in a given routing path were obtained via localized timing optimization. Then, through evaluating each potential insertion against design objectives, potential optimal buffer insertion locations and sizes for the whole routing tree were determined. At last, by removing redundant buffer insertion operations which do not maximize S ( so ), given timing requirements are finally fulfilled through minimum number of buffers.

  10. Percutaneous transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy in a porcine survival model (United States)

    Shi, Hong; Chen, Su-Yu; Wang, Yong-Guang; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Cai, He-Li; Lin, Kai; Xie, Zhao-Fei; Dong, Fen-Fang


    AIM To introduce natural orifice transgastric endoscopic surgery (NOTES) tube ileostomy using pelvis-directed submucosal tunneling endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopic tube ileostomy. METHODS Six live pigs (three each in the non-survival and survival groups) were used. A double-channeled therapeutic endoscope was introduced perorally into the stomach. A gastrostomy was made using a 2-cm transversal mucosal incision following the creation of a 5-cm longitudinal pelvis-directed submucosal tunnel. The pneumoperitoneum was established via the endoscope. In the initial three operations of the series, a laparoscope was transumbilically inserted for guiding the tunnel direction, intraperitoneal spatial orientation and distal ileum identification. Endoscopic tube ileostomy was conducted by adopting an introducer method and using a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Catheter Kit equipped with the Loop Fixture. The distal tip of the 15 Fr catheter was placed toward the proximal limb of the ileum to optimize intestinal content drainage. Finally, the tunnel entrance of the gastrostomy was closed using nylon endoloops with the aid of a twin grasper. The gross and histopathological integrity of gastrostomy closure and the abdominal wall-ileum stoma tract formation were assessed 1 wk after the operation. RESULTS Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy was successful in all six pigs, without major bleeding. The mean operating time was 71 min (range: 60-110 min). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The post-mortem, which was conducted 1-wk postoperatively, showed complete healing of the gastrostomy and adequate stoma tract formation of ileostomy. CONCLUSION Transgastric endoscopic tube ileostomy is technically feasible and reproducible in an animal model, and this technique is worthy of further improvement. PMID:27729743

  11. Tube-wave seismic imaging (United States)

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA


    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  12. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Dilated Exam Grants and Funding Extramural ... Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video ...

  13. Pulse tube refrigerator; Parusukan reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Yoshikazu [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shiraishi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    In the cryogenic field, high temperature superconductivity and research and development of the peripheral technology are popular. Refrigerating machine development of the very low temperature is also one of the results. Research and development are mainly advanced as a refrigerating machine of the center for the aerospace plane installation. There is special and small very low temperature refrigerating machine called 'the pulse tube refrigerating machine' of which the practical application is also recently being attempted for the semiconductor cooling using high temperature superconductivity. At present, the basic research of elucidation of refrigeration phenomenon of pulse tube refrigerating machine and development of high-performance pulse tube refrigerating machine is carried out by experiment in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry Mechanical Engineering Lab., Agency of Industrial Sci. and Technology and numerical simulation in Chiyoda Corp. In this report, the pulse tube refrigerating machine is introduced, and the application in the chemical engineering field is considered. (NEDO)

  14. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  15. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  16. Dermatology on YouTube. (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P


    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  17. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  18. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  20. A laser tube position regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyitiro, A.; Norio, K.


    An improved design is patented for a mechanism and method of regulating, with a high degree of accuracy, the position of a laser tube in a gas laser inside the optical resonator formed by external mirrors. The laser tube is held in two holders. Each holder contains an L shaped bracket which supports a semitransparent plate. The plate is positioned so that its center is over the center of the end of the tube which is in the form of a Brewster window. A narrow parallel beam is directed along the tube axis from an external auxiliary laser. The beam passes through the semitransparent mirror of the optical resonator in the adjusted laser, through the first Brewster window, the tube itself, and the second Brewster window and is reflected back in the reverse direction from a fully reflecting mirror in the optical resonator. This provides partial reflection of the beam from the external Brewster mirror surface. The tube position in the holders is regulated continuously so that the luminous spots from the beams reflected off the Brewster windows fall on the semitransparent plates in the center of the latter which is designated as the point of intersection.

  1. Biliary peritonitis caused by a leaking T-tube fistula disconnected at the point of contact with the anterior abdominal wall: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marko


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Operations on the common bile duct may lead to potentially serious complications such as biliary peritonitis. T-tube insertion is performed to reduce the risk of this occurring postoperatively. Biliary leakage at the point of insertion into the common bile duct, or along the fistula, can sometimes occur after T-tube removal and this has been reported extensively in the literature. We report a case where the site at which the T-tube fistula leaked proved to be the point of contact between the fistula and the anterior abdominal wall, a previously unreported complication. Case presentation A 36-year-old sub-Saharan African woman presented with gallstone-induced pancreatitis and, once her symptoms settled, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, common bile duct stones were removed and a T-tube was inserted. Three weeks later, T-tube removal led to biliary peritonitis due to the disconnection of the T-tube fistula which was recannulated laparoscopically using a Latex drain. Conclusion This case highlights a previously unreported mechanism for bile leak following T-tube removal caused by detachment of a fistula tract at its contact point with the anterior abdominal wall. Hepatobiliary surgeons should be aware of this mechanism of biliary leakage and the use of laparoscopy to recannulate the fistula.

  2. Remote field eddy current technique for gap measurement of horizontal flux detector guide tube in pressurized heavy water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Yang, Dong Ju; Cheong, Yong Moo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The fuel channels including the pressure tube(PT) and the calandria tube(CT) are important components of the pressurized heavy water reactor(PHWR). A sagging of fuel channel increases by heat and radiation exposure with the increasing operation time. The contact of fuel channel to the Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube is needed for the power plant safety. In order to solve this safety issue, the electromagnetic technique was applied to measure the status of the guide tube. The Horizontal flux Detector(HFD) guide tube and the Calandria tube(CT) in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR) are cross-aligned horizontally. The remote field eddy current(RFEC) technology is applied for gap measurement between the HFD guide tube and the CT HFD guide tube can be detected by inserting the RFEC probe into pressure tube(PT) at the crossing point directly. The RFEC signals using the volume integral method(VIM) were simulated for obtaining the optimal inspection parameters. This paper shows that the simulated eddy current signals and the experimental results in variance with the CT/HFD gap.

  3. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations. (United States)

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C


    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous.

  4. Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, M. M.


    This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

  5. Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pinto Guedes


    Full Text Available There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies.

  6. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil (United States)


    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.' The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.


    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  8. Free Piston Double Diaphragm Shock Tube


    OGURA, Eiji; FUNABIKI, Katsushi; SATO, Shunichi; Abe, Takashi; 小倉, 栄二; 船曳, 勝之; 佐藤, 俊逸; 安部, 隆士


    A free piston double diaphragm shock tube was newly developed for generation of high Mach number shock wave. Its characteristics was investigated for various operation parameters; such as a strength of the diaphragm at the end of the comparession tube, an initial pressure of low pressure tube, an initial pressure of medium pressure tube and the volume of compression tube. Under the restriction of fixed pressures for the driver high pressure tube (32×10^5Pa) and the low pressure tube (40Pa) in...

  9. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained were studied by the software ImageJ, where the bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: In 54.2% of the knees the insertion' shape was concave; in most pieces (41.6% the form of insertion was oval. The average posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion total area was 88.33 ± 21.66 mm2; the average anterolateral bundle's tibial insertion area was 46.79 ± 14.10 mm2 and it was 41.54 ± 9.75 mm2 for the posteromedial bundle. CONCLUSIONS: The anterolateral bundle has a tibial insertion area larger than the posteromedial bundle; the insertion areas of those bundles in our study, were smaller than the ones found in the literature. The variations in the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion area suggest that there should be an indication for anatomical reconstructions of this ligament using single or double tibial tunnels according to individual characteristics.

  10. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  11. Antibiotics in Pregnancy Increase Children's Risk of Otitis Media and Ventilation Tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tine Marie; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan


    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between antibiotic intake in pregnancy and the development of otitis media and placement of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the offspring under the hypothesis that antibiotics in pregnancy may alter the offspring's propensity for disease. STUDY DESIGN: Data from...... is associated with an increased risk of otitis media and VT insertions in the offspring. Antibiotics late in pregnancy mainly contributed to these effects, pointing toward potential transmission of an unfavorable microbiome from mother to child....

  12. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita


    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  13. Intralabyrinthine penetrating ventilation tube with preservation of hearing: an unusual clinical situation. (United States)

    Raoelina, Tantely Razafimahefa; Elziere, Maya; Michel, Justin; Devèze, Arnaud


    Introduction Traumatic perilymphatic fistula is not a rare event with regards to sport activities or traffic accident. However, iatrogenic damage to the inner ear can occur following the common use of grommets and ventilation tube insertion. Objectives To report an unusual case of insertion of aeration tube into the vestibule trough the stapes footplate. Resumed Report A 62-year-old woman experienced iatrogenic penetration into the vestibule from a ventilation tube inserted for retraction pocket management. The event was misdiagnosed both by the surgeon and by the emergency room physicians, leading to delay in the management. However, preservation of the hearing function lasted for 2 weeks prior to deafness, thanks to the valve of Bast, which preserved the cochlear fluid. Conclusion This case gives us the opportunity to stress the need for systematic clinical examination of traumatic injury to the ear and to recommend performing multiplanar millimetric computed tomography scan with accurate interpretation. Traumatic injuries should be referred to a dedicated traumatic emergency referral center.

  14. Intralabyrinthine Penetrating Ventilation Tube with Preservation of Hearing: An Unusual Clinical Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoelina, Tantely Razafimahefa


    Full Text Available Introduction Traumatic perilymphatic fistula is not a rare event with regards to sport activities or traffic accident. However, iatrogenic damage to the inner ear can occur following the common use of grommets and ventilation tube insertion. Objectives To report an unusual case of insertion of aeration tube into the vestibule trough the stapes footplate. Resumed Report A 62-year-old woman experienced iatrogenic penetration into the vestibule from a ventilation tube inserted for retraction pocket management. The event was misdiagnosed both by the surgeon and by the emergency room physicians, leading to delay in the management. However, preservation of the hearing function lasted for 2 weeks prior to deafness, thanks to the valve of Bast, which preserved the cochlear fluid. Conclusion This case gives us the opportunity to stress the need for systematic clinical examination of traumatic injury to the ear and to recommend performing multiplanar millimetric computed tomography scan with accurate interpretation. Traumatic injuries should be referred to a dedicated traumatic emergency referral center.

  15. The Effect of Windings on ADSL Transformer Insertion Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-na; LAN Zhong-wen; CHEN Sheng-ming; ZHANG Huai-wu; SU Hua


    Insertion loss (IL) is one of the important parameters of asymmetrical digital subscriber loop (ADSL) transformers. In different frequency bands, the factors that affect insertion loss are different. Windings mainly affect insertion loss in mid and high frequency bands.The effects of winding ways, winding wire diameter and winding turns on insertion loss were discussed. The presented experiment shows that the insertion loss of an ADSL transformer could be under 0.4 dB in mid frequency band when the winding is 30 turns, in which the ADSL transformer satisfies the requirement of total harmonic distortion (THD). Our experiments also show that the sandwich winding structure is better than the side by side winding structure and the twisted-pair winding structure, and the increase of winding diameter is one means to reduce insertion losses of an ADSL transformer in mid frequency band.

  16. Ocular inserts - Advancement in therapy of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kumari


    Full Text Available The ocular insert represents a significant advancement in the therapy of eye disease. Ocular inserts are defined as sterile, thin, multilayered, drug-impregnated, solid or semisolid consistency devices placed into the cul-de-sac or conjuctival sac, whose size and shape are especially designed for ophthalmic application. They are composed of a polymeric support that may or may not contain a drug. The drug can later be incorporated as dispersion or a solution in the polymeric support. They offer several advantages as increased ocular residence and sustained release of medication into the eye. The insert includes a body portion sized to position within a lachrymal canaliculus of the eyelid. The inserts are classified according to their solubility as insoluble, soluble, or bioerodible inserts. The release of drug from the insert depends upon the diffusion, osmosis, and bioerosion of the drug, and this article is an attempt to present a brief about this newer drug delivery system.

  17. Comparison of large-insert, small-insert and pyrosequencing libraries for metagenomic analysis



    The development of DNA sequencing methods for characterizing microbial communities has evolved rapidly over the past decades. To evaluate more traditional, as well as newer methodologies for DNA library preparation and sequencing, we compared fosmid, short-insert shotgun and 454 pyrosequencing libraries prepared from the same metagenomic DNA samples. GC content was elevated in all fosmid libraries, compared with shotgun and 454 libraries. Taxonomic composition of the different libraries sugge...

  18. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini-implants inserted in different cortical thickness (United States)

    Santos, Renata de Faria; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson


    Objective This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI) (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT), as well as to analyze surface morphology. Methods Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the mechanical tests. Results Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 and 54.95 were higher and statistically different (P 0.05) to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 and dense bone (23.95 were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 was higher and statistically different (P implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion. PMID:25162571

  19. Modeling of Porous Insertion Electrodes with Liquid Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Jacobsen, Torben; Atlung, Sven


    The dynamics of porous insertion electrodes during charge or discharge is described by a simplified mathematicalmodel, accounting for the coupled transport in electrode and electrolyte phases. A numerical method to evaluate theresponse of this model to either controlled potential or controlled cu...... is a consequence of the mobility of the ions not inserted, hence the performance of this type of electrode isoptimized by choosing electrolytes with transport number as close to unity as possible for the inserted ion....

  20. Risk factors for development of complication following peripherally inserted central


    Hakan Aydın; Gülsen Korfalı; Suna Gören; Esra Mercanoğlu Efe; Bachri Ramadan Moustafa; Tolga Yazıcı


    Objectives: Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are inserted into central veins through the upper extremity veins. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate PICC procedures, related complications, their causes and factors influencing the success of the procedure during anaesthesia Methods: ‘Central Venous Catheterization Forms’ filled out for 850 patients in whom a PICC was inserted by residents during general anaesthesia between November 2009 and March 2013 in t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbool Ali M.


    Full Text Available formation is a Package Insert. It is a printed leaflet that contains information based on regulatory guidelines for the safe and effective use of a drug. Incomplete and incorrect product information may have serious consequences including disability or death. In India, the concept of package insert is governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (1940 and Rules (1945. Keeping this in mind, this study was designed to assess the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. AIM To evaluate the presentation and completeness of drug information provided in the currently available package inserts for allopathic drugs in India. OBJECTIVES To evaluate drug information in package inserts according to headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and 6.3 of Schedule D, Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. MATERIAL AND METHODS Package inserts accompanying allopathic medicines were obtained from a drug store and three pharmacies around a tertiary care centre in Western India on request over a 1-month period. The package inserts were included in the study and analysed for the presentation and completeness of information according to the headings mentioned in Section 6.2 and Section 6.3 of Schedule D, The Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945. RESULTS 110 package inserts were analysed in the study. None of the reviewed package insert contained all the sections as required by the Drugs and Cosmetic Rules. CONCLUSION To avoid medication errors due to deficits in drug information in package inserts, tighter monitoring of package inserts by regulatory authorities is recommended. Steps should be taken to ensure that the information in the package inserts follows a standard layout for easy and convenient comprehension.

  2. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia


    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  3. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias


    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  4. Insertional protein engineering for analytical molecular sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arís Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract The quantitative detection of low analyte concentrations in complex samples is becoming an urgent need in biomedical, food and environmental fields. Biosensors, being hybrid devices composed by a biological receptor and a signal transducer, represent valuable alternatives to non biological analytical instruments because of the high specificity of the biomolecular recognition. The vast range of existing protein ligands enable those macromolecules to be used as efficient receptors to cover a diversity of applications. In addition, appropriate protein engineering approaches enable further improvement of the receptor functioning such as enhancing affinity or specificity in the ligand binding. Recently, several protein-only sensors are being developed, in which either both the receptor and signal transducer are parts of the same protein, or that use the whole cell where the protein is produced as transducer. In both cases, as no further chemical coupling is required, the production process is very convenient. However, protein platforms, being rather rigid, restrict the proper signal transduction that necessarily occurs through ligand-induced conformational changes. In this context, insertional protein engineering offers the possibility to develop new devices, efficiently responding to ligand interaction by dramatic conformational changes, in which the specificity and magnitude of the sensing response can be adjusted up to a convenient level for specific analyte species. In this report we will discuss the major engineering approaches taken for the designing of such instruments as well as the relevant examples of resulting protein-only biosensors.

  5. Computational Investigation on Fully Developed Periodic Laminar Flow Structure in Baffled Circular Tube with Various BR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withada Jedsadaratanachai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a 3D numerical analysis of fully developed periodic laminar flow in a circular tube fitted with 45° inclined baffles with inline arrangement. The computations are based on a finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. The characteristics of fluid flow are presented for Reynolds number, Re = 100–1000, based on the hydraulic diameter (D of the tube. The angled baffles were repeatedly inserted at the middle of the test tube with inline arrangement to generate vortex flows over the tested tube. Effects of different Reynolds numbers and blockage ratios (b/D, BR with a single pitch ratio of 1 on flow structure in the tested tube were emphasized. The flows in baffled tube show periodic flow at x/D ≈ 2-3, and become a fully developed periodic flow profiles at x/D ≈ 6-7, depending on Re, BR and transverse plane positions. The computational results reveal that the higher of BR and closer position of turbulators, the faster of fully developed periodic flow profiles.

  6. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  7. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C. [Tecnatom, S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); Strosnider, J. [NRC, Washington, DC (United States)


    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  8. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François


    We study theoretically the morphologies of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated: varicose, dilated, sinuous, or sausagelike. They are all found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes, or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues: Young’s modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  9. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael


    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  10. Anatomy of the Eustachian Tube. (United States)

    Leuwer, Rudolf


    The eustachian tube consists of 2 compartments: the Rüdinger's safety canal and the auxiliary gap. It is surrounded by a cartilaginous wall on the craniomedial side and a membranous wall on the inferolateral side. The eustachian tube cartilage is firmly attached to the skull base by the lateral and the medial suspensory ligaments, which are separated by the medial Ostmann fat pad. The function of the isometric tensor veli palatini muscle is modulated by hypomochlia, which have an influence on the muscular force vectors.

  11. Heat transfer characteristics of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar flow conditions with circular ring insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Dharmalingam


    Full Text Available In this experimental investigation convective heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal enhancement characteristics of straight circular duct fitted with circular ring insert of constant heat flux boundary condition under fully developed laminar flow is presented. Tests have been conducted by using 0.1% volume concentration of Al2O3 nanofluid and water. Inserts of different pitch to diameter ratios of 6.25, 8.33, 12.5, and 16.67 with center core rod were used for this investigation. The circular ring insert shows a superior thermal performance than plain tube. The experimental results demonstrated that the Nusselt number, friction factor, and thermal enhancement factor increases with decrease in pitch to diameter ratio. The circular ring inserts of lower pitch to diameter ratio of 6.25 with nanofluid increases the Nusselt number by 165.38% compared to pure water and the friction factor, found to be 7.89 times higher than that of water. Empirical correlations are develope for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds number, volume concentration, and pitch ratio. The thermal performance factor was found to be greater than unity for all pitch to diameter ratios.

  12. Antiseptic impregnated endotracheal tubes for the prevention of bacterial colonization. (United States)

    Pacheco-Fowler, V; Gaonkar, T; Wyer, P C; Modak, S


    The effect of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) impregnated with chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver carbonate (antiseptic ETTs) against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter aerogenes [organisms associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)], was evaluated in a laboratory airway model. Antiseptic ETTs and control ETTs (unimpregnated) were inserted in culture tubes half-filled with agar media (airway model) previously contaminated at the surface with 10(8) cfu/mL of the selected test organism. After five days of incubation, bacterial colony counts on all ETT segments were determined. Swabs of proximal and distal ends of the agar tract in antiseptic and control models were subcultured. The initial and residual CHX levels, (five days post-implantation in the model) were determined. Cultures of antiseptic ETTs revealed colonization by the tested pathogens ranging from 1-100 cfu/tube, compared with approximately 10(6) cfu/tube for the control ETTs (P < 0.001). Subcultures from proximal and distal ends of the agar tract showed minimal or no growth in the antiseptic ETTs compared with the control ETTs (P < 0.001). The amount of CHX retained in the antiseptic ETTs after five days of implantation was an average of 45% of the initial level. Antiseptic ETTs prevented bacterial colonization in the airway model and also retained significant amounts of the antiseptic. These results indicate that the effectiveness of antiseptic-impregnated ETTs in preventing the growth of bacterial pathogens associated with VAP may vary with different organisms.

  13. Real-time Adaptive Kinematic Model Estimation of Concentric Tube Robots. (United States)

    Kim, Chunwoo; Ryu, Seok Chang; Dupont, Pierre E


    Kinematic models of concentric tube robots have matured from considering only tube bending to considering tube twisting as well as external loading. While these models have been demonstrated to approximate actual behavior, modeling error can be significant for medical applications that often call for positioning accuracy of 1-2mm. As an alternative to moving to more complex models, this paper proposes using sensing to adaptively update model parameters during robot operation. Advantages of this method are that the model is constantly tuning itself to provide high accuracy in the region of the workspace where it is currently operating. It also adapts automatically to changes in robot shape and compliance associated with the insertion and removal of tools through its lumen. As an initial exploration of this approach, a recursive on-line estimator is proposed and evaluated experimentally.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of methods used to verify nasogastric tube position in mechanically ventilated adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Linda Vad; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Svenningsen, Helle


    -100% AND SPECIFICITY WAS 99-100%.: Capnography obtained a specificity of 100% but sensitivity for when the nasogastric tube was inserted through the nose could not be calculated based on available data. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence (Level 2b) for colorimetric capnography to be a valid method for verifying...... systematic review were designed based on diagnostic test accuracy studies. Types of outcomes: The outcome was the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the methods to discriminate between respiratory and gastrointestinal placement of the nasogastric tube. SEARCH STRATEGY: The search strategy aimed...... in tables. When these were not written in the studies, calculations were performed based on data presented in the studies. RESULTS: Five relevant papers describing two different methods for determining nasogastric tube position were identified: colorimetric capnography (four studies) and capnography (one...

  15. Prospective study of the effects of ventilation tubes on hearing after radiotherapy for carcinoma of nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, C.R.; Ho, J.H.; Wright, A.; Tsao, S.Y.; Au, G.K.; Tung, Y.


    In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, deafness sometimes occurs following radiotherapy. It is usually conductive, but may be sensorineural. Tinnitus is present frequently and usually is distressing. The role of ventilation tubes (grommets) in relieving these problems was assessed in a prospective randomized controlled trial of 115 patients. In the group with grommets, there was an improvement in hearing, with a reduction of the averaged air-bone gap (p less than .01). This was not found in the control group without ventilation tubes, who developed a larger conductive loss (p less than .01) and, in addition, a slight deterioration of the averaged bone conduction threshold (p less than .01). Surprisingly, the group with grommets did not develop this sensorineural loss (p less than .01). In addition, tinnitus was improved significantly by the insertion of ventilation tubes (p less than .01). Neither necrosis nor stenosis of the external auditory meatus was found in either group.

  16. Experience with incomplete control rod insertion in fuel with burnup exceeding approximately 40 GWD/MTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, E. [Houston Lighting & Power Co., Wadworth, TX (United States)


    Analysis and measurement experience with fuel assemblies having incomplete control rod insertion at burnups of approximately 40 GWD/MTU is presented. Control rod motion dynamics and simplified structural analyses are presented and compared to measurement data. Fuel assembly growth measurements taken with the plant Refueling Machine Z-Tape are described and presented. Bow measurements (including plug gauging) are described and potential improvements are suggested. The measurements described and analysis performed show that sufficient guide tube bow (either from creep or yield buckling) is present in some high burnup assemblies to stop the control rods before they reach their full limit of travel. Recommendations are made that, if implemented, could improve cost performance related to testing and analysis activities.

  17. Manually operated piston-driven shock tube


    Reddy, KPJ; Sharath, N


    A simple hand-operated shock tube capable of producing Mach 2 shock waves is described. Performance of this miniature shock tube using compressed high pressure air created by a manually operated piston in the driver section of the shock tube as driver gas with air at 1 atm pressure as the test gas in the driven tube is presented. The performance of the shock tube is found to match well with the theoretically estimated values using normal shock relations. Applications of this shock tube named ...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories. (United States)


    ... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube with... § 876.9. (2) Class I (general controls) for the dissolvable nasogastric feed tube guide for the nasogastric tube. The class I device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of...

  19. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkar Y


    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  20. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Nursing administration of medication via enteral tubes in adults: a systematic review. (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole M; Nay, Rhonda


    Background  Enteral tubes are frequently inserted as part of medical treatment in a wide range of patient situations. Patients with an enteral tube are cared for by nurses in a variety of settings, including general and specialised acute care areas, aged care facilities and at home. Regardless of the setting, nurses have the primary responsibility for administering medication through enteral tubes. Medication administration via an enteral tube is a reasonably common nursing intervention that entails a number of skills, including preparing the medication, verifying the tube position, flushing the tube and assessing for potential complications. If medications are not given effectively through an enteral tube, harmful consequences may result leading to increased morbidity, for example, tube occlusion, diarrhoea and aspiration pneumonia. There are resultant costs for the health-care system related to possible increased length of stay and increased use of equipment. Presently what is considered to be best practice to give medications through enteral tubes is unknown. Objectives  The objective of this systematic review was to determine the best available evidence on which nursing interventions are effective in minimising the complications associated with the administration of medications via enteral tubes in adults. Nursing interventions and considerations related to medication administration included form of medication, verifying tube placement before administration, methods used to give medication, methods used to flush tubes, maintenance of tube patency and specific practices to prevent possible complications related to the administration of enteral medications. Search strategy  The following databases were searched for literature reported in English only: CINAHL, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Current Contents/All Editions, EMBASE, Australasian Medical Index and PsychINFO. There was no date restriction applied. In addition, the reference lists of all included

  2. Experimental research of dynamic instabilities in the presence of coiled wire inserts on two-phase flow. (United States)

    Omeroglu, Gokhan; Comakli, Omer; Karagoz, Sendogan; Sahin, Bayram


    The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of the coiled wire insertions on dynamic instabilities and to compare the results with the smooth tube for forced convection boiling. The experiments were conducted in a circular tube, and water was used as the working fluid. Two different pitch ratios (H/D = 2.77 and 5.55) of coiled wire with circular cross-sections were utilised. The constant heat flux boundary condition was applied to the outer side of the test tube, and the constant exit restriction was used at the tube outlet. The mass flow rate changed from 110 to 20 g/s in order to obtain a detailed idea about the density wave and pressure drop oscillations, and the range of the inlet temperature was 15-35°C. The changes in pressure drop, inlet temperature, amplitude, and the period with mass flow rate are presented. For each configuration, it is seen that density wave and pressure drop oscillations occur at all inlet temperatures. Analyses show that the decrease in the mass flow rate and inlet temperature causes the amplitude and the period of the density wave and the pressure drop oscillations to decrease separately.

  3. Experimental Research of Dynamic Instabilities in the Presence of Coiled Wire Inserts on Two-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Omeroglu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of the coiled wire insertions on dynamic instabilities and to compare the results with the smooth tube for forced convection boiling. The experiments were conducted in a circular tube, and water was used as the working fluid. Two different pitch ratios (H/D=2.77 and 5.55 of coiled wire with circular cross-sections were utilised. The constant heat flux boundary condition was applied to the outer side of the test tube, and the constant exit restriction was used at the tube outlet. The mass flow rate changed from 110 to 20 g/s in order to obtain a detailed idea about the density wave and pressure drop oscillations, and the range of the inlet temperature was 15–35°C. The changes in pressure drop, inlet temperature, amplitude, and the period with mass flow rate are presented. For each configuration, it is seen that density wave and pressure drop oscillations occur at all inlet temperatures. Analyses show that the decrease in the mass flow rate and inlet temperature causes the amplitude and the period of the density wave and the pressure drop oscillations to decrease separately.

  4. OurTube / David Talbot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talbot, David


    USA California Ülikooli töötajate Abram Stern'i ja Michael Dale'i poolt 2005. a. algatatud USA kongressis peetud kõnede videoremiksidest ja nende poolt loodud veebisaidist Ka YouTube keskkonnast ja wikipedia katsetustest muuta oma keskkond multimeedialisemaks

  5. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Turluer, G. [IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  6. Kundt's Tube Experiment Using Smartphones (United States)

    Parolin, Sara Orsola; Pezzi, Giovanni


    This article deals with a modern version of Kundt's tube experiment. Using economic instruments and a couple of smartphones, it is possible to "see" nodes and antinodes of standing acoustic waves in a column of vibrating air and to measure the speed of sound.

  7. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  8. Thermal inhomogeneities in vortex tubes (United States)

    Lemesh, N. I.; Senchuk, L. A.

    An experimental study of the effect of the temperature of the inlet gas on the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams discharged from a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is described. The experimental results are presented in graphical form. It is that the temperature difference increases with the temperature of the entering gas.

  9. Fin-tube solar collectors (United States)


    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  10. Holography and the Future Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W


    The Future Tube $T^+_n$ of n-dimensional Minkowski spacetime may be identified with the reduced phase space or ` ` space of motions" of a particle moving in (n+1)-dimensional Anti-de-Sitter spacetime. Both are isomorphic to a bounded homogeneous domain in ${\\bf C}^{n}$ whose Shilov boundary may be identified with $n$-dimensional conformally compactified Minkowski spacetime.

  11. Strannaja svjaz : Vanessa Redgreiv i Ahmed Zakajev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tšetšeenia presidendi Aslan Mashadovi eriesindaja, kes on Moskva teatriinstituudi haridusega näitleja, on Suurbritannias kohtu all, kuna Venemaa nõuab tema väljaandmist. Tema kaitseks astus välja ka poliitkas alati aktiivne inglise näitlejanna Vanessa Redgrave. Näitlejanna poliitilisest tegevusest ka minevikus

  12. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle insertion into gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak


    Needle insertion into soft tissue is one of the most common medical interventions. This study provides macroscopic and microscopic observations of needle–gel interactions. A gelatin mixture is used as a soft-tissue simulant. For the macroscopic studies, system parameters, such as insertion velocity,

  13. 17 CFR 240.12b-14 - Riders; inserts. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 240.12b-14 Section 240.12b-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Exchange Act of 1934 Formal Requirements § 240.12b-14 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be used. If...

  14. 17 CFR 270.8b-14 - Riders; inserts. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 270.8b-14 Section 270.8b-14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-14 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be...

  15. 17 CFR 260.7a-20 - Riders; inserts. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Riders; inserts. 260.7a-20...) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-20 Riders; inserts. Riders shall not be used. If the application, statement or report is typed on a printed form, and...

  16. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.


    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  17. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens


    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  18. Analysis of the Sherlock II tip location system for inserting peripherally inserted central venous catheters. (United States)

    Lelkes, Valdis; Kumar, Abhishek; Shukla, Pratik A; Contractor, Sohail; Rutan, Thomas


    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently placed at the bedside. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sherlock II tip location system (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT), which offers electromagnetic detection of the PICC tip to assist the operator in guiding the tip to a desired location. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had a bedside PICC using the Sherlock II tip location system. Three hundred seventy-five of 384 patients (97.7%) had the catheter tip positioned appropriately. Our results suggest that the Sherlock II tip location system is an efficacious system for bedside PICC placement.

  19. Welding of titanium and stainless steel using the composite insert (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Mali, V. I.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Drozdov, V. O.; Malyutina, Y. N.


    The paper concerns the possibility of obtaining a lasting permanent joint of dissimilar metals: technically pure titanium and stainless steel using laser welding and an intermediate composite insert. The insert was a four-layer composition of plates of steel, copper, niobium, and titanium welded by explosion. The material layers used in the insert prevented the molten steel and titanium from mixing, which excluded the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, such as FeTi and Fe2Ti. The optimization of explosion welding parameters provided a high quality of the four-layer composition and the absence of defects in the area of the joint of insert plates. The results of strength tests showed that values of the ultimate strength and yield of the permanent joint with the composite insert welded by explosion are comparable to the strength characteristics of titanium.

  20. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su


    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  1. The micro-flow reaction system featured the liquid-liquid interface created with ternary mixed carrier solvents in a capillary tube. (United States)

    Masuhara, Yuji; Jinno, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko


    A micro-flow reaction system was developed in which liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary mixed carrier solvents. The system was constructed from double capillary tubes having different inner diameters (100 and 250 µm i.d.). The smaller tube was inserted into the larger one through a T-type joint. The reaction of a protein with a fluorescence derivatizing reagent was adopted as a model. A water-acetonitrile mixture (3:1 volume ratio) including bovine serum albumin (hydrophilic) was delivered into the large tube from the inside through the small tube and an acetonitrile-ethyl acetate mixture (7:4 volume ratio) containing fluorescamine (hydrophobic) as a derivatizing reagent was delivered from the outside through the joint. Solutions were mixed through the double capillary tubes to promote ternary mixed carrier solvents (water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate; 1:2:1 volume ratio). The liquid-liquid interface was created based on the tube radial distribution of ternary solvents in the larger tube. The derivatization reaction was performed in the larger, or reaction, tube in the micro-flow system. The fluorescence intensity of the fluorescamine-derivatized bovine serum albumin obtained by the system, which specifically included the kinetic liquid-liquid interface in the tube, was greater than that obtained through a batch reaction using a homogeneous solution of water-acetonitrile (1:2 volume ratio).

  2. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement for end-stage palliation of malignant gastrointestinal obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar Teriaky


    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Decompression of malignant gastrointestinal obstructions is an uncommon indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG tubes. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of venting PEG tubes in relieving nausea and vomiting and assessing complications associated with tube placement. Patients and Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review of patients with PEG tubes placed to decompress malignant gastrointestinal obstructions between January 2005 and September 2010 by the gastroenterology service at our institute. Patient demographics, symptom relief, procedural complications, diet tolerability and home palliation were reviewed. Results: Seven PEG tubes were inserted to decompress malignant gastrointestinal obstructions. The mean patient age was 62 years (range 37-82 years. The underlying primary malignancies were small intestine (1, appendiceal (1, pancreatic (2, and colon (3 cancer. Gastric outlet obstruction was present in 3 (43% patients while small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (57% patients. There was relief of nausea and vomiting in 6 (86% patients. Procedural complications were present in 1 (14% patient and involved superficial cellulitis followed by peristomal leakage. Patients with gastric outlet obstruction continued to have limited oral intake while patients with small bowel obstruction tolerated varying degrees of oral nutrition. Six (86% patients were discharged home after PEG tube placement, but only 2 (33% were able to undergo end-stage palliation at home without re-admission for hospital palliation. Conclusions: Venting PEG tubes significantly reduce the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal obstruction due to primary gastrointestinal malignancies. Complications associated with tube placement were minimal.

  3. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  4. Structure and growth thermodynamics of carbon tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文治; 钱露茜; 钱生法; 周维亚; 王刚; 付春生; 赵日安; 解思深


    Carbon tubes were prepared by Ni (or Ti) catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene. The catalytic effect of nanometer nickel powders is related to the reduction temperature in H2 atmosphere. Nanometer nickel powders reduced at high temperature have a distinguished catalytic effect, and the yield of the carbon tubes is relatively high; but for the nickel powders reduced at low temperature, the yield of carbon tubes is low, and no tube can be formed. Carbon tubes can only be grown along the edges or on the tips of the Ni (or Ti) sheets reduced at about 770C. But if Ni (or Ti) sheets are etched in acid, at lot of carbon tubes with various forms can be formed on their surface. The structure and morphology of the carbon tubes is studied, and the growth thermodynamics for the straight, curved and helical carbon tubes are systematically investigated for the first time.

  5. Dynamics Calculation of Travel Wave Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the dynamics calculating of the travel tube, we must obtain the field map in the tube. The field map can be affected by not only the beam loading, but also the attenuation coefficient. The calculation of the attenuation coefficient

  6. Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects (United States)

    ... . Articles Key Findings: Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... relationship to having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (NTD). Researchers from Boston University and CDC ...

  7. When to change a tracheostomy tube. (United States)

    White, Alexander C; Kher, Sucharita; O'Connor, Heidi H


    Knowing when to change a tracheostomy tube is important for optimal management of all patients with tracheostomy tubes. The first tracheostomy tube change, performed 1-2 weeks after placement, carries some risk and should be performed by a skilled operator in a safe environment. The risk associated with changing the tracheostomy tube then usually diminishes over time as the tracheo-cutaneous tract matures. A malpositioned tube can be a source of patient distress and patient-ventilator asynchrony, and is important to recognize and correct. Airway endoscopy can be helpful to ensure optimal positioning of a replacement tracheostomy tube. Some of the specialized tracheostomy tubes available on the market are discussed. There are few data available to guide the timing of routine tracheostomy tube changes. Some guidelines are suggested.

  8. [A tube retractor for cardiac surgery]. (United States)

    Ohkado, A; Shiikawa, A; Ishitoya, H; Murata, A


    A retractor exclusively used to retract the tubes in cardiac surgery which needs cardiopulmonary bypass was developed. The half-cylinder-shaped end, the lightly curved handle and the flat and triangular grip enable easy and effective grasp of the tubes. This new instrument facilitates operative procedures by effectively retracting the tubes which persistently obstruct the operative field, in such a case of placement of a retrograde cardioplegia tube via the right atrium.

  9. Esophageal Atresia: Migration of the gastrostomy tube into the bronchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed Mohammad


    Full Text Available A 2-day-old baby boy, 38 weeks gestation, weight 2000 g was brought due to hypersalivation and imperforate anus with gasless abdomen on plain X-ray. He underwent a gastrostomy tube insertion and colostomy. In contrast study of the stomach, on the 5th postoperative day, the dye spilled into the tracheo bronchial tree and the catheter was seen,entering the right main bronchus. The patient underwent right thoracotomy and the presence of fistula and catheter were confirmed. The fistula and distal esophagus were closed and fixed to the prevertebral fascia because of a long gap. He is under follow-up and recieving home care for a later delayed primary anastomosis.

  10. RF Field Distribution Tuning of Drift Tube Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To make a design field profile, we performed the RF tuning process for a 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) of Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The tuning process includes the field flatness tuning by using the slug tuners and the tilt sensitivity tuning by using the post couplers. The target values of the tuning process are like followings; - Field uniformity: better than 2% - Tilt sensitivity: less than 150%/MHz. During the tilt sensitivity tuning, we found that the slug tuners prevented the field stabilization if they were inserted too much. However, if the slug tuner positions were limited, then it was not possible to tune the DTL tank to the right resonant frequency. To solve the problem, we attached the tuning rings around each post couplers, which compensate the frequency gap caused by the slug tuner position limitations. We present the tuning process and results in this paper.

  11. Roll-forming tubes to header plates (United States)

    Kramer, K.


    Technique has been developed for attaching and sealing tubes to header plates using a unique roll-forming tool. Technique is useful for attaching small tubes which are difficult to roll into conventional grooves in header plate tube holes, and for attaching when welding, brazing, or soldering is not desirable.

  12. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.


    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  13. Inclusive spectra of hadrons created by color tube fission; 1, Probability of tube fission

    CERN Document Server

    Gedalin, E V


    The probability of color tube fission that includes the tube surface small oscillation corrections is obtained with pre-exponential factor accuracy on the basis of previously constructed color tube model. Using these expressions the probability of the tube fission in $n$ point is obtained that is the basis for calculation of inclusive spectra of produced hadrons.

  14. Microstructural degradation in compound tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    In order to quantify microstructural degradation at high temperatures, samples of SA 210 / AISI 304 L compound tube material were annealed in the temperature range 540-720 deg C for 1 to 1 000 hours. The hardness of the annealed material was measured and the micro structure of the samples was investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural degradation was characterised by the carbide structure in the ferritic-pearlitic base material and by the depth of decarburised and carburised zones of the compound tube interface. The observed changes were quantified in terms of their time and temperature dependence and diffusion coefficients of the process. The results can be used in estimating the extent of thermal exposure of high-temperature components after long-term service or after incidences of overheating. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  15. Capillary imbibition in parallel tubes (United States)

    McRae, Oliver; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Bird, James


    In modeling porous media two distinct approaches can be employed; the sample can be examined holistically, using global variables such as porosity, or it can be treated as a network of capillaries connected in series to various intermediate reservoirs. In forced imbibition this series-based description is sufficient to characterize the flow, due to the presence of an externally maintained pressure difference. However, in spontaneous imbibition, flow is driven by an internal capillary pressure, making it unclear whether a series-based model is appropriate. In this talk, we show using numerical simulations the dynamics of spontaneous imbibition in concentrically arranged capillary tubes. This geometry allows both tubes access to a semi-infinite reservoir but with inlets in close enough proximity to allow for interference. We compare and contrast the results of our simulations with theory and previous experiments. Schlumberger-Doll Research.

  16. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.018101


    We study theoretically the shapes of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow at an uncontrolled rate, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated : varicose, enlarged, sinusoidal or sausage-like, all of which are found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues : Young modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  17. Flux tubes at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco


    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed in the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the square densities of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the phase transition. Our results are gauge invariant and produced in pure gauge SU(3). The codes are written in CUDA and the computations are performed with GPUs.

  18. Film holder for radiographing tubing (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.


    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  19. Gated SIT Vidicon Streak Tube (United States)

    Dunbar, D. L.; Yates, G. J.; Black, J. P.


    A recently developed prototype streak tube designed to produce high gain and resolution by incorporating the streak and readout functions in one envelope thereby minimizing photon-to-charge transformations and eliminating external coupling losses is presented. The tube is based upon a grid-gated Silicon-Intensified-Target Vidicon (SITV) with integral Focus Projection Scan (FPS) TV readout. Demagnifying electron optics (m=0.63) in the image section map the 40-mm-diameter photocathode image unto a 25-mm-diameter silicon target where gains >= 103 are achieved with only 10 KV accelerating voltage. This is compared with much lower gains (~ 50) at much higher voltages (~ 30 KV) reported for streak tubes using phosphor screens. Because SIT technology is well established means for electron imaging in vacuum, such fundamental problems as "backside thinning" required for electron imaging unto CCDs do not exist. The high spatial resolution (~ 30 1p/mm), variable scan formats, and high speed electrostatic deflection (250 mm2 areas are routinely rastered with 256 scan lines in 1.6 ms) available from FPS readout add versatility not available in CCD devices. Theoretical gain and spatial resolution for this design (developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and General Electric Co.) are compared with similar calculations and measured data obtained for RCA 73435 streaks fiber optically coupled to (1) 25-mm-diameter SIT FPS vidicons and (2) 40-mm-diameter MCPTs (proximity-focused microchannel plate image intensifier tubes) fiber optically coupled to 18-mm-diameter Sb2S3 FPS vidicons. Sweep sensitivity, shutter ratio, and record lengths for nanosecond duration (20 to 200 ns) streak applications are discussed.

  20. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid (United States)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa


    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  1. Aerodynamic drag from two tubes in side-by-side arrangement for different tube shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Михайлович Терех


    Full Text Available Experimental investigations of aerodynamic drag from two tubes in side-by-side arrangement for different tube shapes in the range of Reynolds numbers from 4000 to16000 are performed. Comparison of experimental data is executed. It is set, that the tubes of drop-shaped form have less aerodynamic drag and the tubes of flat-oval and dumb-bell forms have greater drag as compared to drag of circular tubes

  2. Useful Scaling Parameters for the Pulse Tube (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.; Cheng, Pearl L. (Technical Monitor)


    A set of eight non-dimensional scaling parameters for use in evaluating the performance of Pulse Tube Refrigerators is presented. The parameters result after scaling the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for an axisymmetric, two-dimensional system. The physical interpretation of the parameters are described, and their usefulness is outlined for the enthalpy flow tube (open tube of the pulse tube). The scaling parameters allow the experimentalist to characterize three types of transport: enthalpy flow, mass streaming and heat transfer between the gas and the tube. Also reported are the results from a flow visualization experiment in which steady mass streaming in compressible oscillating flow is observed.

  3. Preparation of chitosan nanofiber tube by electrospinning. (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Kagata, Go; Kino, Rikako; Tanaka, Junzo


    Water-insoluble chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes coated with chitosan-cast film were prepared by electrospinning. When as-spun chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were immersed in 28% ammonium aqueous solution, they became insoluble in water and showed nanofiber structures confirmed by SEM micrography. Mechanical properties of chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were improved by coating with chitosan-cast film, which gave them a compressive strength higher than that of crab-tendon chitosan, demonstrating that chitosan nanofiber tubes coated with chitosan-cast film are usable as nerve-regenerative guide tubes.

  4. Study on Visually Design of Indexable Insert Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ji-quan; ZHAO Shu-qiang; ZHANG Shen-hou; CHEN Xin; GUO Xian-yang


    In order to improve the development efficiency of the indexable insert tip, three-dimensional parametric and visualization applications program of indexable insert tip was developed in AutoCAD VBA (Visual Basic for Applications). The software could significantly improve the modeling efficiency of indexable insert tip and the model could also be used to static analysis, dynamic analysis and thermodynamic analysis. All aspects of performance could be fully understood by the finite element analysis. The ref-erence for the blade parameters preferred is also provided.

  5. Insertion of short transmembrane helices by the Sec61 translocon. (United States)

    Jaud, Simon; Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Nilsson, Ingmarie; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Hübner, Nadja C; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H


    The insertion efficiency of transmembrane (TM) helices by the Sec61 translocon depends on helix amino acid composition, the positions of the amino acids within the helix, and helix length. We have used an in vitro expression system to examine systematically the insertion efficiency of short polyleucine segments (L(n), n = 4 ... 12) flanked at either end by 4-residue sequences of the form XXPX-L(n)-XPXX with X = G, N, D, or K. Except for X = K, insertion efficiency (p) is snorkeling) and by partial unfolding.

  6. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts (United States)

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L


    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  7. Freezing in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, E.M.; Broadbent, J.A.


    Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed for freezing of an initially superheated or nonsuperheated liquid in a cooled vertical tube. Measurements were made which yielded information about the freezing front and the frozen mass, about the various energy components extracted from the tube, and about the decay of the initial liquid superheat. Four component energies were identified and evaluated from the experimental data, including the latent energy released by the phase change and sensibly energies released from the subcooled frozen solid and the superheated liquid. Initial superheating of the liquid tended to moderately diminish the frozen mass and latent energy extraction at short freezing times but had little effect on these quantitites at longer times. The extracted sensible energies associated with the superheating more than compensated for the aforementioned decrease in the latent energy. Although the latent energy is the largest contributor to the total extracted energy, the aggregate sensible energies can make a significant contribution, especially at large tube wall subcooling, large initial liquid superheating, and short freezing time. Natural convection effects in the superheated liquid were modest and were confined to short freezing times.

  8. Knotting of a nasogastric feeding tube in a child with head injury: A case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Ismail, Nasiru J; Bot, Gyang Markus; Hassan, Ismail; Shilong, Danaan J; Obande, Joseph O; Aliu, Salamat Ahuoiza; Dung, Ezekiel D; Shehu, Bello B


    Nasogastric intubation is one of the most common routine nonoperative procedures available for the hospital care of patients. The insertion and removal of this tube is associated with many complications. The complications include trauma, nasal septal abscess and inadvertent entry into the cranial cavity and trachea, ulceration, bleeding from varices and perforation. Knotting of the nasogastric tube is one of the very rare complications of nasogastric intubation particularly in children. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reported cases in children. The technique used in the patient was the application of a steady tug which allows the lower oesophageal sphincter to open, therefore enabling the removal of the nasogastric tube. The possible predispositions to knotting of a nasogastric tube include small bore tubes, excess tube length and gastric surgery. We postulate that reduced gastric tone is another possible predisposing factor with head injury being the most likely reason in the index patient. We also challenge the fact that the small sized stomach is a risk factor for knotting of a feeding tube if the functional status and tone are normal, because of the rarity in children.

  9. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement. (United States)

    Guanà, Riccardo; Lonati, Luca; Barletti, Claudio; Cisarò, Fabio; Casorzo, Ilaria; Carbonaro, Giulia; Lezo, Antonella; Delmonaco, Angelo Giovanni; Mussa, Alessandro; Capitanio, Martina; Cussa, Davide; Lemini, Riccardo; Schleef, Jürgen


    Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.

  10. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Guanà


    Full Text Available Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.

  11. Big brains are not enough: performance of three parrot species in the trap-tube paradigm. (United States)

    Liedtke, Jannis; Werdenich, Dagmar; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig; Wanker, Ralf


    The trap-tube task has become a benchmark test for investigating physical causality in vertebrates. In this task, subjects have to retrieve food out of a horizontal tube using a tool and avoiding a trap hole in the tube. Great apes and corvids succeeded in this task. Parrots with relative brain volumes comparable to those of corvids and primates also demonstrate high cognitive abilities. We therefore tested macaws, a cockatoo, and keas on the trap-tube paradigm. All nine parrots failed to solve the task. In a simplified task, trap tubes with a slot inserted along the top were offered. The slot allowed the birds to move the reward directly with their bills. All but one individual solved this task by lifting the food over the trap. However, the parrots failed again when they were prevented from lifting the reward, although they anticipated that food will be lost when moved into the trap. We do not think that the demanding use of an external object is the main reason for the parrots' failure. Moreover, we suppose these parrots fail to consider the trap's position in the beginning of a trial and were not able to stop their behaviour and move the reward in the trap's opposite direction.

  12. Drain Tube-Induced Jejunal Penetration Masquerading as Bile Leak following Whipple’s Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ho Bae


    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy due to a distal common bile duct malignancy. After the operation, serous fluid discharge decreased from two drain tubes in the retroperitoneum. Over four weeks, the appearance of the serous fluid changed to a greenish bile color and the patient persistently drained over 300 ml/day. Viewed as bile leak at the choledochojejunostomy, treatment called for endoscopic diagnosis and therapy. Cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy demonstrated that the distal tip of a pancreatic drain catheter inserted at the pancreaticojejunostomy site had penetrated the opposite jejunum wall. One of the drain tubes primarily placed in the retroperitoneum had also penetrated the jejunum wall, with the distal tip positioned near the choledochojejunostomy site. No leak of contrast appeared beyond the jejunum or anastomosis site. Following repositioning of a penetrating catheter of the pancreaticojejunostomy, four days later, the patient underwent removal of two drain tubes without additional complications. In conclusion, the distal tip of the catheter, placed to drain pancreatic juice, penetrated the jejunum wall and may have caused localized perijejunal inflammation. The other drain tube, placed in the retroperitoneal space, might then have penetrated the inflamed wall of the jejunum, allowing persistent bile drainage via the drain tube. The results masqueraded as bile leakage following pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  13. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes’ interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  14. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle (United States)

    Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří


    This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  15. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen


    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  16. Gastroenteric tube feeding: techniques, problems and solutions. (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen


    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision.

  17. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  18. Effect of insertion speed on tissue response and insertion mechanics of a chronically implanted silicon-based neural probe. (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, M; Andrei, A; Ameye, L; Eberle, W; Nuttin, B


    In this study, the effect of insertion speed on long-term tissue response and insertion mechanics was investigated. A dummy silicon parylene-coated probe was used in this context and implanted in the rat brain at 10 μm/s (n = 6) or 100 μm/s (n = 6) to a depth of 9 mm. The insertion mechanics were assessed by the dimpling distance, and the force at the point of penetration, at the end of the insertion phase, and after a 3-min rest period in the brain. After 6 weeks, the tissue response was evaluated by estimating the amount of gliosis, inflammation, and neuronal cell loss with immunohistochemistry. No difference in dimpling, penetration force, or the force after a 3-min rest period in the brain was observed. However, the force at the end of the insertion phase was significantly higher when inserting the probes at 100 μm/s compared to 10 μm/s. Furthermore, an expected tissue response was seen with an increase of glial and microglial reactivity around the probe. This reaction was similar along the entire length of the probe. However, evidence for a neuronal kill zone was observed only in the most superficial part of the implant. In this region, the lesion size was also greatest. Comparison of the tissue response between insertion speeds showed no differences.

  19. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie


    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm{sup 2} are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  20. Trajectory generation for robotic needle insertion in soft tissue. (United States)

    Abolhassani, Niki; Patel, Rajni; Moallem, Mehrdad


    Accurate needle insertion in soft, inhomogeneous tissue has been a major concern in several recent studies involving robot-assisted percutaneous therapies. In procedures that involve multiple needle insertions such as transrectal ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy, it is important to reduce tissue deformation before puncture and during insertion. In order to reduce this deformation, we have studied the effect of different trajectories for a 2-DOF robot performing needle insertion in soft tissue. We have compared tissue deformation and infinitesimal force per tissue displacement for different trajectories. According to the results of our experiments, infinitesimal force per displacement is a useful parameter for online trajectory update. Our proposed position/force controller is shown to provide considerable improvement in performance with regard to tissue deformation before puncture.

  1. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft


    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  2. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center


    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  3. A new insertion sequence for incremental Delaunay triangulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Fei Liu; Jin-Hui Yan; S.H.Lo


    Incremental algorithm is one of the most popular procedures for constructing Delaunay triangulations (DTs).However,the point insertion sequence has a great impact on the amount of work needed for the construction of DTs.It affects the time for both point location and structure update,and hence the overall computational time of the triangulation algorithm.In this paper,a simple deterministic insertion sequence is proposed based on the breadth-first-search on a Kd-tree with some minor modifications for better performance.Using parent nodes as search-hints,the proposed insertion sequence proves to be faster and more stable than the Hilbert curve order and biased randomized insertion order (BRIO),especially for non-uniform point distributions over a wide range of benchmark examples.

  4. Effectiveness of bait tubes for brown treesnake control on Guam (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Clark, C.S.


    A bait tube is a device with which a toxicant inserted in a dead mouse (Mus musculus) can be delivered to invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) with low risk of non-target bait take. We tested two bait tube designs in a 5ha snake enclosure where the identity of virtually every snake is known. Instead of using toxicants, we implanted radio transmitters in small (6.6±1.4 g) and large (21.8±2.9 g) bait mice. Knowing all snakes present in the population allowed us to characterize not only covariates of snakes taking bait, but also those of snakes evading our mock control effort, and if snake covariates interacted with any design variable in determining targeting rate. Tube design had no effect on take rate. Snake snout-vent length was a strong predictor of success: none of the 29 snakes smaller than 843 mm took any bait, while the 126 snakes ≥843 mm were responsible for a total of 164 bait takes. The smallest of these snakes were able to ingest small and large mice, but tended to consume small bait at a higher rate than large bait. The main reason for our failure to target smallest snakes appears not to be gape limitation, but rather that small snakes prefer other prey (lizards). The time it takes a snake to grow from the size threshold observed to the size of maturation has implications for the interval between discrete efforts using toxic bait. Targeting all snakes before reproduction can occur is highly desirable; otherwise, a new cohort of refractory snakes may enter the population.

  5. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan


    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Hollow polymer microneedles array resistance and insertion tests



    Microneedles are developed in order to become the transdermal administration method of the future. They however still face numerous challenges. This paper addresses the challenge to effectively insert the microneedle arrays into membranes. A recently proposed model membrane and test method for microneedles insertion, published in International Journal of Pharmaceutics, is used in this aim. A moulded 4 by 4 hollow polymer microneedle array developed at the Université Libre de Bruxelles is test...

  7. Equilibrium insertion of nanoscale objects into phospholipid bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Pogodin, Sergey


    Certain membrane proteins, peptides, nanoparticles and nanotubes have rigid structure and fixed shape. They are often viewed as spheres and cylinders with certain surface properties. Single Chain Mean Field theory is used to model the equilibrium insertion of nanoscale spheres and rods into the phospholipid bilayer. The equilibrium structures and the resulting free energies of the nano-objects in the bilayer allow to distinguish different orientations in the bilayer and estimate the energy barrier of insertion.

  8. Mechanism for electrochemical hydrogen insertion in carbonaceous materials (United States)

    Qu, Deyang

    The mechanism for safe and reversible storage of hydrogen in porous carbonaceous materials by electrochemical decomposition of water in alkaline electrolyte is proposed. Atomic H was found to be inserted into the microdomains of defective graphene layers. Hydrogen storage capacity increases with increasing interlayer distance between carbon sheets. Hydrogen insertion in carbonaceous materials occurs at ambient conditions. Static potential acts as an electrochemical valve which can retain the hydrogen in the carbon structure, thus preventing leakage during storage.

  9. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter


    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  10. Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria. (United States)

    Bass, David; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación; Polet, Stephane; Chao, Ema E; von der Heyden, Sophie; Pawlowski, Jan; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas


    A single or double amino acid insertion at the monomer-monomer junction of the universal eukaryotic protein polyubiquitin is unique to Cercozoa and Foraminifera, closely related 'core' phyla in the protozoan infrakingdom Rhizaria. We screened 11 other candidate rhizarians for this insertion: Radiozoa (polycystine and acantharean radiolaria), a 'microheliozoan', and Apusozoa; all lack it, supporting suggestions that Foraminifera are more closely related to Cercozoa than either is to other eukaryotes. The insertion's size was ascertained for 12 additional Cercozoa to help resolve their basal branching order. The earliest branching Cercozoa generally have a single amino acid insertion, like all Foraminifera, but a large derived clade consisting of all Monadofilosa except Metopion, Helk-esimastix, and Cercobodo agilis has two amino acids, suggesting one doubling event and no reversions to a single amino acid. Metromonas and Sainouron, cercozoans of uncertain position, have a double insertion, suggesting that they belong in Monadofilosa. An alternative interpretation, suggested by the higher positions for Metopion and Cercobodo on Bayesian trees compared with most distance trees, cannot be ruled out, i.e. that the second insertion took place earlier, in the ancestral filosan, and was followed by three independent reversions to a single amino acid in Chlorarachnea, Metopion and Cercobodo.

  11. Drug transport in HEMA conjunctival inserts containing precipitated drug particles. (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Chauhan, Anuj


    This paper focuses on exploring the mechanism of cyclosporine A transport in hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) rods to develop conjunctival inserts for extended ocular delivery. Cylindrical conjunctival HEMA inserts were prepared by thermal polymerization in presence of drug at high loadings to create rods containing particles of drug dispersed in the matrix. The drug release rates were measured to explore the effect of length, drug loading, crosslinking, and mixing in the release medium. Also microstructure of the inserts was characterized by SEM imaging. The inserts release the drug for a period of about a month at therapeutic rates. The rates of drug release are zero order and independent of drug loading and crosslinking for certain period of time. These effects were shown to arise due to a mass-transfer boundary layer in the fluid and a mathematical model was developed by coupling mass transfer in the insert with that in the boundary layer in the surrounding fluid. The model with diffusivity in the insert and boundary layer thickness as parameters fits the experimental data and explains all trends in release kinetics. The fitted diffusivity is about twice that obtained by direct measurements, which agreed well with the value obtained by using the Brinkman's equation but only after accounting for drug binding to the polymer.

  12. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet


    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  13. Modeling Amyloid Beta Peptide Insertion into Lipid Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Maddox, M W; Longo, M J; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Maddox, Michael W.; Longo, Marjorie L.


    Inspired by recent suggestions that the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (A-beta), can insert into cell membranes and form harmful ion channels, we model insertion of the peptide into cell membranes using a Monte Carlo code which is specific at the amino acid level. We examine insertion of the regular A-beta peptide as well as mutants causing familial Alzheimer's disease. We present our results and develop the hypothesis that partial insertion into the membrane, leaving the peptide in one leaflet, increases the probability of harmful channel formation. This hypothesis can partly explain why these mutations are neurotoxic simply due to peptide insertion behavior, and also explains why, normally, A-beta 42 is more toxic to some cultured cells than A-beta 40, but the E22Q mutation reverses this effect. We further apply this model to various artificial A-beta mutants which have been examined experimentally, and offer testable experimental predictions contrasting the roles of aggregation and insertion with regard ...

  14. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.


    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports.

  15. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir (United States)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)


    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  16. Evaluation of nasogastric tubes to enable differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients with melena. (United States)

    Kessel, Boris; Olsha, Oded; Younis, Aurwa; Daskal, Yaakov; Granovsky, Emil; Alfici, Ricardo


    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common surgical problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate how insertion of the nasogastric tube may enable differentiation between upper and lower GI bleeding in patients with melena. A retrospective study involving patients admitted to our surgery division with a melena was carried out between the years 2010 and 2012. A total of 386 patients were included in the study. Of these, 279 (72.2%) patients had negative nasogastric aspirate. The sensitivity of examination of nasogastric aspirate to establish the upper GI as the source of bleeding was only 28% and the negative predictive value of a negative nasogastric aspirate was less than 1%. Most patients who initially presented with melena and were found to have upper GI bleeding had a negative nasogastric aspirate. Insertion of a nasogastric tube does not affect the clinical decision to perform upper endoscopy and should not be routinely carried out.

  17. The impact of ventilation tubes in otitis media on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of treatment with middle ear ventilation tube insertion (VTI) in children with otitis media (OM) on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, the National Health Service Register and Stat......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of treatment with middle ear ventilation tube insertion (VTI) in children with otitis media (OM) on the risk of cholesteatoma on a national level. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, the National Health Service Register...... was associated with a lower risk of STMEC1. This may be the result of reduced time with negative middle ear pressure and OM. However, these findings may be susceptible to selection bias, as age at first VTI and time between VTIs, as well as the outcome variable, STMEC1, may all depend on the underlying...

  18. Counter-driver shock tube (United States)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.


    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  19. Improved Traveling-Wave Tube (United States)

    Rousseau, Art; Tammaru, Ivo; Vaszari, John


    New space traveling-wave tube (TWT) provides coherent source of 75 watts of continuous-wave power output over bandwidth of 5 GHz at frequency of 65 GHz. Coupled-cavity TWT provides 50 dB of saturated gain. Includes thermionic emitter, M-type dispenser cathode providing high-power electron beam. Beam focused by permanent magnets through center of radio-frequency cavity structure. Designed for reliable operation for 10 years, and overall efficiency of 35 percent minimizes prime power input and dissipation of heat.

  20. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT) (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Immer, Christopher D.


    A small-scale test apparatus has been built and tested for the CELT pneumatic launch assist concept presented at STAIF 2001. The 7.5 cm (3-inch) diameter × 305 M (1000 feet) long system accelerates and pneumatically brakes a 6.35 cm diameter projectile with variable weight (1.5 - 5 Kg). The acceleration and braking tube has been instrumented with optical sensors and pressure transducers at 14 stations to take data throughout the runs. Velocity and pressure profiles for runs with various accelerator pressures and projectile weights are given. This test apparatus can serve as an important experimental tool for verifying this concept.

  1. Comparison of the ease of laryngeal mask airway ProSeal insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway (United States)

    Jun, Joo Hyun; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Youn Jin; Chang, Ri-Na


    Background The sniffing position is recommended for conventional laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. However, there has been a high success rate of LMA insertion with the head in the neutral position. The effect of a difficult airway on the ease of LMA insertion is not clear. In this study, we compared the ease of LMA ProSeal™ (PLMA) insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway. Methods After obtaining informed consent from the subjects, we enrolled 144 adult patients (age range: 18-65) with an ASA physical status 1 or 2. After evaluation of the airway, all the patients were grouped into the EA (easy airway) group (n = 68) and the DA (difficult airway) group (n = 76). According to the head position, each group was divided into the EA-SE (extension) group (n = 35), the EA-SN (sniffing) group (n = 33), the DA-SE group (n = 39) and the DA-SN group (n = 37). The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt were evaluated. The position of the PLMA was fiberoptically scored from the mask aperture of the airway tube in the original head position. After the head position was changed to the sniffing and neutral positions in the SE and SN group, respectively, the position of PLMA was re-evaluated fiberoptically. Results The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt and the fiberoptic score showed no significant difference among the groups. After head position was changed, there were no significant changes in the fiberopitc scores. Conclusions A difficult airway and the head position had no influence on the ease of PLMA insertion and the fiberopic score. Therefore, the head position can be selected according to the individual patient's situation. PMID:21602973

  2. Successful tubes treatment of esophageal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aim: To discuss the merits of "tubes treatment" for esophageal fistula (EF). Methods: A 66-year-old female who suffered from a bronchoesophageal and esophagothoratic fistula underwent a successful "three tubes treatment" (close chest drainage, negative pressure suction at the leak, and nasojejunal feeding tube), combination of antibiotics, antacid drugs and nutritional support. Another 55-year-old male patient developed an esophagopleural fistula (EPF) after esophageal carcinoma operation. He too was treated conservatively with the three tubes strategy as mentioned above towards a favorable outcome. Results:The two patients recovered with the tubes treatment, felt well and became able to eat and drink, presenting no complaint. Conclusion: Tubes treatment is an effective basic way for EF. It may be an alternative treatment option.

  3. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  4. Narratives From YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Quennerstedt


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore what is performed in students’ and teachers’ actions in physical education practice in terms of “didactic irritations,” through an analysis of YouTube clips from 285 PE lessons from 27 different countries. Didactic irritations are occurrences that Rønholt describes as those demanding “didactic, pedagogical reflections and discussions, which in turn could lead to alternative thinking and understanding about teaching and learning.” Drawing on Barad’s ideas of performativity to challenge our habitual anthropocentric analytical gaze when looking at educational visual data, and using narrative construction, we also aim to give meaning to actions, relations, and experiences of the participants in the YouTube clips. To do this, we present juxtaposing narratives from teachers and students in terms of three “didactic irritations”: (a stories from a track, (b, stories from a game, and (c, stories from a bench. The stories re-present events-of-moving in the data offering insights into embodied experiences in PE practice, making students’ as well as teachers’ actions in PE practice understandable.

  5. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development (United States)


    FOR OFFICIAL USE ONYLFGFF ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...return it to the originator. ARL-CR-0771 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development...COVERED (From - To) 12 January 2014–1 January 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ORISE 1120

  6. Literature search for ceramic vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, W.


    The NTIS and Engineering Index files were searched for citations relating to Ceramic and/or Metal Electron Tubes and High Temperature Electronics. A total of 24 citations were found relating directly to ceramic tubes and 24 to high temperature electronics. A search for electron tubes in general was examined for high temperature applications and 39 were obtained. Computer printouts of the abstracts are included in appendices. (MHR)

  7. Preprocedural ultrasound examination versus manual palpation for thoracic epidural catheter insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Hasanin


    Conclusion: Preprocedural ultrasound imaging increased the incidence of first pass success in thoracic epidural catheter insertion and reduced the catheter insertion time compared to manual palpation method.

  8. Cleaning device for inside of tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usuniwa, Yukio; Arai, Sanae; Koyama, Mayumi; Kuramata, Rumi


    A large number of small diameter tubes are disposed passing through a lower end plate of a main body of a reactor pressure vessel. The device of the present invention can wash the inside of the small diameter tube efficiently and forecast the completion time of the operation. Namely, purified water at a predetermined temperature is stored in a water reservoir of a purified water recycling unit. The purified water is introduced from a header to the inside of the tube by way of a short tube connected to the lower end of the tube. The purified water introduced into the tube is charged from an opening to an overflow tube and returned to the water reservoir passing through the over flowing tube. The inside of the tube is washed by such circulation of purified water. In the cleaning operation by using the device, (1) the completion time of the operation can be forecast and operationability is improved, and (2) since the operation can be performed rapidly, the period of time for performing the step can be shortened. (I.S.)

  9. Micro tube heat exchangers for Space Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers...


    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.


    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  11. RF Breakdown in Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J; Lown, R


    The highest RF electric field in drift-tube linacs (DTLs) often occurs on the face of the first drift tube. Typically this drift tube contains a quadrupole focusing magnet whose fringing fields penetrate the face of the drift tube parallel to the RF electric fields in the accelerating gap. It has been shown that the threshold for RF breakdown in RF cavities may be reduced in the presence of a static magnetic field. This note offers a “rule of thumb” for picking the maximum “safe” surface electric field in DTLs based on these measurements.

  12. The nasogastric tube syndrome in infants. (United States)

    Harmon, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Karthik; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Hart, Catherine K


    This series of three patients is the first description of the presentation, clinical course, and endoscopic findings of nasogastric tube-related airway distress, or nasogastric tube syndrome, in infants. We identify key differences in disease features from those described in adults, based on our literature review. Specifically, infant nasogastric tube syndrome presented as significant respiratory distress and postcricoid inflammation without vocal fold immobility. Symptoms resolved more quickly (mean±SD, 2±1 days) than reported in adults. We suggest that nasogastric tube syndrome should be considered in infants with otherwise unexplained respiratory distress, even in the absence of impaired vocal fold mobility.

  13. Finned Small Diameter Tube Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Dang, Chaobin; Daiguji, Hirofumi; Hihara, Eiji; Tokunaga, Masahide

    The performance of fined small tube heat exchangers was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Inner diameters of tubes were 1.0mm, 2.1mm and 4.0mm. Exchanged heat and pressure drop obtained from numerical simulation agreed well with the experimental ones. Calculation results show that the volume of a 2.0mm tube heat exchanger can be reduced to 33% of that of a 4mm tube heat exchanger with the same capacity. In addition the distribution of two-phase flow in a branching unit was investigated by measuring downstream temperature distribution. The flow distribution in a branching unit strongly affects the exchanged heat.

  14. Performance of multi tubes in tube helically coiled as a compact heat exchanger (United States)

    Nada, S. A.; El Shaer, W. G.; Huzayyin, A. S.


    Multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger is proposed as a compact heat exchanger. Effects of heat exchanger geometric parameters and fluid flow parameters; namely number of inner tubes, annulus hydraulic diameter, Reynolds numbers and input heat flux, on performance of the heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. Different coils with different numbers of inner tubes, namely 1, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, were tested. Results showed that coils with 3 inner tubes have higher values of heat transfer coefficient and compactness parameter (bar{h} Ah ). Pressure drop increases with increasing both of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes. Correlations of average Nusselt number were deduced from experimental data in terms of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Number of inner coils tubes and coil hydraulic diameter. Correlations prediction was compared with experimental data and the comparison was fair enough.

  15. Measurement of trocar insertion force using a piezoelectric transducer. (United States)

    Ng, Pui Shan; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Yuen, Pong Mo


    We attempted to establish a model to measure the force required for trocar insertion at laparoscopy. A 3-cm, circular transducer was constructed from piezoresistive material that changes its impedance as force is exerted on its surface. The transducer is connected by an interface box to a personal computer to record surface contact pressure digitally (pressure = force/area) profile continuously during trocar insertion. Each subject had three trocars inserted: a 10-mm trocar at the umbilicus after creation of pneumoperitoneum, and 5-mm trocars at corresponding sites on the left and right sides of the lower abdomen. All insertions were performed by the same operator using reusable trocar with a conical tip. Each subject acted as her own control. Recordings were successfully obtained from eight women. There was no instance of transducer failure. The mean (SE) peak contact surface pressure for the 10-mm and 5-mm left and right trocars were 5.3 (0.32), 6.4 (0.51), and 6.81 (0.27) pounds/square inch, respectively. Placement of the 10-mm trocar required less insertion force than placement of the 5-mm trocars. There was a strong negative correlation (r = -0.97, p trocar.

  16. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman


    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  17. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts. (United States)

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T


    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  18. LMA Supreme insertion by novices in manikins and patients. (United States)

    Howes, B W; Wharton, N M; Gibbison, B; Cook, T M


    The LMA Supreme has been suggested for use in emergency situations by medical personnel with no experience in endotracheal intubation. We evaluated the LMA Supreme when inserted by non-anaesthetists, firstly in a manikin and then in patients. Fifty airway novices inserted a LMA Supreme in a manikin without any complications so we proceeded to the patient phase. Fifty airway novices inserted the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients undergoing elective surgery. First time insertion success rate was 86% and overall insertion success rate was 100%. Mechanical ventilation was successful in all cases. Median (IQR [range]) time to establish an airway was 34 s (26-40 [18-145] s). Median (IQR [range]) pharyngeal seal pressure was 23 cmH(2)O (19-28 [13-40] cmH(2)O). There were no important complications. Results are consistent with previous studies of use of the LMA Supreme by airway experts. We conclude that the LMA supreme is suitable for use by airway novices. Further research is needed before it may be recommended for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency airway use.

  19. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others


    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  20. Some physical and chemical indices of clique-inserted lattices (United States)

    Zhang, Zuhe


    The operation of replacing every vertex of an r-regular lattice H by a complete graph of order r is called clique-insertion, and the resulting lattice is called the clique-inserted lattice of H. For any given r-regular lattice, applying this operation iteratively, an infinite family of r-regular lattices is generated. Some interesting lattices including the 3-12-12 lattice can be constructed this way. In this paper, we recall the relationship between the spectra of an r-regular lattice and that of its clique-inserted lattice, and investigate the graph energy and resistance distance statistics. As an application, the asymptotic energy per vertex and average resistance distance of the 3-12-12 and 3-6-24 lattices are computed. We also give formulae expressing the numbers of spanning trees and dimer coverings of the kth iterated clique-inserted lattices in terms of those of the original one. Moreover, we show that new families of expander graphs can be constructed from the known ones by clique-insertion.